ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0165.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Lake Urmia; Local climate; Temperature adjustment; lake/land breeze
Online: 9 July 2020 (02:07:35 CEST)
Lake Urmia in northwestern Iran is the largest lake in Iran and the second largest saltwater lake in the world. The water level in Lake Urmia has decreased dramatically in recent years, due to drought, climate change, and overuse of water resources for irrigation. This shrinking of the lake may affect local climate conditions, assuming that the lake itself affects the local climate. In this study, we quantified the lake’s impact on the local climate by analyzing hourly time series of data on climate variables (temperature, vapor pressure, relative humidity, evaporation, and dewpoint temperature for all seasons, and local lake/land breezes in summer) for the period 1961-2016. For this, we compared high quality, long-term climate data obtained from Urmia and Saqez meteorological stations, located 30 km and 185 km from the lake center, respectively. We then investigated the effect of lake level decrease on the climate variables by dividing the data into 1961-1995 (normal lake level) and 1996-2016 (low lake level). The results showed that at Urmia station (close to the lake), climate parameters displayed fewer fluctuations and were evidently affected by Lake Urmia compared with those at Saqez station. The effects of the lake on the local climate increased with increasing temperature, with the most significant impact in summer and the least in winter. The results also indicated that, despite decreasing lake level, local climate conditions are still influenced by Lake Urmia, but to a lesser extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0392.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: time series; lake changes; remote sensing; inland lake; lake disturbance
Online: 30 December 2019 (04:45:43 CET)
Inland lake variations are considered sensitive indicators of global climate change. However, human activity is playing as a more and more important role in inland lake area variations. Therefore, it is critical to identify whether anthropogenic activity or natural event is playing as the dominant factor in inland lake surface area change. In this study, we proposed a Douglas-Peucker simplification algorithm and bend simplification algorithm combined method to locate major lake surface area disturbances; these disturbances were then characterized to extract the time series change features according to documented records; and the disturbances were finally classified into anthropogenic or natural. We took the nine lakes in Yunnan Province as test sites, a 31 years long (from 1987 to 2017) time series Landsat TM/OLI images and HJ-1A/1B used as data sources, the official records was used as references to aid the feature extraction and disturbance identification accuracy. Results of our method for both disturbance location and the disturbance identification could be concluded as follows: 1) The method can accurately locate the main lake changing events based on the time series lake surface area curve. The accuracy of this model for segmenting the lake area time series curves in our study area was 95.24%. 2) Our proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 91.67%, with F-score of 94.67 for anthropogenic disturbances and F-score of 85.71 for natural disturbances. 3) According to our results, lakes in Yunnan Provence, China, have undergone extensive disturbances, and the human-induced disturbances occurred almost twice as often as natural disturbances, indicating intensified disturbances caused by human activities. This inland lake area disturbance identification method is expected to uncover whether a disturbance to inland lake area is human activity-induced or natural event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: river-connected lake; Cu, Jinshan lake; tidal action
Online: 7 May 2018 (08:22:55 CEST)
A typical river-connected lake, Jinshan Lake, was selected as the study area. By the combination of field experiment, laboratory experiment and mathematical model, we plotted the relationship between the concentration of DCu-SCu and FDI, and constructed the mathematical model of the migration and transformation of HMCu in Jinshan Lake. We choose a typical diurnal tide to simulate and revealed the vertical migration characteristics of HMCu in Jinshan Lake during a diurnal tide. The results show that: (1) The release rate of DCu was proportional to FDI and background content, respectively. (2) Due to the nearby industrial enterprises and terrain characteristics, SA loads the most HMCu, the average concentration is 70.07mg/kg. According to the characteristics and geographical location of LC, the concentration of copper in the two states fluctuates greatly (DCu: 43.20~74.77 mg/kg, SCu: 53.63~74.67mg/kg). The fluctuation trend of SCu in ZA is significantly different from that in other areas, which mainly due to the complex hydraulic distribution and the sorption-desorption process of HMs in sediment particles. The hydraulic disturbance of JG is the least and relatively stable, which is the farthest from the inlet of the lake and is the least affected by the Yangtze river. (3) The FDI in a diurnal tide reaches the suspension condition of fine sediment particles in each region. FDI and sediment concentration on the vertical exchange of two - state Cu is significant.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: mine lake; pit lake; closure; planning; repurposing; end use; water quality
Online: 21 December 2019 (12:21:14 CET)
Pit lakes can represent significant liabilities at mine closure. However, pit lakes also present opportunities to provide significant regional benefit and address residual closure risks of both their own and overall project closure, and even offset the environmental costs of mining by creating new end uses. Unfortunately, many pit lakes have continued to be abandoned without repurposing for an end use. We reviewed published pit lake repurposing case studies of abandoned mine pit lakes. We found beneficial end use type and outcome varied dependent upon climate and commodity; but equally important social and political dynamics that manifest as mining company commitments or regulatory requirements. Many end uses have been realized: passive and active recreation, nature conservation, fishery and aquaculture, drinking and industrial water storage, greenhouse carbon fixation, flood protection and waterway remediation, disposal of mine and other waste, mine water treatment and containment, and education and research. Common attributes and reasons that led to successful repurposing of abandoned pit lakes as beneficial end uses are discussed. Recommendations are given for all stages of mine closure planning to prevent pit lake abandonment and to achieve successful pit lake closure with beneficial end uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0092.v1
Online: 11 June 2019 (10:01:22 CEST)
This manuscript examines from the diurnal convection cycle (CDC) to the interdecadal variability in the region of the Peruvian Altiplano (RAP). Currently, estimating precipitation using satellites is an alternative which can be used to study the spatio-temporal evolution of precipitation systems. Herein CPC data Morphing technique - CMORPH (Joyce et al, 2004) was used between 2002 and 2014 to analyze the CDC in RAP. The CMOPRH data were compared with rainfall data series measured by rain gauges of meteorological stations (EMS) in the RAP. The results indicate that the CDC shows high variability in the Titicaca Basin and is associated with patterns of lake breeze (day), land breeze (night) and mountain - valley circulation. The CDC starts at 1800 HL (local time) in the northern region of Lake Titicaca, lasting between 2 h and 6 h, and most of 2000 HL. The CDC over the dry surface (ST) of Titicaca Basin starts early at around 1200 HL, lasting 4 h to 7 h, and maximum at 1800 HL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0350.v1
Online: 27 June 2022 (05:31:25 CEST)
Turkana County's fisheries sector, which is entirely dependent on Lake Turkana, is vital to the county's economy. The Fisheries Sector in the County supports 1,500 households directly and 1,100 households indirectly. Despite its economic and social importance, the sector faces numerous challenges such as high post-harvest fish losses, uncoordinated development approaches, over-exploitation of some lake areas and weak links between research, management, and other sector players. Furthermore, since the start of devolution in 2013, the sector has been operating without an overall policy and legal framework. The primary goal of the study was to identify important challenges in the management of the fisheries sector in Turkana County that would lead the successful and coordinated growth of the fisheries industry. To capture their perspectives on the problems and potential in the usage of Lake Turkana's fisheries resources, semi-structured questionnaires and Key Informants interviews were used to collect primary data from the sector's fisheries actors. A total of 60 people were interviewed, and their responses were recorded in the Kobo Collect toolbox for later analysis. Secondary data was also gathered from numerous national policy declarations, guidelines, and legislation that have been used to manage Lake Turkana's fishery resources. The findings indicate that a policy directing the exploitation and development of fisheries is required in order to fully realize the potential of fisheries and aquaculture in the County. The development of the policy will lay a solid foundation for the creation of a legal framework to strengthen the sector in Turkana County, which is a necessary step toward achieving sustainable development and management of fisheries in accordance with national, regional, and international frameworks. By leveraging the role of the County Directorate of Fisheries and Beach Management Units in the sectors' monitoring, management, and development, the policy will also promote effective coordination of stakeholders at all levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0267.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Lake Geneva; Lake Titicaca; micropearls; ACC; arsenic; calcium; strontium; barium; biomineralisation; nondetects statistical analysis
