REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0247.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: natural language; NLP; Korean; dataset
Online: 18 October 2021 (14:33:41 CEST)
English based datasets are commonly available from Kaggle, GitHub, or recently published papers. Although benchmark tests with English datasets are sufficient to show off the performances of new models and methods, still a researcher need to train and validate the models on Korean based datasets to produce a technology or product, suitable for Korean processing. This paper introduces 15 popular Korean based NLP datasets with summarized details such as volume, license, repositories, and other research results inspired by the datasets. Also, I provide high-resolution instructions with sample or statistics of datasets. The main characteristics of datasets are presented on a single table to provide a rapid summarization of datasets for researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0325.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Hallyu; Korean Wave; Korean language; Tagalog language; Second Language Acquisition; Vocabulary Acquisition; Proto-Lexicon
Online: 17 August 2022 (12:42:10 CEST)
Hallyu or the Korean wave has sweeped through nations especially the Philippines. This exploratory study offers a dip into the effects of the Hallyu wave on a Filipino speaker through ambient exposure, consequently on the development of a Korean proto-lexicon through indirect vocabulary acquisition. Finally, a focus group discussion and a preliminary assessment tested out the waters of the effects of Hallyu on casual Filipino speakers. A thorough statistically comprehensive qualitative study on the acquisition framework is recommended to provide substantial evidence to support the framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: temperament; measurement; mood disorder; validation; Korean
Online: 15 December 2022 (03:05:48 CET)
Background and Objectives: The Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) is designed to assess affective temperaments. The short version of TEMPS-A (TEMPS-A-SV) was translated into diverse languages for its broad application in research and clinical settings. However, no study was conducted to validate the Korean version of TEMPS-A-SV among patients with mood disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability and validity of the TEMPS-A-SV in mood disorder patients of the Korean population. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, a total of 715 patients (267 patients with major depressive disorder, 94 patients with bipolar disorder I, and 354 patients with bipolar disorder II) completed the Korean TEMPS-A-SV. Cronbach's alpha and McDonald’s omega was used to assess reliability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was also performed. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine associations between five temperaments. The difference in five temperament scores between gender or diagnosis groups were analyzed, and the correlation between five temperament scores and age were tested. Results: The Korean TEMPS-A-SV displayed good internal consistency (α = 0.65–0.88, ω = 0.66–0.9) and significant correlations between the subscales except one (correlation between hyperthymic and anxious). Using EFA, a two-factor structure was produced: Factor I (cyclothymic, depressive, irritable, and anxious) and Factor II (hyperthymic). The cyclothymic temperament score differed by gender and the anxious temperament score was significantly correlated with age. All the temperaments, except for irritable temperament, showed significant differences between diagnosis groups. Conclusions: Overall, our findings indicate that TEMPS-A-SV is a valid and reliable measure of estimating affective temperaments among Koreans. Our results confirm validity of TEMPS-A-SV among Korean patients with mood disorders. However, more study is required on affective temperaments and associated characteristics in people with mood disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0018.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: NMT Evaluation, Meta-Evaluation, SacreBLEU, Korean
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:24:43 CET)
SacreBLEU, by incorporating a text normalizing step in the pipeline, has been well-received as an automatic evaluation metric in recent years. With agglutinative languages such as Korean, however, the metric cannot provide a conceivable result without the help of customized pre-tokenization. In this regard, this paper endeavors to examine the influence of diversified pre-tokenization schemes –word, morpheme, character, and subword– on the aforementioned metric by performing a meta-evaluation with manually-constructed into-Korean human evaluation data. Our empirical study demonstrates that the correlation of SacreBLEU (to human judgment) fluctuates consistently by the token type. The reliability of the metric even deteriorates due to some tokenization, and MeCab is not an exception. Guiding through the proper usage of tokenizer for each metric, we stress the significance of a character level and the insignificance of a Jamo level in MT evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: IPA; Covid-19; Health Perceptions; Korean & Japanese Adolescents
