ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0121.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Formal Education, Labor Market Participation, Literacy, Poverty, Sustainable Development, Semipametric Trivariate Probit
Online: 19 February 2018 (16:00:35 CET)
This research contributes to the overall debate on education for sustainable development (ESD) by shed- ding lights on the contributing role of formal education to the contemporaneous dynamics of literacy, labor market participation and poverty reduction in Africa, with a focus on Burkina Faso. The study uses a semi-parametric recursive trivariate probit modeling approach, and data from the 2014 National Survey on Household Living Conditions in Burkina Faso. The results show that the embraced systemic approach in this analysis is statistically signicant as shown by the 95% condence intervals on the three correlation coeffcients in the model. Furthermore, education does improve literacy skills, however improved literacy skills in itself does not guaranty active labor market participation in Burkina Faso. Active labor market participation seem to be affected by labor market rates of return, and individual reservation wage (or income). When labor market rate of return is short of high literacy skilled individuals' reservation wage, then the natural response is a choice of inactivity in the labor market, by the later group. Simultaneously however, it is found that active labor market participation leads to poverty reduction; therefore, in addition to new industrial policies for structural transformation of the economy, policy makers in Burkina Faso should consider education and minimum wage reforms to give highly literate household members the incentive to be active in the labor market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0058.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: labor migration; migration policy; Russia; Post-Soviet space; governmentality; labor legalization
Online: 18 September 2016 (09:45:52 CEST)
The authors argue that despite significant numbers of foreign workers present in the Russian labor market Russia remains unattractive for highly skilled foreign workers. The economic crisis the country has faced since 2014 has resulted in a further outflow of foreign nationals from OECD countries. So Russia has to look for employees among newcomers from the former Soviet states, the majority of whom come from Central Asia. Russian politics with regard to immigration is characterized by the collision between “geopolitical” and domestic policy rationales. On one hand, seeking to maximize its influence in the post-Soviet space Russia provides preferential conditions of employment for citizens of partner countries in the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. On the other hand, the Kremlin is afraid to liberalize its approach to immigration and the integration of immigrants through fear of losing popularity among the electorate. The second substantial feature of Russian immigration politics is an extreme level of securitization of migration issues. The government considers these issues primarily through a policing lens. One cannot claim that the Russian state does not take any steps to liberalize “migratory regulation”; however, the effect of these measures is being vastly reduced by new restrictions. In addition, liberally designed laws do not bring the expected results due to the corrupt practices that pervade the whole of migration regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0472.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: media; journalism; deep journalism; labor markets; Great Resignation; Quiet Quitting; Millennials; Generation Z; Big Data Analytics; Natural Language Processing (NLP)
Online: 31 October 2022 (08:33:34 CET)
We live in the information age and, ironically, meeting the core function of journalism – i.e., to provide people access to unbiased information – has never been more difficult. This paper explores deep journalism, our data-driven Artificial Intelligence (AI) based journalism approach to study how the LinkedIn media could be useful for journalism. Specifically, we apply our deep journalism approach to LinkedIn to automatically extract and analyse big data to provide the public with information about labour markets, people’s skills and education, and businesses and industries from multi-generational perspectives. The Great Resignation and Quiet Quitting phenomena coupled with rapidly changing generational attitudes are bringing unprecedented and uncertain changes to labour markets and our economies and societies, and hence the need for journalistic investigations into these topics is highly significant. We combine big data and machine learning to create a whole machine learning pipeline and a software tool for journalism that allows discovering parameters for age dynamics in labour markets using LinkedIn data. We collect a total of 57,000 posts from LinkedIn and use it to discover 15 parameters by Latent Dirichlet Allocation algorithm (LDA) and group them into five macro-parameters, namely Generations-Specific Issues, Skills & Qualifications, Employment Sectors, Consumer Industries, and Employment Issues. The journalism approach used in this paper can automatically discover and make objective, cross-sectional, and multi-perspective information available to all. It can bring rigour to journalism by making it easy to generate information using machine learning and can make tools and information available so that anyone can uncover information about matters of public importance. This work is novel since none of the earlier works have reported such an approach and tool and leveraged it to use LinkedIn media for journalism and to discover multigenerational perspectives (parameters) for age dynamics in labour markets. The approach could be extended with additional AI tools and other media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: DEA; COVID; labor; bootstrap; gender
Online: 17 July 2023 (15:09:11 CEST)
