REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0225.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Ethiopia; Geographic Information Systems; Land Use Land Cover; Remote Sensing
Online: 11 May 2021 (09:27:29 CEST)
Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes analysis is one of the most useful methodologies to understand how the land was used in the past years, what types of detections are to be expected in the future, as well as the driving forces and processes behind these changes. In Ethiopia, the rapidly changing of LULC is mainly due to population pressure, resettlement programs, climate change, and other human and nature-induced driving forces. Anthropogenic activities are the most significant factors adversely changing the natural status of the landscape and resources, which exerts unfavourable and adverse impacts on the environment and livelihood. The main goal of the present work is to review previous studies, discussing the spatio-temporal LULC changes in Ethiopian basins, to find out common points and gaps that exist in the current literature, to be eventually addressed in the future. Seventeen articles, published from 2011 to 2020, were selected and reviewed, focusing on LULC classification using ArcGIS and ERDAS imagine software by unsupervised and maximum likelihood supervised classification methods. Key informant interview (KII), focal group discussions (FGDs) and collection of ground truth data using ground positioning systems (GPS) for data validation were the major approaches discussed in most of the studies. All the analysed research showed that, during the last decades, Ethiopian lands changed to agricultural land use, waterbody, commercial farmland and built-up/settlement. Some parts of forest land, grazing land, swamp/wetland, shrubland, rangeland and bare/ rock out cropland cover class were changed to other LULC class types, mainly as a consequence of increasing anthropogenic pressure. In summary, these articles confirmed that LULC changes are a direct result of both natural and human influences. However, most of the study provided details of LULC for the past decades within a specific spatial location, while they did not address the challenge of forecasting future LULC changes at the basin scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2000.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: spatial pattern; land use/land cover dynamic change; transition; remote sensing; driving factors
Online: 30 August 2023 (03:33:59 CEST)
Land use and land cover (LULC) datasets for Jinan in 1992, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2011, 2017, and 2022 were developed from Landsat images using the Random Forest (RF) classification approach. The relationships between social-economic, political factors and time-series LULC data were exam-ined for the periods between 1992 and 2022. The results showed the effectiveness of using the RF classification method for LULC classification with time series of Landsat images. Combined with driving forces analysis, our research can effectively explain the detailed LULC change tra-jectories corresponding to different stages and give new insights into Jinan LULC change pat-terns. The results show a significant increase in impervious surface which opposite change to bare land which experienced a huge decline declined by 95%, due to urbanization and rapid in-crease of population. The driving forces behind these changes are related to population growth, economic development, and climate change. Moreover, the present research employed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) methodology in order to understand the relative significance of disparate driving factors. The analysis results prove that the economy (population, GDP) and climate change were the primary factors that have an obvious impact on land use/land cover changes and that the driving factors for impervious surface, bare land, woodland, farmland, and water were distinct. Government policies also have a substantial impact on LULC change as well, such as the Construction of Harmonious Jinan (COHJ). The results were helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of LULC change and can provide useful knowledge for effective land resource management and planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0630.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Africa; Ethiopia; Landsat; Land Use Land Cover Change; Remote Sensing; SWAT model
Online: 28 July 2021 (12:20:13 CEST)
Land use land cover (LULC) changes are highly pronounced in African countries, as they are characterized by an agriculture-based economy and a rapidly growing population. Understanding how land use/cover change (LULCC) influence watershed hydrology will enable local governments and policymakers to formulate and implement effective and appropriate response strategies to minimize the undesirable effects of future land use/cover change or modification and sustain the local socio-economic situation. The hydrological response of the Ethiopia Fincha’a watershed to LULCC happened during the last 30 years was investigated comparing the situation in three reference years: 1994, 2004 and 2018. The information was derived from Landsat sensors, respectively Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS. The various LULC classes were derived via ArcGIS using a supervised classification system, and the accuracy assessment was done using confusion matrixes. For all the years investigated the overall accuracies and the kappa coefficients were higher than 80%, with 2018 as the more accurate year. The analysis of LULCC revealed that forest decreased by 19.99% between the years 1994-2004, and it decreased by 11.85% in the following period 2004-2018. Such decline in areas covered by forest is correlated to an expansion of cultivated land by 16.4% and 10.81%, respectively. After having evaluated the LULCC at the basin scale, the watershed was divided into 18 sub-watersheds, which contained 176 Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), having a specific LULC. Accounting for such a detailed subdivision of the Fincha’a watershed, the SWAT model was firstly calibrated and validated on past data, and then applied to infer information on the hydrological response of each HRU on LULCC. The modelling results pointed out a general increase of average water flow, both during dry and wet periods, as a consequence of a shift of land coverage from forest and grass towards settlements and build-up areas. The present analysis pointed out the need of accounting for past and future LULCC in modelling the hydrological responses of rivers at the watershed scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0526.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Social survey; Mago National Park; Landsat; GIS; Remote sensing; land use land cover
Online: 30 March 2023 (10:38:58 CEST)
Land use land cover change analysis is one of the most particular techniques to understand how land was used in the past, what types of changes are to be expected in the future, as well as the forces and processes behind the changes. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the land use land cover changes and its driving forces in Mago National Park, southern Ethiopia. Satellite image of Landsat5 TM (1988, 1998 and 2008) and Landsat8 OLI/TIRS (2018) with a time span of 30 years were employed. In addition, field observation, and social survey were conducted to study the drivers of land use land cover changes. QGIS 3.2 and SPSS (for social data analysis) software’s’ were used for satellite image processing, accuracy assessment, map preparation and descriptively analyze the driving forces of LULCC respectively. Supervised classification with maximum likelihood algorithm was conducted for satellite image analysis and generation of information using Quantum GIS 3.2 Post classification change detection method was applied to quantify the land use/land cover change. The result of the study indicated riverine forest, woodland, grassland, water body, degraded land and bare land as a major land use land cover class in the park. The result of land use land cover classification showed that in 1988 most of the study area was covered by woodland and grass land. In the first period (1988-1998), woodland, riverine forest, water body and bare land decreased by 6.76%, 37.98%, 22.37% and 70.14% respectively, while grass land, and degraded land increased by 16.11% and 85.67% respectively. In the second period, (1998 -2008), woodland, riverine forest and degraded land were decreased by 5.44%, 4.61%, and 80.74% respectively, while grass land, water body and bare land is increased by 14.74%, 3.76% and 52.58% respectively. From 2008-2018 riverine forest, grassland, water body and bare land decreased by 1.33%, 15.16% and 4.82% and 25.02% respectively, while woodland increased by 11.84%, and degraded land increased by 85.49% respectively. Riverine forest, water body, grass land and bare land showed decrement and that of woodland, degraded land indicated increment during study period. From 1988-2018, woodland, riverine forest, water body and bare land indicated decrement and the remaining grass land and bare land cover types indicated increment during study period. The result of social survey indicated that expansion of agriculture, human induced fire, overgrazing and hunting are proximate driving forces of the change in Mago National Park. Population pressure from a different area, poverty, decreased farmlands productivity; education, weak law enforcement and cultural factors are the major underlying causes of the observed changes. Therefore, proper land use planning, legal support, and strong law enforcement are the key recommendations to sustain natural resources of the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0157.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Land use and land cover; Classification; Object-based change detection; Multi-temporal image analysis; Landsat; Tiaoxi
Online: 7 June 2021 (09:27:22 CEST)
The changing of land use and land cover (LULC) are both affected by climate and human activity and affect climate, biological diversity, and human well-being. Accurate and timely information about the LULC pattern and change is crucial for land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring, and urban planning, especially in developing economies undergoing industrialization, urbanization, and globalization. Biodiversity degradation and urban expansion in eastern China are research hot-spots. However, the influence of LULC changes on the region remains largely unexplored. Here, an object-based and multi-temporal image analysis approach was developed to detect how LULC changes during 1985-2015 in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China) using Landsat TM and OLI data. The main objective of this study is to improve the accuracy of unsupervised change detection from object-based and multi-temporal images. To this end, a total of seven LULC maps are generated with multi-temporal images. A random stratified sample design was used for assessing change detection accuracy. The proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 91.86%, 92.14%, 92.00%, and 93.86% for 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, respectively. Nevertheless, the proposed method, in conjunction with object-oriented and multi-temporal satellite images, offers a robust and flexible approach to LULC changes mapping that helps with emergency response and government management. Urbanization and agriculture efficiency are the main reasons for LULC changes in the region. We anticipate that this freely available data will improve the modeling for surface forcing, provide evidence of changes in LULC, and inform water-management decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0023.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Land Use Land Cover (LULC); Land Surface Temperature (LST); Google Earth Engine (GEE); relationship; remote sensing indices; MODIS; global
Online: 3 January 2020 (05:03:05 CET)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Land Use Land Cover (LULC) are the principal aspects of climate and environment studies. The object of the study is to assess spatial relationship between LST and remote sensing LULC indices at the global and continental scale. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua daytime LST and eight LULC MODIS indices of 2018 prepared and processed using Earth Engine Code Editor. R squared and significance of the relationship values of randomly selected points computed in R program. The research observed the relationship between examined indices and LST is significant at the 0.001 level. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Normalized Difference Snow Index (DSI) are the dominant drivers of LST in the world, Asia and North America. In Australia and Africa, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) are the dominant drivers of LST. Albedo and Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI) have superior in Central America. In South America and Europe, the dominant driver of LST is NDWI. Relationship between albedo and LST is moderate inverse on a global scale. Observed relationship between LST and examined vegetation indices is positive in Europe and North America while inverse in Australia and Africa. All observed relationship between Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) and LST are positive. Association observed between NDSI and LST is positive in Australia, Africa and Central America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0069.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Fethiye-Göcek SEPA; Land use land cover change; Land surface temperature; Climate change
Online: 12 October 2022 (09:08:40 CEST)
Abstract: Increasing population and urbanization are affecting human health and comfort. In order to get rid of these affects, mankind is changing its enviroment and looking for new life areas. This study investigates the influence of Land Cover Change (LCC) and Normalisied Densly Vegetation Index (NDVI) on Land Surface Temperature (LST) of Fethiye-Göcek Specially Protected Area (SEPA) in easterm mediterranean basin. In the study LCC, NDVI and LST were drived from landsat 5, 7 and 8 satellite image of resolation at 30x30 m acquired between 1995-2020. LST were computed based on Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) types. The Corine Index were used for determination of land uses. The results indicated that water, forest and maquia lands decreasing while urban fabric and bare lands are increasing depend upon the urbanization and forest fires in the basin. These changes in LULC widened the temperature differences between the urban and rural areas. The change in LST is associated with changes in constructional materials in urban land and in vegetation abundance both in the urban and rural areas. Vegetation has an important factor in the temperature of different land covers. That produces warming trend in temperetaure in built-up areas it causes to keep other lands warmer in cold weather. Another important result is affective Urban Heat Island (UHI) on climate change based on the impact of urbanization and land cover changes. Significantly possitive correlation were found between the urbanization rate, population and built-up area and warming rate of average air temperature and so the LST.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0783.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Meteorological drought; Hydrological drought; Drought risk prediction; future climate and land use land cover change scenarios
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:41:43 CEST)
The assessment and prediction of drought risk under future climate change and land use land cover (LULC) scenarios is critically important for drought prevention and mitigation, as it enables a clearer understanding of potential shifts in drought patterns. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate sub-seasonal and seasonal meteorological and hydrological drought hazards across the Yellow River Basin (YRB) under projected future climate conditions and LULC patterns. The BCC-CSM1-1 climate model projections from the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset are utilized to represent future climate for 2025-2060 under RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. The CA-Markov model is employed to predict future LULC distributions. Meteorological and hydrological drought risks across different YRB zones are evaluated through a copula-based risk assessment approach, based on the joint probability distribution of drought duration and severity. The results indicate that sub-seasonal meteorological and hydrological droughts will likely be the primary concern moving forward. Specifically, the upper YRB (zones A, B, C) exhibits greater vulnerability to sub-seasonal meteorological drought, while the Loess Plateau (zones C, E) shows higher susceptibility to sub-seasonal hydrological drought. Moreover, zone F in the downstream region may experience increased seasonal hydrological drought risk due to projected urban expansion in the middle and lower portions of the YRB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0143.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: land cover maps; land cover scenario; Land Change Modeler (LCM); transition probabilities
Online: 15 June 2019 (16:13:07 CEST)
The results reveal CILSS as the most accurate data set with a Kappa coefficient of 68% and an overall accuracy of 83%. CILSS data shows a decrease of savanna and forest whereas an increase of cropland over the period 1975 to 2013. The increase of cropland area of 30.97% from 1975 to 2013 can be related to the increase in population and their food demand, while the losses of forest area and the decrease of savanna are further amplified by using wood as energy sources and the lack of forest management. The three datasets were used to simulate future LULC changes using the Terrset Land Change Modeler. The validation of the model using CILSS data for 2013 showed a quality of 50.94%, it is only 40.04% for ESA and 20.13% for Globeland30. CILSS data was utilized to simulate the LULC distribution for the years 2020 and 2027 because of its satisfactory performances. The results show that a high spatial resolution is not a guarantee of high quality. The results of this study can be used for impact studies and to develop management strategies for mitigating negative effects of land use and land cover change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0247.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: artificial neural network; land use land cover; Indonesia; land use prediction
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:43:54 CET)
Great Malang region is developing rapidly with the population increase and inhabitant`s activity, like migration and urbanization. Other activities like agricultural expansion as well as an uncontrolled residential development need to be monitored to avoid any negative impact in the future. The availability of free and open-source software, spatial high-resolution satellite imagery datasets, and powerful algorithms open the possibilities to map, monitor, and predict the future trend of land use land cover (LULC) changes. However, the accuracy and precision of this model is still in doubt, especially in the Great Malang region. Research is needed to provide a foundational basis and documentation on how the changes occur, where did the changes occur, and the accuracy of the predicted model. This study tries to answer those questions using the high spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 imageries. Combination of the fuzzy algorithm, artificial neural network, and cellular automata was utilized to process the datasets. We analysed four different scenarios of simulation and the result then compared. The different number of hidden layers and iteration was used and evaluated to understand the effect of different parameters in the prediction result. The best scenario was then used to predict future land use changes. This study has successfully produced the future LULC model of Great Malang region with high accuracy level (87%). The study also found that the land use transformation from agriculture to urban built-up area is relatively low, where changes of the built-up area over three periods of analysis are below than 5%. This is due to the physical condition of Great Malang region where mountainous areas are dominated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0574.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land cover; land use; citizen science; mobile apps; in-situ data collection; LUCAS
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:26:29 CEST)
There are many new land use and land cover (LULC) products emerging yet there is still a lack of in-situ data for training, validation, and change detection purposes. The LUCAS (Land Use Cover Area frame Sample) survey is one of the few authoritative in-situ field campaigns, which takes place every three years in European Union member countries. More recently, a study has considered whether citizen science and crowdsourcing could complement LUCAS survey data, e.g., through the FotoQuest Austria mobile app and crowdsourcing campaign. Although the data obtained from the campaign were promising when compared with authoritative LUCAS survey data, there were classes that were not well classified by the citizens, and the photographs submitted through the app were not always of sufficient quality. For this reason, in the latest FotoQuest Go Europe 2018 campaign, several improvements were made to the app to facilitate interaction with the citizens contributing and to improve their accuracy in LULC identification. In addition to extending the locations from Austria to Europe, a change detection component (comparing land cover in 2018 to the 2015 LUCAS photographs) was added, as well as an improved LC decision tree and a near real-time quality assurance system to provide feedback on the distance to the target location, the LULC classes chosen and the quality of the photographs. Another modification was the implementation of a monetary incentive scheme in which users received between 1 to 3 Euros for each successfully completed quest of sufficient quality. The purpose of this paper is to present these new features and to compare the results obtained by the citizens with authoritative LUCAS data from 2018 in terms of LULC and change in LC. We also compared the results between the FotoQuest campaigns in 2015 and 2018 and found a significant improvement in 2018, i.e., a much higher match of LC between FotoQuest Go Europe and LUCAS. Finally, we present the results from a user survey to discuss challenges encountered during the campaign and what further improvements could be made in the future, including better in-app navigation and offline maps, making FotoQuest a model for enabling the collection of large amounts of land cover data at a low cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0356.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land-use change; forest conversion; species loss; fragmentation; deforestation
Online: 17 August 2021 (10:10:09 CEST)
Remote sensing/GIS techniques are a versatile tool for x-raying serial forest structural changes in retrospect. It would be impossible to evaluate past occurrences and changes in forest extents in past decades at Effan Forest Reserve without non-conventional means. Therefore, we adopted remote sensing technology using Landsat images to evaluate land-use change and degradation rates in the area with a view to ascertaining causal factors for possible minimization of forest degradation in Effan Forest Reserve. Land-use/land-cover changes were analyzed using USGS-Landsat TM and ETM images of 1987, 2002, 2014 and 2019. Field-data were collected using handheld GPS receiver and spatial statistical analyses were conducted using the ground control points (GCPs). For inventory data, a systematic sampling technique was adopted using ten 1.05 km-transects at 500 m intervals. A total of 50 sample plots of 50 × 50 m were used. All tree species with Dbh ≥10 cm were enumerated. Nineteen tree species in ten families were encountered with Vitellaria paradoxa as the most-frequently occurring species in the area. IUCN-listed endangered Pterocarpus erinaceus, hitherto abundant in the area, was rarely encountered during the survey, while Vitellaria paradoxa is gradually shrinking, going the relative abundance in the area. The result further showed that primary and secondary forests decreased considerably by 258.03 ha (46.72%) and 9.18 ha (3.63%), respectively, with a total forest loss of 50.3% in 32 years (8.4 hayr-1, 1.6% per annum). While forest plantation size doubled by 369.72 ha within the period. This is worrisome as the remaining fragmented forests appeared to be on the decline, except the riparian vegetation, due to inaccessibility to the riparian by loggers. It thus appeared that forest protection approaches were ineffective. Increased protection efforts could save this forest reserve, and the concerned authority should consider a focused-enrichment planting involving indigenous species for ecosystem-repair.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0021.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: maximum surface air temperature; land surface temperature; statistical modeling; MODIS