Online: 4 May 2022 (12:26:53 CEST)
This study aims to comparatively analyse the importance and performance of the health of Korean and Japanese adolescents during the prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data were collected from 1,341 sampled Korean and Japanese adolescents in September 2021 through online and offline surveys. The collected data were analysed with frequency analysis, reliability testing, t-test, and importance-performance analysis (IPA). The following results were obtained. First, adolescents in the two countries perceive various factors about health as important during the COVID-19 pandemic, but their performance is weak compared to their perceived importance. Second, Korean adolescents had greater perceived importance for all factors of health perception compared to their Japanese counterparts. Third, the difference in performance between Korean and Japanese adolescents was especially evident for ‘hygiene management’, and there were significant differences in performance in ‘disease management’ and ‘physical activity’. Fourth, in quadrant 4 of the IPA matrix, there were similarities and differences in a particular factor of health perception between Korean and Japanese adolescents. Based on these results, we proposed measures to emphasise the importance of health and enhance performance among Korean and Japanese adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1900.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; first-visit; peripheral facial palsy; Korean Medicine hospital
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:20:33 CEST)
(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected healthcare utilization rates on a global scale. This study aimed to analyze whether the COVID-19 pandemic affected the characteristics of first-visit patients with peripheral facial palsy visiting a Korean Medicine hospital and to observe characteristics changes in them. (2) Methods: This study analyzed the electronic medical records of 2,310 first-visit patients with peripheral facial palsy who visited the Facial Palsy Center, Korean Medicine Hospital, Kyung Hee University Medical Center from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2021 in terms of demographic characteristics, disease phase, residence locations, hospital visit route, and patient care type. (3) Results: There were significant relationships between the presence of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., before and during) and the number of patients by disease phase (p=0.043), residence locations (p=0.003), residence locations in Seoul (p=0.003), and patient care types (p=0.003). (4) Conclusions: There were several differences in characteristics of first-visit patients with peripheral facial palsy visiting a Korean Medicine hospital during COVID-19 pandemic in terms of demographic characteristics, disease phase, residence locations, residence locations in Seoul, and patient care types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Macronutrient intake; Metabolic syndrome; the Korean Health Examinee (HEXA) stud
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:07:55 CET)
Macronutrient intake is important in the prevention and management of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). We characterized energy and macronutrient intake of Koreans diagnosed with MetS at recruitment of the Health Examinee (HEXA) cohort. We included 130,423 participants aged 40-69 years for analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to evaluate the intake of macronutrient. Low energy (OR= 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98) and fat intake (OR=0.91, 95% CI: 0.86-0.97) was observed among 50-59 year-old men. Only postmenopausal women had lower intake of total energy (OR= 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97) while low fat intake was observed in all women (OR= 0.80 95% CI: 0.77-0.83). For carbohydrate intake, the OR were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.08-1.22) and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08-1.27) among women in their 50’s and 60’s respectively. Protein intake was low (OR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.86-0.95) and (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.82-0.94) among women in their 50’s and 60’s respectively. High intake of plant carbohydrates in women (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.12-1.20) and plant protein in both genders (OR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.13) were observed, but low intake of total energy, fat and animal-source carbohydrates in both genders. Fat intake was low regardless of food source. In conclusion, high consumption of plant-source and low consumption of animal-source macronutrients was observed in Korean adult diagnosed MetS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0731.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; crisis management; Korean fitness center; Importance–Performance Analysis