Online: 19 November 2021 (09:24:06 CET)
In unicellular organisms, intracellular inclusions of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) have been initially described in cyanobacteria and, later, in unicellular eukaryotes of Lake Geneva (Switzerland/France). Inclusions in unicellular eukaryotes ‒named micropearls‒ consist of hydrated ACCs, frequently enriched in Sr or Ba, displaying internal oscillatory zonations due to variations in the Ba:Ca or Sr:Ca ratios. The analysis of our database consisting of 1597 micropearl analyses from Lake Geneva and 34 from Lake Titicaca (Bolivia/Peru) has shown that a certain number of Sr and Ba-enriched micropearls from these lakes contain As in amounts measurable by EDXS. A Q-mode statistical analysis has confirmed the existence of five geochemically distinct morpho-chemical groups of As-bearing micropearls, among which a new category identified in Lake Geneva, where As is often associated with Mg. This new type of micropearl is possibly produced in a small (7-12 m size) bi-flagellated organism. Micropearls from Lake Titicaca, which contain Sr, are found in an organism very similar to Tetraselmis cordiformis, observed in Lake Geneva. Lake Titicaca micropearls contain higher As concentrations which can be explained by the high As concentration in the water of this lake. The ubiquity of the biomineralization process observed points to the need for better understanding of the role of amorphous or crystalline calcium carbonates in As cycling in surface waters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0333.v1
Online: 23 February 2020 (16:14:28 CET)
This paper examines the diurnal cycle of convection (DCC) over Lake Titicaca Basin (LTb) during summertime months based on the high spatial resolution (8 x 8 km2) and hourly temporal resolution, estimates of Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH). Analysis was performed using observed data from rain gauges (Rg-SENAMHI) for the period 2002 to 2013. Graphical comparisons and several statistical metrics such as correlation coefficient, bias, and root mean square error were used to evaluate CMORPH product. Spatial maps and graphic metrics of diurnal cycle were developed to assess CMORPH data, spatial dependency an accuracy over the LTb. Approximately, 43% of the total Rg-SENAMHI variation is explained CMORPH data. The correlation between Rg-SENAMHI and CMORPH is positively over southeast and northern LTb, and negatively in the central and southern LTb. A underestimation bias is observed over most the LTb areas and overestimation bias (e.g., Lagunillas, Isla Suana and Desaguadero stations). In general, spatial patterns of rainfall over the LTb were captured through CMORPH data. Over the surrounding lake area, high mountain, and plateau area, maximum peaks of precipitation occur in the early evening, neverhtheless over low areas such as the lake, surrounding and valleys, maximum precipitation values occur early morning. The results show that DCC its very related by surface exchange processes and local circulation resulting from solar radiation and heterogeneous topography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0497.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: urban lake; sediments; nutrients; landuse; pollutant sources
Online: 26 September 2018 (04:53:40 CEST)
Lake Rawa Besar is an urban lake surrounded by dense settlements and market area. Currently Lake Rawa Besar is experiencing physical and ecology strain. This research’s objectives are to determine the levels of sediment and nutrient, the distribution, also the relation to land use and human activities producing pollutant. Field surveys with 30 sample points and observations was needed scattered within the lake. Measuring the value of each parameter is carried out in national standardized laboratory. The result shows that sediment load of TDS is still below the standard limit for clean water, while TSS levels in the middle of lake exceed the standard limit. Nutrient loads, spesifically nitrate and phospate levels is below the standard limit. While turbidity and BOD levels have a uniform distribution pattern in the lake, exceed the standard limit for clean water, and have a positive correlation. High levels of turbidity and BOD are caused by household waste and human activities producing organic waste such as tofu factory, fowl manure, and garbage dump. Small sewage goes into the lake mediates pollutants inflow. Attention is needed by nearby people, also for the government, to sustain the ecological condition of the lake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0316.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Mercury accumulation, Lake sediment, Holocene, Landscape development
Online: 17 August 2018 (16:04:26 CEST)
Forest vegetation plays a key role in the cycling of mercury (Hg) and organic matter (OM) in terrestrial ecosystems. Litterfall has been indicated as the major transport vector of atmospheric Hg to forest soils, which is eventually transported and stored in the sediments of forest lakes. Hence, it is important to understand how changes in forest vegetation affect Hg in soil and its biogeochemical cycling in lake systems. We investigated the pollen records and the geochemical compositions of sediments from two lakes (Schurmsee and Glaswaldsee) in the Black Forest (Germany) to evaluate whether long-term shifts in forest vegetation induced by climate or land use influenced Hg accumulation in the lakes. We were particularly interested to determine whether coniferous forests were associated with a larger export of Hg to aquatic systems than deciduous forests. Principal components analysis followed by principal component regression enabled us to describe the evolution of the weight of the latent processes determining the accumulation of Hg over time. Our results emphasize that the in-lake uptake of Hg during warm climate periods, soil erosion after deforestation and emissions from mining and other human activities triggered changes in Hg accumulation during the Holocene stronger than the changes caused by forest vegetation alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0468.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: dynamic downscaling; WRF-Lake; CMIP5; great lakes
Online: 25 July 2018 (06:06:33 CEST)
Large water bodies such as the Laurentian Great Lakes have significant influences on local and regional climate through their unique physical features. Due to the coarse spatial resolution of general circulation models (GCMs), the Great Lakes are geometrically ignored in most GCMs. Thus, the dynamical downscaling technique serves as a necessary and feasible solution to bridge the gap. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with an updated lake scheme is employed to downscale from a GCM, GFDL-CM3. The WRF-Lake’s performance is evaluated against observations, the GCM, as well as 23 other GCMs. Results show that the coupled air-lake model, with a fine spatial resolution and realistic lake bathymetries, reproduced a more reasonable spatiotemporal climatology than GCMs, as well as the lake-induced characteristics that were missed in GCMs. With lakes present, the seasonal variability of air temperature was reduced in WRF-Lake relative to GFDL-CM3, especially in summer. A reduced air temperature trend, about 4.5 °C/100 year in the 21st century, was projected in WRF-Lake. The seasonal evolutions of lake surface temperature and lake ice coverage were well captured by the lake model. The lake surface temperature was projected to be warming by 3.5-4 °C and the lake ice diminishing by 58.9% - 86%. Those results brought by the WRF-Lake model suggest that a fine resolution of the topography and the incorporation of the lake-atmosphere interactions are crucial to improve the understanding of the climate and climate change in the Great Lakes region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0273.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Landscape Ecology; Lake; River; Urban Ecosystem; Urban Forest
Online: 11 February 2021 (09:46:04 CET)
Within the town, Abiotic is a built environment that includes buildings, roads, pedestrians, and other elements that interact with biotics, which are living things including plants, animals, and humans. From a landscape ecological perspective, the urban structure consists of (1) a matrix, which is a collection of dominant buildings and homogeneous elements, (2) Patches are grouped as housing, urban forests, parks, lakes, and finally (3) Corridors such as roads, rivers, and pedestrians. The dominance of watertight areas over green open spaces in urban development can lead to increased temperatures and runoff. The condition of the soil structure and the steep slope of the soil can cause landslides, therefore urban development must pay attention to the natural conditions of the area being built. This research was conducted in Kota Baru, Bogor, South Tangerang, and Cikarang (Bekasi Regency). The purpose of this study is to determine the natural environment and the built environment as well as changes in the ecosystem and their consequences for the new town and its surroundings. This research uses quantitative and qualitative approaches. Analysis of land-use change uses spatial and temporal methods, while Nieuwolt's equation is used to measure comfort. This study finds comfortable environmental planning, with green open spaces such as urban forests, city parks, and bodies of water, such as lakes, as a space for interaction between fellow new city residents and people outside the new towns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0067.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Chapala Lake; Climate change; RClimdex; NDWI; Water management