Online: 3 March 2017 (08:38:19 CET)
Daily maximum surface air temperature (Tamax) is a crucial factor for understanding complex land surface processes under rapid climate change. Remote detection of Tamax has widely relied on the empirical relationship between air temperature and land surface temperature (LST), a product derived from remote sensing. However, little is known about how such a relationship is affected by the high heterogeneity in landscapes and dynamics in seasonality. This study aims to advance our understanding of the roles of land cover and seasonal variation in the estimation of Tamax using the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) LST product. We developed statistical models to link Tamax and LST in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China for five major land-cover types (i.e., forest, shrub, water, impervious surface, cropland, and grassland) and two seasons (i.e., growing season and non-growing season). Results show that the performance of modeling the Tamax-LST relationship was highly dependent on land cover and seasonal variation. Estimating Tamax over grasslands and water bodies achieved superior performance; while uncertainties were high over forested lands that contained extensive heterogeneity in species types, plant structure, and topography. We further found that all the land-cover specific models developed for the plant non-growing season outperformed the corresponding models developed for the growing season. Discrepancies in model performance mainly occurred in the vegetated areas (forest, cropland, and shrub), suggesting an important role of plant phenology in defining the statistical relationship between Tamax and LST. For impervious surfaces, the challenge of capturing the high spatial heterogeneity in urban settings using the low-resolution MODIS data made Tamax estimation a difficult task, which was especially true in the growing season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0320.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia, Landsat images, Lake, land use/land cover
Online: 27 December 2018 (10:49:16 CET)
LULC changes are major environmental challenges in many parts of the world which are adversely affecting ecosystem services. This study was aimed to analyze LULC changes in the ecological landscape of Ethiopia CRV areas from 1985 to 2015. Satellite images were accessed and pre-processing and classification is done. Major LULC types were detected and change analysis was executed. Nine LULC changes were successfully evaluated. The classification result revealed that in 1985, 44.34% of the land was covered with small scale farming followed by mixed cultivated/acacia (21.89%), open woodland (11.96%), and water bodies (9.77%). Whereas for the same study year open grazing land, forest, degraded savannah and settlements accounted the smallest proportion. Though the area varied among land use classes, the trend of share occupied by the LULC types in the study area remained the same in 1995 and 2015. Increase in small and large scale farming, settlements and mixed cultivation/acacia while a decrease in water bodies, forest, and open woodlands is noted. About 86.11% of the land showed major changes in land use/cover. Lastly, DPSIR framework analysis was done and integrated land use and development planning and policy reform are suggested for sustainable land use planning and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0251.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: sustainability development; land use change; Corine Land Cover
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:21:51 CET)
The article presents the author's method of land use change assessment in the context of sustainable development and the results of its application based on the transformations that occurred in individual areas of Europe in the years 2012–2018. This method is based on data from the CORINE Land Cover program and local government units presenting the degree of urbanization (DEGURBA). The authors evaluate the transformations taking place in space, reducing them to economic, social and environmental dimensions. They then analyse the results in terms of space (covering the entire Europe) and in terms of division into: large cities, small towns as well as suburbs and rural areas. It has been shown that: development of the economic dimension most often takes place at the expense of natural resources; the higher the population density and more important function in the functional system of a given country, the greater the sustainable development differentiation level in the analysed dimensions, of which the social dimension is characterized by the lowest differentiation and the economic dimension is the highest; development of rural areas is less sustainable than in case of large urban centres. The result interpretation also leads to the conclusion that the areas of Europe are very diverse in terms of sustainable development. However, the method itself, despite the imperfections observed by the authors, may be used in further or similar studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Change detection; NDVI; Landsat; Land cover land use change; Urban environment
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:44:21 CET)
Urban cities are the major drivers of economic growth and development. Economic growth and development however results in considerable land cover land use dynamics. This study assessed the dynamics in land cover land use that have occurred in New Braunfels, Texas in the last 7 years (2013 - 2020) to observe areas in the city that had experienced considerable shifts in land cover and land use. A 30-meter resolution Landsat images were used to examine possible changes in land cover land use. New Braunfels was observed to have experienced significant changes in land use especially in developed areas. This change can be attributed to the influx of people into the city, contributing to the need for increased urban development. Analysis of this study shows that about 16% (about 553 hectares) of forest land cover class and 28% (about 1,139 hectares) of grassland class in time 1 (August 31, 2013) changed to built-up land use class in time 2 (November 5, 2020). A limitation to this study was that of the spatial resolution of images used. Higher spatial resolution images could impact the producers, users, and overall accuracy assessment. Results from this study can aid in supporting better decision-making for sustainable urban development and climate change mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0493.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Devolution; land cover change; semi-arod; food security; arable land; coservation; environment services
Online: 28 February 2023 (02:43:40 CET)
This study focuses on land cover and land management changes in relation to food security and environmental services in a semi-arid area of East Nusa Tenggara (ENT) – Indonesia. The study was conducted in Central Sumba District of ENT Province. Classification and regression tree (CART) for land cover classification has been analyzed using machine learning techniques using Google Earth Engine. A survey with Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and followed with in-depth interviews were conducted for primary data collection involving a total of 871 respondents. The Socio-economic data analyzed statistics descriptively and non-parametric tests. The study showed that: 1). There has been a substantial land use change during the devo-lution era that has both positive and negative implications for food security and envi-ronmental services. 2). There has been population pressure in the fertile or agricultur-al land as the direct impact of the development of city infrastructures; and 3). Nation-al intervention through the Food Estate program has fostered and shaped land use change and land management in Central Sumba District. The study highlights the importance that the devolution spirit should help to well manage the limited ara-ble/agricultural land in dominated semi-arid to ensure food security and environment services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Malaria; Amazon biome; INLA; Land use/cover interactions; Bird and amphibian rich-ness-endemics; Landscape composition; Biological diversity; Spatio-temporal modeling
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:29:50 CEST)
Malaria is a prevalent disease in several tropical and subtropical regions, including Brazil, where remains a significant public health concern. Despite control efforts, reintroduction of endemics in areas without cases for decades poses a challenge. To assess factors influencing ma-laria risk, regional outbreak cluster analysis and a spatio-temporal models were developed for the Brazilian Amazon, incorporating climate, land use/cover interactions, endemic bird, and amphibian richness. Results showed that amphibian, bird richness and endemism correlated with a reduction in malaria risk. Presence of forest had a positive effect on risk, but it depended on its juxtaposition with anthropic land uses. Biodiversity and landscape composition, rather than forest formation presence alone, modulated malaria risk in the period. Areas with low en-demic species diversity and high human activity, predominantly anthropogenic landscapes posed high malaria risk. This study underscores the importance of considering the broader eco-logical context in malaria control efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1043.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Image classification; Land use/land cover mapping; Accuracy assessment; Landsat-8; Snetinel-2
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:01:24 CEST)
Satellite-based data classification performance remains a challenge for research community in the field of land use/land cover mapping. Here we investigated supervised per-pixel classifications performance under different scenarios, based on single and seasonal multispectral data combi-nations of different sensors (Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI). In case of Landsat, seasonal spectral indices (EVI and NDMI) were included. A typical Mediterranean watershed with a complex landscape comprised of various forest and wetland ecosystems, crops, artificial surfaces, and lake water was selected to test our approach. All available geospatial data from national databases (Forest Map, LPIS, Natura2000 habitats, cadastral parcels, etc.) are used as ancillary data for clas-sification training and validation. We examined and compared the performance of ML, RF, KNN and SVM classifiers under different scenarios for land use/land cover mapping, according to Copernicus Land Cover (CLC2018) nomenclature. In total, eight land use/land cover classes were identified in Landsat-8 OLI and nine in Sentinel-2a MSI for an acceptable overall accuracy over 85%. A comparison of the overall classification accuracies shows that Sentinel-2a overall accuracy was slightly higher than Landsat-8 (96.68% vs. 93.02%). Respectively, the best-performed algorithm was ML in Sentinel-2 while in Landsat-8 was KNN. However, machine-learning algorithms have similar results regardless the type of sensor. We concluded that best classification performances achieved using seasonal multispectral data. Future research should be oriented towards inte-grating time-series multispectral data of different sensors and geospatial ancillary data for land use/land cover mapping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0377.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land cover change detection; adaptive contextual information; bi-temporal remote sensing images
Online: 29 April 2018 (10:52:26 CEST)
Land cover change detection (LCCD) based on bi-temporal remote sensing images plays an important role in the inventory of land cover change. Due to the benefit of having spatial dependency properties within the image space while using remote sensing images for detecting land cover change, many contextual information based change detection methods have been proposed during past decades. However, there is still a space for improvement in accuracies and usability of LCCD. In this paper, a LCCD method based on adaptive contextual information is proposed. First, an adaptive region is constructed by gradually detecting the spectral similarity surrounding a central pixel. Second, the Euclidean distance between pairwise extended regions is calculated to measure the change magnitude between the pairwise central pixels of bi-temporal images. While the whole bi-temporal images are scanned pixel-by-pixel, the change magnitude image (CMI) can be generated. Then, the Otsu or a manual threshold is employed to acquire the binary change detection map (BCDM). The detection accuracies of the proposed approach are investigated by two land cover change cases with Landsat bi-temporal remote sensing images. In comparison to several widely used change detection methods, the proposed approach can achieve a land cover change inventory map with a competitive accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0204.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Ecosystem service values; Land cover change; Proximate causes; Underlying causes
Online: 12 December 2022 (13:21:24 CET)
Land use/cover (LULC) change is one of the most important environmental phenomena that have affected the earths’ systems and its ecosystem services. Hence, this study was conducted with the main objective of assessing LULC change, its drivers andimpactson ecosystem services in Jimma Rare district for the year 1974–2019. In order to understand the spatial and temporal changes of LULC and its drivers four satellite images for the year1974, 1991, 2005 and 2019 were obtained and respondent interviews, focus group discussions (FGD) and field observations were employed. Moreover, the ecosystem service value coefficients developed at a global level were used to assess the impacts of LULC on ecosystem service provision of the study area. The results of the study revealed that grass land and forest land decreased from 4518.87ha (13.09%) to 902.42ha (2.61%) and 3287.79ha (9.52%) to 2506.63ha (7.26%) from 1974-2019 respectively. Similarly, wetland declined from1182.08ha (3.42%) to 562.37ha (1.63%) in the stated period.The greatest expansion of cultivated land and settlement area occurred during the year 1974-1991. Agricultural expansion, deforestation, overgrazing and expansion of rural and urban settlement were among the major proximate causes. Likewise, the major underlying drivers of LULC dynamics include population increase, the presence of weak policy and institutions, poverty and lack of awareness were identified by respondents and focus group discussants. The total natural capital value reduced from 662.75 (million $/ha/yr) to 577.03 (million $/ha/yr) in the study period indicating the impacts of LULC on ecosystem services. From this study, it is possible to conclude that Jimma Rare District has experienced a significant change in LULC and ecosystem service values over the past 45 years. Hence, appropriate policy packages of land use are required to curb the negative impacts of such changes in the study district in the provision of the required services for sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0119.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: mediterranean lagoon complex; surface water dynamic; land use and land cover; landscape metrics; remote sensing
Online: 10 May 2019 (10:40:14 CEST)
Mediterranean coastal lagoons and their peripheral areas often provide a collection of habitats for many species, and they often face significant threats from anthropogenic activities. Diverse human activities in such areas directly affect the spatio-temporal dynamic of surface water and its ecological characteristics. Monitoring the surface water dynamic, and understanding the impact of human activities are of great significance for coastal lagoon conservation. The Regional Natural Park of Narbonne includes a typical Mediterranean lagoon complex where surface water dynamic and its potential link with local diverse human activities has not yet been studied. In this context, based on all the available Landsat images covering the study area during 2002-2016, this study identified the water and non-water classes for each satellite observation by comparing three widely used water indices (i.e., NDVI, NDWI and MNDWI) and using the Otsu method. The yearly water frequency index was then computed to present the spatio-temporal dynamic of surface water for each year, and three water dynamic scenarios were also identified for each year: permanent water (PW), non-permanent water (NPW) and non-water (NW). The spatial and inter-annual variation in the patterns of the three water scenarios were characterized by computing the landscape metrics at scenario-level quantifying area/edge, shape, aggregation and fragmentation. Finally, the quantitative link between different land use and land cover (LULC) types derived from the LULC maps of 2003, 2012 and 2015 and the surface water dynamic scenarios was established in each of the 300 m x 300 m grid cells covering the study area to determine the potential impact of human activities on the surface water dynamic. In terms of the inter-annual variation during 2002-2016, PW presented an overall stability, and NPW occupied only a small part of the water surface in each year and presented an inter-annual fluctuation. NPW had a smaller patch size, with lower connectivity degree and higher fragmentation degree. In terms of spatial variation during 2002-2016, NPW often occurred around PW, and its configurational features varied from place to place. Moreover, PW mostly corresponded to natural lagoon, and salt marsh (as a part of lagoons), and NPW had a strong link with arable land (agricultural irrigation) and salt marsh (salt production), sand beach/dune, coastal wetlands and lagoon for the LULC maps of 2003, 2012 and 2015. However, more in-depth analysis is required for understanding the impact of sand beach/dune, coastal wetlands and lagoon on surface water dynamics. This study covers the long-term variations of surface water patterns in a Mediterranean lagoon complex having intense and diverse human activities, and the potential link between LULC types and the water dynamic scenarios was investigated on different dates. The results of the study should be useful for environmental management and protection of coastal lagoons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0090.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land cover change; vegetation dynamics; remote sensing; DPSIR; Kebbi state
Online: 19 September 2017 (17:24:13 CEST)
Assessment of the trends of land cover and vegetation dynamics (VD) using remote sensing (RS) and indicators such as anthropogenic activities and the socio-demographic information is essential in order to make proper planning for sustainable management. This paper attempts to evaluate land cover change (LCC) and VD in Kebbi State, Nigeria using historical Landsat data from 1986-2016 by means of remote sensing. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was later employed using both primary and secondary data for a better understanding of the drivers, the state of the environmental condition, the causes as well as the impact of the change. The images were classified into five thematic land cover classes as Dense Vegetation, shrubs/built area, farmland, bare/grassland and water body by means of Maximum likelihood supervised classification technique in accordance with Anderson classification scheme level 1, with acceptable accuracy. Pre-classification and post-classification change detection (CD) methodologies were executed using Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Image differencing respectively. The study illustrates a steady decline in dense vegetation and shrubs/build areas while farmland and bare/grassland increases, however, water bodies remain unchanged. The DPSIR pin-point that the major drivers of change in the study area have been the pressing need for farming land as the population grows and socioeconomic demands including fuelwood consumption and endemic poverty. Expansion of Farming land, fuelwood consumption and the need for construction materials are identified as the main key elements exerting pressure for the change. The state of the condition indicates a steady decline in dense vegetation and shrubs areas while farmland and bare/grassland are increasing significantly. The impacts include land degradation, the decline in the provision ecosystem goods and services, biodiversity loss through loss of habitats. The study, however, noted that many international and national policies in response to land degradation are channelled toward land restoration and remediating of the environment, through afforestation programs and improving the livelihood of the rural people through providing alternative income sources since they depend heavily on land for sustenance. However, the state governments, communities and individual commonly organized annual tree planting campaign with the main purpose of environmental protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0841.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: SWAT model; surface runoff; deforestation; land use change; Amazonia; Peru
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:29:17 CEST)
The watershed hydrologic conditions in the Madre de Dios (MDD) basin in the Peruvian Amazon have been irreversibly impacted by deforestation and changes in land use cover. These changes have also had detrimental effects on the geomorphology, water quality, and aquatic habitat within the basin. However, there is a scarcity of hydrological modeling studies in this area primarily due to the limited availability of hydrometeorological data. The primary objective of this study was to examine how deforestation impacts the hydrological conditions in the MDD basin. By implementing the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, this study determined that replacing 12% of the evergreen broadleaf forest area with bare land resulted in an significant increase in surface runoff by 38% monthly, a reduction of evapotranspiration by 1% annually, and an average monthly streamflow increase of 12%. Changes in spatial patterns reveal that the primary impacted watershed is the Inambari River subbasin, a significant tributary of the Madre de Dios River. This area experiences an annual average surge of 187% in surface runoff generation while witnessing an annual average reduction of 8% in evapotranspiration.These findings have important implications, as they can contribute to instances of flooding and extreme inundation events, which have already occurred in the MDD region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0682.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land cover change detection; HRSIs; Deep learning neural network; Very Small training samples
Online: 9 June 2023 (08:10:25 CEST)
Change detection with heterogeneous remote sensing images (Hete-CD) plays an important role in practical applications, especially when homogenous remote sensing images are unavailable. However, bitemporal heterogeneous remote sensing images (HRSIs) cannot compare directly to measure change magnitude, and many deep learning methods require large amounts of samples to train the module. Moreover, labeling many samples for land cover change detection with HRSIs is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, acquiring satisfactory performance of Hete-CD remains a challenge for deep learning networks with very small training samples. In this study, we promote a novel deep-learning framework for Hete-CD to obtain satisfactory performance while the initial samples are very small. We initially design a multiscale network with select kernel-attention module to focus on capturing different change targets with various sizes and shapes. Then, a simple yet effective non-parametric sample-enhanced algorithm based on the Pearson correlation coeffi-cient is promoted to explore potential samples around each initial sample. Finally, the proposed network and sample-enhanced algorithm are fused into one iterative framework to improve the change detection performance with very small samples. Experimental results conducted on four pairs of actual HRSIs indicated that the proposed framework can achieve competitive accuracies with very small samples for initialization when compared with some state-of-the-art methods. For example, the improvement is approximately 3.38% and 1.99% when compared with the selected traditional methods and deep learning methods, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0468.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Pollinator; landscape; land use; urban rural gradient; Japanese honeybee; honey; pollen; nutrition.