Online: 28 April 2021 (07:47:57 CEST)
: The purpose of this research was to verify the importance and performance of crisis management in Korean fitness center using Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA). For this study, 304 fitness center executives and managers in Seoul and Gyeonggi region were selected as from March 21 to May 17, 2020. Frequency analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0 and exploratory factor analysis was conducted to verify the validity and reliability. Priority analysis and IPA analysis were performed to compare the mean values, and the following results were obtained. First, in the first quadrant, there were 6 attributes besides keep social distancing between employees and customers. Second, in the second quadrant, there were four attributes in addition to regular disinfection of the gymnasium. Third, in the third quadrant, there were 6 attributes besides maintain furniture clean. Third, there were 6 attributes other than maintaining furniture clean in the third quadrant. Fourth, in the fourth quadrant, there are three attributes in addition to the restriction of face-to-face meetings. The conclusion is as follows. First, equip supplies for prevention of covid19, keep social distance, and check government support policies. Second, analyze of economic support policies, and research on their application methods. Third, Prepare various non-face-to-face communication methods and Untact(non-contact) marketing strategies. Fourth, make a checklist for factors with relatively little importance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0421.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: growth; Korean tidal flat; mud shrimp; population dynamics; reproduction; Upogebia major
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:43:28 CET)
The population parameters of the ecologically important mud shrimp Upogebia major were analyzed from 2012 to 2015 in tidal flats in Seonjaedo and Jugyo on the West coast of Korea. The shrimp density averaged 265/m2 in Seonjaedo and 118/m2 in Jugyo. The sex ratio varied monthly, often male-biased, but by size, males were significantly dominant, with a carapace length (CL) over 30 mm. Although the shrimp settled almost annually, only a single size-group was observed from 2012 to 2014. The recruitment in Jugyo in 2014 was notably successful, resulting in two cohorts persisting until 2015. Many shrimp were parasitized at varying local rates: 6.0% in Seonjaedo and 37.1% in Jugyo. The growth curves revealed that the shrimp grew annually after settlement, reaching CLs of 11.90, 18.24, and 23.02 mm in Seonjaedo and 13.73, 20.86, and 25.82 mm in Jugyo. Annual mortality was 77.2% in Seonjaedo and 67.4% in Jugyo. The estimated lifespan (tmax) was 10 years in Seonjaedo and 8 years in Jugyo, whereas the 2010 cohort in Jugyo largely disappeared in 5 years. Ovigerous females appeared from November to June and benthic juveniles between June and September. The shrimp’s growth was slower relative to other East Asian populations, likely due to colder sea water temperatures and altered food conditions from a higher shrimp density.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1645.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Korean water deer; skin tissue; hair characteristics; comparative pathology; tick bites
Online: 26 September 2023 (03:22:22 CEST)
The Korean water deer (WD), the dominant wildlife species in South Korea, is classified as vul-nerable on the IUCN Red List. Beside their several unique characteristics, they have a lower in-cidence of tick bites compared to other Cervidae species, particularly roe deer (RD). In natural environments, ticks exhibit questing behavior by waiting on grasses to climb onto host's hair coat. They use sensory organs to detect signals such as body temperature and chemicals from the host's skin, then move to preferred feeding location. Therefore, we conducted a comparative analysis of the skin tissue and hair features of both species to compare the factors leading to lower incidence of tick bites in WD. Notably, WD had significantly larger blood vessels, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands which maintain the barrier functions of the skin (p≤0.004), irregular scale surfaces in hair cuticles, and stiff and 2.83-times thicker primary hair diameter (p<0.001). Each parameters made the ticks difficult to move onto the epidermis of WD. To our knowledge, this is the first report which is focused on the comparative analysis for skin and hair feature in WD and RD. We suggest that these differences may attribute to evade tick bites in WD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1787.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Korean larch; Japanese cedar; flame retardant; amount of flame-retardant impregnation
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:25:28 CEST)