The main point in the present article was the comparison of the Technical Efficiency (TE) in four years for milk production in Ecuador by the period 2018 – 2021, before and after the pandemic, and the determination of the factors related to the TE for the last year. The information from the official public database in the country were analyzed by the nonparametric technique called DEA including a bootstrap simulation. Once different variables were selected including aspects as livestock and labor, the TE with Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) with “output” orientation was calculated by each year and province. Among the provinces, statistically significant differences were found (P<0.1) for the TE means, and most of the efficient units were found throughout the Andean zone, in each year. Between the most important findings, it was important that the TE average after the beginning of the pandemic was statistically lower than the last 3 consecutive years under study (P<0.1) with 3% approximately of decrease, and the main factors related to this were multiple including labor characteristics, the field composition, and the supplies access during the pandemic. Finally, some implications for public policy were found around the gender in agriculture activities, the social security, and the difficulties in supplies access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0591.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Child labor; Working conditions; Poverty; Schooling; Bangladesh
Online: 28 January 2021 (15:39:54 CET)
1) Background: A significant proportion of child laborers are compelled to work in exploitative environments, experience both deteriorating health and financial loss. The present study sought to determine the factors affecting child labour and the characteristics of their working environment. 2) Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted with 80 child labourers aged 5 to 17 years. Alongside descriptive statistics, a newly devised technique known as Influencing Causes Index (ICI) was administered and tested. 3) Results: The startling demographic findings reveal that peak share of child labourers are young children (12-14 years) and 32.5% child laborers had never attended school. The thorough assessment of determinants reflects that not only poverty, but schooling expenses and lack of access opportunity to primary schools are also the top-ranked push factors to trigger children towards labour. Around 72.5% of children work for over 8 hours a day. A significant proportion of participants received no leave, training, or access to hygiene facilities. The existing pattern of employment and working conditions resulted in musculoskeletal pain and dermatological infections among child labourers (p<0.05). 4) Conclusion: This research suggests that income measures for households, and an education programme for both children and parents would expedite the abolition of child labour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: refugees; career adaptability; resettlement success; labor market integration
Online: 27 December 2021 (15:56:38 CET)
Today's unstable labor market increasingly requires flexibility and adaptability to cope with the threat of unemployment. It can cause distress in people and have a more significant negative impact on fragile workers, such as migrants. This study aimed to test whether a Career Counseling intervention designed for Migrants (CCfM) can develop Career Adaptability and, therefore, both Work Self-efficacy (WSe) and Job Search Self-efficacy (JSSe) perceptions. It was conducted in Italy and involved a sample of 233 migrants, who were asked to respond to a questionnaire available in three languages (Italian, French, and English). Data analysis showed that an improvement was demonstrated in all the variables considered, namely career adaptability (including concern, control, confidence, and curiosity), WSe, and JSSe, even though the CCfM was not directly designed to increase the last one. In addition, the development of career adaptability explained the increase in migrants' WSe and JSSe, and the initial level of career adaptability was found to explain the increase in WSe due to the initial positive level of curiosity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0258.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Innovation; Sociality; Economic Impact; Labor Dynamics; Urban Density
Online: 13 January 2021 (16:21:31 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 changed the way we interact and engage in commerce at a fundamental level. Social distancing and stay-at-home orders leave businesses and cities wondering what economic activity will look like in the future. Given a likely reduction in face-to-face interactions, it is important to better understand how social interactivity influences economic outcomes. Here we measure the effect of social interactions in the workforce on patent production and economic efficiency. We decompose U.S. occupations into individual work activities, determine which of those activities are associated with face-to-face interactions, and reaggregate the labor force of each U.S. metropolitan statistical area (MSA) into a metric of social interactiveness. We then calculate each MSA’s density of social work activities and find that this measure is more highly correlated with an MSA’s per capita patent production than simple population density. This suggests that density of face-to-face interactions is the important driver of a city’s rate of invention. We close by exploring analogies between the development of cities and the development of stars, suggesting ways these analogies may help frame future research on cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1540.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: longevity; workforce; stochastic model; labor force participation; sustainable future
Online: 24 October 2023 (16:43:36 CEST)