Online: 16 July 2021 (13:04:52 CEST)
Pollinators are being threatened globally by urbanisation and agricultural intensification, driv-en by a growing human population. Understanding these impacts on landscapes and pollinators is critical to ensuring a robust pollination system. Remote sensing data on land use attributes have previously linked honeybee nutrition to land use in the Western Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Here, we instead focus on the less commonly studied Apis cerana japonica – the Japanese Honeybee. Our study presents preliminary data comparing forage (honey and pollen) with land use across a rural-urban gradient from 22 sites in Kyushu, southern Japan. Honey samples were collected from hives between June 2018 and August 2019. Pollen were collected and biotyped from hives in urban and rural locations (n = 4). Previous studies of honey show substantial vari-ation in monosaccharide content. Our analysis of A. cerana japonica honey found very little varia-tion in glucose and fructose (which accounted for 97% of monosaccharides), despite substantial differences in surrounding forage composition. As expected, we observed temporal variation in pollen foraged by A. cerana japonica, likely dependent on flowering phenology. These prelimi-nary results suggest that the forage and nutrition of A. cerana japonica may not be negatively af-fected by urban land use. This highlights the need for further comparative studies between A. cerana japonica and A. mellifera as it could suggest a resilience in pollinators foraging in their na-tive range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1875.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: ecosystem network connectivity; fragmentation; land cover change; Tesso Nilo National Park; forest
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:39:58 CEST)
Tesso Nilo National Park is one of the protected areas designated as KPA by the Decree of the Minister of Forestry No.225/Menhut-II/2004 dated July 19, 2004 covering an area of 38,576 ha, then expanded again through the Decree of the Minister of Forestry No.663/Menhut/2009 dated 19 October 2009 with an area of ± 83,068 ha. The Tesso Nilo National Park area is experiencing the dynamics of land cover changes, namely the conversion of forest land which causes the forest area to become increasingly narrow in this area. With the reduction in forest area in this area, it causes a decrease in ecosystem network connectivity due to forest fragmentation that occurs, so that forests are separated and further apart. This study aims to analyze changes in land cover in the Tesso Nilo National Park area to find out information on changes in habitat ecosystems in the last 20 years. the observations were made using satellite images in 1999, 2010 and 2019. so that it can be seen the effect of forest fragmentation on ecosystems in the Tesso Nilo National Park area. From the results of the analysis, it was found that the area of forest cover in the Tesso Nilo National Park decreased from 1999 to 2019 and caused changes in the connectivity network of forest ecosystems, which was found in the study, the weakest connectivity separated forest fragments as far as 17394.47 meters due to forest cover fragmentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0653.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land cover; sentinel-2 images; random forest; boreal forest; alpine tundra
Online: 20 April 2023 (10:51:55 CEST)
A land cover map of two arctic catchments, nearby the Abisko Scientific Research Station, was obtained from a classification of a Sentinel-2 satellite image and a ground survey performed in July 2022. The two contiguous catchments, Miellajokka and Stordalen, are covered by various ecotypes, from boreal forest to alpine tundra and peatland. The Random Forest algorithm correctly identified 83% of polygon pixels reserved for testing. The developed workflow relied solely on open source software and acquired ground observations. Space organization was directed by the altitude as shown by the intersection of the land cover with the topography. Comparison between this new land cover map and previous ones based on data acquired between 2008 and 2011 demonstrates some trends of vegetation cover evolution in response to climate change in the considered area. The potential applications in terms of permafrost modeling (hiperborea.omp.eu) are finally discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1624.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: anthropogenic; land cover change; mitigation; protected forest
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:51:58 CEST)
Mount Hamiding Protected Forest is located in North Halmahera Regency, North Maluku Province, the Wallace zone has an important role in providing protection functions, life support systems and regulating water management, preventing floods, preventing seawater intrusion, and controlling soil fertility. The protected forest area in the Wallace Zone is globally renowned for its endemic characteristics of flora and fauna. The condition of the protected forest of Mount Hamiding HMPF is currently experiencing anthropogenic damage as a result of forest encroachment, illegal logging, shifting cultivation, grazing and poaching to meet social needs. Anthropogenic damage has been in the spotlight for decades and has become a global issue. This study aims to determine damage to protected forests, changes in land cover, and mitigation of protected forest areas. This research uses quantitative and descriptive qualitative methods. Determination of research locations by purposive sampling. Parameters measured in this study were damage to protected forests, changes in land cover and area mitigation strategies. To identify forest damage, snowball sampling was carried out, and land cover changes through land cover data processing were obtained from the Ministry of Environment and Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia. Then using Imagery 7 ETM+ and 8 OLI to calculate changes in forested land to non-forested from 2006 -2021, analysis of land cover change using supervised classification, developing a strategy based on identity verification of forest damage and analysis of land cover change. The results showed that damage to protected forests was caused by anthropogenic disturbances in the form of forest encroachment, shifting cultivation, illegal logging, grazing and hunting of wild animals. Changes in land cover experienced the greatest damage in 2006-2021 amounting to 1,796.54 ha (16.17%). Strategic efforts are carried out using forest engineering, namely the agroforestry system and social engineering through community empowerment, namely training and outreach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0153.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Eco-security; Land use and cover change (LUCC); Sustainability development and assessment
Online: 15 August 2016 (12:41:51 CEST)
Land use and cover change (LUCC) is an important method to investigate the causes of global environment change. We utilized the emergy ecological footprint (EEF) model to construct a land-use change model to be used as a systematic measuring tool for monitoring sustainable development trends. In particular, we estimated the eco-security of the Cing-jing region as a case study so that responsible agencies can use it to maintain a balance between ecological preservation and tourism development. The results indicated the following: First, the ecological environment of the Cing-jing region satisfied the safety standard in 2008–2014; however, the related indices increased considerably. Second, the grey model predicted a decrease in 2015–2024 ecological carrying capacities of Cing-jing and a large increase in capita EFs, resulting in a larger ecological deficit and higher EFI. The eco-security from 2015–2024 was higher compared to 7 years ago and is predicted to reach the Grade 2 intermediate level in 2022; thus the Cing-jing region is gradually becoming ecologically unsustainable. Strengths of our study included the use of EEF theory in a quantitative analysis of slope lands for the effective evaluation of ecological security. Finally, we expanded our research to include ecological security issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0167.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: spatio-temporal pattern; land cover; mountainous city; Chongqing
Online: 10 May 2018 (14:59:19 CEST)
The urban heat island (UHI) becomes more and more serious with the acceleration of urbanization. Many researchers have shown interest in studying the UHI by using remote sensing data. But these studies rarely examine the mountainous cities. The studies on UHI in mountainous cities often used empirical parameters to estimate the land surface temperature (LST), and lacked satellite-ground synchronous experiment to test the accuracy. This paper revised the parameters in mono-window algorithm used to retrieve the LST according to the characteristics of mountainous cities. This study examined the spatial and temporal patterns of the UHI intensity in Chongqing, a typical mountainous city, and its relationship with land cover from 2007 to 2011 based on the Landsat TM data and the improved method. The accuracy of the LST derivation increased by about 1°C compared to the traditional method. The high LST areas increased and extended from the downtown to suburban area each year, but the rate of change decreased. The UHI is dramatically impacted by the rivers. There is a good relationship between the urban sprawl and the UHI. The LST was reduced by about 1°C within a 300m distance from large urban fringe green spaces. The urban landscape parks had a strong effect relieving the UHI at a 100m distance. The LST was reduced by about 0.5°C. The study greatly improves the accuracy of LST derivation, and provides a reliable parameters for the UHI researched in mountainous city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Sustainability, Environmental Evaluation of Land use, Soil sealing soil take, land plus value recapture, transition matrix
Online: 4 November 2016 (17:24:32 CET)
Our work is regarding the analysis of land use changes, in the light of “saving soil” against the expansion due to unearned plus value of land: The loss of natural and agricultural surface in front of the expanding urban environment is a critical aspect of unsustainability of urban development, especially in the way it was carried out in the past decades. The measure of the physical transition of land use and characters from a more natural condition of land surface to a new artificial one, joint with a parallel analysis of the increase of land value due to such change is nowadays a major land-policy tool. The interplay of urban economics regulation with planning, reveals new key issues in urban governance and environmental preservation. In this paper it will be shown some experiment about the impact assessment of soil take, related with the seek of valorization of property inside the planning process. Our paper reports as well about the experimental activity carried out inside the MITO Lab of the Polytechnic of Bari, where reports about property values and environmental values have been produced, specially looking at the reality of the Apulia, a southern Italian Region, that is rich of farmlands and coastlines, often invaded by constructions with a severe loss of nature, landscape and ecosystems services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: land use changes; zoning; community forest; resilience; Togo
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:57:57 CEST)
Affem Boussou community forest (AFC) abounds in important biological resources. This study, which contributes to its better management, examines the spatiotemporal dynamics of the vegetation and its ecological and structural characteristics to propose a zoning plan for the said forest. The analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use in the AFC from Google Earth images of 2015, 2018, and 2021 revealed a regressive trend of formations: crops and fallows (-33.98%), dense dry forests (-7.92%), gallery forests (-3.46%), plantations (-100%), grassy savannahs and meadows (-18.84%) except for tree/shrub savannahs (484.23%). The floristic inventory identified 163 species divided into 129 genera and 55 families. Fabaceae (14.02%), and Combretaceae (10.55%) are the most represented families. Anogeissus leiocarpa (5.19%) and Vitellaria paradoxa (4.72%) are the most frequent species. We note the dominance of individuals of small diameters. The regeneration potential of the AFC is 64 feet/ha due to 21 feet/ha of suckers, 29 feet/ha of seedlings, and 14 feet/ha of shoots. As a zoning plan, the AFC was subdivided into four series: the agroforestry zone (18.80%), the sustainable production forest zone (42.22%), the buffer zone (11%), and the biological conservation zone (28%). These results constitute a scientific basis for testing ecological indicators of sustainable management of community forests in Togo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0164.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land use/land cover; nighttime light (NTL); NDEUI; landscape metrics; random Forests; urban growth mode
Online: 9 October 2018 (03:31:38 CEST)
Rapid urbanization has dramatically spurred the economic development over the past three decades, especially in China, but has nevertheless had negative impacts on natural resources since it is an irreversible process. Thus, it is essential to timely monitor and quantitatively analysis the changes in land use over time and to identify the landscape pattern variation related to growth mode in different period. This study aims at inspecting spatiotemporal characteristics of landscape pattern respond to land use changes in Xuzhou city during the period from 1985 to 2015. In this connection, we proposed a new spectral index, named the Normalized Difference Enhanced Urban Index (NDEUI), which combines data from NTL (Nighttime light) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) with annual maximum Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to reduce the detection confusion between urban areas and barren land, as well as follows. NDEUI-assisted Random Forests algorithm was implemented to obtain the land use/land cover (LULC) maps of Xuzhou in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2015, respectively. Here, four different periods viz. 1985–1995, 1995–2005, 2005–2015 and 1985–2015 are chosen for the change analysis of land use and landscape pattern. The results indicated that the urban area has increased by about 30.65%, 10.54%, 68.77%, and 143.75% during the four periods mentioned above at the main expense of agricultural land, respectively. The spatial trend maps revealed that continuous transition from other land use types into urban land has appeared a dual-core development mode throughout the urbanization process, located at the new city region and the Jiawang district, mainly affected by the construction of new city region, freeway and the high railway station. Furthermore, we quantified the patch complexity, aggregation, connectivity and diversity of landscape employing a number of landscape metrics to represent the changes of landscape pattern at both class and landscape level, affected by urbanization during the study period. The results showed that with regard to the four aspects of landscape pattern, there were considerable differences among the four years, mainly owing to the increasing dominance of urbanized land. Spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern was also conducted on the basis of subgrids in 900 m × 900 m. Combined with the land use changes and spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern, it can be concluded that different urbanization modes and intensity result in variously the spatiotemporal evolution of landscape patterns. For Xuzhou city, the urban growth mainly appeared a leapfrog mode alone both sides of the roads during the period of 1985 to 1995, and then shifted into edge-expansion mode during the period from 1995 to 2005, whereas the edge-expansion and leapfrog modes coexisted for the period from 2005 to 2015. The high valuable spatiotemporal information generated utilizing RS and GIS in this study may give assistance to urban planners and policymakers to well understand urban dynamics and evaluate their spatiotemporal and environmental impacts at a local level for the sake of sustainable urban planning in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0406.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land-use; satellite imagery; agriculture
Online: 30 May 2018 (17:21:00 CEST)