In accordance with regulations set forth by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport in Korea regarding the "Flame Retardant Performance of Building Finishing Materials and Fire Spread Prevention Structure," it is mandated that semi-noncombustible materials have a total heat emission less than 8 MJ/m2. Consequently, our study aimed to determine the ideal quantity of flame-retardant treatment required to meet the fire safety standards for Korean larch and Japanese cedar, commonly used exterior materials in Korean construction. To this end, we investigated using a cone calorimeter to observe changes in the THR (Total Heat Released) based on the AFI (Amount of Flame-retardant Impregnation) in Korean larch and Japanese cedar. Our findings indicated that the AFI needed to satisfy the prescribed flame-retardant standard of 8 MJ/m2 was THR 299 MJ/m2 for Korean larch and THR 526 MJ/m2 for Japanese cedar. As a result, we established optimal impregnation levels of flame retardant for both species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0060.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Korean soybean varieties; nsSNP; Biomarker; SIFT; Polyphen; PANTHER; I-mutant 2.0
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:25:22 CET)
Soybean is a highly nutritious legume grown globally as a food and feed crop. An examination of a collection of 10 cultivated and 6 wild Korean soybean varieties showed that there is phenotypic variability notable in different soybeans. Therefore, to develop a list of biomarker candidates useful for growing soybeans of better quality and quantity, the genes of 16 Korean soybean varieties were compared with those of the reference Glycine max var. Williams 82. The comparison was made through gene sequencing to facilitate selection of nsSNPs. The objective of the study was to find out the structural and functional variations caused by nsSNPs and discuss whether the collection of Korean soybean varieties qualifies as biomarkers based on their phenotypic traits. Analysis of the data collected was done using four software: SIFT, Polyphen, PANTHER, and I-mutant 2.0, which are designed to detect the rate of functional and structural variations caused by the nsSNPs in cultivated and wild soybean varieties. Genotypic information obtained in the analysis was used to develop a core collection of biomarkers based on whether nsSNP content was found in more than half of the 16 samples. Therefore, the list of biomarker candidates developed from this study showed that Korean soybean could provide valuable information needed in both future crop genetic research and identification of biomarkers.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: traditional korean medicine; hippocampus; neuronal cell death; oxidative stress; medicinal herbs
Online: 10 November 2019 (14:53:14 CET)
Incident rates of neurodegenerative diseases have steadily increased globally, but there is no therapeutic access available. We newly prescribed medicinal herbal remedy including five different herbal plants called, Chen-Ma-Dan-Sam-Ga-Mi-Bang (CMST), purposed to prove for pharmacological properties and corresponded actions on hippocampus neuronal cell injury by hypoxia-induced mice model. Mice were adapted to normoxia or hypoxia with or without CMST for 5 days. We gathered pharmacological effects of CMST on cell injury by enhancement of dihydroethidium and 4-hydroxynonenal signals which were correlated with abnormal redox status in the protein or gene expression levels (abnormal elevations of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and deteriorations of total glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, and activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase) due to hypoxia. CMST also notably exerted to attenuates molecules for neuronal cell injury markers such as p-tau, cleaved caspase-3 due to DNA oxidations (53bp1and phosphor-histone H2AX), inflammatory cytokines, and hemeoxigenase-1. We further figured out the underlying actions of CMST by in vitro experiment through inactivation of microglial cell which can mediate neuronal cell injury. Collectively, CMST prevented from hippocampal neuronal cells via inactivation of microglial cell with normalization of redox status on hypoxia-induced hippocampus neuronal cell injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1833.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: aerobic exercise; elderly Korean women; arterial stiffness; cell adhesion molecule; oxidized-LDL
