ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0309.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Ontology; Alzheimer’s disease; Basic Formal Ontology; Interdisciplinary Research; Knowledge Sharing
Online: 17 February 2023 (09:40:53 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease is a debilitating neurodegenerative condition which is known to be the most common cause of dementia. Despite its rapidly growing prevalence, medicine still lacks a comprehensive definition of the disease. As a result, Alzheimer’s disease remains neither preventable nor curable. In recent years, broad interdisciplinary collaborations in Alzheimer’s disease research are becoming more common. Furthermore, such collaborations have already demonstrated their superiority in addressing the complexity of the disease in innovative ways. However, establishing effective communication and optimal knowledge distribution between researchers and specialists with different expertise and background is not a straightforward task. To address this challenge, we propose the Alzheimer’s disease Ontology for Diagnosis and Preclinical Classification (AD-DPC) as a tool for effective knowledge sharing in interdisciplinary/multidisciplinary teams working on Alzheimer’s disease. It covers six major conceptual groups, namely Alzheimer's disease pathology, Alzheimer's disease spectrum, Diagnostic process, Symptoms, Assessments, and Relevant clinical findings. All concepts were annotated with definitions or elucidations and in some cases enriched with synonyms and additional resources. The potential of AD-DPC to support non-medical experts is demonstrated through an evaluation of its usability, applicability and correctness. The results show that the participants in the evaluation process who lack prior medical knowledge can successfully answer Alzheimer’s disease-related questions by interacting with AD-DPC. Furthermore, their perceived level of knowledge in the field increased leading to effective communication with medical experts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0136.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: knowledge-sharing intention; B2B marketing; expertise; tie strength
Online: 8 March 2020 (09:24:54 CET)
This research focuses on the knowledge-sharing intention of an expert with the purchasing decision-maker in a company as a marketing point for business-to-business transactions, where a company’s facilities expert connects the company’s purchasing decision-maker with the supplier. By providing information about the supplier’s products and companies to this decision-maker, the expert plays an important role in the purchasing decision-maker’s knowledge on suppliers. Therefore, this study aims to improve expert word-of-mouth (WOM) intentions and examines the strategies that influence them. Statistical verification is employed by considering the answers of 103 engineering experts, and a hierarchical multiple-regression analysis is used to test this study’s hypotheses. As a strategy for influencing expert WOM intentions, both the supplier’s and purchasing decision-maker’s expertise and the tie strength with the supplier are examined; the tie strength with the purchasing decision-maker is considered as the moderating variable. Three of the four hypotheses are supported. This paper gives advices to the facility suppliers who want sustained growth. they should not only appeal their expertise to the facility experts who visit their exhibition booth, but also specify who the visitors are and manage the relations with them personally with a long term perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2078.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: corporate social responsibility; ethical climate; perceived organizational support; organizational commitment; knowledge-sharing behavior
Online: 29 June 2023 (09:37:54 CEST)
Using a variety of theoretical foundations, this paper examines the association between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and employees’ knowledge-sharing behavior, investigating the sequential mediation role of perceived organizational support and organizational commitment as well as the moderating role of ethical climate. Hypotheses were formulated to address both the sequential mediation effect of perceived organizational support and organizational commitment on the link between CSR and knowledge-sharing and the moderation effect of ethical climate on the relationship between CSR and perceived organizational support. In order to mitigate the problems of potential common method bias, data were gathered from a sample of 204 South Korean employees at three distinct time points. The results of the study offer compelling evidence that CSR activities exert a positive influence on employees’ knowledge-sharing behavior, an effect that is sequentially mediated by both perceived organizational support and organizational commitment. Furthermore, the research uncovers the positive moderating role played by ethical climate in the relationship between CSR and perceived organizational support. By integrating multiple theoretical frameworks, this study not only advances the extant literature but also offers invaluable insights for organizations striving to bolster knowledge-sharing through the strategic implementation of CSR initiatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2039.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Knowledge sharing; Social media; Academic development; University students; Bangladesh
Online: 30 May 2023 (04:30:28 CEST)
Social networking opened up new avenues for learning and knowledge sharing. Due to its document exchange, virtual communication, and knowledge production capabilities, social media is a helpful tool for learning and teaching. The research embraces multiple goals. First, this study examines Bangladeshi university students' social value, communication and collaboration, trust, and perceived benefits of knowledge sharing through social media in academic advancement. The second goal is to examine how families and technology support mediates those aspects of social media knowledge sharing with student academic development. We used Technology Acceptance Model and Social Exchange Theory as examples of how social media sharing of knowledge impacts academic progress in Bangladeshi university students through family and technological support. PLS-SEM was used using survey data from 737 Bangladeshi students to test the model. Social value, communication and collaboration, trust, and perceived benefits of sharing knowledge through social media significantly enhance Bangladeshi students' academic growth. In the case of mediation, family and technological support mediates the relationship between communication and collaboration, trust, perceived benefits and academic development. However, there is no mediation with the social value of knowledge sharing in social media with student’s academic development. The article concludes with implications, limitations, and future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Convention on Biological Diversity; Nagoya Protocol; ABS access and benefit sharing; Brazil ABS law; genetic resources; associated traditional knowledge.
Online: 7 December 2022 (01:52:23 CET)
This study presents a detailed assessment on the impact of the Brazilian legal framework related to the access and benefit sharing provisions of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. The research is based on a comprehensive dataset that was systematically collected over several years, directly from the official government bodies responsible for its implementation. The aim of the study is to contribute to a fact-based discussion on the effectiveness of national ABS laws, focusing on the Brazilian legal framework, first established in the year 2000 and revised in 2015, as a case example. This study balances the costs and benefits of the Brazilian ABS system and assesses the regulatory challenges it poses to individuals, companies, and institutions that perform research, share knowledge, develop, manufacture or market products derived from Brazilian biodiversity. The study indicates that, after over 22 years of operation, the regulatory challenges are still real and relevant, and that the significant volume of data collected from users on access, prior commercialization and shipment of genetic materials abroad was never systematically assessed by the agencies in charge. Besides, it shows that the costs incurred by the government in managing the policy itself have been higher than the economic benefits it has made possible, and that the institutional mechanisms in place since 2015 have not been able to allocate the monetary benefits contributed by users to the National Benefit Sharing Fund to any projects aimed at developing sustainable uses or preserving Brazilian biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0349.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: humanity; culture; development and language; globalization; indigenous capabilities; knowledge creation and technological development
Online: 19 July 2018 (06:34:37 CEST)
Humanity, culture, societal development and language issues are mutually reinforcing much as they are intricately interwoven in a non-ceasing dynamic interrelationships within the matrix defined by language standardization or development, acquisition and use that mostly take up central place as unifying and propelling forces in language discourse. Within the confines of globalization which is neither homogenization nor convergence; but the beginning of drawing on the strength of indigenous capabilities to create knowledge ecology that would enliven socio-economic and scientific development of the world in far reaching interconnectivities and relationships across every clime, issues pertaining to language development, acquisition and use become imperative. It is against this background that this paper examines the development/standardization, acquisition and use of Esan language as one of several Nigerian indigenous languages to promote scientific and technological development through knowledge creation, preservation and dissemination. The obsession of using western model and epistemological outlook to achieve appropriate scientific and technological development to the utter neglect of home grown and culturally distilled efforts were also examined. In the light of the dare consequences and the harsh conditions globalization imposes on developing nations, this paper highlights standardization and use of indigenous languages in chatting appropriate trajectory for effectual developmental efforts in fast shrinking contemporary world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: inter-personal relationships; construction innovation; knowledge sharing; inter-organizational relationships
Online: 8 February 2019 (09:20:06 CET)
Abstract: Guanxi, a Chinese term that defines social networks of power and benefits, can be divided into inter-personal and inter-organizational relationships, and guanxi significantly influences construction innovation in China. Many studies have examined the relationship between guanxi and construction innovation at the project or organizational level. However, few of these studies explained how guanxi could affect an individual’s innovative behaviour from a double-level perspective. This paper builds on social capital theory and social exchange theory to examine guanxi’s role in motivating innovative behaviour in a China-specific construction context. It investigates the main effects of inter-personal relationships on innovative behaviour, the mediating effects of knowledge sharing, and the cross-level moderating effects of inter-organizational relationships. These elements were tested using a survey that received 178 responses from 35 different organizations. The results were analysed using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) and revealed that inter-personal relationships have positive influences on innovative behaviour, thus highlighting the partial mediating effects of knowledge sharing. In addition, the analyses showed that inter-organizational relationships augment inter-personal relationships and knowledge sharing on innovative behaviour by cross-level interaction. The research findings enhance an understanding of guanxi and innovative behaviour in China-specific construction project settings, as well as verifying the significance of guanxi in stimulating innovative behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0415.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Patkos; sustainable development; knowledge sharing; knowledge management; Homo Technologicus; Homo Sustainabiliticus; conceptual model; quantum organizational decision-making
Online: 18 February 2021 (12:09:03 CET)
This conceptual, interdisciplinary paper will start by introducing the commencement of a new era in which human society faces continuously accelerating technological revolutions, named for short ‘Padkos’. In this context, a conceptual model of sustainable development with a focus on knowledge sharing and management will be proposed. The construct of knowledge management will be unpacked into a three-layer model with a focus on the knowledge-human and data-machine spheres. Then, each sphere will be discussed with concentrating on the learning and decision- making processes, the digital supporting systems and the human actors’ aspects. Moreover, the recombination of new knowledge development and contemporary knowledge management into one amalgamated construct will be proposed. The holistic conceptual model of knowledge sharing for sustainable development is comprised by time, cybersecurity and two alternative humanistic paradigms (Homo Technologicus and Homo Sustainabiliticus). Two additional particular models are discussed in depth. First, a recently proposed model of quantum organizational decision-making is elaborated. Next, a boundary management and learning process is particularized. The paper ends with several implications for the future based on the deliberations in the paper and the models discussed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0039.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: knowledge management; tacit knowledge; explicit knowledge
Online: 4 August 2016 (08:30:38 CEST)
In this paper I take the book by Michel Serres “Thumbelina” as the occasion for a reflection on the conceptual basis of knowledge management, as it was built by Ikujiro Noanka and co-workers. The direct access to knowledge that Thumbelina practices together with her peers is, in fact, for me, a god observation point to bring the reflection of Nonaka further, towards the discovery of a new understanding of knowledge and knowing processes. If the digital revolution is third step after writing and printing, in the soft changes in the relations between human beings and knowledge, then it poses in an urgent manner the problem to deepen our understanding of what knowledge and intelligence are and to change our practice at the education level and to design new digital tools to support our knowledge management processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0192.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Knowledge-based Systems; Ontology; Knowledge Engineering; MCDA.