The natural and man-made landscape settings in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Northern Pakistan have significantly changed in the last decade due to increasing demands of urbanized populace, migration, two major natural disasters, and climate change. The aim of this study is to analyze land possession, income and land-use diversification of KPK administered Charsadda district. Field data is collected through a sample survey. Furthermore, freely available Landsat 7 satellite images are used to classify land-use classes (e.g. vegetation, built-up) for two different years (e.g. 2005 and 2017) for cross-verification and comparison. The highest 45% of 80% land-owners occupy land-area between 1-10 hectares. Annually, the highest 57.5% of the total farmers / employed in-habitants of surveyed regions earn more than Rs. 100,000 or ~ $ 970 from agriculture activities. About 41.9% land-area covered by agricultural-land is transformed into built-up area since 2007, which is attributed to the increasing demand for buildings and commercial markets. The highest diversification is reported in Naguman area of Charsadda district followed by Rajjar and Niami. Population growth and huge migration of displaced persons from neighboring tribal areas are likely to be few factors which contributed to such a drastic change in land-use pattern since 2007 to 2017. Urgent attention of the policy makers, agricultural experts and society is required to minimize land degradation and to thwart further agricultural-land loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0383.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land-use; satellite imagery; agriculture
Online: 28 May 2018 (05:20:28 CEST)
The natural and man-made landscape settings in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Northern Pakistan have significantly changed in the last decade due to increasing demands of urbanized populace, migration, two major natural disasters, and climate change. The aim of this study is to analyze land possession, income and land-use diversification of KPK administered Charsadda district. Field data is collected through a sample survey. Furthermore, freely available Landsat 7 satellite images are used to classify land-use classes (e.g., vegetation, built-up) for two different years (e.g., 2005 and 2017) for cross-verification and comparison. The highest 45% of 80% land-owners occupy land-area between 1–10 hectares. Annually, the highest 57.5% of the total farmers / employed in-habitants of surveyed regions earn more than Rs. 100,000 or ~$970 from agriculture activities. About 41.9% land-area covered by agricultural-land is transformed into built-up area since 2007, which is attributed to the increasing demand for buildings and commercial markets. The highest diversification is reported in Naguman area of Charsadda district followed by Rajjar and Niami. Population growth and huge migration of displaced persons from neighboring tribal areas are likely to be few factors which contributed to such a drastic change in land-use pattern since 2007 to 2017. Urgent attention of the policy makers, agricultural experts and society is required to minimize land degradation and to thwart further agricultural-land loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land Cover; High-performance computing; Remote sensing; Workflow; Automation
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:50:07 CEST)
Large-scale land cover plays a crucial role in global resource monitoring and management, as well as research on sustainable development. However, the complexity of the mapping process, coupled with significant computational and data storage requirements, often leads to delays between data processing and product publication, creating challenges for dynamic monitoring of large-scale land cover. Therefore, improving the efficiency of each stage in large-scale land cover mapping and automating the mapping process is currently an urgent and critical issue that needs to be addressed. We propose a high-performance automated large-scale land cover mapping framework(HALF) that introduces high-performance computing technology to the field of land cover production. HALF optimizes key processes, such as automated sample point extraction, sample-remote sensing image matching, and large-scale classification result mosaic and update. We selected several 10°×10° regions globally and the research makes several significant contributions:(1)We design HALF for land cover mapping based on docker and CWL-Airflow, which solves the heterogeneity of models between complex processes in land cover mapping and simplifies the model deployment process. By introducing workflow organization, this method achieves a high degree of decoupling between the production models of each stage and the overall process, enhancing the scalability of the framework. (2)HALF propose an automatic sample points method that generates a large number of samples by overlaying and analyzing multiple prior products, thus saving the cost of manual sample selection. Using high-performance computing technology improved the computational efficiency of sample-image matching and feature extraction phase, with 10 times faster than traditional matching methods.(3)HALF propose a high-performance classification result mosaic method based on the idea of grid division. By quickly establishing the spatial relationship between the image and the product and performing parallel computing, the efficiency of the mosaicking in large areas is significantly improved. The average processing time for a single image is around 6.5 seconds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0102.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; remote sensing; land cover map
Online: 6 February 2023 (10:53:10 CET)
The application of machine learning techniques to satellite imagery has been the subject of interest in recent years. The increase in quality and quantity of images, made available by Earth observation programs, such as the Copernicus program, led to the generation of large amounts of data. Among the various applications of this data is the creation of land cover maps. The present work aimed to create machine learning models capable of accurately segment and classify satellite images, to automatically generate a land cover map of the Portuguese territory. Several experiments were carried out with the spectral bands of the Sentinel-2 satellite, with vegetation indices, and with several sets of land cover classes. Three machine learning architectures were evaluated, which adopt two different techniques for image classification. One of the classification techniques follows an object-oriented approach, and in this case the architecture adopted in our models was a U-Net artificial neural network. The other classification technique is pixel-oriented, and the machine learning models tested were random forest and support vector machine. The overall accuracy of the results obtained ranged from 68.6% to 94.75%, depending strongly on the number of classes into which the land cover is classified. The result of 94.75% was obtained when classifying the land cover only into 5 classes. However, a very interesting accuracy of 92.37% was achieved by the model when trained to classify 8 classes. These results are superior to those reported in the related bibliography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: streamflow; dynamic land-use change; ANN; SWAT; Dabus river
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:40:27 CEST)
Based on the recorded watershed characteristics, the future conditions on the basin system can be predicted using a different method. In this study, dynamic land-use change and its impacts on the streamflow for the Dabus watershed were predicted using ANN-CA based method. The model performance for accurate prediction of the future land-use change on the Dabus River watershed has been checked by validation of the simulated value with the actual value, hence the overall kappa value (k) = 0.83 for the simulated 2016-LULC validated with actual 2016-LULC. Then, 2026-LULC was predicted based on the 2004 and 2009-LULC. The streamflow for the case of 2004 and 2009-LULC has been simulated using the SWAT model. The value of NSE = 0.87 and 0.90 was attained during validation of simulated streamflow for 2004 and 2009-LULC data cases, respectively. The agreement of simulated value of streamflow with the observed data is indicated as R2 = 0.91 and 0.96 for 2004-LULC and 2009-LULC. The effects of the dynamic land-use change on streamflow for the predicted land use(2026-LULC) catchment were evaluated by T-test analysis. Hence, T-stat =0.04 and -0.002 in the case of simulated streamflow used 2004-LULC and 2009-LULC, respectively compared with simulated value using 2026-LULC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Land-use change; Land-use planning; Ecosystem services; Erosion; Climate change; Agricultural policies; Soil tillage
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:40:53 CEST)
In the last two centuries, land use change (LUC) has been the most important direct changes driver for terrestrial ecosystems. To contrast the consequent ecosystems degradation, forward-looking spatial policies and target landscape and land-use planning processes, promoting a sustainable land use change, are needed. The present paper proposes a framework of action including different landscape planning and ecological approaches: from the spatial modelling to recognize the LUC and build different scenarios, to the ecosystem services (ESs) assessment to evaluate the possible environmental impacts. Three different scenarios were built: Trend, No-Tillage and Energy crops. The Sediment Delivery Ratio and Carbon Storage and Sequestration ESs were assessed and compared for each scenario. The aim of the paper is to support decision-makers and local communities into the landscape planning process. Results show that a regional development in line with past trend could lead to further land degradation. Instead, the two scenarios proposed in compliance with EU policies, could bring benefits only if related to moderate LUCs and respecting the naturally grass-vegetated land. From the local to global scale, a guided and shared LUC management allows implementing sustainable development, basing on a deep knowledge of physical-environmental but also social and economic issues.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land cover; Scale effect; Uncertainty; Spatial Heterogeneity
Online: 6 May 2023 (03:04:48 CEST)
Land cover data are important basic data for earth system science and other fields. Multi-source remote sensing images have become the main data source for land cover classification. There are still many uncertainties in the scale effect of image spatial resolution on land cover classification. Since it is difficult to obtain multiple spatial resolution remote sensing images of the same area at the same time, the main current method to study the scale effect of land cover classification is to use the same image resampled to different resolutions, however errors in the resampling process lead to uncertainty in the accuracy of land cover classification. To study the land cover classification scale effect of different spatial resolutions of multi-source remote sensing data, we selected 1 m and 4 m of GF-2, 6 m of SPOT-6, 10 m of Sentinel-2 and 30 m of Landsat-8 multi-sensor data, and explored the scale effect of image spatial resolution on land cover classification from two aspects of mixed image element decomposition and spatial heterogeneity. For the study area, we compared the classification obtained from GF-2, SPOT-6, Sentinel-2, and Landsat-8 images at different spatial resolutions based on GBDT and RF. The results show that (1) GF-2 and SPOT-6 had the best classification results, and the optimal scale based on this classification accuracy was 4–6 m; (2) the optimal scale based on linear decomposition depended on the study area; (3) the optimal scale of land cover was related to spatial heterogeneity, i.e., the more fragmented and complex was the space, the smaller the scale needed; and (4) the resampled images were not sensitive to scale and increase the uncertainty of the classification. These findings have implications for land cover classification and optimal scale selection, scale effects and landscape ecology uncertainty studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Regulation Effectiveness; Land Use Plan; Construction Land; China
Online: 20 March 2017 (18:42:46 CET)
Nowadays the relationship between planning land use and actual land use is not so clear in general. A lot of efforts have been put in the failures of regulation for the expansion of construction land. However, it still lacks an integrated approach to study the effectiveness of land use regulation in terms of different land use types. Furthermore, the existing evaluation of land use plan mainly focuses on a general level, a detailed research on the regulation effectiveness of each construction land use type is absent. Therefore, this research tries to evaluate regulation effectiveness of land use plan, which takes Cangwu country, Guangxi Province as an example. The finding by analysis is that the total area of construction land expansion was about 3494.73 ha, nearly 1.1 times of the plan quota. Moreover, the effectiveness differs greatly in various construction land use types. Town, industrial/mining sites can be well regulated through the quota of land use plan. While, the quota regulation system is not as effective for other type of construction land. Thus, we suggest to improve the regulation effectiveness of construction land through different plan instruments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0347.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Multi Modal Fusion; Channel Attention; Land Cover Mapping
Online: 25 July 2022 (04:51:46 CEST)
Land cover mapping provides spatial information on the physical properties of the Earth’s surface, for various classes of wetlands, artificial surface and constructions, vineyards, water bodies, etc. Having reliable information on land cover is crucial to developing solutions to a variety of environmental problems such as destruction of important wetlands/forests, and loss of fish and wildlife habitats. This has made land cover mapping one of the most widespread application areas in remote sensing computational imaging. However, due to the differences between modalities in terms of resolutions, content, and sensors, integrating complementary information that multi-modal remote sensing imagery exhibits into a robust and accurate system still remains challenging, and classical segmentation approaches generally do not give satisfactory results for land cover mapping. In this paper, we propose a novel dynamic deep network architecture, AMM-FuseNet, that promotes the use of multi-modal remote sensing images for the purpose of land cover mapping. The proposed network exploits the hybrid approach of the Channel Attention mechanism and Densely Connected Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling (DenseASPP). In the experimental analysis, in order to to verify the validity of the proposed method, we test AMM-FuseNet applied to four datasets whilst comparing it to the 6 state-of-the-art models of DeepLabV3+, PSPNet, UNet, SegNet, DenseASPP, and DANet. In addition, we also demonstrate the capability of AMM-FuseNet under minimal training supervision (reduced number of training samples) compared to the state-of-the-art, achieving less accuracy loss even for the case with 1/20 of the training samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0061.v1
Online: 12 January 2017 (10:05:06 CET)
This paper proposes a method to utilize weather and land cover models to generate future environmental scenarios, and presents the watershed models to simulate the hydrological impact on watershed-scale hydrology. The Weather Generator model and General Circulation Model were applied to produce rainfall and local temperature under different climate conditions, and the Conservation and Land Use and its Effects model was incorporated to simulate future land cover variability. The circumstances of future climate and land cover changes were used as inputs to drive the HEC-HMS rainfall runoff model for obtaining surface runoff in a mountainous area. The WASH123D model was then utilized for the entire watershed simulation. Modeling results were then examined to discuss hydrological impacts on three different time periods: near future (2020-2039), future (2050-2069), and distant future (2080-2099). The Fengshan Creek basin in northern Taiwan was selected as study site. Simulations results indicated that the influence of climate change revealed more relevant effects when compared to local land cover changes. The ground water levels tended to diminish as the land cover area changed. In addition, both river and groundwater levels reveal that it is drier in dry season and wetter in wet season in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1382.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land Use and Land Cover (LULC); in-water optical properties; bio-optics; suspended particulate matter; coloured dissolved organic matter; chlorophyll-a; catchment area; water discharge; land-sea interactions.