The world population is aging, which along with recent shifts in the labor force participation (LFP), is having a significant longevity influence on state pension programs across the board, including Canada, Finland, Japan, and Germany. Except Japan, these countries have set their statutory re-tirement age at 65, but the impact of aging workforce and declined fertility rates create wonders on the estimate future trends in the LFP, as well as the length of retirement. In this study, we fit the LFP rates of these countries, representing continents from Asia, Europe and North America among the OECD countries, using the Lee-Carter and Cairns-Blake-Dowd (CBD) stochastic models. The es-timates are then used for the projection of future LFP rates (1989-2066), and by combining the mortality forecasts from the United Nations, we project the expected length of retirement (1989-2066). This study provided a novel comparison between the Lee-Carter and the CBD LFP models by fitting and forecasting the LFP rates of senior employees between 50- to 74-year-olds. The results revealed disparities between models that provided proof of the presence of model risk for longer retirement durations. The study findings emphasized the importance for decision-makers in pension industry to have awareness of potential risks and limits associated with the LFP models. The Lee-Carter model outperformed the CBD model even though the CBD model is known for its ac-curate prediction in higher ages. Population aging should be considered in any analysis of the long-term viability of pensions, together with the participation rate trends for a sustainable labor market future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0224.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: hukou; floating population; city growth; intercounty moves; labor relocation
Online: 13 March 2023 (08:50:15 CET)
When we discuss migration and compare national trends, the topic most commonly centers on undocumented immigrants and asylum seekers. However, there is also considerable variation in internal migration patterns, with differences found between and within nations. Many factors shape whether, why, and where people relocate. Over the last few decades, the world's two largest economies - the United States and China - have seen domestic migration changes happening in opposite directions. China has become increasingly mobile and experienced urbanization. In contrast, the U.S. has seen a steady decline in the rate at which its population relocates, with cities experiencing net migration losses as citizens leave for suburbs. This paper examines these trends using data from the last decade to compare the two nations in areas of internal migration, urbanization, housing, social mobility, and economic growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0218.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Migration; Shared Socioeconomic Pathways; Inequality; Labor; Demographics; Human capital
Online: 15 March 2022 (14:29:19 CET)
International migration is closely tied to demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental factors and their interaction with migration policies. Using a combination of a gravity econometric model and an overlapping generations model, we estimate the probability of bilateral migration among 160 countries in the period of 1960 to 2000 and use these findings to project international migration flows and their implication for income inequality within and between countries in the 21st century under five shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Our results show that international migration not only increases the welfare in developing countries, but also closes the inequality gap within and between low-skilled and high-skilled labor in these countries. In most developed countries on the contrary, international migration increases the inequality gap and slightly reduces output. These changes are not uniform and vary significantly across countries depending on their population growth and human capital development trajectories. Overall, while migration is strongly affected by inequality between developed and developing countries, it has an ambiguous impact on inequality within and between countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1077.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: economic freedom; factor analysis; MEFI; labor market; government spending; taxation
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:26:59 CEST)
The Metropolitan Economic Freedom Index (MEFI) ranks cities based on their support of free market enterprise. In its current state, MEFI purports to measure three constructs (government spending, taxation, and labor market freedom) with three equally weighted variables for each one, assuming perfect substitutability of variables. This study investigates the statistical consistency of MEFI through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Multiple models investigate current variable selection by providing a potentially better indicator of labor market freedom, aggregation assumptions by removing the requirements for fixed and equal weights, and statistical consistency by evaluating the fit between the data and models. Results indicate that the current MEFI model is not statistically consistent with the data, that weighting of variables should not be equal, that variable selection should be investigated, and that constructs should be re-imagined. The models investigated provide an initial starting point for redefining MEFI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0522.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: carbon reduction; production automation; labor cost; manufacturing transformation; manufacturing intelligence
Online: 29 November 2022 (02:33:50 CET)
As China put forward its “carbon emissions peak and carbon neutrality” goals, how to achieve carbon reduction had become a key for China’s goal. The manufacturing industry is an important source of carbon dioxide emissions. For a manufacturing country like China, adjustments in various aspects of the industry would have a huge impact on carbon emissions. As an important reform of contemporary production mode, the process of production automation in China will inevitably affect China's carbon emissions. Therefore, the analysis of the impact of production automation on carbon dioxide emissions was an important basis for judging the future carbon reduction in China. Refer to the traditional study of carbon Kuznets curve, this paper analyzed the impact of average wage on production automation and the role of production automation in the carbon Kuznets curve(CKC). This paper proposed that production automation plays a mediating role in the process of carbon emissions, and gives a verification model of the mediating role. By analyzing the relationship between average wage and production automation process, the U-shaped curve relationship between them was verified. By examining the relationship between carbon dioxide emission data and production automation industry in China, we verified that production automation plays a partial mediating role in the change of carbon Kuznets curve. Combined with the analysis of the two parts, this paper believed that with the continuous development of China's intelligent manufacturing industry, China's carbon reduction prospects were more optimistic, and there was a good industrial foundation to achieve the “carbon peaking and carbon neutrality” goals. Finally, this paper proposes policy suggestions as increase research investment in production automation, help promote the application of production automation, encourage the research and application development of low-carbon technology, especially encourage modular design, so as to give full play to the role of production automation in the process of carbon neutrality in China.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0339.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: digital-divide; malnutrition; child psychology; child-labor; COVID-19; India