Online: 13 October 2022 (09:54:49 CEST)
Decision making as a result of system dynamics analysis requires, in practice, a straightforward and systematic modelling capability as well as a high-level of customisation and flexibility to adapt to situations and environments that may vary very much from each other. While in general terms a completely generic approach could be not as effective as ad-hoc solutions, the proper application of modern technology may facilitate agile strategies as a result of a smart combination of qualitative and quantitative aspects. In order to address such a complexity, we propose a knowledge-based approach that integrates the systematic computation of heterogeneous criteria with open semantics. The holistic understanding of the framework is described by a reference architecture and the proof-of-concept prototype developed can support high-level system analysis, as well as it suitable within a number of applications contexts - i.e. as a research/educational tool, communication framework, gamification and participatory modelling. Additionally, the knowledge-based philosophy, developed upon Semantic Web technology, increases the capability in terms of holistic knowledge building and re-use via interoperability. Last but not least, the framework is designed to constantly evolve in the next future, for instance by incorporating more advanced AI-powered features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0229.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: medical knowledge graphs; knowledge graphs reuse; ontology modularization
Online: 17 October 2022 (05:13:53 CEST)
During the creation and integration of a health care system based on medical knowledge graphs, it is necessary to review and select the vocabularies and definitions that best fit the information requirements of the system being developed. This implies the reuse of medical knowledge graphs; however, full importation of knowledge graphs is not a tractable solution in terms of memory requirements. In this paper we present a modularization-based method for knowledge graph reuse. A case study of graph reuse is presented by transforming the original model into a lighter one.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0155.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Cognitive Graph; Knowledge Graph; Knowledge Reasoning; Natural Language Generating
Online: 6 August 2021 (10:14:00 CEST)
The realization of the third-generation artificial intelligence (AI) requires the evolution from perceptual intelligence to cognitive intelligence, where knowledge graphs may not meet the practical needs anymore. Based on the dual channel theory, cognitive graphs are established and developed through coordinating the implicit extraction module and the explicit reasoning module as well as integrating knowledge graphs, cognitive reasoning and logical expressions, which have achieved successes in multi-hop question answering. It is desired for cognitive graphs to be widely used in advanced AI applications such as large-scale knowledge representations and intelligent responses, promoting the development of Al dramatically. This review discusses cognitive graphs systematically and elaborately, including basic concepts, generations, theories and technologies. Moreover, we try to predict the development of cognitive intelligence in the short-term future and further enlighten more researches and studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Design knowledge, Knowledge dimensions, prototyping, design cognition, design thinking
Online: 7 June 2021 (11:30:21 CEST)
Whilst prior works have characterised the affordances of prototyping methods in terms of generating knowledge about a product or process, the types, or ‘dimensions’ of knowledge towards which they contribute are not fully understood. In this paper we adapt the concept of ‘design domains’ as a method to interpret, and better understand the contributions of different prototyping methods to design knowledge in new product development. We first synthesise a set of ten dimensions for design knowledge from a review of literature in design-related fields. A study was then conducted in which participants from engineering backgrounds completed a Likert-type questionnaire to quantify the perceived contributions to design knowledge of 90 common prototyping methods against each dimension. We statistically analyse results to identify patterns in the knowledge contributions of different methods. Results reveal that methods exhibit significantly different contribution profiles, suggesting different methods to be suited to different knowledge generation. Thus, this paper indicates potential for new methods, methodology and processes to leverage such characterisations for better selection and sequencing of methods in the prototyping process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0436.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: HIV; HCV; Health Literacy; HIV Knowledge; HCV Knowledge; Viral Infections
Online: 8 May 2023 (03:50:33 CEST)
The Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department of University of Brescia organized free rapid screening tests for HIV and HCV as part of the Fast Track City commitment. A cross-sectional study was conducted, consisting of an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire that was administered to individuals who underwent the screening or consultation. The study aimed to compare knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and HCV between age groups (18-40 vs. >40) and sexual orientations (heterosexual vs. LGBTQ+). Overall, 333 questionnaires were completed. Individuals over the age of 40 and those who identified as heterosexual had the lowest level of knowledge about HIV transmission (7.9% and 30% respectively), undetectable=untransmittable (19.7% and 39.4% respectively) and PrEP (9.2% and 18.2% respectively). They were also less willing to cohabit with people with HIV (PLHIV). Only 9.6% of the population demonstrated high levels of knowledge for both HIV and HCV. People over the age of 40 had the largest gaps in knowledge and would benefit the most from educational and prevention interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0644.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: scientific social network; knowledge network; academic research; knowledge transfer; collaboration
Online: 30 October 2020 (14:39:31 CET)
Scientific social networking sites like Researchgate or Academia.edu have become part of the work practice of academic researchers. These digital platforms have been designed precisely to encourage the exchange of knowledge between scholars and to help the expansion of collaborative networks among them. Even if studies on this topic have multiplied in recent years, there is a dearth of research on the actual impact of these platforms on scientific production. The goal of this study is to investigate the relation between the attitude of researchers towards scientific social networks and the use of knowledge in their scientific work. Data from users of the scientific social networking site Researchgate were collected. A total of 143 valid responses were received and structural equation modeling was applied for data analysis. Findings of this study confirmed that researchers use knowledge obtained from scientific social networking sites both incorporating it within their research products and to acquire new competences. In particular approaching the platform as a scientific community with a shared language and a shared vision was found to have a positive impact on knowledge use. To the best knowledge of the authors this is the first study investigating the actual use of knowledge from scientific social networking sites by academic researchers. Results help to understand the impact of these platforms on the work practice of a strategic sector like scientific research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0250.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Simmelian ties, enterprise innovation performance, knowledge capturing, knowledge integration, network routines
Online: 11 August 2020 (04:17:39 CEST)
In an innovation driven business environment, cross-border access to resources is important for companies to improve innovation capabilities and development performance. Based on the previous research, it shows that there are barriers to cross domain communication among alliance firms because of the restriction of multidimensional ties and dyads. Simmelian ties, as a form of alliance network with ternary connections, it effectively restrained opportunism and self-interest in the cooperation process and take a crucial role to evaluate innovation related performance in corporation. Based on the theory of Simmelian, this paper builds a theoretical framework and proposes corresponding research hypotheses between Simmelian ties and enterprise innovation performance. After designing questionnaires, collecting data and conducting empirical analysis to test theoretical models and hypotheses. Results have shown that: (1) Simmelian ties generally have a positive impact on enterprise innovation performance. (2) Knowledge capturing and knowledge integration play a partial intermediary role between Simmelian ties and enterprise innovation performance, and the mediating chain formed by the two variables plays a serial mediating role in the effect. (3) Network routines significantly positively moderates the relationship between Simmelian ties and knowledge capturing. And also, the positive relationship between Simmelian ties and enterprise innovation performance is also actively moderated by network routines. The conclusion of this study is meaningful for companies to establish of Simmelian ties, improve knowledge management capabilities and further promote enterprise innovation performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0452.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: knowledge management (KM); communities of practice (CoP); tacit knowledge; knowledge sharing; KM cycle; CoP framework, organizational culture, performance measurement
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:04:27 CEST)
In this digital world, organisations are facing global competition as well as manpower pressures leading towards knowledge economy, which heavily impacts on their local and international businesses. The trend is to foster collaboration and knowledge sharing to cope with these problems. With the advancement of technologies and social engineering that can connect people in virtual world across time and distance, several organisations are embarking on knowledge management (KM) systems, implementing community of practice (CoP) approach. However, virtual communities are relatively new paradigms, and there are several challenges to their successful implementation from an organisation’s point of interest. There is lack of CoP implementation framework that can cater to today’s dynamic business and sustainability requirements. To fill the gap in literature, this paper develops a practical framework for a CoP implementation with a view to align KM strategy with business strategy of an organization. It explores the different steps of building, sharing and using tacit and explicit knowledge in CoPs by applying Wiig KM cycle. It proposes a practical CoP implementation framework that adopts the Benefits-Tools-Organisation-People-Process (BTOPP) model in addressing the key questions surrounding each of the BTOPP elements with a structured approach. Finally, it identifies key challenges such as organizational culture and performance measurements, and provides practical recommendations to overcome them for a successful CoP implementation.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1446.v1
Online: 21 September 2023 (05:15:07 CEST)
This article aims to highlight the intricate interplay between psychological knowledge and local wisdom. Ethiopia is a diverse and multicultural country, with a rich diversity of languages, cultures, and traditions. Ethiopian local stories, proverbs, and poems have long served as vessels of wisdom, offering valuable life lessons and insights into human behavior. This article seeks to uncover the local wisdom through psychological lenses by demonstrating the psychological richness embedded within Ethiopian local stories, proverbs, and poems. Thus, valuable insights can be found by drawing connections between these traditional forms of wisdom and contemporary psychological theories. Moreover, researchers can foster a more inclusive and culturally sensitive approach to understanding and addressing psychological issues by bridging the gap between academic knowledge and local wisdom. This symbiotic relationship has the potential to expand the boundaries of psychological knowledge and encourage innovative ideas and principles, ultimately enriching both domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0016.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: bovine; insemination; knowledge; reproduction
Online: 19 September 2023 (07:57:52 CEST)
Artificial insemination (AI) is considered as the most efficient feasible tool to improve the dairy cows’ profitability and productivity. In bovines, AI helps to promote genetic improvement and can positively impact the rural economy. The achievement of education in rural populations was one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), made by the United Nations. During the last World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), it was concluded that most of the world’s poor, illiterate and undernourished population lives in rural areas; therefore, access to education is considered one of the greatest challenges for governments in countries with developing economies. To determine the effects of a theoretical-practical training program related to rural management and leadership, AI, and bovine genetic improvement, on the perception and level of knowledge in a rural Colombian population that has been affected by the armed conflict. Phase 1. Included the practical and theoretical training of undergraduate animal sciences students in three dimensions rural management; leadership (D-ML), AI in bovines (D-AI), and genetic improvement (D-GI) after training students were evaluated and selected according to their skills, characteristics, solidarity skills, and their social sensitivity was identified. Phase 2. Included the socioeconomic characterization and training of rural residents by students and field experts in three dimensions D-ML, D-AI, and D-GI. After training we evaluated the perception and level of knowledge before and after training in 63 rural residents using an evaluative instrument. The data before and after (post-test) of the theoretical-practical training, were analyzed to obtain a statistical significance. The perception of knowledge in rural residents was low for general knowledge (2.48±0.76, p ˂ 0.05), D-ML (2.89±1.18, p ˂ 0.05) and D-AI and D-GI (2.17±0.83, p ˂ 0.05). On the other hand, before the theorical-practical training the level of general knowledge was 45.9%, however, after the training increased at 77.6% (p<0.01), while the level of knowledge for the D-AI was increased from 38.5 % to 80.6 % (p ˂ 0.05) after training. Regarding the level of knowledge for the D-GI pre-training was 50.8 and increased to 73.0% (p<0.01) then after. Finally, the level of knowledge for the D-ML was increased (p<0.01) from 54.8 before training to 75% after training. Altogether, the rural extension programs contribute to the closing of knowledge gaps in relation to the use of reproductive biotechnologies and bovine management in rural areas affected by armed conflict.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: child, knowledge, oral health.
Online: 20 August 2020 (08:36:03 CEST)
Objectives: to assess the knowledge level of parents from the central region of Saudi Arabia about oral health and care of preschool children and its relation with sociodemographic variables, parents‟ self-perception toward their dental health, importance of teeth and frequency of dental visits. Methods: a random sample of 754 parents participated in this cross-sectional study and completed an internationally accepted questionnaire. Chi square test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data (p<0.05). Results: mean knowledge score of the parents was 4.8 (out of 11). Less than 20% of the parents were knowledgeable about the best position for tooth brushing, the concentration of fluoride in a child‟s toothpaste, timing of first dental check-up, and best time to give a sugary snack. Mothers, parents with high educational level and family income, parents with positive attitude towards teeth and excellent self-perception of their dental health were significantly more likely to score higher (p<0.05). Conclusions: knowledge of parents about oral health and care of preschool children in the central region of Saudi Arabia was deficient. Gender, education level of parents, family income, attitude about teeth and self-perception of parents‟ own dental health were factors which influenced their knowledge. To improve parents‟ knowledge, role of health professionals should be improved and TV commercials directed toward the areas which had gaps in knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0144.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: knowledge; information; schema; knowledge processing; automaton; autopoietic machines; structural machines; Turing Machine
Online: 8 January 2021 (11:17:14 CET)
Knowledge processing is an important feature of intelligence in general and artificial intelligence in particular. To develop computing systems working with knowledge, it is necessary to elaborate means of working with knowledge representations (as opposed to data) because knowledge is an abstract structure. There are different forms of knowledge representations derived from data. One of the basic forms is called a schema. The goal of this paper is the development of theoretical and practical tools for processing schemas. To achieve this goal, we use schema representations elaborated in the mathematical theory of schemas and use structural machine as a powerful theoretical tool for modeling parallel and concurrent computational processes. We describe the schema of autopoietic machines as physical realizations of structural machines. An autopoietic Machine is a technical system capable of regenerating, reproducing and maintaining itself by production, transformation and destruction of its components and the networks of processes downstream contained in them. We present the theory and practice of designing and implementing autopoietic machines as information processing structures integrating both symbolic computing and neural networks. Autopoietic machines use knowledge structures containing the behavioral evolution of the system and its interactions with the environment to maintain stability by counteracting fluctuations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Aircraft fault diagnosis; knowledge graph; deep learning; fault knowledge extraction; question-answering system
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:00:31 CEST)
When an aircraft malfunctions, quickly and accurately identifying the faulty unit is essential for ensuring normal operation. Unfortunately, maintenance engineers often struggle to acquire the necessary fault-related knowledge due to poor management and utilization of aircraft fault documents. To address this issue, we introduce knowledge graph technology into the field of aircraft fault diagnosis, exploring its construction and application for effective knowledge management. Our work starts by analyzing the critical knowledge elements required for aircraft fault diagnosis and designing a schema layer for fault knowledge graphs. We then we then combine deep learning and heuristic rules to extract fault knowledge from both structured and unstructured data, enabling the construction of aircraft fault knowledge graphs. Finally, we develop a fault question-answering system based on fault knowledge graphs that can accurately give solutions to questions posed by maintenance engineers. Our practice demonstrates that knowledge graphs provide an effective means of managing aircraft fault knowledge, assisting engineers in locating fault reasons accurately and quickly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1762.v1
Subject: Other, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: Knowledge; Attitudes; Practices; Salt intake.
Online: 28 September 2023 (10:37:28 CEST)
Keywords: Knowledge; Attitudes; Practices; Salt intake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0326.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: consumer acceptance; functional foods; knowledge
Online: 24 March 2022 (07:55:47 CET)
Inconsistent results published in previous studies make it difficult to determine the precise effect of consumer knowledge on their acceptance of functional foods, which were developed to improve consumers’ health status by providing adequate nutrition. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis by identifying and collecting relevant literature from three databases. Of the 1050 studies we reviewed, we included 40 in the systematic review and 18 in meta-analysis. Based on the focus of each included study, we operationally defined knowledge as knowledge of the functional food concept, nutritional-related knowledge, and knowledge of specific functional products. Results from the systematic review indicate that most participants from the included studies had a low level of knowledge, especially nutrition-related knowledge associated with consuming functional foods, and they were generally not familiar with the concept of functional foods. It is possible that participants’ level of knowledge was influenced by their demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, educational level, marital status, nationality). Results from the meta-analysis generated a summary effect size (r = 0.14, 95% CI [0.05; 0.23]), measured by the correlation coefficient r, which indicates that a small positive relationship exists between consumers’ level of functional foods knowledge and their acceptance of functional foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0202.v1
Online: 9 October 2020 (13:02:54 CEST)
Water literacy is the ability to feel familiar with and get actively involved in water to face issues about it. This study aims to analyze the water literacy of students who come from areas that have indigenous knowledge related to water conservation and do not have indigenous knowledge but have come from the same province with a similar abundance of water. The samples of this study were 439 people consisting of 184 boys and 255 girls aged 11-18 years from junior and senior high school students in Palembang Municipality and three sub-districts in Muara Enim Regency, namely Semende Darat Laut, Semende Darat Tengah, and Darat Ulu and both are indonesian. There were 39 questions for measuring water literacy in the form of a Likert scale (1-5) to measure practical and living literacy with Cronbach alpha values of 0.692 and 0.773, respectively, and were analyzed with SPSS version 21 through the Mann-Whitney (u) and Cronbach alpha statistical tests. The total alpha was 0.838. Social literacy was measured in the open-ended question instrument and analyzed descriptively. The results showed that practical water literacy in Palembang was significantly different from Semende's but not with living water literacy. Students' social water literacy in the Semende had two different answer patterns, while, in Palembang, it was more diverse with six different response patterns. Meanwhile, when asked to describe a diagram of the flow of water in nature in Semende, no students think that it is the neglect of customs that results in reduced water in Semende as understood by some students in Palembang who are not involved with these customs.
Online: 16 April 2020 (05:48:53 CEST)
The aims of the study to analyze the influence of knowledge, attitude, education and gender of the head of the family for household preparedness against flood from Bengawan Solo River in Kedungdowo Village, Balen District of Bojonegoro Regency. The method used in this study is survey method. This study is explanatory observational research. Population studied is 85 head of families from Kedungdowo Village, Balen District, Bojonegoro Regency. The sampling method for collecting the data from the families is stratified random sampling. Data analysis methods used in this study are descriptive statistical analysis and logistic regression analysis with a 95% confidence level to identify the level of preparedness and the relationship between factors that affect preparedness. The findings shows that knowledge, attitude, education and gender significantly influence household preparedness against Bengawan Solo flood. Attitude is the most dominant variable that influenced household preparedness
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0131.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Knowledge Based Economy Saudi Arabia
Online: 9 July 2019 (14:15:17 CEST)
Saudi Arabia is an oil-reliant nation as a large percentage of its GDP comes from oil resources. Oil dependency leaves a county at the mercy of the international crude market, and a decrease in the price of crude can seriously destabilize the economy of such nations. An example is the case of Venezuela whose dependence on oil caused a national disaster (McCarthy, 2017). As such, the nation’s exports, GDP, and government revenue are primarily dependent on oil revenue, and the recent decrease in the oil prices has decreased Venezuela’s national revenue resulting in economic collapse as well as inflation. A shift from a resource based economy to a knowledge based economy will help Saudi Arabia become less reliant on its oil revenues for its economic stability and growth (Nurunnabi, 2017).