Online: 1 February 2021 (17:35:10 CET)
Lake Chapala is a natural ecosystem of Mexico, declared Ramsar site, currently, is an area with importance in the agricultural sector, tourism, and important source of drinking water in the Metropolitan area of Guadalajara, considered as a thermo regulatory body. This study used tools such as Rhtest, as well as analyzing extreme climate indices using RClimdex. In addition, the relationship with the change in water surface of Lake Chapala was assessed through the NDWI index, using Landsat images, between 1985 and 2018. According to the obtained results, the signs of climatic variability are detected in the study region, which, directly affects the basin runoff and water levels in the lake, as well as, the factor of water overexploitation in the basin, so it is considered that the lake conditions mostly depend on the type of management that is given to the resource. Finally, the results will help the understanding of climate variability and its water resources influence of the Lerma Chapala basin, which will assist in future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: phosphorus; N:P ratio; cyanobacteria; Planktothrix agardhii; Lake Vombsjön
Online: 24 April 2018 (10:12:39 CEST)
Control of nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), plays a significant role in preventing cyanobacterial blooms (harmful algal blooms (HABs)). This study aimed at evaluating changes in the risk of the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and advancing the understanding of how N and P affect the growth of cyanobacteria in a eutrophic lake, Lake Vombsjön, in southern Sweden. Statistical analysis was used to demonstrate the pattern of cyanobacterial blooms, that the highest content present in September and the later that algal blooms occur, the more likely it is a cyanobacterial bloom as cyanobacteria became dominating in October and November (90%). Two hypothesises tested in Lake Vombsjön confirmed namely that a high total phosphorus (TP) level correlates with an abundance of cyanobacteria and that low N:P ratio (total nitrogen/total phosphorus < 20) favours the growth of cyanobacteria. To control the growth of cyanobacteria in Lake Vombsjön, the TP level should be kept below 20 µg/L and the N:P ratio be maintained at a level of over 20. The two species Planktothrix agardhii, and Pseudanabaena spp. should be carefully monitored especially in late autumn. Future work should consider any high degree of leakage from the sediment of the dissolved phosphorus available there.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0584.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CMIP6; HighResMIP; ScenarioMIP; Lake Victoria; Climate change; East Africa
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:39:44 CEST)
In late/early 2019/2020, unprecedented high-water-levels were observed in Lake Victoria causing massive flooding in the low-lying lake-adjacent areas and disrupting human and natural systems in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB). The high lake water-level coincided with unusually heavy and prolonged 2019 June to December precipitation in the LVB. The current study estimates future precipitation patterns over the LVB using HighResMIP and ScenarioMIP general circulation model (GCM) simulations from the 6th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Results show that HighResMIP and ScenarioMIP simulations can adequately reproduce LVB’s precipitation patterns – albeit with location-specific biases. Generally, the GCM simulations tend to over-estimate precipitation patterns over Lake Victoria while under-estimating precipitation patterns over the lake-adjacent areas. Projections show significant future precipitation changes over the LVB relative to the 1970-1999 baseline, with more pronounced changes over the lake than in lake-adjacent areas. Overall, mean annual precipitation is projected to increase by about 18% and 31% by the end of the century, under SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios, respectively. Additionally, mean daily precipitation intensity (SDII) is projected to increase by up-to 14% while the maximum 5-day precipitation values (RX5Day) increase by up-to 71% under the SSP5-8.5 scenario. Heavy precipitation events, represented by the width of the right tail distribution of precipitation (99p-90p), are projected to increase by 50% and 94% under SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5, respectively. Given that direct precipitation accounts for about 80% of Lake Victoria’s water budget, the lake’s future water-level fluctuations are likely to be more rampant and unpredictable under the changing climate. Hence, enhanced production and use of climate services is recommended to minimize the risk posed by potentially high water-level fluctuations in Lake Victoria and, ultimately, enhance the socio-economic safety of communities in the LVB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0006.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: nitrogen cycle; ammonium; nitrate; nitrite; stratification; boreal; meromictic lake
Online: 1 July 2021 (09:33:16 CEST)
In order to better understand the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in meromictic lakes, which can serve as a model for past aquatic environments, we measured dissolved concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and organic nitrogen in deep (39 m maximal depth) subarctic Lake Svetloe (NW Russia). The lake is a rare type of freshwater meromictic water boy with high concentrations of methane, ferrous iron, manganese and low concentrations of sulfates and sulfides in the monimolimnion. In the oligotrophic mixolimnion, the concentration of mineral forms of nitrogen decreased in summer compared to winter, likely due to phytoplankton bloom. The decomposition of the bulk of organic matter occurs under microaerophilic/anaerobic conditions of the chemocline and accompanied by the accumulation of nitrogen in the form of N-NH4 in the monimonimlion. We revealed a strong relationship between methane and nitrogen cycles in the chemocline and monimolimnion horizons. The nitrate concentrations in Lake Svetloe varied in the range from 9 to 13 μM throughout the water column. This fact is rare for meromictic lakes, where nitrate concentrations up to 13 µM are found in the monimolimnion zone down to the bottom layers. We hypothesize, in accord with available data for other stratified lakes, that under conditions of high concentrations of manganese and ammonium at the boundary of redox conditions and below, anaerobic nitrification with the formation of nitrates occurs. Overall, most of organic matter in Lake Svetloe undergoes biodegradation essentially under microaerophilic/anaerobic conditions of the chemocline and the monimolimnion. Consequently, the manifestation of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle is expressed in these horizons in the most vivid and complex relationship with other cycles of elements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0594.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: transparency; suspended solids; wind effect; shallow lake; Sentinel-2
Online: 26 February 2021 (08:17:05 CET)
Wind is one of the factors that has a great influence on suspended matter in lakes, especially in shallow lagoons. In order to know how wind affects the water in Albufera of Valencia, a shallow coastal lagoon, the measured variables of turbidity and transparency have been correlated with the estimates by processing Sentinel-2 satellite images with the Sen2Cor processor. Data from four years of study show that most of them are light to gentle easterly breezes and moderate to fresh westerly breezes. The results obtained show significant correlations between the measured variables and those obtained from the satellite images for total suspended matter and water transparency and with the average daily wind speed. There is no significant correlation between wind and chlorophyll a. Moderate to fresh breezes resuspend the fine sediment reaching concentration values from 100 to 300 mg L-1 according to satellite data. However, it is necessary to obtain field data for the values of moderate and fresh winds, as for now there are no experimental data to verify the validity of the satellite estimates.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Manzala Lake; pollution; water quality; hydrodynamic model; Delft3D-WAQ
Online: 5 September 2019 (11:14:57 CEST)
Lake Manzala, the largest of the northern Delta lakes of Egypt, has a great economic importance as a major natural resource of fish and salt. Unfortunately, the lake is suffering from the high inputs of pollutants from industrial, domestic, and agricultural sources. The present study aims to develop the proposed water quality management scenarios to assess and control lake pollution, the pollution sources as well as the pollution spread from the lake to the connected Mediterranean Sea. To apply study methodology, the work tasks divided into two main parts, the first part involved in modelling the lake environments by using Delft3D-WAQ hydrodynamic and water quality model to study the current status and predict the dynamic state of the Lake. This model was calibrated and validated by using various water quality datasets to simulate different scenarios. In the second part, the required lake water quality improvement scenarios were developed to solve the lake water quality problems. The study results showed that the first three developed scenarios that focusing on treatment drain effluent using primary, secondary treatment and surface wetland techniques respectively have a limited efficiency on lake water quality improvement. While the fourth scenario that involved on using biological biofilm techniques can improve lake water quality parameters. Moreover, the fifth scenario that proposed adding a new artificial inlet has a limitation due to the noted increases in lake salinity levels. The sixth scenario that proposed a diversion of some drains can improve lake water quality parameters but it can lead to a decrease in Lake water level. From water quality view point, the last scenario that applying a combination biological biofilm activated technique and also adding a new artificial inlet at northern lake region can represent the optimum scenario. Hopefully, this research will preserve the lake environment and contribute to the benefit of the man health as well. This approach could be extended to the hydrodynamic studies in similar large, shallow lakes anywhere in the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0626.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: tilapia; negative-sense RNA virus; Tilapia lake virus; DNA vaccine
