ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0122.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: ICESat-2; Laser Altimetry; Kinematic GPS Experiments; Glaciology; Surge Glaciers; Svalbard; Density Dimension Algorithm for Ice Surfaces; Airborne Validation of Satellite Data
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:45:21 CEST)
The topic of this paper is the airborne evaluation of ICESat-2 Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) measurement capabilities and surface-height-determination over crevassed glacial terrain, with a focus on the geodetical accuracy of geophysical data collected from a helicopter. To obtain surface heights over crevassed and otherwise complex ice surface, ICESat-2 data are analyzed using the density-dimension algorithm for ice surfaces (DDA-ice), which yields surface heights at the nominal 0.7~m along-track spacing of ATLAS data. As the result of an ongoing surge, Negribreen, Svalbard, provided an ideal situation for the validation objectives in 2018 and 2019, because many different crevasse types and morphologically complex ice surfaces existed in close proximity. Airborne geophysical data, including laser altimeter data (profilometer data at 905~nm frequency), differential Global Positioning System (GPS), Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data, on-board-time-lapse imagery and photographs, were collected during two campaigns in summers of 2018 and 2019. Airborne experiment setup, geodetical correction and data processing steps are described here. To date, there is relatively little knowledge of the geodetical accuracy that can be obtained from kinematic data collection from a helicopter. Our study finds that (1)~Kinematic GPS data collection with correction in post-processing yields higher accuracies than Real-Time-Kinematic (RTK) data collection. (2)~Processing of only the rover data using the Natural Resources Canada Spatial Reference System Precise Point Positioning (CSRS-PPP) software is sufficiently accurate for the sub-satellite validation purpose. (3)~Distances between ICESat-2 ground tracks and airborne ground tracks were generally better than 25~m, while distance between predicted and actual ICESat-2 ground track was on the order of 9~m, which allows direct comparison of ice-surface heights and spatial statistical characteristics of crevasses from the satellite and airborne measurements. (4)~The Lasertech Universal Laser System (ULS), operated at up to 300~m above ground level, yields full return frequency (400~Hz) and 0.06-0.08~m on-ice along-track spacing of height measurements. (5)~Cross-over differences of airborne laser altimeter data are 0.1918 $\pm$ 2.385~m along straight paths over generally crevassed terrain, which implies a precision of approximately 2.4~m for ICESat-2 validation experiments. (6)~In summary, the comparatively light-weight experiment setup of a suite of small survey equipment mounted on a Eurocopter (Helicopter AS-350) and kinematic GPS data analyzed in post-processing using CSRS-PPP leads to high accuracy repeats of the ICESat-2 tracks. The technical results (1)-(6) indicate that direct comparison of ice-surface heights and crevasse depths from the ICESat-2 and airborne laser altimeter data is warranted. The final result of the validation is that ICESat-2 ATLAS data, analyzed with the DDA-ice, facilitate surface-height determination over crevassed terrain, in good agreement with airborne data, including spatial characteristics, such as surface roughness, crevasse spacing and depth, which are key informants on the deformation and dynamics of a glacier during surge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: kinematic; dynamic; biped; Simulink; Archie
Online: 12 June 2017 (07:39:52 CEST)
First, a brief overview is provided on humanoid robots, and also models for the dynamic behavior are discussed. As base for these models these two methods Denavit-Hartenberg and Newton-Euler are used. Main aim of this work is to investigate the stability of a biped robot developed from IHRT. There is currently the low base of robot - consisting of feet, legs, hips and upper part of robots body. This structure currently has ten degrees of freedom.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mechanical transmissions; 2T6R robot; kinematic; direct kinematics.
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:04:51 CET)
The paper deals with the problems of direct kinematics related to a 2T6R robot, the direct kinematics of the plane mechanism of the robot. The direct kinematics of this proposed new robot help to study the movement, including the dynamic one, to determine the forces in the mechanism and to model the possible trajectories of the final effector point, thus determining the robot's working space and some of its multiple possible uses. Two totally different methods were used to verify the calculation relations, the results obtained by both methods being practically identical. The first method used is an original trigonometric method, and the second is an original geometrically analytical method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cerebral palsy; robot assisted therapy; EMG; kinematic
Online: 3 January 2020 (02:38:16 CET)
Aim: To develop an index for quantitative assessment of the upper limb motor function in children with cerebral palsy before and after robot-assisted therapy. Method: An upper limb motor function index was developed using kinematic, surface electromyography and three-axis inertial measurements unit data collected from 15 children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 15 typically developed children. Children with CP underwent 18 robot-assisted therapy sessions with the REAplan device. All children were evaluated, using kinematic data from the REAplan, electromyography and three-axis inertial measurements unit readings from its accelerometer. A principal component analysis was conducted to produce an evaluation index, which is able to detect the deviation from the upper limb motor function of typically developing children group. Children with CP were evaluated twice before and after the intervention with Box and Blocks test and Finger-To-Nose test. The discriminative and concurrent validity of the upper limb motor function index were investigated. Results: The upper limb motor function index was higher in children with CP post therapy (p<0.001). Finger-To-Nose test values improved after robot-assisted therapy (p<0.03). A weak but positive correlation was observed between upper limb motor function index and clinical tests (r=0.012, p=0.95 and r=0.13, p= 0.54 for Box and Blocks test and Finger-To-Nose test respectively). Interpretation: The upper limb motor function index successfully differentiated between the typically developing children and children with CP and was effective in assessing the improvement of the upper limb motor function after robot-assisted therapy. The upper limb motor function index could be extended to assess and monitor rehabilitation therapies of other populations, such as those with stroke and Parkinson’s disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0771.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Validation; Kinematic; Inertial measurement units; motion analysis; gait