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: linguistic knowledge; source language; neural machine translation (NMT); low-resource; multi-source NMT
Online: 2 March 2020 (15:28:34 CET)
Exploiting the linguistic knowledge of the source language for neural machine translation (NMT) has recently achieved impressive performance on many large-scale language pairs. However, since the Turkish→English machine translation task is low-resource and the source-side Turkish is morphologically-rich, there are limited resources of bilingual corpora and linguistic information available to further improve the NMT performance. Focusing on the above issues, we propose a multi-source NMT approach that models the word feature in parallel to external linguistic features by using two separate encoders to explicitly incorporate linguistic knowledge into the NMT model. We extend the word embedding layer of the knowledge-based encoder to accommodate for each word’s linguistic annotations in the context. Moreover, we share all parameters across encoders to enhance the representation ability of the NMT model on the source language. Experimental results show that our proposed approach achieves substantial improvements of up to 2.4 and 1.1 BLEU scores in Turkish→English and English→Turkish machine translation tasks, respectively, which points to a promising way to utilize the source-side linguistic knowledge for the low-resource NMT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0011.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: knowledge assets’ combination-embeddedness; major business specificity of knowledge assets; outbound and inbound disruptive innovation
Online: 3 January 2017 (10:17:35 CET)
Innovation is an essential key factor in the technology development history. Past research on innovation focused more on the innovation behavior of technology, but seldom described knowledge assets which also influence innovation behavior greatly. The effect of knowledge assets attribute and result on disruptive innovation is therefore regarded as the research topic in this study, where disruptive innovation is divided into outbound and inbound to combine combination-embeddednessandmajor business specificityof knowledge assets as the research model. Manufacturing enterprises in China are proceeded the questionnaire survey, and 173 valid copies are collected. The empirical analysis shows that combination-embeddedness of knowledge assets presents significantly positive effects on major business specificity and outbound innovationof an enterprise but reveals remarkably negative effects on inbound innovation. Enterprises are suggested to constantly accumulate knowledge assets with low major business specificity before disruptive innovation in order to reduce ineffective inbound innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0108.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: data visualization; knowledge graph; cultural heritage
Online: 3 May 2023 (07:30:35 CEST)
In the last decade several projects have been developed for the digitization and semantization of cultural heritage data. They were developed to preserve and maintain this heritage, but bringing it closer to all types of users and allowing access to this information to other sectors such as tourism, education, etc. In these developments, web technologies are combined, along with the use of knowledge graphs and interactive visualisation tools. Although remarkably interesting projects have been developed, in those projects, the data visualization tools are usually focused on the project context. This makes it difficult to reuse these jobs. Additionally, there are peculiarities of cultural heritage data considered with little depth, such as uncertainty, spatial and temporal granularity, as well as other aspects, such as relationships between data. In this article, these problems are described and based on other works such as VUMO or VISO, the design of an ontology that formalizes how to visualise this information is proposed, considering these problems. In addition, the development of a platform that allows the visualisation of this information through a web application and its evaluation of its use in projects such as SILKNOW, or Arxiu Valencià del Disseny is exposed
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0432.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Federated Learning; Knowledge Distillation; Domain aware
Online: 24 March 2023 (13:30:08 CET)
Federated Distillation (FD) has recently attracted increasing attention for its efficiency in aggregating multiple diverse local models trained from statistically heterogeneous data of distributed clients. Existing FD methods generally treat these models equally by merely computing the average of their output soft predictions for some given input distillation sample, which does not take the diversity across all local models into account, thus leading to degraded performance of the aggregated model, especially when some local models learn little knowledge about the sample. In this paper, we propose a new perspective that treats the local data in each client as a specific domain and design a novel domain knowledge aware federated distillation method, dubbed DaFKD, that can discern the importance of each model to the distillation sample, and thus is able to optimize the ensemble of soft predictions from diverse models. Specifically, we employ a domain discriminator for each client, which is trained to identify the correlation factor between the sample and the corresponding domain. Then, to facilitate the training of the domain discriminator while saving communication costs, we propose sharing its partial parameters with the classification model. Extensive experiments on various datasets and settings show that the proposed method can improve the model accuracy by up to $6.02\%$ compared to state-of-the-art baselines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Practices; traditional knowledge; agriculture; farmers; India
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:41:19 CEST)
The traditional Agriculture Knowledge is epic information, was created by the forefathers in the past civilizations. The forefathers practiced traditional agriculture information during Harappa civilizations, Vedic and Iron Age civilizations. The present Small and Marginal farmer utilizes traditional information in the crop production & management, crop protection, farm machinery & tools, soil & water management, medicinal & aromatic plants for diseases diagnosis, animal husbandry, stored grain pests’ management, weed management and value added food product and transfers in the youth. The utilizing traditional informations in the agriculture practices are collected from the different geographical states of India. The informations are practiced in the specific activities by the farmers. The farmer utilizes compositions of natural resource in the geographical states for the crop husbandry and farm linked activities. The traditional information is more practiced by the Southern and North-Eastern Geographical zone. The farmer applies specific informations in the crop production & management, crop protection, farm machinery & tools, soil & water management, medicinal & aromatic plants for diseases diagnosis, animal husbandry, stored grain pests’ management, weed management and value added food product. The farmer preserves and transfers the information in the rural community. The farmer transmits information in the present generation for creating mobilization. The traditional agriculture information transforms agriculture resources, maintains biodiversity ethics and enlightens historical and practical approaches to the present generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Oral Health; Adolescent; Knowledge, Practice, Behaviour
Online: 11 January 2022 (15:48:40 CET)
The aims of this study were to assess oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices among orthodontic patients between the ages of 15 and 17 years old compared to adolescents without orthodontic treatment. This cross-sectional study included 392 adolescents drawn from various French teaching hospitals. A closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect data. Adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment had a higher knowledge of oral health than adolescents without orthodontic treatment. The majority of adolescents for both groups (69%) claimed to brush their teeth twice a day. Regarding complimentary dental material, 81.9% of adolescents without orthodontic treatment never used an interdental brush and 78.8% never used dental floss. For those undergoing orthodontic treatment, 48.5% never used interdental brush. Only 4% of adolescents without and 3% of adolescents with orthodontic treatment never consumed fizzy drinks, 4.9% and 3% never consumed sweets, 4% and 8.4% never ate fast-food. Adolescents without treatment consumed more sodas (p=0.04) and more fast food (p=0.03). Adolescents had insufficient knowledge of oral health. Health education programmes should be implemented to improve adolescents' knowledge and individual oral prophylaxis with interdental brushes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0608.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: co-production; knowledge production; public services
Online: 22 April 2021 (13:23:35 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to explore conceptual approaches in co-production studies and to examine current research trends of the study. The conceptual paper includes research articles related to co-production in public administration field. By thoroughly scrutinizing 32 research works of co-production, this study highlights major loopholes in the field of the study. The contributions of the study are: (1) identifying two common characteristics of co-production, (2) categorising three types of co-producing by end-users, and (3) finding that goals and success of co-production are more beneficial for service providers though its initial approach is citizen-centric approach. We suggest that future studies should be (1) to focus on reasons for co-production failures or success, (2) to discover further hindrances for co-production in service production, (3) to examine influencing factors on service providers as well as institutional impacts on co-production process, and (4) to include practical assessment in co-production study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Human papillomavirus; vaccine; pregnancy; attitudes; knowledge
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:47:19 CET)
We aimed to assess awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of healthy pregnant women towards human papillomavirus (HPV), to estimate factors associated with a positive attitude towards HPV immunization and to assess the uptake of the vaccine among their children. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Belgrade, Serbia among pregnant women attending their regular gynecological check-ups at the 12th gestational week. Knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine was assessed using a specifically designed 12-item and 5-item questionnaires. Out of total 265 included women, 79.3% had heard of HPV, and 37.5% knew that HPV vaccine exists. HPV vaccine knowledge score was associated with higher odds for a positive attitude towards vaccination of both female (OR = 4.10, 95% CI 1.50-11.29) and male (OR = 3.71, 95% CI 1.52-9.01) child. The number of children (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.67) and high vaccine knowledge score (OR = 1.64 95% CI 1.13-2.39) were independent predictors associated with willingness to vaccinate child against HPV. The gynecologist was the preferable point of reference for information seeking about the HPV vaccine. Despite relatively high HPV awareness and knowledge among pregnant women in Serbia, about one-third of them are HPV vaccine aware, and are willing to vaccinate their children against HPV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Superstition; Scientific knowledge; Conflict; Traditional healers
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:11:54 CET)
Superstition is a belief that is not based on scientific knowledge. Traditional healers usually use superstition in their practices to manage human health problems and diseases; such practices create a conflict with the medical profession and its evidence-based practices. Medical professionals confirm that this kind of practice is not safe to human health as it is done by untrained people (e.g., tradition healers) utilizing unsterilized instruments within unhygienic environments. Most of the cases eventually develop a variety of complications, which are sometimes fatal. Female genital mutilation, uvulectomy, oral mutilation (tooth bud extraction to cure “Ibyinyo”), and eyebrow incisions are examples of the many different types of superstitious practices which occur commonly in different parts of the world. We described how these traditional practices of superstition have been and continue to be performed in various parts of the world, their complications on oral and general health, and the ways such practices hinder modern medical practices. This paper aims to increase the awareness of these superstition-driven traditional and potentially harmful practices by promoting the importance of evidence-based medical practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: diseases; ethnomedicine; Suryabinayak Municipality; traditional knowledge
Online: 10 August 2020 (08:05:53 CEST)
Ethnomedicine refers to the use of medicinal plants by a society, ethnic group or tribe for health benefits and for the prevention, treatment, and cure of different ailments. The healthy relationship between plants and humans has been continuing since the start of human civilization. The present study aims to document the medicinal information about plants used by ethnic people in different wards of Suryabinyak Municipality, Bhaktapur district, to conserve and utilize the traditional knowledge. Ethnomedicinal data were collected by a Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) method such as door to door surveys, direct observation. Individual interviews, field visits, and a questionnaire survey with the guidance of key informants. The present study has documented 107 medicinal plant species under 60 families which are used for prevention and treatment of 39 different diseases like Jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, and cancer and 46 distinct health benefits like cough, cold, anti-bleeding, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, blood pressure, fracture, toothache, etc. Suryabinayak Municipality has a rich diversity in culture, ethnic groups, and medicinal plants, along with a wide geographic and climatic condition. However, with modernization, urbanization, deforestation, and increasing residential areas, the occurrence and use of medicinal plants have been diminished. Thus, documentation of this research is vital for further pharmaceutical research and enhancement and preservation of traditional knowledge of local people living in Suryabinayak Municipality and Nepal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0167.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: green hotel; environmental awareness; environmental knowledge
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:12:57 CEST)
There has been a growing awareness of the need to implement environmentally friendly operations in the hotel industry, but most studies focus on guest behaviors. Only a few studies investigate employees’ willingness to comply with hotels’ green practices. This study seeks to further the investigation from the human resource perspective. Using alumni from a tourism and hospitality programs, this study collected 233 responses. The study hypothesizes that the employees’ green ability consisting of environmental awareness, environmental knowledge, and environmental skill creates a positive impact on hotels’ green ability. The results indicate that employees contribute approximately a fifth of hotels’ ability to implement greener practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0503.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: iron deficiency anemia; IDA; anemia; knowledge; awareness
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:13:08 CEST)
Keywords: iron deficiency anemia; IDA; anemia; knowledge; awareness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1955.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: medical education; gamified learning; knowledge retention; algorithm
Online: 28 July 2023 (09:22:22 CEST)
The aim of this review was to summarize the available literature regarding resident and medical student education utilizing the spaced repetition program Anki. This review enables current residents and medical students to recognize and utilize evidence-proven study techniques to increase learning efficacy. A systemic review of papers across all medical journals available on Pubmed was conducted to identify studies published without time constraints. The search was for (Anki) and (spaced repetition residency). Available outcome data was collected and discussed independently for students and residents. Many studies showed a statistically significant increase in exam performance associated with Anki use and high levels of satisfaction among residents and medical students. Further research is warranted to provide high-quality evidence of Anki’s applications and there is a need for exploration in additional residency specialties. Anki use has steadily increased with both medical students and residents. The application demonstrated consistent improvement on exam-based performance and was regarded highly by users. As burnout and time constrictions threaten educational workflow, Anki may serve as a powerful tool to improve the quality of learning. Further data needs to be collected and analyzed in specialties where Anki use may already exist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1053.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Angola; HIV; comprehensive knowledge; Health literacy; Sexuality
Online: 17 July 2023 (05:23:03 CEST)