Online: 25 May 2022 (03:49:43 CEST)
Since the origin of COVID-19, everyone is getting accustomed to the new rules and regulations, travel restrictions and new lifestyle. Constant changes in the government advisories and the COVID-19 guidelines poses a real challenge for children to adapt to causing stress, anxiety and other mental health issues. Therefore, it is imperative to raise awareness about the challenges that Indian children are dealing with to help them better cope with this stressful and frantic time. The focus of this review is on various child-related problems that the Indian government is trying to tackle such as stress, depression, malnutrition, school closures, digital divide, child labor, child trafficking in context of mental health issues caused by them during COVID-19. Highlights:The reader will come to appreciate that: Digital-divide caused by shifting offline learning to online mode. Strategies implemented by Indian government to combat malnutrition Effect of COVID-19 lockdown on children suffering from mental disorders Child labor and trafficking and the strategies that aim to decrease child labor during the pandemic Educating the children appropriately regarding COVID protocols
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0664.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Overlapping generation; Climate justice; Endogenous labor; OLG model; Intergenerational Sustainability
Online: 26 November 2020 (10:47:45 CET)
Climate justice as a commons is conceived as the intertemporal climate equity and equal- ity exchange amongst generations. Sustainability, intended as the interplay amongst the economy, the society, the environment, and the governance, is essential to forge the climate justice theoretical framework. On this base, the study attempts to model intertemporal choice amongst generations in these four domains, making use of an over- lapping generations (OLG) model. The proxies detected are GDP growth (economy), environmental quality (environment), and labor growth, and environmental investment (society) as assumptions. The governance dimension is captured by the di¤erence in wealth between young and old generations. The work aims at replying to the follow- ing research question: Which are the conditions for sustainable development such that climate justice holds? The intra-intergenerational exchange is de ned in two periods, while the individual provides their preferred economic and environmental choice mix as consumption-saving. This study shows that sustainable growth is achievable only with increased young e¤ort and less leisure and consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1854.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: obstetrics labor; obstetric violence; surveys and questionnaires; validation Studies as topic
Online: 28 August 2023 (10:02:28 CEST)
Obstetric Violence refers to dehumanized or derogative treatment of women in their pregnancy, childbirth or postpartum periods and may be manifested through the attitudes of health professionals or the performance of unjustified or outdated practices without maternal consent. Currently, there is no tool validated in Spain to measure women’s perception of obstetric violence. The objective of this study was to carry out the cultural adaption and validation of an existing 14-item Obstetric Violence Scale to the Spanish context, and to evaluate its psychometric properties. The research was conducted in two phases: first, a methodological study designed to evaluate content validity, through assessments by 8 experts (calculating the Aiken V coefficient) and face validity in a sample of 20 women; second, a cross-sectional study to evaluate construct validity (through confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis), divergent validity against a scale of birth satisfaction, known groups validity and reliability. In Phase 1, Aiken V values higher than 0.71 were obtained for all items. Phase 2 was conducted on a sample of 256 women and the fit values for the unidimensional model were RMSEA: 0.070 [95%CI: 0.059-0.105] and GFI: 0.982 [95%CI: 0.823-0.990]. The Rasch analysis indicated poor performance of item 2, which was removed. The Omega and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were 0.863 and 0.860, respectively. A final 13-item version of the Obstetric Violence scale was produced, with total score ranging from 0 (no obstetric violence perception) to 52 (maximum obstetric violence perception). The Obstetric Violence Scale is a reliable and useful tool to measure women's perception of obstetric violence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0125.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: labor force participation rate; general to specific modelling; step indicator saturation
Online: 8 October 2018 (05:00:18 CEST)
The seasonally adjusted civilian labor force participation rate, the sum of employed and unemployed persons as a percentage of the civilian non-institutional population, is analysed in the general to specific modelling framework with a saturating set of step indicators from January 1977 through June 2018. The results indicate that, ceteris paribus, the rise in the ratio of women to men in the labor force in addition to positive demographic movements can largely account for the rise in the labor force participation rate up to January 2000. Subsequently, the aging population helps to explain the decline. Recessions play a transitory role.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1877.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economic growth; Foreign Direct Investment; Import and Export; Influence Analysis; Labor Force