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:48:00 CEST)
The optical complexity of coastal waters is mostly caused by the water discharged from land carrying optical components (such as dissolved and particulate matter) into coastal bays and estuaries, and increasing the attenuation of light. This paper aims to investigate the links between in-water optical properties in four Swedish bays (from the northern Baltic proper up to the Bothnian bay) and the land use and land cover (LULC) and the hydrology in the respective catchment of each bay. The optical properties were measured in situ over the last two decades by various research and monitoring groups while the LULC in each bay was classified using the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service based on Landsat 8 and Sentinel-3 data. The absorption coefficient of coloured dissolve organic matter at 440 nm, aCDOM (440), and its spectral slope factor, SCDOM, were mostly correlated to natural land cover classes (Wetland, Meadow) acting as sources of CDOM, while Agricultural and Urban classes seem to act as sinks. The Agricultural class was also found to be a sink for suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) whilst Coniferous and Mixed Forests as well as Meadows acted as a sources. SPOM seems to mostly originate from Natural classes, possibly due to the release of pollen and other organic matter. Overall, the methods applied here allow for a better understanding of effects of land used and land cover on the bio-optical properties, and thus coastal water quality, on a macroscopic scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0344.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Landsat8; multi-temporal; crops statistics; land use land cover; Pakistan
Online: 21 August 2018 (12:25:17 CEST)
Developing countries like Pakistan is among those where lack of adoption to science and technology advancement is a major constraint for Satellite Remote Sensing use in crops and land use land cover digital information generation. Exponential rise in country population, increased food demand, limiting natural resources coupled with migration of rural community to urban areas had further led to skewed official statistics. This study is an attempt to demonstrate the possible use of freely available satellite data like Landsat8 under complex cropping system of Okara district of Punjab, Pakistan. An Integrated approach has been developed for the satellite data based crops and land use/cover spatial area estimation. The resultant quality was found above 96% with Kappa statistics of 0.95. Land utilization statistics provided detail information about cropping patterns as well as land use land cover status. Rice was recorded as most dominating crop in term of cultivation area of around 0.165 million ha followed by autumn maize 0.074 million ha, Fallow crop fields 0.067 million ha and Sorghum 0.047 million ha. Other minor crops observed were potato, fodder and cotton being cultivated on less than 0.010 million ha. Population settlements were observed over an area of around 0.081 million ha of land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0428.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ALOS-3; Land Cover; Vegetation; Machine learning; Classification; Mapping; Ge-nus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem level
Online: 13 May 2022 (14:45:48 CEST)
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is going to launch Advanced Land Observing Satellite 3 (ALOS-3) after 2022. ALOS-3 satellite is capable of observing global land areas with wide swath (4000 km along-track direction and 70 km cross-track direction) at high spatial resolution (panchromatic: 0.8m, multispectral: 3.2m). Maintenance and updating of land cover and vegetation information at national level is one of the major goals of the ALOS-3 mission. This paper presents the potential of simulated ALOS-3 images for the classification and mapping of land cover and vegetation types at Genus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem (GPE) level. We acquired and simulated WorldView-3 images according to the configuration of the ALOS-3 satellite sensor and the simulated ALOS-3 images were utilized for the classification and mapping of land cover and vegetation types in three sites (Hakkoda, Zao, and Shiranuka) in northern Japan. This research dealt with 17 land cover and vegetation types in Hakkoda site, 25 land cover and vegetation types in Zao site, and 12 land cover and vegetation types in Shiranuka site. Ground truth data were newly collected in three sites, and we employed eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) classifier with the implementation of 10-fold cross-validation method for assessing the potential of ALOS-3S images. The classification accuracies obtained in Hakkoda, Zao, and Shiranuka sites in terms of f1-score were 0.810, 0.729, and 0.805 respectively. The fine scale (3.2m) land cover and vegetation maps produced in the study sites showed clear and detailed view of the distribution of plant communities. Regardless of the limited number of the temporal images, ALOS-3S images showed high potential (at least 0.729 F1-score) for the land cover and vegetation classification in all three sites. The availability of more cloud free temporal scenes is expected for improved classification and mapping in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0271.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: geographic information system; land demand; land use; universal soil loss erosion
Online: 12 August 2020 (05:09:55 CEST)
The information on the land use and soil conservation practice based on year 2006, 2010 and 2014, hence offering an opportunity to model the impacts of land use change on erosion, deposition and surface water runoff. Limitation in the use of hydrological models had been their inability to handle the large amount of input data that describe the heterogeneity of the natural system. In this study, a procedure that takes into account soil conservation practice based on the land use change, the response of soil erosion and sediment export from the George Town Conurbation catchment area, and average annual sediment yields were estimated for each grid cell of the watershed to identify the critical erosion areas of rural and urban planning proposes. Average annual sediment yield and data on a grid basis estimated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and an emerging technology represented by Geographic Information System (GIS) used as a tool to produce a map for erosion rate. The changing of the land use from forest to agriculture and then to an urban area is a challenging task to research on land use demand for population, and environmental impact assessment is important for the planning of natural resources management, allowing research the modification of land use properly and implement more sustainable for long term management strategies. The challenge is to formulate strategies that would promote an integrated approach to the land use planning at an appropriate level as to address the issues that arose. Modelling for creating urban growth boundary for the George Town Conurbation must have to be controlled surface runoff and soil loss and sediment export from land use of the George Town Conurbation catchment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0226.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Biodiversity loss; driving forces; Global Biodiversity Framework; hemeroby; Land Use Intensity index LUI
Online: 23 March 2023 (13:05:35 CET)
Biodiversity loss has been identified as one of the environmental impacts where humankind has been tres-passing planetary boundaries most significantly. Going beyond the pressures causing damages (calling them ‘direct drivers’) and analysing their underlying driving forces, IPBES, the Intergovernmental Sci-ence-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, also identified a series of indirect drivers. The Montreal-Kunming Global Biodiversity Framework GBF including its suggested monitoring approach is intended to and claims to be a policy response to such analyses. However, to assess the human impact on ecosystems as a basis for planning conservation and restoration, as foreseen in the GBF, monitoring ecosystem typologies (in the GBF with reference to the UN statistical standard SEEA ES, which in turn refers to the IUCN ecosystem classification) is not enough. It needs to be complemented with data on the severity of human impacts, and on the history of places, i.e. how and when the current ecosystem status was brought about. In this conceptual paper we suggest LUI, a deliberately simple ordinal scale index for land use intensity changes, to address these two gaps. It is based on the hemeroby concept, measuring the human impact as deviation from naturalness. This makes it an information collection and presentation tool for those working in landscape planning and management. LUI’s simple and intuitively understandable structure makes it suitable for citizens’ science applications, and thus for participative monitoring when extensive statistical data gathering is not feasible, and past data are not available. Of course is can also be used as a simple too for communicating when detailed statistical data series are available. While the aggregate index is expected to communicate well, its components are more relevant to motivate and help policy makers to prioritise their decisions according to the severity of recent anthropogenic ecosystem disturabances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0530.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: land use/cover; ecosystem; dynamic changes; upper and middle reaches of the Fenhe River; NDVI; spatial-temporal evolution
Online: 8 September 2023 (05:14:02 CEST)
The composition and pattern of ecosystems are important factors determining the overall status and spatial differences of ecosystem service functions. However, under the background of differential land policies and ecological protection policies, research on the trend of ecological system pattern changes in the Fenhe River Basin is insufficient. Taking the upper and middle reaches of the Fenhe River Basin as the study area, based on long-term NDVI index and multi-period LUCC remote sensing images, this study used spatial statistics and time trend analysis methods to analyze the spatio-temporal dynamic changes of vegetation, land use, landscape pattern, and explored the impact of major driving factors on ecosystem changes. The results show that: (1) From 2010 to 2020, the vegetation cover in the upper and middle reaches of the Fenhe River Basin increased, with an annual NDVI increment of 0.003 (P<0.001). NDVI showed an increasing trend spatially, with significant statistics (P<0.001) and significant changes (P<0.05) in vegetation in high-altitude mountain areas, and the vegetation cover was mostly forests or grasslands. There was no significant change in vegetation cover in the low-lying urban agglomeration area. (2) From 2010 to 2020, the area of water bodies or wetlands in the study area significantly decreased, with 51.3% converted to arable land and 33.9% transferred to construction land, while only 2.2% remained as water bodies or wetlands. From 2015 to 2020, the trend of water body changes slowed down, with the proportions of conversion to arable land and construction land being 44.0% and 18.4% respectively, while the area of wetlands or water bodies remained at 16.3%. During the period of 2015-2020, the area of water bodies or wetlands converted to other land types increased by more than 14% compared to 2010-2015. This proportion reached more than 30% compared to the 13th Five-year Plan Period. (3) From 2010 to 2020, the spatial changes of landscape diversity (SHDI) and evenness (SHEI) of LUCC showed heterogeneous characteristics. In the high-altitude areas near the river basin boundary, the values of SHDI and SHEI were below 1.0. While in the low-altitude plain areas and urban areas with relatively frequent human activities, the values of SHDI and SHEI were above 1.0, and the values in urban areas could reach above 1.5. The evolution of ecosystem patterns in the upper and middle reaches of the Fenhe River Basin in the past decade has been clarified, providing a scientific basis for the construction and management of ecological environment governance and restoration projects in the Fenhe River Basin, and providing practical references for ecological protection and high-quality development practice in the Yellow River Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0104.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: GEOBIA; canga ecosystem; Carajás National Forest; mine land revegetation; satellite images; environmental assessment
Online: 8 August 2019 (12:00:50 CEST)
Remote sensing technologies may play a fundamental role in the environmental assessment of open-cast mining and the accurate quantification of mine land rehabilitation efforts. Here, we developed a systematic geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) approach to map the amount of revegetated area and to quantify the land-use changes in open-cast mines in the Carajás region situated in the eastern Amazon. Based on high-resolution satellite images from 2011 to 2015 from different sensors (GeoEye, WorldView-3 and Ikonos), we quantified forests, cangas (natural metalliferous savanna ecosystems), mine land, revegetated areas and water bodies. Based on the GEOBIA approach, threshold values were established to discriminate land cover classes using spectral bands, and the NDVI and NDWI indices and LiDAR digital ground and slope models. The overall accuracy was higher than 90%, and the Kappa indices varied between 0.82 and 0.88. During the observation period, the mining complex expanded; for that, canga and forest vegetation was converted to mine land. At the same time, the amount of revegetated area increased. Thus, we conclude that our approach is capable of providing consistent information regarding land cover changes in mines, with a special focus on the amount of revegetation necessary to fulfill environmental liabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: spatial scale; CCA; indicator species analysis; land use; SWAT; bioassessment
Online: 17 February 2017 (07:33:16 CET)
We evaluated the potential of using fish species and functional traits as indicators of land use impacts to fish assemblages. We used environmental data collected at multiple spatial scales (local, reach, and upstream catchment) for 19 tributary and main stem sites in the Nolichucky River watershed in Tennessee. Canonical correspondence analyses showed that temperature, elevation, specific conductivity, sediment yield, impervious surfaces, and row crop cover at the catchment scale were strongly associated with fish assemblage structure, as well as forest cover from all three spatial scales. Blocked indicator species analysis, with stream size as the block, showed that significantly strong indicators of the least-impacted riparian land use condition (≥60% forest cover) were Saffron Shiner (Notropis rubricroceus), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss), Longnose Dace (Rhynichthys cataractae), Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), and Mottled Sculpin (Cottus bairdi). Traits indicative of the least-impacted sites were the herbivorous trophic guild, mean female age-at-maturity, longevity, rock-gravel spawners, montane geology and pelagic swimmers. Specific conductivity was strongly related to multiple catchment-scale land use variables, and was a strong local-scale influence on fish assemblage structure. Our results show promise for using a relatively common but endemic southern Appalachian fish species, the Saffron Shiner, as an indicator for land-use related impacts to these streams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: land actions; political will; cadastral project; land management; Benin
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:29:12 CEST)
Land registry is one of the instruments most mentioned by public actors in land management in Benin to solve land problems faced by the country. Its implementation and functioning depend not only on technical actions but also on political will. Through a methodology based on participant observation, semi-structured interviews, focus group, as well as on the theory of "change in public action" by P. Muller (2005), legal and institutional changes have been observed in the implementation of the cadastral project. It is a project whose political component is readable through government action and the legal reforms carried out. At the technical level, the land data collected are processed by computer systems that can facilitate the mass production of land titles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0103.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Climate change; Middle Andaman; Land use Land cover change analysis; Spectral indices; Support Vector Machine
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:16:10 CEST)
Natural ecosystem of Islands and coastal region are vulnerable to climate change phenomena such as increasing temperature, fluctuating rainfalls, ocean acidification and tsunami. Andaman and Nicobar group of islands lies in Bay of Bangal facing such extreme climate phenomena. A spatial-temporal analysis of forest cover of middle Andaman region of the Andaman and Nicobar group of islands was done from 1990 to 2019 with an interval of 5-10 years. Support vector machine classifier, spectral indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Water Index, and Normalized Difference Built-up Index were used for the analysis of greenery, water resources, and urban land. Land surface temperature was estimated using split window algorithm for Landsat 8 and mono window algorithm for Landsat 5. The data showed relative contribution of forest region toward rising temperature in the island region. The research also showed that subsurface hydrology linked to interconnected lineaments provides a stable zone for forest cover. The open forest showed maximum fluctuation while minimum change was observed in Evergreen Forest. The spectral characteristics analysis using indices showed significant change except in 2005 due to Tsunami occurred in 2005. The land surface temperature showed fluctuation near to 30° C from 1990 to 2019.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Population Distribution; Optimization; Hu Huanyong Line; Land Use Efficiency; China
Online: 8 August 2018 (08:46:57 CEST)
With the accelerating urbanization process, the population increasingly concentrates in urban areas. In view of the special situation in China and a series of problems in the process of rapid urbanization, there were no reasonable measures for optimizing the population pattern. This study explored the distribution pattern of the Chinese population and proposed an optimization plan for the population distribution using GIS analysis. The main findings were as follows. (1) From 2010 to 2015, the distribution of population density in China presented a pattern of high in the southeast and low in the northwest based on the county-level administrative regions. The population still showed a tendency to migrate to the southeast of the country based on the “Hu Huanyong Line”. (2) There was a great difference in the land use efficiency in terms of population and economic production in China. The economic concentration in China was higher than the population concentration. In the areas where population and economic production were aggregated, GDP per capita and land use efficiency were higher. (3) Based on the land use efficiency in terms of population and economic production, the optimized urbanization plan of “1+4+11” for China’s urbanization was put forward, namely, one national-level aggregated area of population and economic production, 4 regional-level aggregated areas of population and economic production, and 11 local regionally aggregated areas of population and economic production. This optimization plan for urbanization represents an attempt to explore the direction of China’s urbanization, and it can be used to optimize the spatial development pattern and provide scientific guidance for the new urbanization plan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0104.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: land use planning; agriculture; crop damage; Game Management Areas; human-wildlife conflict; wildlife; Zambia
Online: 6 August 2018 (09:34:56 CEST)
Damage to crops from wildlife interference is a common threat to food security among rural communities in or near Game Management Areas (GMAs) in Zambia. This study uses a two-stage econometric model and cross-sectional data from a survey of 2,769 households to determine the impact of land use planning on the probability and extent of wildlife-inflicted crop damage. The results show that crop damage is higher in GMAs as compared to non-GMAs, and that land use planning could be an effective tool to significantly reduce the likelihood of such damage. These findings suggest that there is merit in the current drive to develop and implement land use plans as means to minimize human-wildlife conflict such as crop damage. This is especially critical as Zambian conservation policies do not have an explicit provision for compensation in the event of damage from wildlife.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0119.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: land use preference; ecosystem service; natural conservation
Online: 23 November 2016 (18:08:51 CET)
This paper aims to build up a preference function to evaluate the public benefits of the type of agricultural farming, biodiversity, water provisions, land use type, ecotourism modes, and a monetary attribute (environmental trust fund and willingness to contribute) associated with an ecosystem service and land use program in a forest park. This study used the choice experiments to build a random utility model, analyze the average preference for the above land use attributes based on the conditional logit and used a latent class model to test the resident’s heterogeneous preferences for land use planning in the forest park. We also estimated the welfare derived from various land use programs. The empirical result had shown that: (1) increasing organic farming area, maintaining the status quo of species biodiversity, increasing the surface water provision, increasing the area of custom flora, increasing the wetland area, and setting up an integrated framework for ecotourism increase the public’s preference for the land use program; (2) we found that farmer and non-farmer haven’t the same land use preferences; (3) the ecotourism development program incorporating biodiversity, organic farming, ethnobotany, and wetland area with integrated ecotourism are more preferred than other land use program scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agricultural land conversion; land economic value; urbanization; land rent
Online: 12 October 2018 (05:18:09 CEST)
Agricultural land conversion (ALC) is an incentive–driven process. In this paper we further investigate the inter–relationship between land economic value (LEV) and ALC. To achieve this goal, we calculated LEV for agricultural and non-agricultural (housing) uses in two areas in East Java, Indonesia. The first area represents suburban agriculture, facing rapid urbanization and experiencing high rate of ALC. The second area represents rural agriculture with zero ALC. Furthermore, we identified factors affecting LEV in both areas for both uses. The resut of this study show that agricultural land yielded higher economic benefit in rural area. Conversely, comparing to agricultural land, housing creates 7 times higher value in urban area. Moreover, agricultural land shown to create higher profit after converted. Ironically, the similar comparison doesn’t exists in rural area. Agricultural land only yielded 19% more value, indicate that agricultural land can be easily converted. It is also proven by the growing number of new urban core in the periphery area. There are several factors affecting land economic value, for agricultural use, soil fertility, accessibility, and cropping pattern are important variables. While accessibility and location in urban area increases land value for housing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0270.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land cover mapping; Convolutional neural networks; UNET; Sentinel-2
Online: 9 August 2019 (11:54:37 CEST)
The Sentinel-2 satellite mission offers high resolution multispectral time series image data, enabling the production of detailed land cover maps globally. At this scale, the trade-off between processing time and result quality is a central design decision. Currently, this machine learning task is usually performed using pixelwise classification methods. The radical shift of the computer vision field away from hand engineered image features and towards more automation by representation learning comes with many promises, including higher quality results and less engineering effort. In this paper we assess fully convolutional neural networks architectures as replacements for a Random Forest classifier in an operational context for the production of high resolution land cover maps with Sentinel-2 time series at the country scale. Our contributions include a framework for working with Sentinel-2 L2A time series image data, an adaptation of the U-Net model for dealing with sparse annotation data while maintaining high resolution output, and an analysis of those results in the context of operational production of land cover maps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agriculture land use; conversion; peri-urbanization; food security; Asante-Akim South; Ghana
Online: 18 March 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Rapid peri-urbanization has resulted in increasing demand for and pressure on peri-urban lands at the expense of agricultural lands. Households’ decision to convert from agricultural land uses to residential and commercial land uses is driven by a myriad of factors, ranging from social to economic, in the Asante-Akim South district of the Asante region, Ghana. The paper examined the effects of agricultural land use trade-off on food production in the district. Using a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative methods, 115 household respondents were proportionately sampled from three selected communities in the district, for the collection of data through the administration of questionnaires. The data were subjected to the Pearson’s chi-square, embedded in the SPSS V.16, to test for association among the variables. We report that the increasing rate of agricultural land uses conversions was as a result of increasing demand for residential and commercial land usage at the expense of agricultural land uses. Converting prime agricultural lands into other land uses was seen as profitable to agricultural expansion. A re-examination of the district land use plans by the Ghanaian Physical (Town and Country) Planning Department in tandem with the Lands Commission is therefore recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0595.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Hydrological responses; global environmental changes; Dhidhessa Subbasin; Land cover change; Climate change; Combined impacts.