Online: 28 July 2021 (11:11:37 CEST)
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is the main tilapia-infecting virus worldwide, causing serious economic losses. However, there is no vaccine for this viral disease. Here, TiLV ORF10 (TiLV-ORF10) encoding a protein with abundant epitopes was constructed into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1, and used to evaluate the immune protective effects in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). RT-PCR and western blot analyses conﬁrmed vaccine plasmid expression in tilapia muscle tissues. Moreover, the transcription levels of immunoglobulin M, toll-like receptor 2, myeloid differentiation factor 88, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma-IFN, and nuclear factor κB immune-related genes were statistically signiﬁcantly upregulated in the spleen, liver, and kidney of vaccinated tilapias (P < 0.05). TiLV challenge experiments showed that relative percent survival (RPS) was signiﬁcantly enhanced in ﬁsh by this DNA vaccine. Moreover, RPS was enhanced further when using a higher amount of the DNA vaccine (85.72% RPS at a DNA dose of 45 μg pcDNA3.1–ORF10). Vaccination with pcDNA3.1–ORF10 signiﬁcantly reduced virus replication, as evidenced by the low amount of virus in the spleen, liver, and kidney of vaccinated tilapias after TiLV challenge. Thus, pcDNA3.1–ORF10 could induce protective immunity in tilapia and may be a potential vaccine candidate for controlling diseases caused by TiLV.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0049.v1
Subject: Keywords: diarrhoeal cases; drinking water; water sources; water pollution; Darbandikhan Lake
Online: 2 August 2020 (17:41:51 CEST)
Water pollution in Iraq has been extended disaster edge; this pollution is caused by wastes and sewages into soil and rivers, pollutant water sources influence the outbreak and serious epidemic status among the population.. The aim of this study is to determine the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources and characteristics of water-borne diseases especially diarrheal cases in Darbandikhan city. 166 water samples, collected from the different sources and areas, were tested for the presences of coliform bacteria as an indicator for pathogen contamination. Most probable number index was used for coliform enumeration. 161 diarrheal cases were taken as a sample from the patients were admitted to the general hospital in Darbandikhan district.. The questionnaire form was planned to view characteristics of diarrheal cases and patients were interviewed directly, the data was analyzed by STATA software application. 46% of the diarrheal cases used tap water for drinking. On the other hand, the reminder (54%) used other sources for the same purpose. All the risk factor such as type of water source, sufficiency of the water, duration of water storage and chlorination were associated with diarrhea. Almost half of the cases were children and three quarters were single. The data was analyzed by STATA version 13.1.This study indicated that the majority of drinking water sources in Darbandikhan city are not suitable for drinking, although net pipe system supplied chlorine significantly it has been proven that the tap water from the homes is not suitable for consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0722.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Pollution; water quality; Keenjhar lake; environmental impacts; Physico-chemical parameters
Online: 30 July 2020 (12:24:53 CEST)
Keenjhar Lake is the main source of drinking water for the metropolitan city of Karachi. The release of untreated wastewater from Kotri industrial area and other sources have made the lake water polluted. This study was subjected to determine the impacts of such pollutant sources on the water quality of Keenjhar Lake. The study involves the analysis of water quality parameters of Keenjhar Lake and its Feeding source (KB Feeder). The sampling sites were selected based on the sources of contamination. The water samples are tested for physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The result of water analysis indicates the contamination level of the lake is quite alarming for the sites of Kotri effluent and WAPDA colony where Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chloride and other ionic metals were quite higher in concentration than other sites. These sites are also contaminated with Fluoride and Arsenic which are carcinogenic elements. The study reveals that the contamination level of feeding source is causing big non-reversible damage to the lake if continued to be uncontrolled. This contamination is mainly due to the release of toxic metals and ions in the KB feeder caused by human carelessness.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: soil temperature; data evaluation; climatology; interannual variation; Poyang Lake Basin
Online: 24 February 2020 (01:38:30 CET)
Soil temperature reflects the impact of local factors，such as vegetation，soil and the atmosphere of a region. Therefore, it is important to understand the regional variation of soil temperature. However, lack of observations with adequate spatial and/or temporal coverage, it would be difficult to use the observation data to study the regional variation. Based on the observation data from Nanchang and Ganzhou stations and ERA-Interim/Land reanalysis data, this study analyzed the temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of soil temperature over Poyang Lake Basin. The results showed close correlations between observation data and reanalysis data at different depths. Reanalysis data could mainly reproduce the temporal-spatial distributions of soil temperature over the Poyang Lake Basin, but generally underestimate their magnitudes. Temporally, there is an obvious warming trend in the basin. Seasonally, the temperature raised fastest in spring and slowest in summer, except for the ST4, which rising fastest in spring and slowest in winter. In terms of depths, the temperature of ST1 rises fastest. For the other layers, the warming trend is almost similar. An abrupt change of annual soil temperature at all depths occurred in 1997, and annual soil temperatures at all depths were abnormally low in 1984. Spatially, annual soil temperature decreased with latitude, except for the summer ST1. Because of the high temperature and precipitation in summer, the ST1 are higher around the lake and the river. The climatic trend of soil temperature presents the general increase trend from south to north, opposite to the distribution of soil temperature. The findings provide a basis for understanding and assessing the variation of the soil temperature over the Poyang Lake Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0005.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: non-freezing; temperate lake; heat budget; heat storage; global warming
Online: 2 January 2018 (08:17:58 CET)
A temperate deep lake, Lake Kuttara, Hokkaido, Japan (148 m deep at maximum) was completely frozen every winter in the 20th century. However, unfrozen conditions of the lake over winter occurred four times in the 21st century, which is probably due to global warming. In order to understand how thermal regime of the lake responds to climate change, its heat storage change was calculated by estimating heat budget of the lake and monitoring water temperature at the deepest point for September 2012–June 2016. As a result, temporal change of the heat storage from the heat budget was very consistent with that from the direct temperature measurement (determination coefficient R2 = 0.827). The 1978–2017 data at a meteorological station near Kuttara indicated that there are significant (less than 5% level) long-term trends for air temperature (0.024 °C/yr) and wind speed (−0.010 m/s/yr). A sensitivity analysis for the heat storage from the heat budget estimate and an estimate of return periods for mean air temperature in mid-winter allow us to conclude that the lake could be unfrozen once per about two year in a decade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0020.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Landsat-9 data; Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; Lake Waterbody; GEE; Algorithms comparison
Online: 1 June 2022 (13:14:56 CEST)
The monitoring of lake waterbody area in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau (QTP) is of great significance to deal with global climate change. As the latest generation of Landsat series satellites, Landsat-9 data not only have higher radiometric resolution, but also cooperate with other Landsat satellites to greatly improve the temporal resolution. It has great application potential in lake waterbody area monitoring. In order to explore the performance of different algorithms for extracting waterbody and lake waterbody area in Landsat-9 data under large-scale QTP regions, this study relies on Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform and selects 10 waterbody extraction algorithms as the basis to realize the quantitative evaluation of QTP lake waterbody area extraction results. The results show that the Random Forest (RF) algorithm performs best in all models. The overall accuracy of waterbody extraction is 95.84%, and the average error of lake waterbody area extraction is 1.505%. Among the traditional threshold segmentation waterbody extraction algorithms, the overall accuracy of the NDWI waterbody extraction method is 89.89%, and the average error of lake waterbody area extraction is 3.501%, which is the highest performance model in this kind of algorithms. This study proves that Landsat-9 data can effectively classify QTP waterbodies. With the development of cloud computing technologies such as Gee, more complex models such as RF can be selected to improve the extraction accuracy of water body and Lake area in large-scale research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0575.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Lake Victoria; Climate change; Return periods; Detection and Attribution; DAMIP; CMIP6