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:04:57 CEST)
This study aims to explore predictors of the foreign investment from China coming into Rwanda. One of the components of Rwanda’s economy is the investment it receives from other countries. In order to achieve these objectives, the study gathers econometric secondary data from 2007 to 2020 quarterly which were availably provided by National Statistics of China, World Bank, UNCTAD, National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda, and the National bank of Rwanda. From literature and based on the availability of data, market size, trade openness, infrastructure, and human capital were measured as predictors of Chinese FDI. The data is analyzed using linear regression in Stata. The finding of the study showed that variables have a positive effect on FDI from China, and it found that though FDI had an effect on overall economy of Rwanda, the effect was not statistically significant. The study suggested that Rwanda’s policy on foreign investment should aim to attract and encourage Chinese investment to increase the economy of Rwanda. To encourage more FDI, the Rwandan government can offer Chinese investors greater ownership, locational, and internalization benefits. It also should continue to strengthen economic policy transparency since it lowers transaction costs and hence improves incentives for foreign investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Anastatica hierochuntica L; Phytoconstituents; Antioxidant; Anti-inflammatory; Acute toxicity; Uterine contractility; labor
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:41:17 CEST)
Anastatica hierochuntica L. (Brassicaceae) has been claimed to treat various conditions including complicated childbirth. The principal objective of this research was to provide scientific evidence on the contractile effect of the aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of the whole plant from A. hierochuntica during labor. Qualitative and quantitative methods helped identify and quantify the phytoconstituents in both extracts. The antioxidant activity was studied using four standard methods. The inhibitory power of the extracts on pro-inflammatory enzymes such as 15-lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 was determined. The contractile effects of the extracts were evaluated using isolated pregnant mice uteri. Steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, and reduced compounds were identified in both extracts. The extracts demonstrated the ability to reduce oxidative stress. The hydroethanolic extract displayed the most significant anti-lipoxygenase activity with an IC50 value of 55.82 ± 1.15 µg/mL. The lethal dose (LD50) of extracts was estimated to be superior to 2000 mg/kg bw. The ability of the samples to produce one cm amplitude of contraction at 50% effective concentrations (EC50) was 1.51 ± 0.08 mg/mL for aqueous extract and 3.57 ± 0.61 mg/mL for hydroethanolic extract. These findings could provide evidence for using Anastatica hierochuntica to augment labor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0330.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Female Participation in Labor Force (FPLF); Foreign Direct Investment (FDI); System GMM
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:39:27 CET)
This study assesses the impact of globalization on female participation in the labor force (FPLF). The increased globalization in the last several decades has created various economic opportunities for enterprises and individuals worldwide at an unprecedented rate. As a result, it has helped improve the quality of life for many men and women. In this process, the issue of women’s economic participation has been a critical topic for discussion worldwide. In that context, the objective of the paper is to determine if FPLF is influenced by a country’s participation in foreign markets through foreign direct investment (FDI) – a proxy for globalization. The paper uses a panel dataset obtained from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators database for 99 countries from 2001 to 2018. We then use system Generalized Method of Moments (system GMM) to estimate a dynamic panel model with appropriate specification tests. The results show that the positive effects of FDI on FPLF are more robust for low- and middle-income countries than high-income countries. We also find that results may be sensitive to outlier observations. Our results explain the seemingly inconclusive results within existing literatures and suggest that low- and middle-income countries should particularly focus on sectors that generate FDI as they stand to yield the greatest benefits with regards to female economic empowerment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0194.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Complexity; Evolution; Major transitions; Multicellularity; Selective driver; Environment; Size; Division of labor
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:39:39 CET)
In order to understand the evolution of multicellularity, we must understand how and why selection favors the first steps in this process: the evolution of simple multicellular groups. Multicellularity has evolved many times in independent lineages with fundamentally different ecologies, yet no work has yet systematically examined these diverse selective drivers. Here we review recent developments in systematics, comparative biology, paleontology, synthetic biology, theory, and experimental evolution, highlighting ten selective drivers of simple multicellularity. Our survey highlights the many ecological opportunities available for simple multicellularity, and stresses the need for additional work examining how these first steps impact the subsequent evolution of complex multicellularity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0653.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: misoprostol; induction of labor; high-risk pregnancy; obesity; diabetes; hypertension; perinatal outcome
Online: 25 November 2020 (16:41:16 CET)