Online: 23 December 2020 (15:48:06 CET)
Land cover and climate changes greatly influence hydrologic responses of a basin. However, the response vary from basin to basin depending on the nature and severity of the changes and basin characteristics. Moreover, the combined impacts of the changes affect hydrologic responses of a basin in an offsetting or synergistic manner. This study quantified the separate and combined impacts, and the relative contributions of land cover and climate changes on multiple hydrological regimes (i.e., surface runoff, streamflow, groundwater recharge evapotranspiration) for the Dhidhessa Subbasin. Land cover and climate change data were obtained from a recent study completed for the basin. Calibrated Soil and Water Analysis Tool (SWAT) was used to quantify the impacts. The result showed that SWAT model performed well for the Dhidhessa Subbasin in predicting the water balance components. Substantial land cover change as well as an increasing temperature and rainfall trends were reported in the river basin during the past three decades. In response to these changes, surface runoff, streamflow and actual evapotranspiration (AET) increased while groundwater recharge declined. Surface runoff was more sensitive to land cover than to climate changes whereas streamflow and AET were more sensitive to climate change than to land cover change. The combined impacts played offsetting effect on groundwater recharge and AET while inconsistent effects within study periods for other hydrologic responses. Overall, the predicted hydrologic responses will have negative impacts on agricultural production and water resources availability. Therefore, the implementation of integrated watershed management strategies such as soil and water conservation and afforestation could reverse the negative impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0131.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Wind Energy; Heterogeneous Land Use; Icing; Cold Climate; Forests
Online: 7 July 2020 (16:41:02 CEST)
In-cloud ice mass accretion on wind turbines is a common challenge faced by energy companies operating in cold climates. On-shore wind farms in Scandinavia are often located in regions near patches of forest, the heterogeneity length scales of which are often less than the resolution of many numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The representation of these forests--including the cloud water response to surface roughness and albedo effects related to them--must therefore be parameterized in NWP models used as meteorological input in ice prediction systems, resulting in an uncertainty that is poorly understood and to present date not quantified. The sensitivity of ice accretion forecasts to the subgrid representation of forests is examined in this study. A single column version of the HARMONIE-AROME 3D NWP model is used to determine the sensitivity of the forecast of ice accretion on wind turbines to the subgrid forest fraction. Single column simulations of a variety of icing cases at a location in northern Sweden were examined in order to investigate the impact of vegetation cover on ice accretion in varying levels of solar insulation and wind magnitudes. In mid-winter cases, the wind speed response to surface roughness was the primary driver of the vegetation effect on ice accretion. In early season cases, the cloud water response to surface albedo effects plays a secondary role in the impact of in-cloud ice accretion, with the wind response to surface roughness remaining the primary driver for the surface vegetation impact on icing. Two different surface boundary layer (SBL) forest canopy subgrid parameterizations were tested in this study that feature different methods for calculating near-surface profiles of wind, temperature, and moisture, with the ice mass accretion again following the wind response to surface vegetation between both of these schemes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: System Dynamics; Land Use; Transportation Systems; Access Management
Online: 31 May 2018 (17:15:58 CEST)
The coordination planning between land use and transportation system is an important premise of solving urban transportation problems and realizing land use integration. This study investigates the interactive and feedback relationship between land use and transportation system from the perspective of access management. By integrating the land use and traffic data from Las Vegas Metropolitan area with the system dynamics model, the causal relationship and causal loop diagrams (CLDs) are introduced to analyze the cause-and-effect relationship and quantitative relationship between the factors of the combined system of land use and transportation, and then sub-models partition and system simulation are performed. The systems dynamics model is established by analyzing the relationship between a series of access management techniques, traffic characteristics, and land use features. The results show that system dynamics model can be used as an effective alternative to model the symbiosis relationship of land use and transportation system for urban planning and construction.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Land Cover; LIDAR; Sociodemographics; Built Environment; Urban Form; Air Quality; Social Justice; Environmental Justice; Policy; Localized Action.
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:15:01 CEST)
Multiple social and environmental justice concerns are linked to urban form such as the distribution of socioeconomic class populations, healthcare spending, air pollution exposure, and human mobility. This study used 1m resolved LIDAR data to characterize land use in Salt Lake County, Utah and associate it with sociodemographic and air quality data at the census block group and zip code levels. We found that increasing tree cover was associated with higher per capita income and lower minority populations while increasing built cover was linked to lower per capita income and higher minority populations. Air quality showed less strong correlations, however, decreased non irrigated cover, increased built cover, and higher amounts of households living under poverty was related to higher long-term PM2.5 exposure. Several policy efforts have been undertaken to improve air quality and reduce negative health outcomes in Utah which are being informed by regulatory and research grade air quality sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0516.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land-cover classification; very high spatial resolution remote sensing image; adaptive majority vote; post-classification.
Online: 26 July 2018 (15:05:16 CEST)
Land-cover classification that uses very-high-resolution (VHR) remote sensing images is a topic of considerable interest. Although many classification methods have been developed, there is still room for improvements in the accuracy and usability of classification systems. In this paper, a novel post-processing approach based on a dual-adaptive majority voting strategy (D-AMVS) is proposed for improving the performance of initial classification maps. D-AMVS defines a strategy for refining each label of a classified map that is obtained by different classification methods from the same original image and fusing the different refined classification maps to generate a final classification result. The proposed D-AMVS contains three main blocks. 1) An adaptive region is generated by extending gradually the region around a central pixel based on two predefined parameters (T1 and T2) in order to utilize the spatial feature of ground targets in a VHR image. 2) For each classified map, the label of the central pixel is refined according to the majority voting rule within the adaptive region. This is defined as adaptive majority voting (AMV). Each initial classified map is refined in this manner pixel by pixel. 3) Finally, the refined classified maps are used to generate a final classification map, and the label of the central pixel in the final classification map is determined by applying AMV again. Each entire classified map is scanned and refined pixel by pixel based on the proposed D-AMVS. The accuracies of the proposed D-AMVS approach are investigated through two remote sensing images with high spatial resolutions of 1.0 and 1.3 m, respectively. Compared with the classical majority voting method and a relatively new post-processing method called general post-classification framework, the proposed D-AMVS can achieve a land-cover classification map with less noise and higher classification accuracies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0024.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: AWS; land cover; LDAPS; mean bias error; temperature; topography; wind speed
Online: 2 September 2020 (05:00:09 CEST)
We investigated the characteristics of surface wind speeds and temperatures predicted by the local data assimilation and prediction system (LDAPS) operated by the Korean Meteorological Administration. First, we classified automated weather stations (AWSs) into four categories [urban flat (Uf), rural flat (Rf), rural mountainous (Rm), and rural coastal (Rc) terrains] based on the surrounding land cover and topography, and selected 25 AWSs representing each category. Then we calculated the mean bias error of wind speed (WE) and temperature (TE) using AWS observations and LDAPS predictions for the 25 AWSs in each category for a period of 1 year (January–December 2015). We found that LDAPS overestimated wind speed (average WE = 1.26 m s–1) and underestimated temperature (average TE = –0.63°C) at Uf AWSs located on flat terrain in urban areas because it failed to reflect the drag and local heating caused by buildings. At Rf, located on flat terrain in rural areas, LDAPS showed the best performance in predicting surface wind speed and temperature (average WE = 0.42 m s–1, average TE = 0.12°C). In mountainous rural terrain (Rm), WE and TE were strongly correlated with differences between LDAPS and actual altitude. LDAPS underestimated (overestimated) wind speed (temperature) for LDAPS altitudes that were lower than actual altitude, and vice versa. In rural coastal terrain (Rc), LDAPS temperature predictions depended on whether the grid was on land or sea, whereas wind speed did not depend on grid location. LDAPS underestimated temperature at grid points on the sea, with smaller TE obtained for grid points on sea than on land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1495.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Urban spatial plan; urban street width, land value; land price; space syntax; street network; land use distribution; land marketing; real estate.
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:39:24 CEST)
Overcoming the issue of land value and cost in urban areas will not provide a miraculous solution to the problems there. Appropriate land use cost, especially for residential and commercial land, is just one of the issues to be settled in the debate. Therefore, this study aims to build a new urban land price determination model by investigating the urban syntactical analysis, street width, and their economic effects on land value. The study attempts to determine the impact of syntactic analysis of streets and street width on land prices; it also seeks to identify the factor most affected by the land cost. Ultimately, the study built a model for urban land price prediction. The case selected is evaluated and compared in three aspects of the analysis, including; the urban axial assessments and urban street width, to find out their impacts on the real estate’s land price in the context of the land use distributions, which are predominantly residential and commercial types of uses. Depth map X8, SPSS, and QGIS 3.16 were used for the study evaluations and assessments. The result showed a significant impact of the urban street network on the price of land; this result can be used to enhance future urban design regarding urban economy improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0244.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Remote sensing, classification, Al-Ahsaa, Saudi Arabia, Land cover
Online: 25 January 2018 (15:56:02 CET)
Accurate, detailed and recent Information about land cover/use is important and much more needed for different aspects of sustainable development and environmental management. As remote sensing datasets are becomes one of the most important and effective tools to generate such information, this study aimed to generating land cover map for sub area in Al-Ahasaa Oasis, Saudi Arabia, by using and classifying a subset of Landsat-ETM+ image of the selected study area, as bases and required input for future studies and researches. Different image preprocessing techniques in addition to a will-known and widely used classification method (i.e., Maximum Likelihood classifier) were applied. To be reliable with the final product, accuracy assessment was carried out with 89% agreement and accepted according to the applied method. Different land cover classes were found in the study area, which includes (Sand dunes, Water bodies, Sabakha, Bare soil, Urban, and Agricultural lands). The study also revealed that the dominant land cover class is sand dunes with approximately ± 70% in area. The study strongly indicated that the area has long been affected by sand movement. Finally, the study suggested that, further researches with more advanced methods rather than traditional methods are needed in the future to support the findings of this study, with high degree of accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1812.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: land cover; sentinel-2 images; support vector machine; random forests; boreal forest; alpine tundra
Online: 28 August 2023 (04:09:58 CEST)
A land cover map of two arctic catchments, nearby the Abisko Scientific Research Station, was obtained from a classification of a Sentinel-2 satellite image and a ground survey performed in July 2022. The two contiguous catchments, Miellajokka and Stordalen, are covered by various ecotypes, from boreal forest to alpine tundra and peatland. Two classification algorithms, support vector machine and random forest, were tested and gave very similar results. The percentage of correctly classified pixels was over 88% in both cases. The developed workflow relies solely on open source software and acquired ground observations. Space organization was directed by the altitude as demonstrated by the intersection of the land cover with the topography. Comparison between this new land cover map and previous ones based on data acquired between 2008 and 2011 shows some trends of vegetation cover evolution in response to climate change in the considered area. This land cover map is key input data for permafrost modeling, and hence for the quantification of climate change impacts in the studied area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0315.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: climate change; exotic invasive species; extinction; islands; land snails; Seychelles; sighting record
Online: 11 November 2022 (02:33:32 CET)
Several extinctions have already been attributed, at least in part, to global warming, as climate change constitutes a serious threat for species living in isolated ecosystems and thus unable to track habitat changes. However, in all these cases extinction was due to human impacts, often directly but generally also through exotic invasive species. For two arboreal land snails in Indian Ocean islands a link has been proposed with decreasing rainfall. The decline (but probably not extinction) of Pachnodus velutinus, a specialist of moist forests on the summits of northwestern Mahé, was most likely caused instead by invasive plants altering its habitat and alien predators decimating the population in the small remaining moist forests. An alternative explanation assuming genetic swamping through hybridization with a species from lower elevations has no basis, as the presumed hybrid constitutes a distinct species able to survive in the altered, dryer habitat. On Aldabra Atoll, the endemic Rhachistia aldabrae was claimed to have been the first extinction due to climate change, but is still extant. No relationship can be detected between number of sightings and annual rainfall, although a weighted measure that takes into account rainfall in previous years suggests a limited impact of weather. Analysis of the sighting record in various ways yields a probability of survival over time that never dropped below 0.3. The decline was caused instead by intense impacts of exotic invasive species. Alternative shortcuts to evaluate extinction rates among poorly known species are shown to be unreliable. Although no contemporary extinction can still be attributed to climate change, indirect and synergistic impacts on biodiversity are expected, especially through promoting biological invasions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1759.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: TOD; urban rail transit; land use; Node-Place-Function model; NSGA-II algorithm
Online: 26 June 2023 (07:28:23 CEST)
The integration of transportation systems with land use through the Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) model can effectively promote sustainable development in cities. By increasing the intensive use of land within the supply capacity of urban public transportation, this model can comprehensively improve the efficiency of urban transportation and land use, while also addressing problems such as traffic congestion and environmental pollution. To implement this model, a "Node-Place-Function" (NPF) framework is proposed based on the coordination degree between rail transit and land use in Qingdao. A comprehensive evaluation system is constructed to quantitatively assess the TOD level and comprehensive development level of land use around rail transit stations from three dimensions. By applying the NSGA-II genetic algorithm, a land use allocation optimization model is developed to maximize rail transit station accessibility, land economic benefits, and environmental comfort. The research results guide other cities in China to implement TOD in land use planning and promote coordinated development between urban rail transit and land use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0328.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Transit-oriented development (TOD); Transaction cost; Property development process; Institutional Arrangement; Land Value Capture.
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:07:48 CET)
Land and property development process include a series of multifaceted activities ranging from purchasing to converting it for development purposes and everything in between. The process itself encompasses multiple stakeholders, drivers, and contributions from diversified public and private actors and transaction cost arises out of their complex interaction. Transaction costs incurred during any kind of human interactions (i.e. transactions). Every actor involved in the process wishes to maximize his achievement under various constraints and hence institutional arrangement (i.e. set of humanly devised rules to administer the constraints) is necessary for efficient management of the development process. Therefore, to devise an optimum outcome out of economic and social transactions in the property development process, cooperative and competitive relationships between individuals should be understood from a broader socio-political and governance structure. In this research, it is critically argued that land and property development process should implicate a multifaceted set of formal and informal rules or institutional arrangement to govern the intrinsic interaction, action and thereby reducing the related transaction cost. The argument is further reproachfully evaluated and implicated in the urban development process through the myopic lens of Transit-oriented development (TOD) pathway. A vigilant combination of descriptive and explanatory research approach is adopted to analyze the connection between theory and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0507.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: planning delay; land depletion; local fiscal policy
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:53:39 CET)
The main focus of this paper is to analyze the effect of local public finance on spatial land use through economic models and empirical evidence from Israel. The theoretic models extends the Alonso-Mill-Muth model by incorporating local public finance. The first finding is that steady population growth provides a channel for land capitalization through the mechanism of long term land property right. This implies a possible conflict of interest if ownership of land leasing revenue and the ad valorem property tax are not consistent. The empirical section examines one of the implications derived from the models highlighting a possible inconsistency between central and local governments due to land ownership centralization. This causes local tax revenue inequality among Israeli municipalities. Statistical evidence shows that cities with a larger share business land use can generate more tax without assistance from the central government, and are therefore more fiscal independent. Fiscal status has a significant effect on the planning time of residential construction. Municipalities with higher local tax revenues have shorter planning time(higher probability of acceptance) conditional on the plan’s size and other features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: distance from coast; air temperature; land use; city size; Japan; Germany
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:57:14 CEST)
The relationship between city size, coastal land use and air temperature rise with distance from coast during summer day is analyzed using the meso-scale Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model in five coastal cities in Japan with different sizes and coastal land use (Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Hiroshima and Sendai) and inland cities in Germany (Berlin, Essen and Karlsruhe). Air temperature increased as distance from the coast increased, reached its maximum, and then decreased slightly. In Nagoya and Sendai, the number of urban land use in coastal areas is less than the other three cities, where air temperature is a little lower. As a result, air temperature difference between coastal and inland urban area is small and the curve of air temperature rise is smaller than those in Tokyo and Osaka. In Sendai, air temperature in the inland urban area is the same as in the other cities, but air temperature in the coastal urban area is a little lower than the other cities, due to about one degree lower sea surface temperature influenced by the latitude. In three German cities, the urban boundary layer may not develop sufficiently because the fetch distance is not enough.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fit-for-purpose land administration; climate; resilience; pandemic.