Online: 26 July 2021 (13:42:00 CEST)
This study investigated the influence of land-use and precipitation change and variability on Lake Victoria’s water-level fluctuations. Extreme precipitation events, corresponding to extreme water-levels, over the lake and its catchment area were identified and their return periods estimated by fitting them into a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution. Using general circulation models from the 6th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6)’s Detection & Attribution Model Intercomparison Project (DAMIP), an assessment of the potential contribution of human-induced climate change on the observed precipitation patterns over the study area was done. The greatest precipitation anomalies for the period 1900-2020 were recorded in 1961’s October-December (OND) season and 2019’s June-August (JJA) and OND seasons, corresponding to the period when the highest water-levels were recorded in Lake Victoria. While land-use change in the study domain was observed, extended and unusually heavy June to December 2019 precipitation bore the greatest responsibility for the 2019/2020 high water-levels in Lake Victoria. The OND precipitation event of 2019 was a 1-in-52-year event compared to the 1961’s 1-in-693 years. Differences in return periods at various parts of the lake imply a high spatial climate variability within the lake itself. An analysis of the fraction of attributable risk (FAR) showed natural variability to have a greater influence on the JJA and OND precipitation patterns over Lake Victoria than human-induced climate change. However, variability over the land area of the study domain was mainly driven by human-induced climate change rather than natural variability, implying a unique climate system over Lake Victoria. Findings from the current study enhance the understanding of Lake Victoria’s water budget and motivate for further research to inform effective strategies on the planning and use of Lake Victoria’s water resources in a changing climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0565.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: ARIMA, CPUE, Fish biomass landings, Forecasting, Lake Malombe, Time series approach
Online: 27 October 2020 (21:04:35 CET)
Lake Malombe fish stocks have been depleted by chronic overfishing. Various management approaches (co-management, command control, and ecosystem-based management to fisheries) have been used to manage the fishery. However, the lack of an accurate predictive model has hampered their success. Therefore, we developed and tested a time series model for Lake Malombe fishery. The seasonal fish biomass and CPUE trends were first observed and both were non-stationary. The second-order differencing was applied to transform the non-stationary data into stationary. Autocorrelation functions (AC), partial autocorrelation function (PAC), and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were estimated, which led to the identification and construction of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, suitable in explaining the time series and forecasting. The results showed that ARIMA (1,2,1) provided a better prediction than its counterparts. The model satisfactorily predicted that by 2032, both fish biomass and CPUE will decrease to 3204.6 tons and 59.672 respectively, signifying the potential threat to Lake Malombe fishery. The model justified the necessity of taking precautionary measures to avoid the total collapse of the fishery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0050.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: batch fermentation; Lake Victoria; ornamental verdure; poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; sewage sludge
Online: 5 March 2019 (03:50:16 CET)
Environmental isolates, genetically manipulated organisms, plants, animals and their products and economical methods are being expertly explored to biosynthesize poly-3-hydroxybutyrate plastics of comparable properties to petroplastics. This study assessed a hypothesized feasibility of utilizing a proliferative pleustophytic greenery, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach) in Lake Victoria, Uganda as a potential carbon source for poly-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis. The poly-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesizing bacteria (Bacillus megaterium) was isolated from municipal sewage sludge and harnessed for batch fermentation of acid-catalysed water hyacinth biomass. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate formed in the cytoplasm of the bacterial cells was extracted by chloroform extraction method, and thereof confirmed and quantified by UV spectroscopy. Batch fermentation was carried out in 100ml of the culture media in a 250ml fermenter for different times (48, 96, 144 and 192 hours) to determine the best incubation time for maximum yield. An all-out net yield of 61.3% was realized after 96 hours of fermentation. Utilization of this ecological plague for poly-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis is a promising strategy for regulating the weed population along the length of Nile River and the Victorian basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0320.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia, Landsat images, Lake, land use/land cover
Online: 27 December 2018 (10:49:16 CET)
LULC changes are major environmental challenges in many parts of the world which are adversely affecting ecosystem services. This study was aimed to analyze LULC changes in the ecological landscape of Ethiopia CRV areas from 1985 to 2015. Satellite images were accessed and pre-processing and classification is done. Major LULC types were detected and change analysis was executed. Nine LULC changes were successfully evaluated. The classification result revealed that in 1985, 44.34% of the land was covered with small scale farming followed by mixed cultivated/acacia (21.89%), open woodland (11.96%), and water bodies (9.77%). Whereas for the same study year open grazing land, forest, degraded savannah and settlements accounted the smallest proportion. Though the area varied among land use classes, the trend of share occupied by the LULC types in the study area remained the same in 1995 and 2015. Increase in small and large scale farming, settlements and mixed cultivation/acacia while a decrease in water bodies, forest, and open woodlands is noted. About 86.11% of the land showed major changes in land use/cover. Lastly, DPSIR framework analysis was done and integrated land use and development planning and policy reform are suggested for sustainable land use planning and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0401.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: microbial eukaryotes; phylogeography; marine-freshwater transitions; evolutionary radiation; species flocks; Lake Baikal
Online: 31 December 2019 (03:57:14 CET)
Ancient lakes are among the most interesting models for evolution studies, because their biodiversity is the result of a complex combination of migration and speciation. Here, we investigate the origin of single celled planktonic eukaryotes from the oldest lake in the world – Lake Baikal. By using 18S rDNA metabarcoding we recovered 1,427 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to protists populating surface waters (1-50 meters) and belonging to pico- and nano-plankton size fractions. The recovered communities resembled other lacustrine freshwater assemblages found elsewhere, especially the unclassified protists. However, our results suggest that a fraction of Baikal protists originated evolutionary recently from marine/brackish ancestors. Moreover, our results suggest that rapid radiation may have occurred among some protist taxa, partially mirroring what was already shown for multicellular organisms in Lake Baikal. We found potential species flocks in Stramenopiles, Alveolata, Opisthokonta, Archaeplastida, Rhizaria and Hacrobia. Putative flocks predominated in Chrysophytes, which are highly diverse in Lake Baikal. Some of the species, especially those from these flocks, may be endemic from Lake Baikal, because their 18S rDNA differed > 10% from known DNA. Overall, our study points to novel diversity of planktonic protists in Lake Baikal, some of which may have emerged in situ after evolutionary diversification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0068.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Fishermen; Lake Ziway; Small scale irrigation users; Socioeconomic benefit; Wetland ecosystem service
Online: 22 July 2016 (16:02:46 CEST)