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:20:09 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise on carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), cell adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1), and endothelial selectin (E-selectin), and oxidized-LDL in elderly women aged 70–85 years, and to identify the effect of and correlation with vascular stiffness. Forty participants were recruited and divided into three groups; vascular stiffness (VSG, n=14), obesity (OG, n=14), and normal (NG, n=12). All groups were given a 16-week intervention of aerobic exercise, and the data collected before and after exercise were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 23.0. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate between-group and time-dependent interaction effects. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate between-group variations. In addition, the significance was tested using a post-hoc test (Scheffe). The within-group variations by time before and after exercise were examined using a paired t-test, and correlation analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Simple regression analysis was performed for variables showing significant differences. The results indicated interaction effects for cf-PWV (p<.001), VCAM-1 (p<.01), E-selectin (p<.05) and oxidized LDL (p<.001). The rate of change of cf-PWV was positively correlated with that of VCAM-1 (r=.352, p<.05) and that of oxidized-LDL (r=.325, p<.05) with statistical significance. To determine the effect of the rate of change of cf-PWV on the rate of change of VCAM-1, the variables were tested, and the coefficient of determination in the regression analysis was .124, indicating that 12.4% of the tested variables fit the standard regression line. The variables for the effect of the rate of change of cf-PWV on the rate of change of oxidized LDL were also tested, and the coefficient of determination in the regression analysis was .106, indicating that 10.6% of the tested variables fit the standard regression line. Thus, the 16-week regular and consistent aerobic exercise program had significant effects on the cf-PWV, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and oxidized-LDL in elderly Korean women with vascular stiffness, suggesting improvements in vascular stiffness, based on which the intervention is predicted to contribute to the prevention of vascular dysfunction by lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis, as well as having a positive effect in the prevention of impairment of vascular endothelial cells.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2238.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: home range; minimum convex polygon; kernel density estimation; common dolphin; Korean waters
Online: 30 June 2023 (12:22:25 CEST)
The common dolphin is the second most bycaught species in Korean waters. To provide key information about their habitat boundaries and hotspots for spatial conservation and management, the spatial use of this species was examined using data obtained from sighting and bycatch surveys of cetacean during the past 20 years. The 95% minimum convex polygon and 95% density contour of fixed kernel suggested that the boundary of home range of common dolphins is limited to the coastal region (Busan-Sokcho) of the East Sea/Sea of Japan. From 50% density contours dawn by kernel density estimation, it was suggested that their hotspots are around the cost of Ulsan-Pohang, Doghae, and Sokcho within the home range. Common dolphins are not at all distributed in the Yellow Sea. Hence, shallow waters, such as the coastal region of the Yellow Sea, are not suitable habitats for common dolphins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0518.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Korean fir; hierarchical regression model; climate change; seedling survival; dwarf bamboo; drought
Online: 23 October 2018 (05:00:38 CEST)
Regional declines of the Korean fir (Abies koreana) have been observed since the 1980s on the subalpine region. To explain this decline, it is fundamental to investigate the degree to which environmental factors have contributed to plant distributions on diverse spatial scales. We applied a hierarchical regression model to determine quantitatively the relationship between the abundance of Korean fir (seedlings) and diverse environmental factors across two different ecological scales. We measured Korean fir density and the occurrence of its seedlings in 102 (84) plots nested at five sites and collected a range of environmental factors at the same plots. Our model included hierarchical explanatory variables at both site-level (weather conditions) and plot-level (micro-topographic factors, soil properties, and competing species). The occurrence of Korean fir seedlings was positively associated with moss cover and rock cover but negatively related to dwarf bamboo cover. On site-level, winter precipitation was significantly positively related to the occurrence of seedlings. A hierarchical Poisson regression model revealed that Korean fir density were negatively associated with slope aspect, topographic position index, Quercus mongolica cover, and mean summer temperature. Our results suggest that drought and competition with other species are factors which halt the survival of Korean fir. We can predict that the population of Korean fir will continue to decline on the Korean Peninsula due to rising temperatures and seasonal drought, and only a few Korean fir will survive on northern slopes or valleys where competition with dwarf bamboo and Q. mongolica can be avoided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1963.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Korean Pathfinder Lunar Obiter mission; spacecraft-generated disturbance; gradiometer technique; initial KMAG observation