Online: 6 April 2021 (13:34:53 CEST)
The major global pressures of rapid urbanization and urban growth are compounded by climate impacts resulting in increased vulnerability for urban dwellers, with these vulnerabilities exacerbated during COVID-19. Much of this is concentrated in urban and peri-urban areas where urban development spreads into hazard-prone areas. Often this development is dominated by poor quality homes in informal settlements or slums with poor tenure security. Lessons from a current resilience-building project shows that the fit-for-purpose (FFP) approach to land administration can provide a solution to increase the number of households with security of tenure and improve resilience outcomes as informal settlements grow. This paper discusses the influence of FFP land administration on vulnerabilities to multiple shocks related to climate change and COVID-19. This paper proposes ways the growth of human settlements can be better managed through responsible governance of land tenure rights, and effective land-use planning to improve resilience to different shocks and stresses and provide adequate access to safe land and shelter. Land administration systems can support improved resilience to the multiple stressors of climate and pandemics through improving tenure security and enhancing land use planning controls. Climate change adaptation and risk management need to be better mainstreamed into two major elements of land governance: (i) securing and safeguarding of land rights, and (ii) planning and control of land-use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0841.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: land cover; sentinel-2 images; random forest; boreal forest; alpine tundra
Online: 12 July 2023 (13:39:19 CEST)
A land cover map of two arctic catchments, nearby the Abisko Scientific Research Station, was obtained from a classification of a Sentinel-2 satellite image and a ground survey performed in July 2022. The two contiguous catchments, Miellajokka and Stordalen, are covered by various ecotypes, from boreal forest to alpine tundra and peatland. The random forests algorithm correctly identified 88% of polygon pixels reserved for testing. The developed workflow relied solely on open source software and acquired ground observations. Space organization was directed by the altitude as demonstrated by the intersection of the land cover with the topography. Comparison between this new land cover map and previous ones based on data acquired between 2008 and 2011 shows some trends of vegetation cover evolution in response to climate change in the considered area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0249.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Bangladesh; Dhaka; climatic variables; land use; PM2.5; statistical relationship
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:17:28 CET)
The major industrial cities of Bangladesh are heavily experiencing air pollution-related problems due to the increased trend of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and other pollutants. This paper aimed to investigate and understand the relationship between PM2.5 and land use and climatic variables and to identify the riskiest area and population groups using a Geographic information system and regression analysis. The results show that about 41% of PM2.5 concentration increased within 19 years (2002-2021) in the study area, while the highest concentration of PM2.5 was found from 2012 to 2021. The concentrations of PM2.5 were higher over barren lands, forests, croplands, and urban areas. About 64%, 62.7%, 57%, and 55% concentrations were increased annually over barren lands, forests, cropland, and urban regions, respectively, from 2002-2021. The highest concentration level of PM2.5 (84 mg m-3) among other land use classes was found in urban areas in 2021. The regression analysis shows that air pressure (r2= - 0.26), evaporation (r2= - 0.01), humidity (r2= - 0.22), rainfall (r2= - 0.20), and water vapor (r2= - 0.03) were negatively correlated with PM2.5. On the other hand, air temperature (r2= 0.24), ground heat (r2= 0.60), and wind speed (r2= 0.34) were positively correlated with PM2.5. More than 60 Upazilas were the most polluted areas, with 1,948,029 populations (ages 0-5), 485,407 (ages 50-69), and a total population of 11,260,162 were in the high-risk/hotspot zone. The government line department may use the main results paper's key results, policymakers, stainable development practitioners, academicians, and others for integrated air pollution mitigation and management in Bangladesh and other geographical settings worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wind farm layout optimization problem; wind farm land-use; wind turbine wakes; wind turbine aerodynamics; tip speed ratio control
Online: 14 July 2020 (13:57:14 CEST)
The use of wind energy has been developing fast over the last years. The global cumulative wind power capacity increased by 10.5% in 2019, most of which comes from onshore wind farms. One of the consequences of this continuous increase is the use of land for onshore wind farms. There are already cases worldwide where lack of well-established plans and strategies have caused delays in projects. The need for efficiently using land for wind farms will be mandatory in the short term. In this work, we present a numerical analysis to evaluate wind farm land-use. By defining the ratio between mechanical output power over an area as a parameter called land-use ratio, this work focused on comparing several cases of aligned and staggered layouts. Mechanical output power was estimated using a validated code based on Blade Element Momentum code, and the wake velocities and wake interaction effects were estimated using a validated wind turbine CFD model. In terms of output power, staggered designs are more efficient than aligned designs. However, the results showed that even though staggered designs produced higher output power, aligned farms with tight lateral spacing could be as efficient as staggered ones in terms of land-use but using fewer turbines. In summary, tightly aligned designs should be a tendency in the future towards efficient use of land in wind farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0184.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Land deal; Land grab; Oil Palm; Labour; Farmworkers; Plantation; Everyday politics
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:04:36 CET)
This study presents empirical evidence on the nature of the political struggles for inclusion on an oil palm land deal in Ghana. It examines the employment dynamics and the everyday politics of workers on an oil palm plantation in a predominantly migrant and settler society of the north-eastern part of Ghana, where large-scale production has only been introduced within the past decade. It shows that by the nature of labour organization, as well as other structural issues, workers do not benefit equally from the land deals and therefore express everyday forms of resistance against exploitation, and for better terms of incorporation. Particularly, they express agency through absenteeism and non-compliance, which especially, enables them to maintain their basic food sovereignty/security. Nonetheless, these everyday politics is not necessarily liberating in confronting the everyday peasant problems and unfavourable agrarian transitions associated with capitalist agriculture. Overall, this paper contributes to the land grab literature by providing context-specific dynamics of impacts and politics and how are they are shaped by a multiplicity of factors- beyond class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0007.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: adoption; land degradation; poisson regression; sustainable land management practices
Online: 1 May 2017 (08:33:17 CEST)
Land degradation is a serious impediment to improving rural livelihoods in Eastern Africa. This paper identifies major land degradation patterns and causes, and analyzes the determinants of sustainable land management (SLM) in three countries (Ethiopia, Malawi and Tanzania). The results show that land degradation hotspots cover about 51%, 41%, 23% and 23% of the terrestrial areas in Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia respectively. The analysis of nationally representative household surveys shows that the key drivers of SLM in these countries are biophysical, demographic, regional and socio-economic determinants. Secure land tenure, access to extension services and market access are some of the determinants incentivizing SLM adoption. The implications of this study are that policies and strategies that facilities secure land tenure and access to SLM information are likely to incentivize investments in SLM. Local institutions providing credit services, inputs such as seed and fertilizers, and extension services must also not be ignored in the development policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Mangals, Sustainability, Vegetation Indices, Land Use, Environmental Management
Online: 14 February 2019 (10:57:58 CET)
The aim of this paper is to study changes in land use and the evolution of vegetation in Cacheu River Mangroves Natural Park in the Republic of Guinea-Bissau. To do this, we will study variations in the NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. In order to perform the calculations and subsequent analysis, images from three years— 2010, and 2017—were used, all corresponding to the same time of year so that the phenological stage is the same. To perform a more reliable analysis, the park was divided into five classes based on the main use of the land: mangals, palm forest, paddy fields, savannahs and others. Using a statistical sample, same areas were selected for each class and the corresponding NDVIs were calculated for the years in which ASTER images were available. The study made it possible to conclude that at present, management of the park is not the most suitable, given that the changes in land use observed represent a decrease in mangrove swamps, despite the fact that these forests constitute the most important ecological area of all those that make up the park. Mangals are being replaced by other land uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0056.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land use change; urban sprawl; Logistic regression; Markov chain; Cellular automata; Gilan Province
Online: 18 July 2016 (11:53:16 CEST)
Although, promotion of urbanization culture in recent decades has made inevitable development of cities in the world, however, the development can be guided in a direction that leave, to the extent possible, minimum socioeconomic and environmental impacts. For this, it is required to first forecast auto-spreading orientation of cities and suburbs in rural areas over time and then avoid shapeless growth of cities. This paper is an attempt to develop a dynamic hybrid model based on logistic regression (LR), Markov chain (MC), and cellular automata (CA) for prediction of future urban sprawl in fast-growing cities. The model was developed using 12 widely-used urban development criteria, whose significant coefficient was determined by logistic regression, and validated by relative operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The validated model was run in Guilan, a tourist province in northern Iran with a very high rate of urban development. For this, changes in the area of urban land use were detected over the period of 1989 to 2013 and then, future sprawl of the province was forecasted by the years 2025 and 2037. The analysis results revealed that the area of urban land use was increased by more than 1.7 % from 36012.5 ha in 1989 to 59754.8 ha in 2013, and the area of Caspian Hyrcanian forestland was reduced by 31628 ha. The results also predicted an alarming increase in the rate of urban development in the province by the years 2025 and 2037, during which urban land use is predicted to develop 0.9 % and 1.38 %, respectively. The development pattern is expected to be uneven and scattered, without following any particular direction. The development will occur close to the existing or newly-formed urban basements as well as around major roads and commercial areas. This development, if not controlled, will lead to the loss of 13863 ha of Hyrcanian forests and if the trend continues, 21013 ha of Hyrcanian forests and 20208 ha of Barren/open lands are expected to be destroyed by the year 2037. In general, the proposed model is an efficient tool for the support of urban planning decisions and facilitates the process of sustainable development of cities by providing decision-makers with an overview on future development of cities where the growth rate is very fast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Total nitrogen; total phosphorous; land use; topographic slope position; pollution source control zoning
Online: 4 July 2022 (03:57:50 CEST)
The eutrophication caused by excessive total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) emissions has been widely concerned by the whole society. Studies have revealed the relationship between land use and TN and TP, but the relationship between land use compound topographic position and TP and TN was seldom studied. Therefore, Spearman correlation and redundancy analyses were used to reveal the relationship between land use compound topographic position and TN and TP based on the monthly data of 28 water quality sampling sites and the land use data of 2013 and 2016 in the lakes of Guizhou Plateau. The results show that the nutritional state of the HBA watershed is medium. The trophic level index (TLI) value and TN concentration were high during flood, while TP concentration was high in dry period. The TN concentration in the tributaries was higher than that in the reservoir area. Construction and valley were the sources of the pollution, whereas forest land and gentle slope were the sink. According to the”source-sink”effect, the optimal zoning of land use was completed, and the urban land pollution govern area should be strengthened firstly. This paper can provide decision support for water environment management and sustainable development decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0047.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Anthropization; Environmental impact; Water resource; Land-use.
Online: 2 December 2022 (10:28:44 CET)
The suppression of natural spaces due to the urban sprawl and increase of the built and agricultural environments has impacted the water resources quality, especially in areas with high population density, as the metropolitan regions. Considering the advance in Brazilian environmental legal framework, the present study aims to verify whether land use has still significantly affected water quality, through a case study in the Stones River watershed, a peri-urban river basin at a metropolitan region, Brazil. Analysis of physical-chemical indicators, collected at several sample points with different land-use (urban areas, commercial forestry, riparian forestry, mixed vegetation, pasture, and sugar cane plantation) at different seasons of the year (dry and rainy) were carried out. As a result, it was verified some statistically significant spatiotemporal effects on the of water quality caused associated to the land-use. In conclusion, in spite of the advances in the Brazilian law, land-use has still significantly affected the water quality, demanding public policies and decisions, so that effective compliance with legal guidelines is ensured.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0456.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Land dispute; land alienation; communal grant; native customary land; institutional approach
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:40:17 CET)
Land management and community involvement are two main elements in ensuring the absence of conflict between landowners and agencies. Disputes between owners and agencies will be the biggest obstacle in the land development effort. Therefore, this article aims to address the cause of landowners’ objections against land alienation using the institutional approach. To enable the researchers to understand the root causes of landowners' objections against the alienation of land using the Communal Grant method, the institutional approach has been adopted to identify the issue of the objection. Therefore, questionnaires for 100 landowners were distributed in two villages in Semporna district in Sabah. The purpose is to obtain their views on the cause leading to the dispute of land alienation using the Communal Grant method. The Likert scale was used to enable community rankings on issues that can be understood according to the level of seriousness of the population's views on the issue of using Communal Grants in native customary land alienation. The study results explain that there are four factors that drive objection of the Communal Grant land alienation which involves the formal factors. The findings explained that there are 4 formal provisions which lead to the community's objection against Communal Grants, namely the native customary lands (NCR) act, provision of Communal Grants, provisions in the land ownership and land allocation in Sabah Land Ordinance.Due to numerous objections among native customary peoples concerning the native customary land alienation using Communal Grants, the government has acted in substitution with a fair method of individual ownership for the native customary peoples. This situation explains that disputes in land ownership can be a threat to the country if it cannot be resolved in ways and methods acceptable to the native customary community. This study will benefit the government and NGO’s to alert and focusing on barriers in the context of local community land laws. Communal grants are intended to address land issues in Sabah.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0207.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: land cover; Oueme basin; Oueme delta; forest areas; cultivated areas; residential areas
Online: 12 January 2023 (03:15:41 CET)
The modification of land use is a crucial factor in the dysfunction of ecosystems. It considerably influences the hydrological cycle of basins. This study focuses on the Oueme basin, which represents almost half of the total area of Benin, and describes the current and future evolution of its land cover using the maps of the Land Use Land Cover Dynamics project (1975, 2000 and 2013). A temporal analysis of the surface states was performed with QGIS and the potential land cover in 2025, 2050 and 2085 was estimated using the Markov chain algorithm in the IDRISI software. The results show that the Oueme basin is predominantly savanna (77.70% in 1975, 66.29% in 2000 and 57.10% in 2013). Forest areas, which represented the second class in 1975 with a total proportion of 13.34%, have gradually decreased to 8.66% and 6.89% respectively in 2000 and 2013. Conversely, cultivated areas more than tripled in 2000 and quadrupled in 2013. Residential areas are increasing very strongly in the southern part of the basin with an amplification in the recent period (6% between 2000-2013 against 2% between 1975-2000). The recent period is more exposed to changes in surface condition and these changes are likely to be amplified in the future (probable total disappearance of forested areas in 2085). We recommend clarifying the impacts that each land use category generates/will generate on the hydrological cycle of this basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0082.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: soil erosion; land cover change; RUSLE; the northeastern
Online: 4 September 2020 (05:00:23 CEST)
Impact of land use and land cover (LULC) change on soil erosion is still imperfectly understood, especially in northeastern China (NEC). Based on the Revised Universal Loss Equation (RUSLE), the variability of soil erosion at different spatial scales following land use changes in1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2017 was analyzed. The regionally spatial patterns of soil loss coincided with the topography, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, and use patterns, and around 45% soil loss came from arable land. Regionally, soil erosion rates increased from 1980 to 2010 and decreased from 2010 to 2017, ranging from 3.91 to 4.45 t ha-1 yr-1 with an average of 4.22 t ha-1 yr-1 in 1980-2017. The rates of soil erosion less than 1.41 t ha-1 yr-1 decreased from 1980 to 2010, and increased from 2010 to 2017, and opposite changing patterns occurred in higher erosion classes (i.e., above 5 t ha-1 yr-1). At a provincial scale, Liaoning Province experienced the highest soil erosion rate of 9.43 t ha-1 yr-1, followed by Jilin Province, the east Inner Mongolia, and Heilongjing Province. Arable land continuously increased at the expense of forest in the high-elevation and steep-slope areas from 1980 to 2010, and decreased from 2010 to 2017, resulting in increased areas with erosion rates higher than 7.05 t ha-1 yr-1. At a county scale, around 75% of the countries had soil erosion rate higher than its tolerance level. The county numbers with higher erosion rate increased in 1980-2010 and decreased in 2010- 2017, resulting from the sprawl and withdrawal of arable land. The results indicate that appropriate policies can control soil loss through limiting arable land sprawl in areas of unfavorable regions in the NEC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0155.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: CLC 2018 level of detail; comparison of remote sensing and geodetic data; settlement; land use monitoring; urban sprawl
Online: 9 May 2020 (08:22:55 CEST)
The article describes the results of comparison of occurence of buildings (and address points) in Poland with delimitations of land use belonging to particular classes in the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) 2018 dataset. Large discrepancies have been identified, which reach on average approx. 34% of addresses and 35% of buildings located outside class 1 (artificial surfaces), mainly on terrains of class 2 (agricultural areas). Among single-family buildings it was 37% and among new addresses (forecasted or ‘under construction’ buildings) – as much as 50%. This puts a question mark over the possibility of using CLC data with resolution of 25 ha for monitoring of spatial planning and development in Poland for purposes of the diagnosis and assessment of the scale of dispersion of built-up areas. It is worth carrying out similar analyses in other countries, known for the deconcentration processes and a relatively large share of dispersed settlement e.g. other CEE countries, Spain, Portugal, Italy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0064.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Bird response; burn severity indices; land-use legacy; Poisson GLMs; time since fire; time series of satellite images
Online: 4 May 2023 (02:51:32 CEST)
Fire regimes in mountain landscapes of southern Europe have been shifting from their baselines due to rural abandonment and fire exclusion policies. Understanding the effects of fire on biodiversity is paramount to implement adequate management. Herein, we evaluated the relative role of burn severity and heterogeneity on bird abundance in an abandoned mountain range located in the biogeographic transition between the Eurosiberian and Mediterranean region (the Natural Park ‘Baixa Limia–Serra do Xurés’). We surveyed the bird community in 206 census plots distributed across the Natural Park, both inside and outside areas affected by wildfires over the last 11 years (from 2010 to 2020). We used satellite images of Sentinel 2 and Landsat missions to quantify the burn severity and heterogeneity of each fire within each surveyed plot. We also accounted for the past land use (forestry or agropastoral use) by using a land cover information for year 2010 derived from satellite image classification. We recorded 1,735 contacts from 28 bird species. Our models, fitted by using GLMs with Poisson error distribution (pseudo-R2-average of 0.22 ± 0.13), showed that up to 71% of the modelled species were linearly correlated with at least one attribute of the fire regime. The spatiotemporal variation in burnt area and severity were relevant factors for explaining the local abundance of our target species (39% of the species; Akaike weights > 0.75). We also found a quadratic effect of at least one fire regime attribute on bird abundance for 60% of the modeled species. The past land use, and its legacy after 10 years, was critical to understand the role of fire (Akaike weights > 0.75). Our findings confirm the importance of incorporating remotely sensed indicators of burn severity into the toolkit of decision makers to accurately anticipate the response of birds to fire management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs; land conflicts; land tenure security; Uganda
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:03:11 CEST)
Land tenure security is important for achieving a number Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The purpose of this paper was to investigate variation in land tenure security across three districts located in different geographical regions of Uganda. Using a quantitative cross-sectional survey data collected in early 2019. The findings show that Kanungu district found in South-Western Uganda had significantly higher levels of land tenure security as compared to Nakasongola (Central) and Nwoya (Northern). Research findings have implications on further study and benchmarking land governance systems in Kanungu. Furthermore, they have implications on implementation of government and donor land titling or registration programs in terms of priority areas. They further sheds light on the importance of accounting for geographical context in land tenure studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0173.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: carbon sequestration; conservational land use soil health; sustainable agroecosystems; soil nutrient management; Tanzania.