ABSTRACT This study focused for socio-economic benefit of Western shoreline of Lake Ziway ecosystem. The data collected from two woredas they are Adami Tulu Jidu Kombolch (ATJK) and Dugda woreda of fishermen and small scale irrigation users. Lake Ziway great importance food and water for both groups of respondents and additionally sources of raw material, energy, cultivation, organic fertilizers, genetic and medicinal plants. Lake Ziway also has a major economic benefit for both groups of respondents. The sampled fishermen cached mean amount of 2,524Kg per year with minimum and maximum amount of fish 504Kg and 16,800Kg per year respectively and with this fish catching they got average income of 51,398 Birr ($2,570) per year with range of 7,200 Birr ($360) and 288,000 Birr ($14,400) per year. As like of fishermen small scale irrigation also got economic benefit with their production of cereal crops, fruits and vegetables. They produce in average 13.47Quintal of cereal crop and 69.56Quintal of fruits and vegetables per year and they got average income of 7,727 Birr ($386) and with range of 13,714 Birr ($686) per year respectively. this incurred that wetland ecosystem has a lot of socio-economic benefit for the people live near by specially for developing countries like Ethiopia they are more dependent on natural ecosystem like of Lake Ziway. Because of its high importance, we have to protect and conserve and use sustainably of Lake Ziway and similar wetland ecosystems. Key Words: Wetland ecosystem service; Lake Ziway; Socioeconomic benefit; Fishermen; Small scale irrigation users
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0237.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Mansagar Lake; Physico-chemical parameters; Water quality investigation; Trend analysis; Pearson’s correlation analysis
Online: 14 September 2021 (11:38:52 CEST)
The article reviews the constituent’s physico-chemical parameters in the water of the Mansagar Lake of the Jaipur City. The water quality is also investigated using evaluated physico-chemical parameters with in-depth study of their distribution as per sample location-wise and season-wise. A detailed discussion on the associationship among parameters (pH, Conductivity, turbidity, dissolved Oxygen, chemical and Biochemical Oxygen demand, etc.) using the Pearson’s analytical method is also presented. The strength of the article is the graphical presentation of evaluated physico-chemical parameters and the water quality indices for sample station-wise and the season-wise. To our best of understanding, first time such details have been clubbed together and discussion in brief for studied lake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0035.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: biodiversity loss; Venda; cultural landscape; myths; legends; Thathe forest; Lake Fundudzi; Phiphidi waterfalls
Online: 2 September 2021 (11:59:07 CEST)
Human-driven biodiversity destruction are responsible for significant and sustained heritage losses in Africa. In Venda, northern South Africa, biodiversity losses are eroding the existence of sacred places. Such places define the essence of indigenous people’s identity and well-being. We highlight how developments in Venda such as mining and agricultural expansion since apartheid times have destroyed biodiversity in the broader landscape, undermining efforts to reduce hunger and poverty. Thathe forest, Lake Fundudzi and Phiphidi waterfalls are central to Venda mythology and legends, origins and identity and are key towards conserving current biodiversity and heritage losses.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: seston stoichiometry; source estimation; n-alkanes proxies; large eutrophic floodplain lakes; Lake Taihu
Online: 18 November 2019 (04:31:03 CET)
Although sources of seston are much more complicated in lakes compared to marines, the influences of different source on the spatiotemporal variations in seston stoichiometry are still underexplored, especially in large eutrophic floodplain lakes. Here, we investigated the seston stoichiometry across a typical large eutrophic floodplain lake (Lake Taihu) over one year. In addition, we used the n-alkanes proxies for source estimation which are more robust than other elemental indicators (e.g. C: N ratios). Throughout the study, the average value of C: N: P ratio of 143: 19: 1 across Lake Taihu was higher than the classical Redfield ratio, but closed to the synthesized data from other lakes. Generally, seston C: N ratios varied the least across all environments, but C: P and N: P ratios varied widely and shown a significant seasonal pattern with lower ratios of N: P and C: P during senescence seasons and higher ratios in the growing seasons. This seasonal change was mainly associated with the shift from terrestrial-derived seston to algal-derived seston as, the significant lower ratios of terrestrial-derived seston from surrounding agricultural watershed. Spatially, the mean ratios of each site were similar, except relative high values of C: P and N: P ratios in the algal dominated area. Statistically, the predictive power of environmental variables was strongly improved by adding n-alkanes proxies. However, apart from sources indicators, particulate phosphorus (PP) contents also partly explained the spatiotemporal variations in stoichiometric ratios. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind the dynamics of PP could be totally different and source-specific. This study highlights the priority of using n-alkanes proxies as tools to identify the source of seston which is essential to interpret the spatiotemporal variations in seston stoichiometric ratios among eutrophic floodplain lakes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0466.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Lake Van; Van earthquake; aftershock hypocenters; rupture complexity; azimuthal distribution; aftershock clusters; microseismicity
Online: 28 June 2018 (11:26:31 CEST)
This study presents an analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the two large destructive earthquakes that occurred in Lake Van area on October 23, and November 9, 2011, together with the azimuth-dependent distribution of the seismic activity and microseismicity clusters after the mainshocks, associated with the complex rupture processes of their aftershock sequence. The sequence began with the magnitude Mw 7.1 earthquake of 23 October and a second destructive earthquake of Mw 5.6. The aftershock sequences of the two mainshocks were linked to the local crustal faults beneath Lake Van area, followed successively and produced unusually intense activity and significant damage in the area. The main purposes of this study are to document the spatial and temporal distribution and evolution of the October 23, 2011 aftershock hypocenters and the azimuth-dependent distribution of seismic activity, and to understand the spatial and temporal character of the aftershock sequence using the distributional and evolutional patterns of the aftershock hypocenters. A total of 10,000 aftershocks were obtained from seismic data with a high signal-to-noise ratio over collected over three years from October 23, 2011 to March 2014. These aftershocks were plotted for the time periods from November 2011 through March 2012 to March 2014 and ≈ 5000 aftershocks were retained in the depth versus distance cross-sections to detect the clusters in the first step of study (November 2011–March 2012). The focal depth distribution of the aftershock clusters, the migration of hypocenter activity and microseismicity clusters were analyzed and the distributional patterns of the detected clusters were assessed using the geometric distribution of the aftershock hypocenters. The spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks reveal interesting key features of the deep rupture complexity of the Van earthquake: (1) most prominent aftershocks have been located in the upper crust at depths shallower than 10 km beneath ruptured area, indicating that the upper crust is brittle and seismogenic; (2) two spatial clusters have been detected at 8-10 km depths and the upward extrapolation of these clusters intersects with faults; the main cluster (60 km wide) bounded by inferred reverse faults (f3 and f4) and the central cluster (25–30 km wide) bounded by faults (f1 and f2); (3) these spatial clusters form the largest volumetric pattern of the conical-shaped cluster at depths of about 25–30 km of the azimuth-dependent rotational projections, suggesting azimuthal distributions of deep rupture characteristics; and (4) the strongest temporal cluster of microseismicity derived from temporal distribution of aftershocks has been detected within an area of about 2.5–3.0 km2 and it is spatially observed at 20 km depth within the central cluster, suggesting progressive failure of the adjacent patches of possible fault.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0203.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Suspended sediment, Hydrodynamics, Numerical model, SELFE-SED, Wind-driven current, Tsuei-Feng Lake
Online: 29 May 2017 (19:13:37 CEST)
A three-dimensional, unstructured grid, hydrodynamic and suspended-sediment transport model (i.e., SELFE-SED) was developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of suspended sediment and was applied to the subtropical subalpine Tsuei-Feng Lake (TFL) of Taiwan. The model was validated with measured water level and suspended‑sediment concentration in 2009, 2010, and 2011. The overall model simulation results are in quantitative agreement with the observational data. The validated model was then applied to explore the most important parameter that affects the suspended-sediment concentration and to investigate the effect of wind stress on the mean current and suspended‑sediment distribution in this shallow lake. Modeling results of sensitivity analysis reveal that the settling velocity is a crucial parameter and erosion rate is less important in the suspended-sediment transport model. Remarkable lake circulation was found based on the strength of wind speed and wind direction. Strong wind would result in higher mean current in the top layer and suspended-sediment distribution in the top and bottom layers. This study demonstrated that the wind stress played a significant influence on mean circulation and suspended-sediment transport in a shallow lake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0139.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: viscous lake equations，Navier-Stokes equation, Existence and uniqueness, Semigroup of operators, Fractional powers.