HIV/AIDS infection increases vulnerability to ill-health states and has a major impact on the general health status. This study aims to describe Angolan adolescents and adults’ comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its associated factors based on the 2016 demographic and health survey (DHS). Data from 19,785 individuals between the ages of 15 and 49 years old, who re-sponded to all the DHS questions between October 2015 and March 2016 were included in this study. Multivariable analysis using logistic regression was used to compute the adjusted odds ratio and respective 95% confidence intervals. In Angola, 47.7% of the respondents had general com-prehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The odds of having comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS were higher among individuals who watch television (aOR: 2.40; 95% CI: 2.11, 2.72) or read journals and magazines (aOR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.72, 2.30) more than once a week and, people with primary or higher-level education (aOR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.67, 2.00). Similarly, for people living in urban areas (aOR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.34, 1.71). These results may reflect important inequities and can assist decision-makers in advocating to continue to invest in health literacy for HIV but also in the development of tailored interventions in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0165.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Influenza; Influenza Vaccination; Pregnancy Vaccination; Physicians Knowledge
Online: 4 July 2023 (08:24:27 CEST)
Influenza in pregnancy is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccines are safe and effective in pregnancy. There are no Mexican surveys in physicians on knowledge, beliefs, and practices towards influenza and influenza immunization during pregnancy. A 32 questions cross-sectional and descriptive survey was conducted addressing general knowledge of influenza, as well as beliefs and practices regarding influenza vaccination during pregnancy among Mexican physicians responsible for prenatal care, traditionally Obstetricians (OBGYNs), and Family Physicians (FPs). A total of 206 surveys were available, 98 (47.6%) from OBGYNs, and 108 (52.4%) from FPs representing an estimated 2,472 daily pregnancy consultations. 54 from 206 (26.2%) weren´t aware that influenza is more severe during pregnancy, 106 from 206 (51.5%) ignored the potential side effects of influenza infection on the fetus, and 56.8% did not know when to vaccinate pregnant women. Pregnancy as a risk factor for developing influenza complications was known only by 99 from 206(48.1%), and 6.1 % believed that vaccination does not confer protection to the fetus. Current beliefs of Mexican OBGYNs and FPs for both influenza morbidity and mortality, and the importance of influenza vaccination during pregnancy, is suboptimal. Understanding drivers for beliefs should be assessed to improve influenza vaccination recommendations, as knowledge alone is not sufficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2149.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Community; Health Risk; Awareness; Knowledge; Air Pollution
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:15:46 CEST)
Exposure to air pollution have detrimental effects on the elderly, women, people with pre-existing medical conditions, people living in poverty and children. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of community awareness and knowledge on the health risks associated with exposure to air pollution. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study, using self-administered questionnaires. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 376 respondents. Systematic sampling method was applied to select the households. SPSS version 26 was used to analyze data. Of 376 respondents, 221 were males and 154 females. 113 were aged between 23-47years and 353 were aware that if they don’t protect themselves against polluted air, they may get sick, with age and educational status associated with their awareness (p < 0.05). About 361 knew what air pollution is and 188 think the air they breathe in Annadale is moderate. A total number of 278 said they feel sick/uncomfortable when the quality of air is bad. About 293 knew that people are exposed to air pollution by breathing contaminated air and 237 identified sewage smell as the main cause of air pollution. Respondents who identified internet and television as the main source of information were 199 and 177 respectively. Those who were not aware of actions implemented to reduce air pollution were 180. Based on the results of the study, respondents are aware of the dangers of exposure to polluted air, and it is necessary that air pollution risk communication strategies be implemented to empower residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Asthma; Erbil; Health education; Knowledge; Attitudes; Practice
Online: 3 May 2023 (04:10:18 CEST)
Asthma causes chronic coughing, wheezing, dyspnea, and chest pressure. This study assessed asthmatic patients' knowledge, attitudes and awareness of bronchial asthma and proper education on its meaning, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and prevention practice. We performed a cross-sectional interventional asthma KAP survey in Erbil, Iraq. We adapted a validated study questionnaire from KAP studies in other nations to the Erbil situation and culture. In Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq, two major hospitals' asthma clinics were studied. We chose 250 asthmatic ICU patients from October 2018 to July 2019. Health education was comprehensive. The health education program used a Kurdish PowerPoint with a printout. 25 groups got two-weeks of one-hour health education pre-intervention. Each group was questioned before, 2 and 12 weeks after health education. All data were analyzed by SPSS v26. The mean age of the respondent was 37.52±15.16 with 48.7 % respondent having a positive family history of asthma. After 2weeks of health education intervention, respondent have a higher knowledge score, positive attitudes compared to pre-education and after 12 weeks of education with a significant difference (P < 0.001) with improvised prevention practice. Health education programs led to considerable improvements in asthmatic patients' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding their condition. After receiving health education for a period of two weeks, the majority of the participants answered correctly regarding asthma, its causes, and the elements that trigger asthma attacks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0225.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Polio; polio immunization; knowledge and perceptions; Pakistan
Online: 12 April 2023 (02:25:39 CEST)
Pakistan is one of the few countries where poliovirus transmission still persists, despite intensive efforts to eradicate the disease. Adequate vaccination coverage is essential to achieve polio eradication, but misconceptions about polio vaccines have hindered vaccination efforts. To address this issue, we conducted a mixed-methods study to explore knowledge and perceptions regarding polio disease and immunization in high-risk areas of Pakistan. We collected quantitative data from 3780, 1258, and 2100 households in Karachi, Bajaur, and Pishin, respectively, and supplemented this with qualitative data from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Our findings reveal a high level of awareness about polio and its immunization; however, misperceptions about the polio vaccine persist, leading to vaccine refusal for both polio and routine immunization. Our study provides up-to-date data on knowledge and perceptions of polio and its immunization and identifies critical gaps. These findings can inform the development of future strategies and innovative approaches to improve the success of the polio program in Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0152.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Leptospirosis; Awareness; Knowledge; Zoonosis; Health Risk; Prevention
Online: 10 April 2023 (05:26:23 CEST)
Limited understanding exists concerning leptospirosis in Zanzibar. The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of knowledge and awareness of leptospirosis within the urban and peri-urban populations of Unguja. A cross-sectional study was conducted utilizing semi-structured questionnaires from January to April 2022. Two hundred respondents were randomly selected (130 males and 70 females) aged between 18 and 89 years. Descriptive analysis was employed to assess the main trends in knowledge and awareness, and χ2 analysis was utilized to determine associations between demographic characteristics with respondents’ knowledge and awareness. The majority of respondents (64%) lacked awareness of leptospirosis' etiology, but a significant proportion of respondents had a favorable attitude (68.6%) towards leptospirosis compared to their average knowledge and awareness (35%) and practices (29.3%). Nonetheless, the livestock keeper, farmers, fishermen, and healthcare providers had low levels of knowledge and awareness. The findings also demonstrated that males had a strong association with occupational physical activities, while educational level was associated with preventive practices. Living in urban or peri-urban areas was significantly linked with the respondents' practices. The study's outcomes demonstrated low levels of community knowledge and awareness regarding leptospirosis' etiology, mode of transmission, and symptoms among livestock keepers, farmers, fishermen, and healthcare providers. Although most respondents had a favorable attitude, their low level of knowledge and poor practices indicate that supplementing a positive attitude with enhanced knowledge and awareness is necessary to promote individual engagement in preventive measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0065.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Indigenous; Knowledge Systems; Modern Weather Instruments; Uganda
Online: 5 April 2023 (15:20:59 CEST)
Location-specific weather and climate information together with related advisory services are one of the crucial drivers of development in the 21st century particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there still exist significant gaps in provision of weather and climate information at scales that effectively address the needs of local people for instance; local farmers and pastoralists. This therefore force local people to rely on indigenous knowledge (IK), to observe and forecast weather conditions. This situation does not exclude Uganda, and thus the current study assessed the efficacy of integrating indigenous knowledge systems into modern weather observational instruments in order to boost and act as a backup mechanism for modern weather observational instruments to increase accuracy and wide coverage of weather observations within Uganda. Results indicated that, respondents across the two pilot sites use a combination of plants, animals, insects, and human behaviours, meteorological and astrological indicators to observe and predict local prevailing weather conditions. Majority of the respondents particularly in Masaka district, believed that the use of indigenous knowledge to observe weather and climatic events is very reliable compared to their counterparts in Entebbe Municipality. Therefore, the integration of indigenous knowledge system in scientific weather observations is very vital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: backyard chicken; biosecurity; management; knowledge gap; Bangladesh
Online: 14 March 2023 (04:00:24 CET)
Backyard chickens are the most popular poultry in Bangladesh due to their production potential, and income generation. However, this farming can be a factor in zoonotic disease transmission. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to biosecurity and management among backyard chicken households in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 295 households in six sub-districts of different six divisions of Bangladesh. The study used a convenient sampling technique to choose the divisions, then the districts and sub-districts. A well-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to interview randomly selected households. In this study, most of the respondents relied on agriculture crop production (n=128) as their primary source of income, relied on scavenging for their birds’ feeding (34%), or fed their chickens whole or broken rice (32%), used tube well water (58%), used ash (38%) or sand (28%) as litter material. A significant proportion of households (40%) did not use any nest box at all. Results also showed that the most reported poultry diseases among backyard poultry farmers were Newcastle disease (49%), followed by coccidiosis (30%), fowl cholera (12%), and fowl pox (9%). In the multivariate logistic regression model, knowledge of biosecurity was associated with the household type (OR=1.4, p=0.04), knowledge of vaccination (OR=3.7, p=0.02), don’t know category (OR=4.2, p=<0.001), provision of the nest box (OR=9.5, p<0.001), training (OR=0.1, p=0.04), and air pollution (OR=0.1; p=0.04). The study found a huge knowledge gap on management and biosecurity practices present among backyard chicken farmers, which can negatively impact public health for instance in the outbreak of zoonotic diseases. Increasing farmers' biosecurity awareness through education and outreach activities could minimize the risk of disease transmission and improve both public and poultry health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0358.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: environmental knowledge; pollution; rural women; health; China
Online: 21 February 2023 (09:31:19 CET)
Rural women in developing nations are especially vulnerable to higher health risks due to environmental pollution exposure and are more likely to experience poorer health outcomes. Using data from the 2013 China General Social Survey CGSS2013, this study empirically examined the relationship among environmental knowledge (EK), pollution, health investment, and health status of women residing in rural regions in China. We employed a nationally representative sample of 1,930 female individuals for our analysis. Our results showed that the level of EK for women in rural China significantly impacted their self-reported physical and mental health. In order to account for potential endogeneity due to mutual causality, this study employed television usage and network usage as two instrument variables (IVs) of EK. We performed an IV-probit method to correct the estimated errors due to endogeneity. Additionally, to assess the reliability and robustness of our results, we re-estimated our model by replacing health status with the variable Body Mass Index (BMI). The results were consistent, providing evidence of robustness. Additionally, we examined the relationship between health investment (holding and purchasing a public health insurance policy, engaging in frequent physical activity, and acquiring commercial insurance) and health status. Our results indicate that the level of EK had no significant impact on participating in the new rural cooperative medical system. However, the preference of purchasing commercial insurance was positively impacted by EK, though it does not have a direct impact on the health condition. Conversely, an increase in EK and pollution is associated with a greater likelihood of engaging in physical exercise, which could, in turn, improve overall mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Cyberbullying; Knowledge; Education; Learners; Strategies; South Africa
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:17:37 CET)
Many educational institutions are using technology-enhanced learning. However, studies have shown that increased access to technological tools/gadgets is a precursor to incidents of cyberbullying. Using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory, we explored educators’ knowledge and intervention strategies regarding cyberbullying in schools. The design used in this study was qualitative and descriptive in nature. Purposive sampling technique was used to recruit a sample of eight educators working at secondary school in Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected using one-on-one interviews. Thematic analysis method was used to analyse the data. The findings revealed educators had sufficient knowledge of cyberbullying and how it affects learners in schools. However, interventions the teachers had put in place to prevent and manage incidences of cyberbullying were found to be ineffective due to parental disengagement and learners not reporting cases of cyberbullying. Recommendations for enhancing management of cyberbullying cases are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0003.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus; Knowledge; Attitude; Practice; Jordan
Online: 3 January 2023 (04:33:04 CET)
The World Health Organization estimated that around 66 thousand HBV are caused by needlestick injuries annually. Healthcare students should be aware of HBV transmission route and preventive measures. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward HBV among Jordanian healthcare students and its associated factor. A cross-national study conducted from March to August. The participants were asked to complete the questionnaire. It had four sections: participants' sociodemographic, knowledge, attitudes, and practices about HBV. 2322 participants were enrolled, 67.9% were females, 26.4% were medical student, 35.9% were in the 3rd year. 40% of the participants held a high level of knowledge and attitude. 63.9% of participants had good practices toward HBV. Medical students in the last year of study, encountered HBV patients , had better knowledge. Male students from medicine college, encountered HBV patients and had extra HBV courses showed better attitude. High practice level was associated with being dentistry student, at 5th year, encountered HBV patient and extras HBV courses. This study demonstrated insufficient knowledge and attitudes toward HBV, the practices level toward HBV among healthcare students was promising. Subsequently, public health efforts should modify the knowledge and attitude gaps to reinforce awareness and minimizing risks of the infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0493.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Knowledge; Practice; Pregnant women; Bangladesh
Online: 28 November 2022 (07:02:41 CET)
Background: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is still a global public health concern due to the absence of effective antiviral treatment against different strains. Studies have shown that pregnant women are more susceptible to COVID-19 due to altered physiology and immunological features. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate pregnant women's knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) to prevent COVID-19 and determine the factors associated with KAP. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 425 pregnant women in Northern Bangladesh. The samples were obtained using a simple random sampling technique from April 5 to June 15, 2020. The data were collected by face-to-face survey with a structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and p-values < 0.05 at 95% CI were considered statistically significant. Results: Overall, the score of KAP among the respondents was 47.76%, 49.41%, and 56.24%, respectively. Participants' area of residence, educational status of the husband, and antenatal care (ANC) visit were significantly associated with the level of knowledge, whereas age, educational status of the husband, number of living children, and knowledge were significant predictors of attitude. The knowledge of COVID-19 was the only predictor associated with the practice. Conclusion: Our study shows that almost half of the participants had poor knowledge, a negative attitude, and poor practices toward COVID-19. Additional health education programs by healthcare professionals and different media, coordinated and combined efforts of government and individuals' participation will be required to fight the spread of the infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Blood Transfusion; Knowledge; Attitude; Practice; Healthcare Providers
