REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0729.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: circular economy; circularity assessment; industries; circularity enhancement; digital tools
Online: 11 October 2023 (12:20:59 CEST)
Circular economy has recently emerged as a key strategy for promoting sustainability and reducing waste in various industrial sectors. This paper provides an overview of circularity in aerospace, wind energy, transportation, automotive and sports goods using data and information from the literature and the EC funded project "RECREATE". The survey reviews the different definitions, assessment methods and metrics used to explore and evaluate circularity, including assessment frameworks such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and assessment indicators. Furthermore, explores the challenges, possibilities and the available tools for enhancing circularity, such as digital tools. The survey highlights the importance of a holistic and systemic technique to circularity, concerning all stakeholders along the value chain. Overall, this study aims to contribute to a better understanding of circular economy and provides insights for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0476.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Lightning strike; CFRPs; Electro-thermal simulation; Progressive damage modeling; Finite element analysis
Online: 28 August 2018 (14:53:44 CEST)
Lightning strike can cause a considerable damage in aircraft parts made from semiconducting materials such as Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs). Therefore, in recent years, the lightning strike phenomenon has attracted the interest of the academic community and the aircraft industry. Until now, the problem has been addressed mainly experimentally, while the reported numerical works are very limited. In the present work, a coupled electro-thermal FE model has been developed using the ANSYS commercial FE code to simulate the lightning strike damage in unidirectional CFRP laminates due to the Joule heat flux phenomenon. The model is based on the SOLID69 thermoelectric element and applies a non-linear, time-transient analysis. The main input to the model is the thermal-electrical properties of the composite material which vary with temperature. Using the model, a parametric study on the effect of mesh density and peak intensity on the thermal damage has been performed. Three electrical lightning strikes of low (10 kA), medium (30 kA) and high peak intensity (40 kA) have been applied according to the SAE ARP 5412 standard. The electro-thermal model has been validated against a numerical model from the literature. The numerical results reveal that the increase of peak intensity leads to the increase of the area and penetration depth of matrix thermal damage (pyrolysis) as well as to the increase of the area of fiber damage (deterioration and ablation). Through progressive damage modeling, the residual tensile strength of the CFRP plate after being subjected to lightning strike of different peak intensity has been predicted. Lightning strike initial damage has been simulated by translating the thermal field into degradation of elastic properties of the lamina. The results show an increase in the accumulated matrix damage and a decrease of tensile strength due to the initial lightning strike damage. For the maximum peak intensity of 40 kA, a decrease in tensile strength of 4.8% has been predicted
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0456.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Carbon nanotubes; Polymer nanocomposites; Electrical conductivity; Crack sensing; Multi-scale modeling
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:25:23 CEST)
This is the second of a two-paper series describing a multi-scale modeling approach developed to simulate crack sensing in polymer fibrous composites by exploiting interruption of electrically conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) networks. The approach is based on the finite element (FE) method. FE models at three different scales, namely the micro-scale, the meso-scale and the macro-scale, have been developed using the ANSYS PDL environment. In the present paper, the meso- and macro-scale analyses are described. In the meso-scale, a two-dimensional model of the CNT/polymer matrix reinforced by carbon fibers is used to develop a crack sensing methodology from a parametric study which relates the crack position and length with the reduction of current flow. In the meso-model, the effective electrical conductivity of the CNT/polymer computed from the micro-scale is used as input. In the macro-scale, the final implementation of the crack sensing methodology is performed on a CNT/polymer/carbon fiber composite volume using as input the electrical response of the cracked CNT/polymer derived at the micro-scale and the crack sensing methodology. Analyses have been performed for cracks of two different lengths. In both cases, the numerical model predicts with good accuracy both the length and position of the crack. These results highlight the prospect of conductive CNT networks to be used as a localized structural health monitoring technique.