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:10:30 CET)
In this paper we study solutions and drift homogenization for a class of viscous lake equations by using the method of semigroups of bounded operators. Suppose that the initial value i.e.,for some Hölder continuous function onwith smooth function value satisfying and Then the initial value problem (2) for viscous lake equations has a unique smooth local strong solution. Using this result we study the drift homogenization for three-dimensional stationary Stokes equation in the usual sense
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0086.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: contigent valuvation; Black Twin Lake of Abdanan; Recreational Value; Willingness to Pay; Logit Model
Online: 3 August 2021 (14:47:59 CEST)
As one of the unique destinations in Iran, Abdanan Black Twin Lake attracts many tourists yearly. Among striking features is the presence of minerals, boiling springs, and its beautiful landscape. Human beings are willing to spend money on such natural resources. An economic valuation can be interfered constructively and positively in improving environmental policies. So, quantifying these benefits is of the utmost importance. The paper mainly estimated the tourists' willingness to pay and their recreational value using the contingent valuation method. Random sampling was conducted on 384 people using the two-dimensional double-choice questionnaire in spring 2019. In the Twin Lake Recreational Value Questionnaire, the main questions were devoted to the visitors' willingness to pay, with three bids of 0.07 $, 0.14 $, and 0.22$. Among 384 respondents, 304 (79%) were willing to pay for recreational use of the lake, and 80 respondents (21%) were not. The likelihood, the model's parameters were estimated. The findings indicated the average tourists' willingness to pay for recreational value was estimated at 0.09$ per visit and the recreational value of this lake for each household was estimated at 0.40$. The findings revealed the effect of education, household income, household size and tourists' willingness to pay was significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Lake Victoria; Photovoltaic; off-grid; model; electric two-wheeled vehicle; Wa-ter-Energy Hub; CARNOT
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:05:07 CEST)
Two-wheeler vehicles are the most significant mode of transportation for Kenyans in both rural and urban regions thereby contributing to local air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The transition to electric two-wheeler vehicles can make a significant contribution to reducing GHG and improving the socio-economic lives of people living in rural Kenya. Re-newable energy systems can considerably contribute to the charging of electric two-wheeled vehicles, thus leading to the reduction of carbon emissions and the expansion of renewable energy penetration in rural Kenya. Therefore, this paper focuses on integrating and modelling electric two-wheeled vehicles (e-bikes) into an off-grid photovoltaic Water-Energy Hub located in the Lake Victoria Region of Western Kenya using the Conventional and Renewable Energy Opti-mization (CARNOT) Toolbox in MATLAB / Simulink. Electricity demand data obtained from the Water-Energy Hub was investigated and analysed. Potential solar energy surplus was identified and electric two-wheeler vehicles were integrated based on the surplus. A field measurement investigation on the energy consumption of the electric two-wheeler vehicles based on the rider’s driving behaviour was also carried. The annual electricity demand of 27,267 kWh, photovoltaic (PV) electricity production of 37,785 kWh with an electricity deficit of 370 kWh were obtained from the simulation results. To reduce the electricity deficit, a load optimisation algorithm was de-veloped to optimally integrate the electric 2-wheeler vehicle into the Water-Energy Hub. It was found that using the load optimisation algorithm, the annual electricity deficit was reduced to 1 kWh and the annual electricity demand was increased by 11% (30,767 kWh) which is enough to charge 4 additional electric two-wheeler batteries daily.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0433.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Formation of the Yangtze river-lake system, Mid-Miocene, ancestral egg-type reconstruction, endemic cyprinids
Online: 22 January 2021 (08:41:48 CET)
The Yangtze River is cross-linked with numerous lakes within its floodplain and is a worldwide biodiversity hotspot. There is no evidence indicating when this unique river-lake system developed. The endemic East Asian cyprinid clade has evolved diverse spawning adaptations to different flow conditions. Our ancestral egg-type reconstruction showed an ancestral state of adhesive eggs and later demersal eggs origination (both stream adaptations). Semi-buoyant eggs emerged ~18 Mya as a fast-flowing river adaptation, with increased hydration via three yolk protein degradation pathways, ion transport pathways and egg envelope permeability transition pores. Adhesive eggs evolved secondarily ~14 Mya with the egg envelope increasing to four layers and an adhesive layer, along with an increase in adhesiveness via microfilament/adhesive-related protein crosslinking and enhanced glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, improving adherence to submerged lake plants, indicating that the cross-linked river-lake system formed in the mid-Miocene. This study provides a unique biological evidence for large-scale water system evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Sapanca Lake Basin; suspended sediment amount; artificial neuron networks; sediment rating curve; multiple linear regression
Online: 8 January 2018 (04:47:41 CET)
This paper is about to estimate the suspended sediment transport amount in the streams flowing into the Sapanca Lake Basin. There are 12 subsidiary streams flowing into the Sapanca Lake Basin. With the aim of estimating the suspended sediment transport in 2012-204 in these subsidiary streams, measurements belonging the parameters such as level, cross sectioning, flow rate, temperature and suspended sediment were made monthly. Along the measurement period, weather conditions were above seasonal normal and precipitations decreased. In order to estimate the suspended sediment amount by using results of the measurement obtained, Artificial Neuron Network (ANN), Sediment Rating Curve (SRC) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models were used for different scenarios. It was seen that artificial neuron networks yielded the most accurate results among the models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: endorheic; lake; Central Asia; evaporation; semi-arid; Kazakhstan; climate change; Landsat; regional climate model; Burabay
Online: 7 December 2017 (14:56:58 CET)
Both climate change and anthropogenic activities contribute to the deterioration of terrestrial water resources and ecosystems worldwide. Central Asian endorheic basins are among the most affected regions through both climate and human impacts. Here, we used a digital elevation model, digitized bathymetry maps and Landsat images to estimate the areal water cover extent and volumetric storage changes in small terminal lakes in Burabay National Nature Park (BNNP), located in Northern Central Asia (CA), for the period of 1986 to 2016. Based on the analysis of long-term climatic data from meteorological stations, short-term hydrometeorological network observations, gridded climate datasets (CRU) and global atmospheric reanalysis (ERA Interim), we have evaluated the impacts of historical climatic conditions on the water balance of BNNP lake catchments. We also discuss the future based on regional climate model projections. We attribute the overall decline of BNNP lakes to long-term deficit of water balance with lake evaporation loss exceeding precipitation inputs. Direct anthropogenic water abstraction has a minor importance in water balance. However, the changes in watersheds caused by the expansion of human settlements and roads disrupting water drainage may play a more significant role in lake water storage decline. More precise water resources assessment at the local scale will be facilitated by further development of freely available higher spatial resolution remote sensing products. In addition, the results of this work can be used for the development of lake/reservoir evaporation models driven by remote sensing and atmospheric reanalysis data without the direct use of ground observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0149.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: landsat 8 OLI; Nalban Lake; East Kolkata Wetland; chlorophyll-a prediction; study points; validation points