Online: 8 September 2022 (03:02:03 CEST)
Introduction: Blood transfusion involves the transfer of blood from donors to patients. A blood transfusion is carried out every 2 seconds in the US. It is made up of about 29000 units of red blood cells and is transfused every day in the US. When blood transfusion is done correctly, it can result in the saving of lives and the improvement of healthcare. However, it may also lead to immediate, late, delayed, and chronic complications. No previous studies have been conducted in Qatar to address this issue. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study intended to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice toward blood transfusion among healthcare providers at Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), which is the principal healthcare provider in Qatar. Participants between 18 and 25 years of age were selected for the research study. A 10-item online questionnaire that people can fill out on their own will be used to get the data needed for the analysis and meet the study's goals. Results: the analysis has indicated that facing negative reactions after blood transfusion and being worried about getting affected by any infection have a small positive association, with the specific values coming in at r = 0.317, p = 0.000. Fever after blood transfusion and feeling like refusing blood transfusion have a significant and moderate positive correlation, with the specific values coming in at r = 0.630 and p = 0.000. Conclusion: The findings of this study have helped us figure out how healthcare providers feel, what they know, and what they do during a blood transfusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0096.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Health; Policy; Knowledge; Perception; Medical Students; Malaysia
Online: 11 April 2022 (11:07:12 CEST)
Background: Health policy is a set of comprehensive principles and legislations that guide how healthcare should be effectively delivered in the community. Medical schools should prepare students to undertake managerial responsibilities by incorporating health policy in the curriculum to deal with the intricacies of healthcare systems and their clinical roles in their future professional careers. Objective: To examine medical students' perception at a Public University in Malaysia regarding teaching health policy and their participation in health policy roles. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study using universal sampling was carried out among the medical students using a paper-based questionnaire to collect the data. Results: Most respondents opined their willingness to learn health policy (80.9%) and that teaching health policy (83.6%) should be compulsory for medical students. The respondents thought health policy should be introduced earlier in Year 1 or 2. The student scores on their knowledge regarding health policy and year of study were significantly associated with their involvement in the health policy roles in both the simple and multiple logistic regression. Both statistical tests reported higher participation in health policy roles with the higher year of study, though only Year 4 and 5 were significant in the simple logistic regression and only Year 5 in the multiple logistic regression compared to Year 1. On the other hand, age and type of admission show significant results only in the simple logistic regression, while the race was only significant at the multivariate level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that most respondents showed their willingness to learn health policy, participate in the health policy programs, and recommend that health policy be considered an essential topic in the medical curriculum, which should be taught right from the first year of medical school. We recommend encouraging students’ participation in health policy activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0199.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Knowledge Graph; ·Storage·Indexing; ·Query Processing; ·SPARQL; ·Benchmarks
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:50:51 CEST)
Recent years have seen the growing adoption of non-relational data models for representing diverse, incomplete data. Among these, the RDF graph-based data model has seen ever-broadening adoption, particularly on the Web. This adoption has prompted the standardization of the SPARQL query language for RDF, as well as the development of a variety of local and distributed engines for processing queries over RDF graphs. These engines implement a diverse range of specialized techniques for storage, indexing, and query processing. A number of benchmarks, based on both synthetic and real-world data, have also emerged to allow for contrasting the performance of different query engines, often at large scale. This survey paper draws together these developments, providing a comprehensive review of the techniques, engines and benchmarks for querying RDF knowledge graphs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0309.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Tacit knowledge; organizational communication; call-center; responders
Online: 12 February 2021 (14:50:09 CET)
This article aims to understand the role of tacit knowledge in call center organizations with the objective of understanding how call center representatives use tacit knowledge in their job roles and functions. Extant literature has focused on explicit knowledge but the research on tacit knowledge is still underdeveloped. The complexities and difficulties of the call center job role and the usage and transfer of knowledge is reviewed. Also, it takes into considerations past literature on tacit knowledge, how these respondents employ tacit knowledge in efficiently handling customers, responding to their queries, and engaging this form of knowledge in problem solving. The article concludes with discussion and implications for call center organizations and responders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0722.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Attitude, Family planning, knowledge, IUCD, Contraceptive, Reproductive
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:23:21 CET)
Background: Intrauterine device is a modern contraceptive method used in family planning process, it prevents conception (pregnancy) and it has duration of 12years. There some women of reproductive age who don’t use this method, which necessitates our concern to why they don’t use it. The aim of this study is to explore the knowledge and attitude toward utilization of IUCD as family planning method among women attending at Makambako RCH. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was used to assess knowledge and attitude concerning use of intrauterine contraceptive device among 384 women of reproductive age. Random sampling was conducted in which every individual had an equal chance to be selected and structured self-administered questionnaire were used to collect data. Data was entered to Microsoft excel and then exported to SPSS version 20.0 for further analysis. Results: Findings of the study about 333 (86.7%) respondents had knowledge on IUD while 51 (13.3%) they lack knowledge on IUD and they agreed it helps to prevent unwanted pregnancies and they heard it from social media like radio and television, health care providers, friends and school. About 46 (12%) of the respondents had positive attitude and used IUD method of family planning, and they got influence of using IUD from health care providers, 82 (21.4%) got influence of using IUD from their partners and 27 (7.0%) influenced to use IUD due to the side effects of other family planning methods like Depo Provera and pills. 25 (5.7%) were not influenced by anyone to use IUD as family planning method. While 338 (88.0%) participants had negative attitude on IUD method and had never used IUD as family planning method. Conclusion: The findings show that IUD usage was found to be poor and majority of them they didn’t prefer it, despite of having less complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0739.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: knowledge; attitude; preparedness; COVID-19; gender; Bangladesh
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:12:02 CET)
Effective pandemic management requires understanding the level of community knowledge, attitude of people and preparedness towards COVID-19. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and preparedness toward COVID-2019 among Bangladeshi general people. A cross sectional survey was conducted from 20th March 2020 to 20th April 2020 among 1007 Bangladeshi adult people. A convenience sampling strategy was utilized and the data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to identify the gender differences regarding knowledge, attitude and preparedness towards COVID-19. Respondents predominately used social media to inform themselves about COVID-19 (68.10%) and female used social media more than male (p<0.001). Female had more correct knowledge about staying home with sickness and/or symptoms to contain the COVID-19 transmission (p=.02). While male had more negative attitude about staying out during the pandemic than female (<0.001) and men were less likely to take preventative measures than female counterparts. A number of people were still believing the myths like “COVID-19 can transmit via mosquito” (9.14%) and male had more incorrect knowledge regarding this (p<0.001). Moreover, 17.81% of the respondents thought that COVID-19 can spread in warm weather. Some findings are directing us to a knowledge gap among general population in Bangladesh which calls for uncovering those aspects. Adequate and effective communication are necessary so that general people can stay alert with positive attitude and hygienic practices to fight against this ongoing crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0630.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Attitude; Community; Knowledge; Mental health; Mental illness
Online: 30 October 2020 (08:59:46 CET)
Knowledge and attitude towards mental illness play major role in the recognition, management, sociocultural factors and health seeking behavior among those with mental disorders. The study aim was to determine the knowledge and attitude among Nyamagana community members towards mental illness, Tanzania; A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study involving 384 participants from sample population aged 18 years and above who were mentally health and semi-structured questionnaires was used to collect data. The results 110 (28.8%) respondents have good knowledge toward mental illness, about 292(76%) have negative attitude towards mentally ill people, 92(24%) respondents have positive attitude toward people who are mentally ill. More over about 318 (82.9%) respondents agreed that care and support of family and friends, could help people with mental illness to get rehabilitation while 66(17.1%) respondents disagreed on the care and support of the family and friends could help mentally ill people to get rehabilitation; The findings show most have poor knowledge and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness and may impair their social reintegration in the community. There’s need to develop strategies to enlighten the public regarding nature of mental illness so as to foster acceptance of people with mental illness by the community members.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0185.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Attitude; COVID-19; Knowledge; Nigeria; Perception; University
Online: 14 June 2020 (16:06:03 CEST)
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an emerging viral infection, is impacting the social, economic and political patterns of the world. To contain the spread of this pandemic, Nigeria like many countries globally, has imposed drastic preventive measures such as physical distancing and lockdown/curfew. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and perception (KAP) about COVID-19 among members of staff of a university community in southwest, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous, self-designed, online KAP questionnaire was conducted from April 18 to May 31, 2020. Purposive and chain referral sampling techniques were used to recruit respondents from the teaching and non-teaching categories of the university. The KAP questionnaire consisted of ten knowledge questions regarding the identification of clinical characteristics, transmission and prevention of COVID-19. The questions on attitude (15) and perception (10) assessed respondents on adherence to policies and their views on government efforts to contain the spread of the infection respectively. A total of 125 (teaching) and 102 (non-teaching) staff responded. The respondents had scientific (78.8 %) and non-scientific (28.2 %) work background. Approximately 59.1 % of the respondents were males. The mean knowledge and positive attitude levels were 70.8 % (SD ± 9.6 %) and 83.1 % (SD ± 13.07 %) respectively. Significant differences in the knowledge mean scores were observed for demographic categories such as educational qualification (p = 0.0006), staff work category (p = <0.0001), work background (p = <0.0001), and type of lockdown (p = 0.0271). Most of the respondents (85.3 %) opined that COVID-19 was a biological weapon and viewed the lockdown as necessary (81.5 %). However, they thought that the Nigerian government was not doing enough to mitigate COVID-19 spread. The perception of COVID-19 in the university community bear implications across public health initiatives, compliance with precautionary behaviour and bilateral relations with foreign nations.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: myopia progression; environmental factors; vision care knowledge
Online: 7 October 2019 (10:55:03 CEST)
Importance: Because of the high prevalence of myopia in Taiwan, understanding the risk factors for its development and progression is important to public health. Background: This study investigated the risk factors for myopia and their influence on the progression of myopia in schoolchildren in Taiwan. Design: Patients’ clinical records were obtained retrospectively from ophthalmologists. Questionnaires were given to collect demographic information, family background, hours spent on daily activities, myopia progression, and treatment methods. Participants: A total of 522 schoolchildren with myopia from a regional medical hospital in northern Taiwan participated the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants of legal age or the parents or legal guardians. Methods: Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Myopia measured in dioptres was analysed, controlling for patients’ family and demographic information as well as their daily behaviours. Main Outcome Results: Children with high myopic parents were more myopic. Earlier onset age of myopia was associated with a higher level of myopia and greater annual myopic progression. Children reporting more near work activities had higher levels of myopia and greater progression of myopia. Lower levels of myopia were associated with more exercise, longer periods of sleep, and better vision care knowledge in children and parents. Intake of food supplements had no effect on myopia. Conclusions and Relevance: In addition to genetics, education, environment, and near work activity can influence the development of myopia. Health policies for schoolchildren should promote protective activities and vision care knowledge in order to protect the eyesight of schoolchildren.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0480.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: social stigma; tuberculosis; knowledge; stigma measurement; Pakistan
Online: 20 November 2018 (05:14:44 CET)
Tuberculosis (TB) associated stigma is well-documented phenomenon that may contribute to sub-optimal TB care in Pakistan. The objective of study was to assess TB related knowledge and perceived stigma among community members. This was cross-sectional survey using convenience sample of 183 individuals recruited between October and December 2017. A validated stigma measurement tool developed by Van Rie et al. was adapted. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. 183 individuals (73% males; n = 134) participated in survey. Eighty-seven percent were aware that TB is curable disease (n = 159) and 91% thought that it could be transmitted by coughing (n = 167). However, respondents also thought that TB was spread through contaminated food (73%; n = 134), sharing meals (55%; n = 100), sharing utensils (53%; n = 96) and by having sexual intercourse with a TB patient (51%; n = 93). Fifty-seven percent (n = 104) associated TB with high levels of stigma. Persons who had less than six years of education (crude OR = 1.2; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.72) and lacked knowledge that TB is curable (crude OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.20, 9.70) were more likely to associate TB with stigma. In addition, females (crude OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 0.87, 2.04) and those who were unemployed (crude OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.74) were also more likely to associate TB with stigma. We found an association between lack of knowledge about TB and perceived stigma. This highlights need for improved education and awareness about TB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0005.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: School manager; knowledge management practices; Organizational processes
Online: 1 October 2018 (11:38:31 CEST)