Online: 31 October 2023 (03:49:12 CET)
The Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO)-MAGnetometer (KMAG) consists of three triaxial fluxgate sensors (MAG1, MAG2, and MAG3) to measure the magnetic field around the Moon. The three sensors are mounted in the order of MAG3, MAG2, and MAG1 inside a 1.2 m long boom away from the satellite body. Before it arrived on the Moon, we compared the magnetic field measurements taken by DSCOVR and KPLO in the solar wind to verify the measurement performance of the KMAG instrument. We found that there were artificial disturbances in the KMAG measurement data, such as step-like and spike-like disturbances, which were produced by the spacecraft body. To remove spacecraft-generated disturbances, we applied a multi-sensor method, employing the gradiometer technique and principal component analysis and using KMAG magnetic field data and confirmed the successful elimination of spacecraft-generated disturbances. This indicates that the multi-sensor method is able to clean the magnetic field data measured onboard the KPLO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0217.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: full-length coding region sequence; HIV-1; Korean subclade B; sequence length; hemophilia; evolution
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:26:03 CEST)
We aimed to investigate whether the sequence length of HIV-1 increases over time. A longitudinal analysis of full-length coding region sequences (FLs) during an HIV-1 outbreak among pa-tients with hemophilia and local controls infected with the Korean subclade B of HIV-1 (KSB) was performed. Genes were amplified by overlapping RT-PCR or nested PCR and subjected to direct sequencing. Overall, 141 FLs were sequentially determined over 30 years in 62 KSB-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that within KSB, two FLs from plasma donors O and P comprised two clusters together with 8 and 12 patients with hemophilia, respectively. Signature pattern analysis for the KSB of HIV-1 revealed 91 signature nucleotide residues (1.05%). In total, 48 and 43 signature nucleotides originated from clusters O and P, respectively. Only six positions contained 100% specific nucleotide(s) in clusters O and P. Additionally, in-depth FL analysis over 30 years indicates that the KSB FL significantly increased over time before combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and decreased with cART. The increase occurred due to a significant increase in env and nef genes, originating in the variable regions of both genes. The increase in the sequence length of HIV-1 over time suggests that it has an evolutionary direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0575.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: full-length coding region sequence; HIV-1; Korean subclade B; sequence length; hemophilia; evolution
Online: 25 February 2021 (10:31:36 CET)
The objective of this study is to investigate whether the sequence length of HIV-1 increases over time. A longitudinal analysis of full-length coding region sequences (FLs) in an outbreak of HIV-1 infection among patients with hemophilia and local controls identified as infected with the Korean subclade B of HIV-1 (KSB). Genes amplified by overlapping RT-PCR or nested PCR were subjected to direct sequencing. In total, 141 FLs were sequentially determined over 30 years in 62 KSB-infected patients. Non-KSB sequences were retrieved from the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV Database. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that within KSB, 2 FLs from plasma donors O and P comprised two clusters together with 8 and 12 patients with hemophilia, respectively. Signature pattern analysis for the KSB of HIV-1 revealed signature nucleotide residues at 1.05%, compared with local controls. Additionally, in-depth FLs sequence analysis over 30 years in KSB indicates that the KSB FL significantly increases over time before combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and decreases on cART. Furthermore, the increase in FLs over time significantly occurred in the subtypes B, C and G, but, there was no increase in the subtypes D, A, and F1. Consequently, subtypes F1 and D had the shortest sequence length. Our analysis was extended to compare HIV-1 with HIV-2 and SIVs. Essentially, the longer the sequence length (SIVsm > HIV-2 > SIVcpz > HIV-1), the longer the survival period. The increase in the length of the HIV-1 sequence over time suggests that it might be an evolutionary direction toward attenuated pathogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Korean Heritage; Asian Architecture; Tadao Ando; Hypogeal Chambers; Architectural Proportions; Ashlar Construction; Innovative Architectural Projects.