Background and objectives: Induction of labor (IOL) is an event that occurs in up to one-quarter of pregnancies; less is known about the outcomes and safety of IOL in obese pregnant woman; no data is available on misoprostol vaginal insert (MVI) IOL in high-risk pregnancy obese women. Objectives: (1) to evaluate the rate of successful IOL with 200 μg MVI in obese (Body Mass Index - BMI over 30 kg/m2) high-risk pregnant women: late-term pregnancy, hypertension or diabetes, compared to obese non-high-risk ones; (2) to evaluate the safety profile of MVI in high-risk pregnancy obese patients. Study design: We conducted a cross-sectional study in "Filantropia" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, from June 2017 to September 2019 (28 months). From a total of 11,096 registered live births, IOL was performed in 206 obese patients; 74 obese high-risk pregnant patients matched the inclusion criteria; of these, 33.8% pregnancies (n=25) were late-term (41 – 41+6 weeks), 43.2% (n=32) had associated pathologies (hypertension and diabetes); labor induction was guided using a standardized protocol. We evaluated the maternal and gestational age, parity, fetal tachysystole, hyper-stimulation, initial cervical status, time from induction to delivery, drug side effects, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes. Results: (a) The overall successful labor induction rate, evaluated by the vaginal delivery rate, was 71.6% (n=53), spontaneously or instrumentally assisted; 28.4% (n=21) births were unsuccessful MVI IOL, converted into caesareans. (b) No significant differences were found regarding the maternal outcomes; in terms of perinatal outcomes of safety, four cases of high-risk pregnancies vaginally delivered were associated with neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions and a one-minute Apgar score under seven (5.4%). Most cases with adverse effects of misoprostol have been managed conservatively, except for three emergency C-section cases. Conclusions: Misoprostol vaginal insert is a safe choice in IOL in obese high-risk pregnancies with good maternal and perinatal outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0089.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Affordable Care Act; access to care; co-residence; labor supply; medical expenditure
Online: 12 March 2018 (08:36:46 CET)
This paper investigates the effects of Inter-generational co-residence on health care market, and labor market outcomes, to see whether or not living under the same roof with at least one parent matters in health care market, and labor market behaviors in post-Affordable-Care Act (ACA) USA. The adopted analytical strategy involves not only looking at the gender differences in co-residence, and its effects on outcomes in the two markets, but also accounting for co-residence endogeneity following the recent literature. Unlike the recent literature that relies on instrumental variables methods, this study adopts a switching regression approach, defining inter-generational co-residence as an endogenous selection process using a binary probit equation, and modeled jointly with the extensive margins and intensive margins in the two markets. This novel approach results in a recursive trivariate probit model for each market, and estimated using penalized maximum likelihood methods. The results suggest that ACA by reorganizing the US health care market, seems to have reduced significantly disparities in health care access among males and females based on race, region of residence, place of birth, and citizenship. However not only do we observe significant differences in inter-generational co-residence status between males and females, we also find significant inequalities in the effects of co-residence on health care market, and labor market outcomes. In fact, co-residence is found to increase health care expenditure by 56.7% among females, while this figure increases to 74.2% among males. In addition co-residing individuals, while spending 69.7% more on health care annually are 1.22 times more likely to access health care, but 31% less likely to use health care intensively during the year. In the labor market, co-residence is found to reduce significantly hours of weekly labor supplied by 41% for females, and 55.6% for males. Furthermore co-residing individuals, while not significantly different in their likelihood of labor force participation, are 1.52 times less likely to work full time once they decide to participate, and also spend about 55.4% less time working in the labor market in post-ACA USA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0005.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: motivational mechanism; labor interests; personnel selection; adaptation and training; the structure of interests
Online: 2 December 2019 (04:46:36 CET)
The issue of actualization of labor interests as a motivational driver and one of the sources of labor productivity is little-studied in applied and organizational psychology. The study given in the paper fills some “blanks” of this problem. The leading approach to research is the motivational system proposed on the basis of theoretical analysis and the developed psychological model of labor interests. Using the methods of a special survey, questioning and interview guides, the analysis and comparative assessment of the labor interests of 50 candidates for the service manager position (entertainment and restaurant industry field) was conducted; as well as of 45 employees in this industry aged 18 to 25. The main results of the paper show the connection of labor interests with the company's personnel management system, namely with the processes of selection, adaptation, and training. It was revealed that the candidates selected for the service manager position were of primary group interest and financial incentive was secondary. At the same time, financial incentive contributed to the successful passage of the adaptation period. Occupational interests of employees depended on their education and job specifics. Career interests were influenced by the time spent with the company. The recommendations necessary for employers to create the conditions corresponding to the leading labor interests of employees were substantiated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: evolutionary mismatch; diagnosis of labor; prospective diagnosis; cervical dilatation; uterine contractions; pain intensity; metabolomic.