Knowledge management gains space within the school organization and can contribute satisfactorily to the quality of teaching. In everyday life the school manager intuitively uses knowledge management practices without exploiting the potentials they offer or allow. In this context, the purpose of this work is to identify the level of implementation of knowledge management practices aimed at structuring the organizational processes used by the public school manager. The methodology adopted was exploratory, with a qualitative and quantitative approach. For data collection, an already validated instrument with twenty-seven questions was used. Respondents to the questionnaires, one hundred and eleven managers of the basic education schools that make up the public school system in a city in the northwestern region of Paraná, Southern Brazil. In analyzing the results, it was only at this point that we investigated only those practices that were related to the structuring of organizational processes. This decision is justified because of the responsibilities of the school manager in the execution of his work. The results indicated that the school in its daily life, makes use of practices of Knowledge Management related to the structuring of the organizational processes and that many are already applied by the managers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: animal welfare; attitudes; chicken; knowledge; consumption; poultry
Online: 8 March 2017 (07:35:54 CET)
Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds’ welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland, Australia, to investigate this. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions, and low scores were supported by respondents’ self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it very acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken to be more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public’s knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of meat chickens. Respondents with little knowledge demonstrated that they had both lack of empathy and intolerance to religious slaughter practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Vitamin D, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Validity, Reliability
Online: 1 February 2017 (16:39:41 CET)
The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in Iranian adults who may be at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. This study was conducted on 527 subjects, aged ≥20 years from Public health care centers in Tehran, Iran. Based on results of literature review and in-depth interviews, the 38-item vitamin D-related KAP questionnaire with four subscale was developed: 1) general knowledge; 2) nutritional knowledge; 3) attitudes; 4) behaviors. Validity of the developed vitamin D-KAP questionnaire was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. Internal consistency was calculated to assess reliability of the current developed questionnaire. A total of 572 (54.1% female) adults, aged 30.2±7.9 years, participated in the study. All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by participants. Content validity was confirmed by the panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for four subscales. The EFA suggested a four-factor construct and the results of the CFA indicated acceptable fit indices for the proposed model. No ceiling effects were observed except for general knowledge (1.2%). Floor effects detected were 0, 1.1, 2.4, and 8.7% for practice, attitude, general knowledge, and nutrition knowledge, respectively. General knowledge had the highest score (79.59±14.52) and nutrition knowledge, the lowest score (42.58±20.40) among the four sub-scales. Results confirm the initial validity and reliability of the vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire. Further investigations in different urban and rural population are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Floods; victims; perception and knowledge; individual characteristic
Online: 1 February 2017 (10:39:55 CET)
This study aims to unravel the paradox of perceptions and knowledge of the flood victims towards the causes of the disaster in both internal and external context. Internal context comprises of a comparison of perceptions and knowledge based on individual characteristics (age, gender, education and income). Whereas, the external context includes the factors of the awareness of the victims towards the amount of rainfall, the impact of land use changes as well as the negligence of the responsible parties. The main objective of this study is to determine the differences of perception and knowledge of December 2014 flood victims in Kelantan towards the factors that lead to the flood. This disaster had resulted in huge amount of money loss as well as traumatize the victims in which can be felt to this day. Since that incident, there were various points of view and different perceptions in finding the cause of the disaster occurred. Besides that, the study found that the level of perception and knowledge as to the cause of the disaster is different in the internal context (individual characteristics). This difference has a significant influence on the awareness of the causes of the floods that occurred in the external context. Significant relationships at the level of p <0.05 has existed between perception and knowledge of the causes of the disaster victims affected by environmental changes in the last 10 years. This indicates that although the victim is aware of the physical environment changes happening around them, but all that is seen as not a major contributing factor to the cause of the floods in Kelantan in 2014.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1393.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: information extraction; named entity recognition; natural language processing; dataset; sequence labeling; scholarly knowledge graphs; open research knowledge graph
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:33:48 CEST)
We introduce the Open Research Knowledge Graph Agriculture Named Entity Recognition (the ORKG Agri-NER) corpus and service for contribution-centric scientific entity extraction and classification. The ORKG Agri-NER corpus is a seminal benchmark for the evaluation of contribution-centric scientific entity extraction and classification in the agricultural domain. It comprises titles of scholarly papers that are available as Open Access articles on a major publishing platform. We describe the creation of this corpus and highlight the obtained findings in terms of the following features: 1) a generic conceptual formalism focused on capturing scientific entities in agriculture that reflect the direct contribution of a work; 2) a performance benchmark for named entity recognition of scientific entities in the agricultural domain by empirically evaluating various state-of-the-art sequence labeling neural architectures and transformer models; and 3) a delineated 3-step automatic entity resolution procedure for the resolution of the scientific entities to an authoritative ontology, specifically AGROVOC that is released in the Linked Open Vocabularies cloud. With this work we aim to provide a strong foundation for future work on the automatic discovery of scientific entities in the scholarly literature of the agricultural domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0316.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: JTB account of knowledge; Gettier problems; contextualization of belief and knowledge; epistemic and non-epistemic dimensions of law
Online: 15 July 2020 (05:43:24 CEST)
Echoing the long-held JTB account of knowledge, according to which knowledge can be conceptually analyzed as justified true belief, Backes (2019) argues that our epistemic aim is to believe truly or accurately and emphasizes on that “a belief is justified iff it is highly probable”. We maintain that this line of reasoning is deficient, in terms of epistemic concerns and non-epistemic concerns of interest for both philosophy and legal theory. Specifically, in this short paper, we argue for the ineffectiveness of the aforementioned Backes’ view to meet the challenges posed by the ongoing rapid techno-scientific transformation of our contemporary societies and ways-of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0179.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: knowledge acquisition; clinical practice guidelines; data driven knowledge acquisition; cancer treatment plan; clinical decision support system; formal verification
Online: 22 July 2019 (06:17:34 CEST)
Validation and verification are the critical requirements in the knowledge acquisition method for the clinical decision support system (CDSS). After acquiring the medical knowledge from diverse sources, the rigorous validation and formal verification process are required before creating the final knowledge model. Previously, we have proposed a hybrid knowledge acquisition method for acquiring medical knowledge from clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and patient data in the Smart CDSS for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The final knowledge model was created by combining knowledge models obtained from CPGs and patient data after passing through a rigorous validation process. However, detailed analysis shows that due to lack of formal verification process, it involves various inconsistencies in knowledge relevant to the formalism of knowledge, conformance to CPGs, quality of knowledge, and complexities of knowledge acquisition artifacts. Therefore, it is required to enhance a hybrid knowledge acquisition method that thwarts the inconsistencies using formal verification. This paper presents the verification process using the Z formal method and its outcome as an enhanced acquisition method – known as the refined knowledge acquisition (ReKA) method. The ReKA method adopted verification method and explored the mechanism of theorem proving using the Z notation. It enables to identify inconsistencies in the validation process used for hybrid knowledge acquisition. Additionally, it refines the hybrid knowledge acquisition method by discovering the missing steps in the current validation process at the acquisition stage. Consequently, ReKA adds a set of nine additional criteria to be used to have a final valid refined clinical knowledge model. The criteria ensure the validity of final knowledge model concerning formalism of knowledge, conformance to GPGs, quality of the knowledge, usage of stringent conditions and treatment plans, and inconsistencies possibly resulting from the complexities. Evaluation, using four medical knowledge acquisition scenarios, shows that newly added knowledge in CDSS due to the addition of criteria by ReKA method always produces a valid knowledge model. The final knowledge model was also evaluated with 1229 oral cavity patient cases, which outperformed with an accuracy of 72.57\% compared to a similar approach with an accuracy of 69.7\%. Furthermore, ReKA method identified a set of decision paths (about 47.8%) in the existing approach, which results in a final knowledge model with low quality, non-conformed from standard CPGs. In conclusion, ReKA is formally proved method which always yields valid knowledge model having high quality, supporting local practices, and influenced from standard guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0996.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Yijing, knowledge graph, Neo4j, visualization retrieval, new method.
Online: 14 September 2023 (14:03:36 CEST)
Due to the inclusion of both the principles and divination methods, the study of Yijing (Yijing) becomes more complex. The complex data types, diverse semantic relationships, and unclear influencing mechanisms in Yijing pose challenges to its scientific research. Knowledge graph, as an advanced way of organizing knowledge, can provide technical support in exploring the hidden connections and knowledge structure within text resources. This paper proposes a method of constructing a Yijing knowledge graph based on Neo4j. By analyzing the concepts, entities, and various related relationships in Yijing, the method discusses the basic architecture, data model, and implementation steps of constructing the Yijing knowledge graph. It also extracts, integrates, and structures the Yijing knowledge, allowing for inquiries, associations, and reasoning about the knowledge and its various elements. By adopting a top-down approach, the paper reconstructs the fundamental knowledge system of the Yijing, including yin-yang, the five elements, generation and restriction, 64 hexagrams, and six lines(yao). It establishes a knowledge graph pattern layer and a data layer that encompass concepts, attributes, and relationships. With the technical support of the Neo4j platform, the visualization and retrieval of Yijing knowledge are realized, providing new ideas and methods for studying the mechanisms of the Yijing. The proposed method of constructing a Yijing knowledge graph can be expanded to other types of ancient scripture knowledge graph research and can be applied to the field of digital humanities, promoting in-depth cross-disciplinary research and integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1823.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: newborn blood screening; Guthrie; knowledge; consent; mother; parent
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:24:05 CEST)
To learn what mothers know on newborn bloodspot screening (NBS), the procedure, and sources used, a pilot study was performed. An online questionnaire was developed, with a first part fo-cused on characteristics and the NBS procedure, a second on knowledge, information sources, and health care providers (HCP). This questionnaire was accessible until 200 answers were received. Characteristics of respondents were representative for the population. Mothers recalled verbal consent in 69.5%, 12.5% did not, 18% stated that no consent was requested. The ‘knowledge’ part contained 12 closed questions, 5 multiple-choice questions on sources, and assessment (5-point Likert) of the information transfer. The mean knowledge level was 7.2/12. Screening concepts (consequences, likelihood, sensitivity, carrier) and absence of notification of normal findings were well known. The fact that NBS is not compulsory and post-analysis sample handling were poorly known. Key HCPs were midwifes (80.5%) and nurses (38.5%). When the leaflet (44%) was pro-vided, the majority read it. Mean Likert scores were 3.36, 3.38, 3.11 and 3.35 (clarity, timing ap-propriateness, sufficiency, usefulness). The knowledge level and consent practices were reasonable well. Key HCP were midwives and nurses, leaflets were supporting. This should enable a quality improvement program to a sustainable NBS program in Flanders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1791.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: physical restraint; nurse; perception; knowledge; attitude; nursing practice
Online: 25 August 2023 (07:33:45 CEST)
This study was aimed to identify perception, knowledge, attitude and nursing practice toward use of physical restraints among clinical nurses, and further examined the factors associated with nursing practice toward use of physical restraints. The research participants were 180 nurses from a urban general hospital located in Korea. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires and analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple regression. There were significant negative relationships attitudes towards the use of physical restraints with knowledge (r = -.32, p < .001) and nursing practice (r = -.12, p = .107). Knowledge showed a positive correlation with nursing practice (r = .28, p < .001). Factors affecting nursing practice of clinical nurses were identified as knowledge (β= .23), education experiences (Yes) (β= .18), and work unit (ICU) (β= .43). The explanation power of this regression model was 22% and it was statistically significant (F=7.45, p<.001). The findings from this study suggest that knowledge, education experiences and work unit were the strongest predictor on nursing practice toward use of physical restraints. Thus, we propose that developing and applying evidence-based educational intervention programs by work unit to reduce the inappropriate use of physical restraints in hospitals are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1529.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Distributed representation; Knowledge graph; Link prediction; Logical rule
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:32:17 CEST)
Knowledge graphs (KGs) play a crucial role in many applications, such as question answering, but incompleteness is an urgent issue for their broad application. Much research in knowledge graph completion (KGC) has been performed to resolve this issue. The methods of KGC can be classified into two major categories: rule-based reasoning and embedding-based reasoning. The former has high accuracy and good interpretability, but a major challenge is to obtain effective rules on large-scale KGs. The latter has good efficiency and scalability, but it relies heavily on data richness and cannot fully use domain knowledge in the form of logical rules. We propose a novel method that injects rules and learns representations iteratively to take full advantage of rules and embeddings. Specifically, we model the conclusions of rule groundings as 0-1 variables and use a rule confidence regularizer to remove the uncertainty of the conclusions. The proposed approach has the following advantages: 1) It combines the benefits of both rules and knowledge graph embeddings (KGEs) and achieves a good balance between efficiency and scalability. 2) It uses an iterative method to continuously improve KGEs and remove incorrect rule conclusions. Evaluations on two public datasets show that our method outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods, improving performance by 2.7% and 4.3% in mean reciprocal rank (MRR).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0561.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: nature-based solutions; indigenous and local knowledge; China
Online: 7 June 2023 (13:26:17 CEST)
China promotes nature-based solutions (NbS) as key approaches to addressing climate change, ecosystem damage, and biodiversity loss. However, indigenous and local knowledge (ILK), which is recognized by international scholars as an essential element of successful NbS, has not been thoroughly studied in the Chinese context. By conducting a comprehensive review of Chinese central governmental policies and semi-structured interviews with typical cases, this study finds out diversified sources of ILK and five pathways of ILK integration, including education, supervision, participation, knowledge preservation, and knowledge adoption. An increasing emphasis on community engagement has been driven by central policies such as the ecological civilization, carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals. From a practical perspective, consistent core ideas of ILK exist in selected typical Chinese cases and studies in other countries, namely co-existence and reciprocity with nature. While supportive central policies can set the scene, ILK integration could not be realized without local governmental endorsement, context-based implementation, and long-term multi-stakeholder participation. Furthermore, this study also figures out a potential deficiency in terms of realizing effective ILK integration in mainstream and conventional practices, which can be further investigated by future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0430.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Commonsense question answering; Knowledge Graph; Graph Convolutional Network