Online: 15 August 2016 (13:51:19 CEST)
1) Landsat operational land imager (OLI) data and consequent laboratory measurements were used to predict Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and the trophic states for an inland lake within the East Kolkata Wetland, India; 2) The most suitable band ratio was identified by performing Pearson correlation analysis between Chl-a concentrations and possible OLI band and band ratios from the study points; 3) The results showed highest correlation coefficient from the band ratio OLI5/OLI4 with an R value of 0.85. The prediction model was then developed by applying regression analysis between the band ratio OLI5/OLI4 and Chl-a concentration of the study points. The reflectance ratios of the validation points were given as input on the prediction model and the model output was considered as predicted Chl-a values of the validation points to check the efficiency of the prediction model. The regression model between laboratory-derived Chl-a value and model-fitted Chl-a value of the validation points revealed a high correlation with an R2 value of 0.78. Trophic State Index (TSI) of the lake was also calculated from laboratory-derived Chl-a value and model-fitted Chl-a value of the validation points. The study presented a high correlation of TSI determined from predicted data with TSI from laboratory reference data (R = 0.88). The TSI values of the lake ranged from 65 to 75 which indicate that the lake is appeared to be eutrophic to hypereutrophic conditions. 4) This empirical study showed that Landsat 8 OLI imagery can be effectively applied to estimate Chl-a levels and trophic states for inland lakes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0219.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: archaeological landscapes; Iron Age; Medieval period; agriculture; pastoralism; vertical zonation, Issyk-Kul Lake; archaeobotany; GIS mapping
Online: 17 May 2022 (03:29:22 CEST)
The main goal of this paper is to present results of preliminary archaeological research on the south side of Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan. We test the hypothesis that agropastoral land use changed over four millennia from the Bronze Age through the ethnographic Kirghiz period due to economic, socio-political, and religious changes in the prehistoric and historic societies of this region. Our research objectives are to: (1) describe and analyze survey results from Lower Kizil Suu Valley; (2) discuss the results of radiometric and archaeobotanical samples taken from three stratigraphic profiles from three settlements from the Juuku Valley, including these chronological periods: the Wusun period (200 to 400 CE), the Qarakhanid period (1100 to 1200 CE), and the ethnographic Kirghiz period (1700 to 1900 CE); and (3) conduct preliminary GIS spatial analyses on the Iron Age mortuary remains (Saka and Wusun period). This research emerges out of the first archaeological surveys conducted in 2019 - 2021 and includes the Lower Kizil Suu alluvial fan; it is an initial step toward developing a model for agropastoral land use for upland valleys of the Inner Tian Shan Mountains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0202.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Inland saline wetland; lake; ecosystem; biodiversity; human interventions; Google Earth Engine; Normalized Difference Water Index; Restoration
Online: 13 October 2021 (13:09:59 CEST)
Globally, saline lakes occupying 23% by area 44% by volume among all the lakes might desiccate by 2025 due to agricultural diversion, illegal encroachment, pollution, and invasive species. India’s largest saline lake, Sambhar is currently shrinking at the rate of 4.23% due to illegal saltpan en-croachment. This research article aims to identify the trend of migratory birds and monthly wetland status. Birds survey was conducted for 2019, 2020 and 2021 and combined with literature data of 1994, 2003, and 2013 for visiting trend, feeding habit, migratory and resident ratio, and ecological diversity index analysis. Normalized Difference Water Index was scripted in Google Earth Engine. Results state that it has been suitable for 97 species. Highest NDWI values for the was whole study period was 0.71 in 2021 and lowest 0.008 in 2019 which is highly fluctuating. The decreasing trend of migratory birds coupled with decreasing water level indicates the dubious status for its existence. If the causal factors are not checked, it might completely desiccate by 2059 as per its future prediction. Certain steps are suggested that might help conservation. Least, the cost of restoration might exceed the revenue generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: salt-lake environment; concrete; concrete chloride-ion diffusion coefficient; multi-factor coupling model; chloride-ion concentration
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:10:26 CEST)
Immersion in salt-lake solution was adopted to periodically test the concrete chloride-ion diffusion coefficient. The regression analysis was also completed. Also investigated was the time-dependent law of concrete chloride-ion diffusion coefficient with time. The influence of chloride-ion concentration in solution, water-to-cement ratio, and corrosion time on the largeness and accumulation rate of the concrete chloride-ion diffusion coefficient was also analyzed. Test results show that the concrete chloride-ion diffusion coefficient gradually decreased with increasing time and increased with increasing chloride-ion concentration in a salt lake . Taking into account the influence of factors such as water–binder ratio, chloride-ion concentration, and time-varying characteristics, a multi-factor calculation model for the concrete chloride-ion diffusion coefficient was established. Combining the prediction results and the measured data reported in this paper, the effectiveness and applicability of the established concrete chloride-ion diffusion coefficient calculation model were compared and verified, and the durability design and service life of a concrete structure under cool chlorine were compared. The results of analysis provide important boundary conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0108.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Variance Inflation Factor; VIF; multiple regression; Landsat; Austin; Lady Bird Lake; water quality; environmental factor; energy flux; urban runoff
Online: 17 October 2017 (03:38:28 CEST)
A simple approach to enable water-management agencies employing free data to achieve the goal of using a single set of predictive equations for water-quality retrievals with satisfactory accuracy is proposed. Multiple regression-derived equations based on surface reflectance, band ratios, and environmental factors as predictor variables for concentrations of Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Nitrogen (TN), and Total Phosphorus (TP) were derived using a hybrid forward-selection method that considers Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) in the forward-selection process. Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI/TIRS images were jointly utilized with environmental factors, such as wind speed and water surface temperature, to derive the single set of equations. The coefficients of determination of the best-fitting resultant equations varied from 0.62 to 0.79. Among all chosen predictor variables, ratio of reflectance of visible red (Band 3 for Landsat TM and ETM+, or Band 4 for Landsat OLI/TIRS) to visible blue (Band 1 for Landsat TM and ETM+, or Band 2 for Landsat OLI/TIRS) has a strong influence on the predictive power for TSS retrieval. Environmental factors including wind speed, remote sensing-derived water surface temperature, solar altitude, and time difference (in days) between the image acquisition and water sampling were found important in water-quality parameter estimation.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0100.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ALS; glacial; lake; clay; mineral; United States; Canada; Finland; Vermont; New Hampshire; Maine; Ohio; Wisconsin; Indiana; Minnesota; North Dakota; Montana, Idaho; Washington; Oregon; Colorado; Iowa; Utah
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:21:51 CET)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease clusters are found in several countries worldwide. In the United States, ALS clusters are found in many states, largely within the northern United States. The cause of the increased rates of ALS in these areas remains indefinite. It is reported here that many ALS clusters are associated with sites of current or prior glacial lakes, or regions containing an abundance of silts and clay minerals. The potential significance of these findings in ALS is discussed.