Online: 16 January 2023 (07:25:19 CET)
The difficulty in the clinical diagnosis of labor is due to an evolutionary mismatch. The ability to hide the signs and symptoms of labor is an evolutionary trait that was once advantageous, but became maladaptive due to environmental changes. Prospective diagnosis of labor is not possible with certainty using only clinical criteria; however, by analyzing the urinary metabolome of women in labor, this diagnosis is likely possible in all cases. In this review, we explain why the two methods (clinical and metabolomic) differ in efficacy and sensitivity, and we try to fit this difference into an evolutionary framework that explains these discrepancies considering evolutionary mismatch. The study of metabolomics allows the truth to emerge from the past, and the diffusion of metabolomic techniques and their application to clinical reality in the form of POC (Point of Care) could change the management of labor and childbirth in the future.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0052.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: China Rural Pension Scheme, retirement sustainability, labor supply, grandchildren care, Western China, ceaseless toil
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:47:21 CEST)
This paper evaluates the effect of China’s New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS) on the retirement sustainability in forms of both formal labor supply and informal labor supply, using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). We explore the regional differences of the NRPS effect on labor supply between the Western regions and the other regions of China. Our analysis shows that western rural China has a more severe problem of “ceaseless toil” compared to the rest of the country. We find that NRPS improves the “ceaseless toil” situation of the Chinese rural elderly, and the results show a very different pattern between western China and other parts of the country.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; remote work; dual labor market; polarization; collective bargaining; rule revision unfavorably to workers
Online: 27 April 2021 (10:12:27 CEST)
This research analyzed South Korean companies’ adoption of remote work during the COVID-19 pandemic, by focusing on the dual labor market structure comprising of the primary (large corporations) and the secondary sectors (small and medium enterprises (SMEs)). Companies in the dual labor market were classified as per firm size. We used Statistics Korea’s August supplementary data from the Economically Active Population Survey, covering 2017–2020. This empirical study analyzed the factors affecting remote work in 2020, after the outbreak of the pandemic. The results showed that the probability of large corporations introducing remote work during the pandemic increased by a significantly larger margin than for small and medium-sized firms. This suggests that the polarization within the dual labor market structure between large corporations and SMEs also spilled over into companies’ adoption of remote work, which was initially introduced to prevent the spread of the pandemic. Additionally, the polarization in the use of digital technology is likely to persist even after the pandemic. Hence, based on our analysis of remote work adoption in the dual labor market, this study examined the system and factors of labor-management relations contributing toward such polarization and presented policy directions for the current labor market structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0672.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education of the person; Science of education; Educational research; Methodology of educa-tional labor; Pedagogical concepts
Online: 8 August 2023 (13:03:28 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to describe and explain the characteristics of pedagogy as a science of education, as an object, concepts and research method. The methodology assumed was the review of the history of pedagogy, especially the classics of pedagogy, those who built it with their experiences in laboratory schools. Here are listed the main concepts of pedagogy, its laws and principles; she establishes the opposition that exists between teaching-learning and education as formation of the personality; she also delimits the fields of the pedagogical method, of didactics or teaching-learning, and the methodology of educational labor that organizes the process and the educational context, the regime and the lifestyle, such as those experienced in the "colonies" or "communes" of children and adolescents, organized and directed by Neill and Makarenko. Since the present article does not derive from a primary source or from field work, as an empirical or experimental research, the results constitute the content of the article, as conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0133.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Key words: Pressure on cropland; Labor / household density; Shandong Province in China; The 17th-20th century
Online: 17 May 2017 (13:34:53 CEST)
Cropland area per capita and pressure index on cropland is the important parameters measuring the social vulnerability and sustainability in the perspective of food security in a certain region in China during the historical periods. This study reconstructs the spatial distribution change of cropland area per labor/household and pressure index on cropland during the 17th-20th century by the methods of historical documents, regression analysis, pressure index model and GIS. Then it analyzed the impacting process of climate change and sustainability of cropland use during the different periods. It draws conclusions: (i) the spatial difference of labor/household density was obvious which had the same pattern as cropland distribution during the same periods, which is higher density in three agricultural areas. (ii) Cropland area per capita was relatively higher during the 17th-18th century, which were above 0.4 ha/person in majority counties and distributed homogenously. Till the 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, cropland area per capita in large amount of regions decreased below 0.2 ha/person embodying the increase of social vulnerability and unsustainability at that time. (iii) Pressure index on cropland also showed the similar spatial pattern as cropland area per capita which presented lower threshold than nowadays. During the 17th-18th century there was no pressure on cropland. While, in the 19th century and at the beginning of 20th century, two high value centers of pressure index on cropland appeared in Middle Shandong and the Jiaodong region, pressure on sustainable cropland use increased obviously and a food crisis is probably created. (iv) Higher sustainable extent of cropland use corresponds to cold period, and lower sustainable extent of cropland use corresponds to warm period in Shandong over the past 300 years. The turning point of 1680s from dry to wet attributes to the decrease of sustainable extent of cropland use in Shandong not very distinctively. More and more pressure on sustainability of cropland use finally since the beginning of 20th century would intensify the social conflict and increase the probability of social revolts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0246.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Oxytocin, Oxytocin Receptor, Autism, Nepsys Scale, MAST Immune System Disease, Dendritic Spines, Magnocellular Neurons, Desensitization, Labor, Down Regulation