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:45:47 CEST)
Existing Knowledge Graph (KG) models for commonsense question answering present two challenges: (i) existing methods retrieved entities related to questions from the knowledge graph, which may extract noise and irrelevant nodes, and (ii) lack of interaction representation between questions and graph entities. However, current methods mainly focus on retrieving relevant entities with some noisy and irrelevant nodes. In this paper, we propose a novel Retrieval-augmented Knowledge Graph (RAKG) model, which solves the above issues through two key innovations. First, we leverage the density matrix to make the model reason along the corrected knowledge path and extract an enhanced knowledge graph subgraph. Second, we fuse representations of questions and graph entities through a bidirectional attention strategy, in which two representations fuse and update by Graph Convolutional Network (GCN). To evaluate the performance of our method, we conduct experiments on two widely-used benchmark datasets CommonsenseQA and OpenBookQA. The case study gives insight into findings that the augmented subgraph provides reasoning along the corrected knowledge path for question answering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0102.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: few-shot classification; electrical equipment images; knowledge distillation
Online: 1 June 2023 (04:39:38 CEST)
With the increasing utilization of intelligent mobile devices for online inspection of electrical equipment in smart grids, the limited computing power and storage capacity of these devices pose challenges for deploying large algorithm models and it’s hard to obtain a substantial number of images of electrical equipment in public. In this paper, we propose a novel distillation method that compresses the knowledge of teacher networks into a compact few-shot classification network, employing a global and local knowledge distillation strategy. Central to our method is exploiting the global and local relationship between the features exacted by the backbone of the teacher network and student network. We compare our method with recent state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods on three public datasets and achieve superior performance. Additionally, we contribute a new dataset, namely EEI-100, which is specifically designed for classification of electrical equipment. We validate our method on this dataset and demonstrate its exceptional prediction accuracy of 94.12% when utilizing only 5-shot images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0487.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine; Knowledge; Attitude; perception; Survey; Questionnaire
Online: 28 November 2022 (02:48:18 CET)
Background Several vaccines have been approved for prevention of the coronavirus disease discovered on 31st December in Wuhan, China. Pakistan procured vaccines from various countries. However, the lack of knowledge and reluctance of the general population to embrace the use of the vaccines are considered to be the major determinants of the slow vaccination rate. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the willingness of the general population about their perception of the COVID-19 vaccination. Methods A cross sectional survey based on a self-structured questionnaire comprising 18 questions was conducted (from April 21-June 21) on 400 Pakistani participants to evaluate their knowledge, attitude and perception towards the COVID-19 vaccination. Chi-square independent t-test and one-way Anova including a multiple step wise linear regression were used to draw conclusions about the results. P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 400 participants responded in the KAP survey of which 46.5% were female and 53.5% were male. The mean age of participants was 36.08 years. This survey showed a poor knowledge (50.5%), a fair attitude (75.1%) and a poor perception (58.1%) towards the COVID-19 vaccination. Higher mean knowledge and attitude scores was reported in the age group 21-40, females and unmarried urban citizens. Regression analysis showed that age, education, residence and employment status influenced the knowledge and perception score to a considerable extent. Conclusions The findings reflect an inadequate knowledge and perception on the one hand but a better attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccination. This KAP survey will help in better understanding the opinion of the general population towards vaccination and will be useful for policy makers and health care authorities aiming to increase the vaccination rate.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0469.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: diabetes knowledge; diabetes; prediabetes; prevention; health promotion; awareness
Online: 25 November 2022 (06:02:45 CET)
We aimed to study the knowledge of diabetes among high-risk individuals for diabetes in the Indian state of Kerala. The baseline data collected from 1007 participants of the Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program were analyzed. Diabetes knowledge was assessed using a scale adapted from a large nationwide study conducted in India. The composite score of the scale ranges from 0 to 8. The mean age of participants was 46.0 (SD: 7.5) years, and 47.2% were female. The mean diabetes knowledge score was 6.9 (SD: 2.1), with 59.5% having the maximum possible score of 8. Of 1007 participants, 968 (96.1%) had heard the term diabetes, and of them, 84.7% know what diabetes is, 87.2% think more and more people are getting diabetes nowadays, 79.6% know that diabetes can cause complications in organs, and 75.9% know that diabetes can be prevented. While the level of diabetes knowledge was high among our participants, a quarter of them (24.1%) were not aware that diabetes can be prevented. Thus, there is a need for health promotion programs to increase the knowledge of diabetes prevention among high-risk individuals in Kerala.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0312.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Health cadres; knowledge; motivation; stunting children; stunting prevention
Online: 20 December 2021 (12:40:36 CET)
Stunting in children is a serious problem of nutritional disorders and is strictly monitored by the Indonesian government, it is not only cause physical but also cognitive abnormalities in the form of less intelligence in children so that when they grow up, their productivity will decrease. The incidence of stunting in 2018 in Indonesia was 30.8 %, while in West Java was 29.92%, still at a moderate to high level, consequently, prevention and early detection efforts need to be carried out by various parties, including health professionals and health cadres. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the socio demographic characteristics factors as well as the knowledge and motivation of health cadres in the stunting prevention in West Java. A correlational study with a cross-sectional approach was employed with the samples of health cadres from 8 districts/cities in West Java Province: Karawang, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Bandung, Subang, Sukabumi, Cianjur, and West Bandung. A total of 363 health cadres participated and the sampling technique used is the stratified method. The data were collected using a questionnaire developed specifically for this study and were analyzed using a correlation with Chi-Square test and presented in the form of a frequency distribution. The study findings found that majority of the health cadres have good knowledge of 81.27%, which was significantly influenced by education level and marital status with p <0.05. Meanwhile, approximately half of the respondents had moderate motivation with 47.66%, while one-third or 39.12% had high motivation. This motivation was significantly influenced by education level, marital status, and age with p <0.05. It was concluded that health cadres need to further enhance the roles and functions in the prevention and early detection of stunting in West Java by providing continuous guidance, stunting training prevention and award presentations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0311.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: biodiversity education; knowledge; perspective; biodiversity conservation; biodiversity protection
Online: 18 November 2021 (17:20:15 CET)
Rich biodiversity is one of the Philippines’ greatest assets. Unfortunately, there is a continuous decline in the diversity of flora and fauna across the world. This calls for the need to educate people, especially younger generations, to value and protect biodiversity and natural resources. The study aimed to assess the students’ extent of knowledge and identify their perspectives towards biodiversity and its protection and conservation. A total of 268 randomly selected students at Aurora State College of Technology Zabali Campus were involved in the study. Survey questionnaires were used to obtain data and information which were subjected to statistical tests. The students had a moderate knowledge level on biodiversity with a mean score of 6.65 out of 10 items (SD = 1.50). Their perspective on biodiversity was leaning toward its protection and conservation, with a mean score of 7.2 out of 10 items (SD = 1.29). Factors affecting the students’ knowledge were gender (p = .003) and academic department (p = 0.003). Females and those associated with the Department of Forestry and Environmental Sciences and Department of Industrial technology were found to have more knowledge than the others. Males, on the other hand, were found to have a more positive perspective towards biodiversity. Knowledge and perspective had a weak correlation with r = 0.39. Students were not well-aware, but were in support of the Philippines’ biodiversity-related laws, which could help shape their mindset and actions towards biodiversity conservation and protection. As an implication, the college administration must revisit the curricula of all degree programs and ensure that students from each degree program are environmentally educated, emphasizing biodiversity conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0588.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Antimicrobial use; knowledge; farmer-attitude; dairy-farmer; sheep
Online: 23 June 2021 (13:26:05 CEST)
This work examines dairy and sheep farmer attitudes toward antimicrobial use (AMU) in New Zealand. There is increasing public demand on livestock producers to reduce AMU in livestock. The demand stems from concerns about potential antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that could originate from food animals. There is limited practical data on farmer knowledge of AMU. An electronic survey was sent to dairy (n= 378) and sheep farmers (n= 551). Seventy-six dairy farmers (20%, n=76/378) returned the survey. Dairy farmers (69%) showed low levels of concern about antimicrobial resistance and awareness of the need to reduce AMU. Additionally, 76% of dairy farmers didn’t think it was possible to reduce AMU. Thirty-nine sheep farmers (7%, 39/551) returned the survey. 76% of sheep farmers were supportive of restricted use of AMU. The dairy and sheep farmers sourced most of the advice from veterinarians (>90%), the livestock industry (>80%) and their colleagues (>70%). This study shows that farmers showed varied concerns about AMR and AMU. Moreover, sheep farmers were more amenable to increased restriction on AMU than dairy farmers. This study suggests that knowledge gaps in farmers may best be filled by veterinarian input.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0599.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Survey; children; health knowledge; chronic pain; pain education.
Online: 26 February 2021 (09:30:20 CET)
(1) Background: Research has shown that thoughts about pain are important for the management of chronic pain in children. In order to monitor changes in thoughts about pain over time and evaluate the efficacy of treatments, we need valid and reliable measures. The aims of this study were to develop a questionnaire to assess a child’s concept of pain and to evaluate its psychometric properties; (2) Methods: This is a cross-sectional, two-phase, mixed-method study. A total of 324 individuals aged 8 to 17 years old responded to the newly created questionnaire. The Survey of the Concept of Pain (SOCOPA) was calibrated using the Rasch model. The chi-square test was used for the fit statistics. Underfit and overfit of the model were determined and a descriptive analysis of infit and outfit was conducted to identify who responded erratically. Internal consistency was measured using the Person Separation Index (PSI); (3) Results: Fit to the Rasch model was good. Suitable targeting indicated which items were simple to answer; Person Fit identified 9.56% children who responded erratically; PSI=0.814; (4) Conclusions: The findings suggest that SOCOPA is a measure of a child’s concept of pain that is easy to administer and respond to. It has a good fit and a good internal consistency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rabies; school children; knowledge; attitude; practice; education; Bhutan
Online: 19 January 2021 (12:42:55 CET)
Rabies is endemic in southern Bhutan and children were reported to be the most frequent victims. We surveyed the knowledge, attitude, and practices on rabies among school children in three schools located in southern Bhutan. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to analyze the level of knowledge and variation of perception towards rabies among secondary school children. A total of 701 students (57.9% female, 42.1% male) had participated in the survey of which 98.2% heard about rabies. Most of the students demonstrated a good level of knowledge (59.7%) and a favorable perception towards rabies (57.7%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed the importance of previous rabies awareness campaign increasing the likelihood of positive knowledge about rabies at the individual student and the school level. Similarly, higher grades of students’, employed mothers of the students, and students from villages were associated with more favorable perceptions. Overall, our study in rabies endemic areas of Southern Bhutan showed that most of the students have good knowledge and favorable perception towards rabies. However, we identified several knowledge gaps. Therefore, efforts should be made to address the knowledge gaps through regular awareness programs by actively engaging key stakeholders such as school-teachers and parents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0267.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Knowledge; Overweight; Obesity; Body Mass Index; Health Risks
Online: 14 January 2021 (12:47:52 CET)
Background: Overweight and obesity are becoming serious public health menace in the world today. Weight gain is skyrocketing across the globe due to growing economy, fast food expansion and a shift towards more sedentary living. However, most people lack knowledge regarding risks associated with overweight and obesity. Aim: The study aimed to explore the knowledge level of bankers in the Ho Municipality on the health risks associated with overweight and obesity. Methodology: A cross-sectional study design with quantitative method was employed. The study spanned from September 7, 2018 to April 25, 2019. A self-administered questionnaire and convenience sampling technique were used to obtain data. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 Developer and the results presented in statistical tables and graphs. Results: Of 136 participants investigated, 67 (49.3%) were between 31 - 40 years. 2 participants (1.5%) were underweight, 49(36.0%) had normal weight, 43(31.6%) were overweight while 42 (30.9%) were obese. The study revealed that female bankers were prone to overweight (37.78%) while the males were prone to obesity (56.52%). Participants generally had low knowledge and awareness on health risks of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Most bankers in the Ho Municipality were overweight and obese due to insufficient knowledge and low awareness on the risks associated with overweight and obesity. Public education and awareness creation are urgently needed to stem the tide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0529.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: e-commerce; big data; bibliometric analysis; knowledge mapping
Online: 21 December 2020 (14:24:06 CET)
The e-commerce platform in the digital economy era has evolved into a data platform ecosystem built around data resources and data mining technology systems. The most typical applications of big data are also concentrated in the field of e-commerce. E-commerce companies should first grasp the interactive relationship among the three major factors of data, technology and innovation, e-commerce platform operation is a multidisciplinary research field. It is not easy for researchers to obtain a panoramic view of the knowledge structure in this field. Knowledge graph is a kind of graph that shows the development process and structure relationship of knowledge with the field of knowledge as the object. It is not only a visual knowledge mapping, but also a serialized knowledge pedigree, which provides researchers with a quantitative research method for the development trend of statistics and academic status. The purpose of this research is to help researchers understand the key knowledge, evolutionary trends and research frontiers of current research. This study uses Citespace bibliometric analysis to analyze the data of the Science Net database and finds that: 1) The development of the research field has gone through three stages, and some representative key scholars and key documents have been recognized; 2) the common knowledge mapping of literature The co-occurrence of citations and keywords shows research hotspots; 3) The results of burst detection and central node analysis reveal research frontiers and development trends. Today, the visualization of big data brings different challenges. The abstraction between the world and today's data visualization occurs when the data is captured. Every user sees his own visualization data generated by standardized calculations. At the same time, there are still many controversies in the theoretical model, structure and structural dimensions. This is the direction that future researchers need to further study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0377.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Feature Selection, Feature Ranking, Grouping, Clustering, Biological Knowledge.