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:23:12 CET)
The purpose of this article is to disclose the architectural proportions and nature of the Korean national treasure in Seokguram Grotto, Gyeongju. The authors compare its features with those of other ancient hypogeal or ashlar constructions and intend to rediscover its relevant hidden configuration and latent structural properties to show its uniqueness. The methods employed in the research belong initially to architectural design and composition to advance at a later stage, into the nuances of stone masonry, lighting effects or cohesive construction. In this discussion and thorough analysis, different philosophical and scientific subtleties come afloat. The results demonstrate a significant potential capable to be applied in part to recent architectural developments like Tadao Ando’s Buddha Hill in Hokkaido (2017) and the authors’ own project for a Buddhist monument.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1378.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Computer and Smart Device-assisted Learning; two-way fixed effect model; Korean Educational Longitudinal Study 2013
Online: 20 July 2023 (11:45:40 CEST)
Computer and Smart Device-assisted Learning (CSDL) has gained increasing attention from educational researchers and practitioners in recent years. However, it remains controversial whether student can benefit from CSDL and what moderator could affect the impact of CSDL. Within the specific context of Korea, where the interest in digital education is steadily increasing, the number of empirical studies exploring the causal effect of CSDL remains relatively scarce. The primary objective of this empirical study was to investigate the impact of CSDL on students' academic achievement in Korea. To achieve this objective, a two-way fixed effect model was employed, utilizing a panel dataset spanning three years derived from the 'Korean Education Longitudinal Study 2013'. The findings revealed a significant positive impact of CSDL on students’ Mathematics achievement. Notably, higher income levels, increased availability of computer resources provided by schools, and the implementation of more individualized education were identified as factors that moderate the effect of CSDL on students' achievement levels in Korean and English subjects. These findings underscore the need for an approach that optimizes the educational benefits of CSDL by considering subject-specific characteristics. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of allocating educational resources, such as computers and smart devices, and integrating individualized educational activities within the classroom environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: high-performance buildings; energy-saving technology; primary energy consumption; CO2 emission; Korean climate; EnergyPlus; reference building
Online: 14 March 2018 (10:05:02 CET)
This study aims to suggest a basis for the selection of technologies for developing high-performance buildings to reduce energy consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions. Energy-saving technologies comprising of 15 cases were categorized into passive, active, and renewable energy systems. EnergyPlus v8.8 was used to analyze the contribution of each technology in reducing the primary energy consumptions and CO2 emissions in the Korean climate. The primary energy consumptions of the base model were 464.1 and 485.1 kWh/m²a in the Incheon and Jeju, respectively, and the CO2 emissions were 83.4 and 87.4 kgCO2/m²a, respectively. Each technology (cases 1–15) provided different energy-saving contributions in the Korean climate depending on their characteristics. The heating, cooling, and other energy-saving contributions of each technology indicate that their saving rates can be used when selecting suitable technologies during the cooling and heating seasons. Case 15 (active chilled beam with dedicated outdoor air system + ground source heat pump) showed the highest energy saving rate. In case 15, the Incheon and Jeju models were reduced by 189.4 (59.2%) and 206.2 kWh/m²a (57.4%) compared to the base case, respectively, and the CO2 emissions were reduced by up to 32.7 (60.8%) and 35.6 kgCO2/m²a (59.3%), respectively.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Korean COVID-19; Wuhan Corona virus; real time PCR Ct Value; Sensitivity; False Negative
Online: 28 February 2020 (12:03:13 CET)
Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading from Wuhan, China. As of February 21, total 75,773 confirmed cases worldwide have spread to more than two dozen countries. Transmission of COVID-19 can occur early in the course of infection since SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in asymptomatic patients are similar to that in the symptomatic patients. Therefore, more sensitive diagnostic methods are needed to detect early phase of the infection to prevent secondary or tertiary spreads. Here, we compare the RT-PCR confirmatory test results using two different SARS-CoV-2 viral RNAs from two Korean COVID-19 confirmed cases.RT-PCR method targeting the RdRP gene, which was recommended by WHO guideline, was less sensitive than targeting N genes (as per CDC guideline). Because many countries follow the WHO guideline, our findings may contribute to the early diagnosis of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1558.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Analogy operation; chanwook park; 'decision to leave'; film criticism; korean film; language model; LSTM; similarity operation; word vector
Online: 24 November 2023 (11:28:04 CET)
This research presents a novel approach to film analysis, leveraging word vectors to objectively evaluate movie critiques. Focusing on Director Chanwook Park’s award-winning film, ’Decision to Leave’, the study employs word vectors derived from the movie’s script of Korean text. Traditional critiques often emphasize contrasting elements and themes, but their subjective nature poses challenges in objective validation. To address this, we trained a language model using LSTM on the film’s script, obtaining word vectors that capture the essence of the narrative. These vectors were then used to perform various text analyses, including similarity and analogy operation for the keywords suggested by the critiques. By comparing the semantic relationships in the critiques with those derived from the word vectors, we could objectively validate the critiques’ assertions. Furthermore, we visualized the word vectors in a two-dimensional space, confirming the spatial relationships of key terms highlighted in critiques. The study underscores the potential of word vectors in providing a more objective lens for film analysis, bridging the gap between traditional film criticism and data-driven insights.