Online: 23 April 2019 (11:12:19 CEST)
This paper develops mathematical models examining possible roles of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in the development of autism. This is done by demonstrating that mathematical operations on normalized data from the Stanford study (K.J. Parker, 2016), which establishes a correspondence between severity of autism in children and their oxytocin blood levels, generates a graph that is the same as the graph of mathematical operations on a normalized theoretical model for the severity of autism. This procedure establishes the validity of the theoretical model and the significance of oxytocin receptors in autism. A steady-state model follows, explaining the constant baseline concentrations of oxytocin observed in the cerebral spinal fluid and blood in terms of the neuromodulation by oxytocin of oxytocin receptors on the magnocellular neurons that produce oxytocin in nuclei in the hypothalamus. The implications of these models for possible roles of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in autism is considered for several unrelated conditions that may be associated with autism. These are: oxytocin receptor desensitization and down-regulation as factors during labor in offspring autism development; reductions in the oxytocin receptor numbers in the fixed oxytocin receptor expression that occurs before birth; MAST Immune System disease; and the excess number of dendritic spines from lack of pruning observed in brains of autistic people. Research into the feasibility of generating magnocellular neurons and other neurons from adult stem cells is suggested as a way of doing invitro studies of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors to assess the validity of theories presented in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0064.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: digital transit; sustainable development; labor market; professional employment; economic sustainability; pace of development; artificial intelligence (AI); corporate social responsibility.
Online: 4 October 2021 (15:36:30 CEST)
This article explores the question of the rate of digital progress in the context of the labor market. Specific features of the current situation are indicated: temporality of socio-technological transformations, which is becoming less and less compatible with the harmonious development of man and society; the pace at which machines acquire intelligence; total devaluation of mental labor; unresolved issue of the role of man in the world of intelligent machines; the criticality of the problem of the labor market, due to its global nature, social significance and the rate of socio-technological changes. It is emphasized that these circumstances in the short term threaten the sustainable development of the global society, whose reactions to the transformation of technological and socio-economic infrastructure are significantly lagging behind. It is concluded that there is an urgent need to strengthen social responsibility, determined by the new ethics of relations between humans and machines with AI, supplemented by the primacy of the dignity of the social role of humans. The authors point out the urgent need to revise ideas about work as the main purpose of a person and about realization in the profession as the main factor that determines the self-esteem of an individual and his social status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0317.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Cohort-Component Method; Multivariate Methods; Time Series Analysis; Monte Carlo Methods; Stochastic Forecasting; Demography; Statistical Epidemiology; Labor Market Research; Health Economics
Online: 21 January 2022 (10:32:54 CET)
Demographic change is leading to the aging of German society. As long as the baby boom co-horts are still of working age, the working population will also age - and decline as soon as this baby boom generation gradually reaches retirement age. At the same time, there has been a trend towards increasing absenteeism (times of inability to work) in companies since the zero years, with the number of days of absence increasing with age. We present a novel stochastic forecast approach that combines population forecasting with forecasts of labor force participation trends, considering epidemiological aspects. For this, we combine a stochastic Monte Carlo-based cohort-component forecast of the population with projections of labor force participation rates and morbidity rates. This article examines the purely demographic effect on the economic costs associated with such absenteeism due to the inability to work. Under expected future employment patterns and constant morbidity patterns, absenteeism is expected by close to 5 percent by 2050 relative to 2020, associated with increasing economic costs of almost 3 percent. Our results illustrate how strongly the pronounced baby boom/ baby bust phenomenon determines demographic development in Germany in the midterm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0127.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: sustainability; Sustainable Development Goals; Africa/Ghana; women and gender; agriculture; food security; climate change; capital economics; patriarchal governance; care labor/logics/practices
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:38:58 CEST)
Africa was the only continent not to achieve the 2015 Millennium Development Goal of 50% poverty reduction. This paper asks whether Africa will fare better in meeting Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) addressing poverty and hunger by 2030. To answer this question we examine literature, including our field research published over the last thirteen years. We find that ‘sustainable development’ is a failed concept immersed in the contemporary global economic system that favors growth over ecosystem stability and patriarchal systems of governance that undervalue women’s capacity for sustainability in their care-work as food providers. We examine barriers to women’s farming (climate change, gender bias, limited access to land, technology, finance) and provide examples of women’s innovative strategies for overcoming these barriers in their care practices toward family and community well-being and ecosystem health. We conclude that sustainability is only possible through transformation of thinking away from approaches that value profit over people and ecosystems and toward gender-based approaches for achieving the goals laid out in the SDGs through holistic, integrative systems of ecosystem fit.