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:10:44 CET)
In the last two decades, there have been massive advancements in high throughput technologies, which resulted in the exponential growth of public repositories of gene expression datasets for various phenotypes. It is possible to unravel biomarkers by comparing the gene expression levels under different conditions, such as disease vs. control, treated vs. not treated, drug A vs. drug B, etc. This problem refers to a well-studied problem in the machine learning domain, i.e., the feature selection problem. In biological data analysis, most of the computational feature selection methodologies were taken from other fields, without considering the nature of the biological data. For gene expression data analysis, most of the existing feature selection methods rely on expression values alone to select the genes; and biological knowledge is integrated at the end of the analysis in order to gain biological insights or to support the initial findings. Thus, integrative approaches that utilize the biological knowledge while performing feature selection are necessary for this kind of data. The main idea behind the integrative gene selection process is to generate a ranked list of genes considering both the statistical metrics that are applied to the gene expression data, and the biological background information which is provided as external datasets. Since the integrative approach attracted attention in the gene expression domain, lately the gene selection process shifted from being purely data-centric to more incorporative analysis with additional biological knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0179.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Physical Education; knowledge; proper exercise; back care; adolescents
Online: 8 September 2020 (07:55:23 CEST)
The aim of this study was to analyze the level of specific back-health-related physical activity and exercise knowledge. This is a cross-sectional study. A representative sample of 1500 students were recruited with a confidence level of 95% and an accepted standard error of ±2.53%. Individuals were aged between 13 and 18 years old (mean age= 15.18; SD = ±1.446). Self-reported questionnaires were used to record back-health-related physical activity and exercise knowledge concerning back care in adolescents. The level of specific knowledge of back health education related to physical activity and exercise in adolescents was low (X = 2.05, SD = ±2.264). Only 10.9% of the students passed the specific knowledge test, achieving a grade equal or superior to 5. The boys average score was higher (X = 2.17, SD = ±2.312) than the girls (X = 1.94, SD = ±2.212) with statistically significant differences (p = .048). The level of specific knowledge increased with age (F = 11.531; p < .001). High school students have a low level of specific knowledge. Physical Education teachers should apply the conceptual content properly. Knowledge is the first step towards changing behavioral habits. Back care education in the school curriculum is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; Knowledge; Practices; Perception; Veterinarians students; Nigeria
Online: 7 September 2020 (03:52:58 CEST)
Background: The novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic with an increasing public health concern. Due to the non-availability of a vaccine against the disease, non-pharmaceutical interventions constitute major preventive and control measures. However, inadequate knowledge about the disease and poor perception might limit compliance. Aim: This study examined COVID-19-related knowledge, practices, perceptions and associated factors amongst undergraduate veterinary medical students in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional web survey was employed to collect data from 437 consenting respondents using pre-tested self-administered questionnaire (August 2020). Demographic factors associated with the knowledge and adoption of recommended preventive practices towards COVID-19 were explored using multivariate logistic regression at P ≤ 0.05.Results: The respondents’ mean knowledge and practice scores were 22.7 (SD ± 3.0) and 24.1 (SD ± 2.9), respectively with overall 63.4% and 88.8% displaying good knowledge and satisfactory practice levels. However, relatively lower proportions showed adherence to avoid touching face or nose (19.5%), face mask-wearing (58.1%), and social distancing (57.4%). Being in the 6th year of study (OR = 3.18, 95%CI: 1.62-6.26, P = 0.001) and female (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.11-4.41, P = 0.024) were significant positive predictors of good knowledge and satisfactory practices, respectively. While only 30% of the respondents perceived the pandemic as a scam or a disease of the elites (24.0%), the respondents were worried about their academics being affected negatively (55.6%). Conclusion: The study revealed good knowledge and satisfactory preventive practices towards COVID-19 among Nigerian Veterinary students; albeit with essential gaps in the key non-pharmaceutical preventive measures recommended by the WHO. Therefore, there is a need to step up enlightenment and targeted campaigns about COVID-19 pandemic.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: DQN Algorithm; Policy Modeling; Prior Knowledge; Intelligent Decision
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:08:04 CEST)
The reinforcement learning problem of complex action control in the Multi-player wargame is a hot research topic in recent years. In this paper , a game system based on turn-based confrontation is designed and implemented with the state-of-the-art deep reinforcement learning models. Specifically, we first design a Q-learning algorithm to achieve intelligent decision-making, which is based the DQN(Deep Q Network) to model the complex game behaviors. Then, a priori- knowledge based algorithm PK-DQN(Prior Knowledge- Deep Q Network) is introduced to improve the DQN algorithm, which accelerates the convergence speed and stability of the algorithm. The experiments demonstrate, the correctness of the PK-DQN algorithm is validated and its performance surpass the conventional DQN algorithm. Furthermore, the PK-DQN algorithm shows effectiveness in defeating the high level of rule-based opponents, which provides promising results for the exploration of the field of smart chess and intelligent game deduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: COVID-19; knowledge; perception; attitude; Northern Region; Ghana
Online: 3 August 2020 (00:53:37 CEST)
Africa is gradually becoming an epicentre for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the current trends of the disease, Africa might be the last hardest hit continent. While scientific investigations are ongoing to develop effective management through medications and vaccines, existing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes could be harnessed to develop an effective strategy to curb community transmission of the COVID-19. The present study assessed the awareness level, perceptions and attitudes of people living in rural, peri-urban and urban communities in Northern Ghana and their preparedness for the prevention and containment of COVID-19. We conducted a face-to-face interview and administered 553 semi-structured questionnaires in eighteen (18) rural and peri-urban/urban communities under Tolon District, Kumbungu Districts, Sagnarigu Municipality, Savelugu Municipality and Tamale Metropolis from 23rd of April to 8th of June 2020. The percentage of male to female among the respondents was 56.8% and 43.2%, respectively. Nearly half (41%) of the respondents had no formal education and 91.3% of them were Muslims. Most of the respondents (85%) held the view that COVID-19 is a punishment from God. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the time rural and peri-urban/urban communities first heard of COVID-19. Majority (63%) of the rural respondents depended on radio, while the peri-urban/urban respondents (51%) relied on television for information on COVID-19. All respondents were aware of COVID-19 and 91.7% could mention at least two symptoms of the disease but 18% believed there was no COVID-19 in Ghana. Most of the respondents (69.6%) believed they will not contract the virus. Our findings may provide useful data to government and other stakeholders in the COVID-19 fight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0337.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: COVID-19; Risk; Knowledge; Attitude; Perception; Veterinarian; Nigeria
Online: 15 July 2020 (12:27:50 CEST)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused mankind serious confusion, economic havoc and psychological distress. This study evaluated the level of knowledge, attitude and perception about COVID-19 pandemic, infection control and impact among veterinarians in Nigeria. A cross-sectional online survey was used to collect data from consenting respondents during implementation of lockdown in the country (April 23 - May 31, 2020). Purposive and chain referral sampling techniques were used to recruit 368 respondents from various sectors of the profession. The proportion of respondents surveyed 197/368 (53.5 %) were from the public sector, 35.3 % from private sector, 1.1 % were unemployed and 0.8 % retired. Majority of the respondents were males (72.8 %), within 30 – 39 years (39.7 %) and had 1 – 10 years work experience. Respondents displayed good level of knowledge about COVID-19 (72.4 % ± 9.9 %, range 44.1-91.2 %), with information mostly derived from TV/Radio (81.5%) and social media (81.0 %). The overall attitude level was poor and various determinants for good attitude among respondents were if they were above 60 years (p = 0.013), possessed postgraduate qualification ( p = 0.031), worked over 30 years post DVM (p = 0.001), had household members between 5 and 10 (p = 0.012), and were resident in states on total lockdown (p = 0.024). There was no correlation between the knowledge level score and respondents’ attitude towards the pandemic (p = 0.12). With increasing rate of COVID-19 transmission, research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies, policies and eﬀective risk mitigations to reduce the pandemic’s adverse impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0370.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Awareness; Readiness; Covid-19; Bangladesh; Knowledge; Attitude; Practice
Online: 25 June 2020 (15:57:11 CEST)
Bangladesh has adopted some special steps to control the quick spread of the COVID-19 pandemic situation. However, the local residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards the disease have a direct impact on the success of the controlling measures taken by the state. This article explores knowledge (K) about preventions, attitude (A) to the disease, and practices (P) of preventing COVID-19 situation of the young age groups residing in Bangladesh. Quantitative data were collected online using a KAP questionnaire from 932 participants. Results show the population is generally aware of the symptoms, keeping social distance by staying home and are concerned about re-spreading after the lock-down period. However, they are quite unsure about the possible medicines frequently talked about in the media and the necessity of avoiding animal protein. One of the major limitations is, these findings should not be generalized due to the low number of participants compared to the total population in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: COVID-19; knowledge; awareness; perceptions; Indian dentists; coronavirus
Online: 27 May 2020 (07:56:19 CEST)
Introduction: COVID-19 is an unprecedented global public health emergency currently impacting India in an unprecedented manner. Aim of this study was to assess knowledge, awareness, perceptions and related factors of Indian dentists on COVID-19. Methodology: A cross-sectional, on-line questionnaire-based study was conducted over one week between 3rd May, 2020 to 10th May, 2020. The sample comprised 403 Indian dentists in solo, group practices and in the academic arena. The self-administered questionnaire assessed 1) knowledge/awareness on factors related to COVID-19 patient identification and symptomatology, 2) knowledge/awareness of COVID-19 transmission and 3) perceptions of COVID-19 history taking procedure. Statistical analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows, version 21.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY., USA). Frequency distributions and logistic regression analyses were used. Results: Indian dentists demonstrated an overall modest level of knowledge on identification of patients with COVID-19. Moreover, they had a high level of awareness of the COVID-19 transmission means, and the generally accepted procedural perceptions on patient history taking. However, there were some gaps in specific aspects of knowledge and perceptions. Those who were aged ≥ 30-years had a significantly higher level of knowledge of patient identification means than those who were < 30-years (OR=1.78:1.12-2.83); p=0.01. Moreover, specialized dentists were significantly knowledgeable of COVID-19 transmission means than the general dentists (OR=1.89:1.22-2.93; p=0.004). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate identifiable gaps in knowledge/awareness and perceptions of COVID-19 in Indian dental professionals. These gaps should be fulfilled, at the earliest, due to the rising burden of COVID-19 in India, to ensure safe dental care delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0305.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial literacy; financial knowledge; household finance; young people
Online: 23 December 2019 (12:30:54 CET)
Financial literacy is a path to sustainability and has an important role in ensuring the financial sustainability of individuals, families, enterprises and national economies. The level of these economic indicators such as debt, payment discipline, savings and financial management all translate into prosperity or insolvency and bankruptcy and result partially from financial literacy. The higher the level of financial literacy, especially of young people, the more favorable the level of economic indicators, which translates into the economy and sustainable development. However, despite many years of research, there is still a lack of a uniform and coherent definition of financial literacy, as well as methods for measuring it. This study offers a small step forward, presenting the authors’ own view of the concept of financial literacy, the conceptualizations of financial literacy and methods used for investigating. Moreover, they present the results of a survey conducted on the financial behaviour, financial attitudes, and financial knowledge of the Polish youth and compare this to a PISA study on 15-year-old students. Results demonstrate a good, and partially very good, level of financial literacy among young Poles, showing that they are rational in their financial decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0049.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Adaptation; Indigenous knowledge; CD production; paddy; hilly Nepal
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:44:11 CEST)
Climate change is a buzzword in the world. Scientist has approved it as global warming with its projection of undesired and unpredicted frequent extreme events and their vulnerabilities not only at present but also at future. There is an assumption of occurrence of adaptive capacity and behavior of farmers in agriculture production activity at some extent to neutralize climate change vulnerabilities of flood and landslides on paddy production. This paper empirically examines the effects of climate change in paddy production and farmer’s adaptive behaviors to neutralize such climatic shocks and events in paddy production by employing CD production function based econometric model. The study employed primary data collected through 642 household surveys. The study finds that climatic shocks and events have huge loss (60%) in paddy production and revenue income in such plot where farmers have not indigenous knowledge and practices. But both small and larger farmers who have adaptive capacity and behavior with their indigenous knowledge have less loss in paddy production and revenue income, although they have heterogeneity in their socio economic characteristics (income, asset holding, literacy, experience, land holding and age). The farmers who have used adaptive behavior have indigenous knowledge and experiences including bamboo wall construction to control flood and landslides and seed change to resist climatic shocks and events. In hilly region, the farmers have not sufficient alternative measures, except both adaptive measures because of their poverty, illiteracy and remote locations. The study finds their higher effective level to minimize vulnerabilities to paddy production and revenue per farm plot, although these adaptive behaviors are cost effective and local entity. Comparatively, bamboo wall construction is more effective measure in the paddy production than others are (seed switch) to minimize the flooding materials from the flood and the landslides. Thus, low cost indigenous adaption behavior of farmers is effective measure to climate change and climate change induced disasters and events vulnerability in paddy production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: street vendors, consumers, food safety, knowledge, attitudes, practices
Online: 21 May 2019 (10:08:50 CEST)
Street vended foods are ready-to-eat food and beverages prepared and/ or sold in the streets. This trade provides for 85-99% of total employment in most African countries and 50% or more is constituted by women. The preparation of street vended foods is normally under unsatisfactory conditions and these may lead to the contamination of food. This descriptive survey was conducted in Maseru around the taxi ranks amongst 141 participants (48 food handlers and 93 consumers) using a semi structured questionnaire, open ended questionnaire and observation checklist. Majority of the food handlers were females (n=35, 60%) and males constituted only (n=23, 40%). On average the vendor population that participated in this study was considered to have poor knowledge of food safety since they scored 49%±11. With regard to the consumers, 63% were males and 37% were females, and only 6% reported that they never buy street vended foods mainly due to the food safety issues and hygiene. Based on the results of this study, it is thus recommended that educational interventions be implemented. The observation study showed that they also operated under unhygienic conditions and 95% of food handlers had the incorrect knowledge that washing utensils with detergent leaves them free of contamination. Regarding the consumer perceptions, they highlighted that the trade has the potential to grow and be profitable on condition that hygiene is emphasized and infrastructure improved so as to provide safe quality food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0044.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: etymological values, traditional knowledge, classification, custodians, Sphenostysis stenocarpa
Online: 4 March 2019 (13:35:27 CET)
Folk nomenclature is habitually established for species that have attained high utilitarian and cultural significance by custodians of such plants worldwide. Such folk names assigned to species often carry etymological values such as therapeutic effects, morphological features, mythical connotations, and their allegorical values. This research sought to unveil the etymology in folk nomenclatures of Sphenostysis stenocarpa (Hosch ex A. Rich) Harms (African Yam Bean). Three hundred and fifty respondents were randomly selected from 13 local communities in Ebonyi State in South-eastern, Nigeria. Data were collected through oral interviews with semi-structural questionnaires, along with focused group discussions. Analysis of data was carried out using simple statistical methods involving frequencies and percentages. The results recorded ten folk nomenclatures assigned to this species in seven dialects affiliated to cultural values within these communities. Etymologically, the results also revealed that out of the ten folk names of AYB cryptic connotations, five reflected their trust in the gods that answered their prayers, two were attributed to the healing potentials inherent in this crop for medicine, three names were associated with the seeds, while one referred to feminist attachment to the crop, another to its resilience/ adaptability to climatic stress and one as a sustainer of farmers. Considering that folk nomenclature is based mainly on qualitative data and the information outside the scientific domain, they are nonetheless highly valued because they are based on long-term interactions, utilization and observations of the custodians of these natural resources. However, these data are equally vulnerable to erosion if not properly documented and conserved for posterity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0004.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainable regional development; knowledge economy; regional innovation policy
Online: 1 October 2017 (08:21:30 CEST)
The paper explores different models of innovation management at the regional level and reasons for the best model considering the specific features of St. Petersburg as the innovative region of Russia. The authors, on the base of their long-time experience in studies of innovative enterprises and elaborating the regional innovation policy in St. Petersburg, propose the tool of creation and measuring the results of the regional innovation policy that promotes the life quality improvement and regional sustainable development. The balanced scorecard is used as a method, based on the methodology of knowledge economy development and adjusted to the specific needs of St. Petersburg innovation eco-system. The authors pay special attention to the implementation of principles of green economy into the realization of the regional innovation policy and the proposed balanced scorecard.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: medicinal plants; traditional knowledge; Himalayas; mountain plants; ethnobotany
Online: 29 November 2016 (06:35:45 CET)
The Himalaya is well known for high diversity and ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants. However, not all areas of the Himalayas are well studied. In particular, studies on ethnobotanical uses of plants from the Eastern Himalayas are rare and lacking for many tribes. Past studies primarily focused on listing plants name and their traditional medicinal uses. However, studies on traditional ethnopharmacological practices on medicine preparation had not yet been reported in published literature from the Eastern Himalaya. In this study, we are reporting the first time ethnopharmacological used 24 medicines, their procedures of preparation and listed 53 plant species used for those medicines for Monpa tribe. Such documentations had not yet been done for other tribes in India. Our research demonstrates the urgent need to documents traditional medicine preparation procedures from the local healers before rapid cultural modernization forgets them in transforming country like India. This study should motivate national and international researchers to do more works on ethnopharmacology and bioprospecting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0043.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ethnobotany; traditional ecological knowledge; Waorani; indigenous communities; Ecuadorian Amazon; medicinal plants; loss of knowledge; globalization; global change; acculturation; socio-cultural changes
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:59:53 CEST)
This paper explores how the medicinal plant knowledge of the Waorani indigenous society in Ecuador varies in accordance with both socio-economic and demographic factors. Medicinal plant knowledge was compared at both individual and community levels. Fifty-nine semi-structured interviews (men n = 30, women n = 29) were performed with people between fifteen and seventy years old in five Waorani communities located within the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. Results show a positive correlation between an individual’s medicinal plant knowledge and age, a negative correlation between medicinal plant knowledge and the years of schooling, and differences among isolated and easily accessible communities. Reasons behind these findings are seen in the rapid socio-cultural changes of the Waorani society due to globalization processes. Increased accessibility to health centers, improved transportation infrastructure and changes in how knowledge is transmitted to young people all result in a loss of ethnobotanical knowledge. Policymakers need to take action in order to ensure the maintenance of ethnoecological knowledge among the Waorani.