Online: 4 July 2023 (09:28:12 CEST)
This study examined carbon footprint as an indicator of soil health at spatiotemporal scales with different land use types and varying soil depths in Morogoro, representing the eastern agroecological zone of Tanzania. Soils are highly weathered and acidic. The specific objectives were twofold: (1) To quantify soil organic carbon (SOC) at varying soil depths (0–15 cm, 15–30 cm) in contrasting land use types, including tractor cultivated, hand-hoe cultivated, ranch land, and reserved/bare land type; (2) To predict carbon management indices (CMI) of the studied land use types through regresses SOC, carbon pool index (CPI), and lability index (LI) at varying soil depths. Composite soil samples were based on transects of three main plots each (replicates) of 20 m by 50 m. Results showed that land use types and soil depths significantly (P <0.001) affected SOC (3.4%) and CMI (126.3). Hand hoe cultivated land at 0–15 cm recorded CMI of 259.8. Regression analysis showed an increase in CMI ranging from 97% to 99%, with standard error ranging from 2.177 to 46.096. Similar trends, but with disparity magnitudes in regressed parameters provide useful insight into transformations of organic carbon in contrasting land use types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0158.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: land use regression; low-cost sensors; machine learning; particulate matter; Africa
Online: 14 June 2020 (03:11:17 CEST)
Background: There are major air pollution monitoring gaps in sub-Saharan Africa. Developing capacity in the region to conduct air monitoring in the region can help estimate exposure to air pollution for epidemiology research. The purpose of our study is to develop a land use regression (LUR) model using low-cost air quality sensors developed by a research group in Uganda (AirQo). Methods: Using these low-cost sensors, we collected continuous measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) between May 1, 2019 and February 29, 2020 at 22 monitoring sites across urban municipalities of Uganda. We compared average monthly PM2.5 concentrations from the AirQo sensors with measurements from a BAM-1020 reference monitor operated at the US Embassy in Kampala. Monthly PM2.5 concentrations were used for LUR modeling. We used eight Machine Learning (ML) algorithms and ensemble modeling; using 10-fold cross validation and root mean squared error (RMSE) to evaluate model performance. Results: Monthly PM2.5 concentration was 60.2 µg/m3 (IQR: 45.4-73.0 µg/m3; median= 57.5 µg/m3). For the ML LUR models, RMSE values ranged between 5.43 µg/m3 - 15.43 µg/m3 and explained between 28% and 92% of monthly PM2.5 variability. Generalized additive models explained the largest amount of PM2.5 variability (R2=0.92) and produced the lowest RMSE (5.43 µg/m3) in the held-out test set. The most important predictors of monthly PM2.5 concentrations included monthly precipitation, major roadway density, population density, latitude, greenness, and percentage of households using solid fuels. Conclusion: To our knowledge, ours is the first study to model the spatial distribution of urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa using air monitors developed from the region itself. Non-parametric ML for LUR modeling performed with high accuracy for prediction of monthly PM2.5 levels. Our analysis suggests that locally produced low-cost air quality sensors can help build capacity to conduct air pollution epidemiology research in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Land dispute, customary land tenure, statutory land tenure, tenure security, Ghana, sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:31:29 CET)
Despite the ongoing land administration reforms being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including Ghana as viable pathway to achieve tenure security and greater efficiency in land administration, the subject of land dispute resolution has received relatively less attention. Whereas customary tenure institutions play a central role in land administration (controlling ~80% of all land in Ghana), they remain at the fringes of the formal land dispute adjudicatory process. Recognizing the pivotal role traditional institutions as development agents and potential vehicles for promoting good land governance, recent discourse on land tenure have geared towards mainstreaming traditional land disputes institutions into the architecture of formal judicial process via alternative dispute resolution pathways. Yet little is known at least empirically as to the operations of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the contemporary context. This study therefore explores the importance of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the management of land-related disputes in southcentral and western Ghana. Drawing on data collated from 380 farming households operating 746 plots. The results show that contrary to the conventional thinking that traditional institutions are anachronistic and not fit for purpose, they remain strong and preferred forum for land dispute resolution (proving resilient and adaptable) given the changing socio-economic and tenurial conditions. Yet these forums have differing implications for different actors within the customary spheres accessing them. The results highlight practical ways for incorporating traditional dispute resolution in the overall land governance setup in Ghana and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. This has implications for redesigning context-specific and appropriate land-use policy interventions that address local land dispute resolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0085.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: SDG11; Land Use Efficiency; Open Data, GHSL; Landsat; Urbanization; Urban expansion; Population mapping
Online: 4 October 2018 (15:35:06 CEST)
The Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) produces new global spatial information, evidence-based analytics and knowledge describing the human presence on the planet based mainly on two quantitative factors: i) the spatial distribution (density) of built-up structures and ii) the spatial distribution (density) of resident people. Both factors are observed in the long-term temporal domain and per uniform surface units in order to support trends and indicators for monitoring the implementation of international framework agreements. The GHSL uses various input data including global, multi-temporal archives of fine-scale satellite imagery, census data, and volunteered geographic information. In this paper, we present the characteristics of GHSL information to demonstrate how original frameworks of data and tools rooted on Earth Observation could support Sustainable Development Goals monitoring. In particular, we demonstrate the reach of gridded, open and free, local yet globally consistent, multi-temporal data in filling the data gap for the Sustainable Development Goal 11. Our experiments produce a global estimate for the Land Use Efficiency indicator (SDG 11.3.1) for 10,000 urban centers, calculating the ratio of land consumption to population growth rate that took place between 1990 and 2015. The results of our research demonstrate that there is a potential to lift SDG 11.3.1 from a tier 2 as GHSL provides a global baseline for the essential variables called by the SDG 11.3.1 metadata.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0338.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: climate change; land use change; QSWAT; runoff components; Upper Chi Basin
Online: 5 September 2023 (14:50:23 CEST)
Climate and land use changes are major factors affecting runoff in regional basins. Understanding variation by considering interactions among hydrological components is an important process for water resource management. This study aimed to assess the variation of future runoff in the Upper Chi Basin, Northeastern Thailand. QSWAT hydrological model was integrated to 3 CMIP6 GCMs including ACCESS-CM2, MIROC6, and MPI-ESM1-2-LR under SSP245 and SSP585 scenarios during 2023 – 2100. Land Change Modeler (LCM) was also used for future land use simulation. The results revealed that future average of long-term precipitation and temperature tended to increase while forest land tended to decrease and be replaced by sugarcane plantations. The accuracy assessment of baseline year runoff calculation by QSWAT during 1997 – 2022 showed acceptable result as can be seen from R2, NSE, RSR, and PBIAS indices. This result could lead to temporal and spatial simulation of future runoff. Likewise, runoff of 2 SSPs scenarios tended to increase consecutively, especially in SSP585 scenario. In addition, in case of long-term spatial changes in the subbasins scale, over 90% of the area, from upstream to outlet point, tended to get higher due to 2 major factors including future increased precipitation and changes in cultivation, which would be influential to groundwater and interflow components respectively. Methodology and result of this study can be useful to stakeholders in understanding changes in hydrological system so that they can apply it to develop a strategy for water resource management and handling factors affecting different dimensions properly and sustainably.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0934.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: land use change; land use conflict; PLUS model; SSPs-RCP scenario; habitat quality; Qin-Ba Mountains
Online: 13 July 2023 (13:32:02 CEST)
In the future, the pursuit of high-quality economic development and a focus on ecological environmental protection in China will inevitably result in significant conflicts between land use and ecological land use. The challenge lies in achieving sustainable high-quality development while simultaneously protecting the ecological environment, optimizing the land use structure, and promoting a harmonious relationship between humans and the land. These challenges are faced by all regions. Land use conflicts primarily occur in peri-urban areas characterized by prominent economic development and urban agglomeration. Previous studies have mainly focused on analyzing the effects of land use on habitat quality during intense urbanization. However, it is important to recognize that land pressure encompasses economic, ecological, and social aspects. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the spatial conflict of land use and the impact on habitat quality in Ankang, a city that has been advocating ecological protection for the past two decades, this study aims to objectively analyze the spatial trends in land use changes in such cities. Additionally, it aims to provide insights for the harmonious development of land use in eco-region-oriented cities. Using the SSP-RCP scenarios provided by CMIP6, this paper employs a system analysis method, PLUS model, InVEST model, and land use conflict measurement model to dynamically simulate the future habitat quality and spatial conflict patterns of land use in Ankang City. The study explores the spatial coupling effect of both factors under different scenarios. The results indicate the following:(1) Under different future shared socio-economic path scenarios, land use intensity and land conflict levels follow the order of SSP585 (high forcing scenario), SSP370 (medium to high forcing scenario), SSP245 (medium forcing scenario), and SSP126 (low forcing scenario), with intensity and conflict decreasing accordingly. (2) The overall development trend in Ankang City reveals an intensification of land use conflicts and a decrease in habitat quality. The expansion rate of construction land is increasing and exhibiting aggregation, while agricultural land area is expanding and forest land area is continuously decreasing. (3) Land use intensity exhibits a significant positive correlation with land conflict levels, while land conflict levels demonstrate a significant negative correlation with habitat quality. These findings suggest that land use has had some impact on the ecological environment, with indications of habitat degradation. Even in Ankang, where ecological development is highly valued, the city will gradually face conflicts between ecological protection and economic development in future scenarios. The study highlights that Ankang's future development space will be constrained within the context of environmental protection, leading to greater land use conflicts in urban and surrounding areas. Consequently, the quality of habitats will inevitably decline. Therefore, it is crucial to allocate sufficient space for economic development while simultaneously prioritizing ecological protection. This approach will ensure a healthy economic development trajectory and foster a harmonious relationship between humans and the land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0362.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate Change; Hydrology; Land Use Change; Remote Sensing; SWAT; Nam Rom River Basin
Online: 30 January 2020 (11:10:47 CET)
Land use/land cover (LULC) and climate changes are two main factors directly affecting hydrologic conditions. However, very few studies in Vietnam have investigated changes in hydrological process under the impact of climate and land use changes on a basin scale. The objective of this study is to assess the individual and combined impacts of land use and climate changes on hydrological processes for the Nam Rom river basin, Northwestern Viet Nam using Remote Sensing (RS) and Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) model. SWAT model was used for hydrological process simulation. Results indicated that SWAT proved to be a powerful tool in simulating the impacts of land use and climate change on catchment hydrology. The change in historical land use between 1992 and 2015 strongly contributed to increasing hydrological processes (ET, percolation, ground water, and water yield), whereas, climate change led to significant decrease of all hydrological components. The combination of land use and climate changes significantly reduced surface runoff (-16.9%), ground water (-5.7%), water yield (-9.2%), and sediment load (-4.9%). Overall climatic changes had more significant effect on hydrological components than land use changes in the Nam Rom river basin during the 1992–2015. Under impacts of projected land use and climate change scenarios in 2030 on hydrological process of the upper Nam Rom river basin indicate that ET and surface flow are more sensitive to the changes in land use and climate in the future. In conclusion, the findings of this study will basic knowledge of the effects of climate and land-use changes on the hydrology for future development of integrated land use and water management practices in Nam Rom river basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Interoceanic Canal; Nicaragua; environmental impact; water availability; land use classification
Online: 11 September 2017 (16:57:08 CEST)
Nicaragua is preparing the construction of an interoceanic canal that will be the longest and largest canal on earth. An environmental and social impact assessment has been published in 2014 supporting a general viability of the canal. Nonetheless, several scientist and societal actors raised serious concerns regarding the social, economic and ecological sustainability. Despite an open dispute within the Nicaraguan society, no independent, transparent and scientifically sound assessment has been carried out. Only the environmental and social impact assessment, charged by the canal constructor, has so far been realized. The aim of this study is to contribute to an open scientific debate through an objective and independent quantification of land use and hydrological impacts. This article presents a transparently documented and comprehensible impact assessment investigation of the West Canal Segment of the Nicaragua Canal. Based on publically available data and scientifically sound and recognized methods land use, hydrological (water availability) and socio-economic impacts (streets, population) are described, quantified and compared with official declarations in the impact assessment. While some results support official declarations other do not. The number of affected population and the water use of the Brito Lock resulted much higher in this study, for instance. Hence, society and water availability could be affected much higher than estimated in the impact assessment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0217.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate; land-atmosphere interaction; clouds; diurnal cycle; snow cover; Prairies; land-use; hydrometeorology
Online: 8 November 2018 (14:13:53 CET)
Analysis of the hourly Canadian Prairie data for the past 60 years has transformed our quantitative understanding of land-atmosphere-cloud coupling. The key reason is that trained observers made hourly estimates of opaque cloud fraction that obscures the sun, moon or stars, following the same protocol for 60 years at all stations. These 24 daily estimates of opaque cloud data are of sufficient quality that they can be calibrated against Baseline Surface Radiation Network data to give the climatology of the daily short-wave, longwave and total cloud forcing (SWCF, LWCF and CF). This key radiative forcing has not been available previously for climate datasets. Net cloud radiative forcing reverses sign from negative in the warm season to positive in the cold season, when reflective snow reduces the negative SWCF below the positive LWCF. This in turn leads to a large climate discontinuity with snow cover, with a systematic cooling of 10°C or more with snow cover. In addition, snow cover transforms the coupling between cloud cover and the diurnal range of temperature. In the warm season, maximum temperature increases with decreasing cloud, while minimum temperature barely changes; while in the cold season with snow cover, maximum temperature decreases with decreasing cloud and minimum temperature decreases even more. In the warm season, the diurnal ranges of temperature, relative humidity, equivalent potential temperature and the pressure height of the lifting condensation level are all tightly coupled to opaque cloud cover. Given over 600 station-years of hourly data, we are able to extract, perhaps for the first time, the coupling between cloud forcing and the warm season imbalance of the diurnal cycle; which changes monotonically from a warming and drying under clear skies to a cooling and moistening under cloudy skies with precipitation. Because we have the daily cloud radiative forci, which is large, we are able to show that the memory of water storage anomalies, from precipitation and the snowpack, goes back many months. The spring climatology shows the memory of snowfall back through the entire winter, and the memory in summer goes back to the months of snowmelt. Lagged precipitation anomalies modify the thermodynamic coupling of the diurnal cycle to the cloud forcing, and shift the diurnal cycle of mixing ratio which has a double peak. The seasonal extraction of the surface total water storage is a large damping of the interannual variability of precipitation anomalies in the growing season. The large land-use change from summer fallow to intensive cropping, which peaked in the early 1990s, has led to a coupled climate response that has cooled and moistened the growing season, lowering cloud-base, increasing equivalent potential temperature, and increasing precipitation. We show a simplified energy balance of the Prairies during the growing season and its dependence on reflective cloud.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0232.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: cadastre; land registry; notary; cartography; geomatic; coordination; GML; land surveyors
Online: 28 March 2018 (04:45:38 CEST)
Ever since the Cadastre and Land Registry have existed in Spain, they have been completely separate organisations with very different objectives, which influence the real-estate reality. Their coordination is essential to better identify buildings and to more suitably render services to citizens and Administrations. To this end, Law 13/2015 was passed in 2015 for this desirable and pressing Cadastre-Land Registry coordination to come about. This law came into force on 1 November 2015, and coincided with the development of the technical aspects of the graphical information exchange among the Cadastre, Land Registries and Notaries. Several ministries and different organisations, like the Cadastre personnel, jurists, technicians, and even citizens, are implied in this law. Among the technical aspects, georeferenced graphical representations and GML exchange files adapted to the European INSPIRE directives stand out. Such technical aspects are a genuine revolution as they were transferred to the legal world. After more than 2 years after its application, it is still in its initial and adaptation stages because it is a long-standing law that allows land registry units-cadastral parcels to be coordinated while they are incorporated into real-estate trade.