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:47:51 CEST)
Gait analysis has historically been implemented in laboratory settings with expensive instruments; however, recently, wearable sensors have allowed the integration into clinical applications and use in daily activities. Previous studies have shown poor validity of ankle joints using inertial measurement units (IMUs), especially for small movement ranges. The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of commercially available IMUs to accurately measure the ankle joint angles during running. Ten healthy subjects participated in the study. Validation was performed by comparing the ankle joint angles measured using the wearable device with those obtained using the gold standard motion capture system during running. Reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, whereas validity was evaluated using Pearson coefficient correlation method. Day-to-day reliability was excellent in the two planes for ankle joints. Validity was good in both sagittal and frontal planes for ankle joints. The results suggested that the developed device might be used as an alternative tool to the 3D motion capture system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0450.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: legged robots; optimization; kinematic analysis; compliant Joints 6049816627759
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:08:19 CET)
During the most recent years, a lot of research has been done in creating robots with more self-governance so that they can overcome the challenges that real world environments present. The robot's limited versatility in real world applications can be overcome by the development of Legged robots. Also, as they permit movement in unavailable territory to robots with wheels, Legged Robots are more advantageous. But the potency of the legged robots explicitly its energy usage among alternate points of view really fall behind robots that use wheels. So, the present status of development, there are as yet a few perspectives that need to be analysed, optimized and enhanced. This paper presents review of literature of various biologically inspired legged robots, various techniques adopted for their analysis and optimization and the analysis and optimization of the ones that are not biologically inspired
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0125.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: traffic flow; kinematic wave model; self-organized criticality; fractals; complexity; catastrophe theory; non-equilibrium critical phenomena
Online: 9 September 2021 (15:58:11 CEST)
This paper shows that the kinematic wave model exhibits self-organized criticality when initialized with random initial conditions around the critical density. A direct consequence is that conventional traffic management strategies seeking to maximize the flow may be detrimental as they make the system more unpredictable and more prone to collapse. Other implications for traffic flow in the capacity state are discussed, such as: \item jam sizes obey a power-law distribution with exponents 1/2, implying that both its mean and variance diverge to infinity, and therefore traditional statistical methods fail for prediction and control, \item the tendency to be at the critical state is an intrinsic property of traffic flow driven by our desire to travel at the maximum possible speed, \item traffic flow in the critical region is chaotic in that it is highly sensitive to initial conditions, \item aggregate measures of performance are proportional to the area under a Brownian excursion, and therefore are given by different scalings of the Airy distribution, \item traffic in the time-space diagram forms self-affine fractals where the basic unit is a triangle, in the shape of the fundamental diagram, containing 3 traffic states: voids, capacity and jams. This fractal nature of traffic flow calls for analysis methods currently not used in our field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Kinematic; Rock Mass Classification; R.M.R; S.M.R; Rock Slope Stability
Online: 22 February 2021 (10:07:14 CET)
Karakoram highway (K.K.H.) the only road link between two countries China and Pakistan. This road network is essential for two countries due to its strategic location and socioeconomic. The highway is more vulnerable due to landslide disasters, especially in rain and snow melting seasons, and different kinds of mass movement activities have occurred along K.K.H., such as rockfall, debris flow, and snow avalanche. The slope stability problems are widespread along with Karakorum (K.K.H.) between Besham city and the Dasu area because of the high seismic zone, rainfall, snow melting, and complex geology slope geometry, week, and adverse discontinuities sets. The detailed fieldwork was done along the Karakorum highway to minimize the risk of slope stability and for planning purposes in Besham to Dasu area and selected nine road-cut slopes. However, in these nine selected roadcut slopes, three slopes were already failed, four slopes are partially stable, and two slopes were stable. Both kinematic and empirical approaches are applied on all these nine road cut slopes and their discontinuities. The kinematic result has shown that all kinds of mode failure such as Toppling, Planar, and Wedge failure mode occurred in these slopes. The RMRb result has shown that all discounters lie in between fair to good rock. Both discrete and continuous (S.M.R.) results show that all discontinuity sets lie between the unstable, partially stable, and stable conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wetting shock fronts; shear flow; viscosity; capillarity; kinematic waves
Online: 13 November 2019 (15:45:38 CET)
The paper argues that universal approaches to infiltration and drainage in permeable media that pivot around capillarity and that led to dual porosity, non-equilibrium, or preferential flow need to be replaced by a dual process approach. One process has to account for relatively fast infiltration and drainage based on Newton's shear flow, while the other one is responsible for storage and relatively slow redistribution of soil water by focusing on capillarity. Already Schumacher (1864) postulated two separate processes. However, Buckingham's (1907) and Richards' (1931) apparent universal capillary-based approach to flow and storage of water in soils dominated. The paper introduces the basics of Newton's shear flow in permeable media. It presents experimental support for the four presumptions of (i) sharp wetting shock fronts; (ii) that move with constant velocities; (iii) atmospheric pressure prevails behind the wetting shock front; (iv) laminar flow. It further discusses the scale tolerance of the approach, its relationship to Darcy's (1856) law, and its extension to solute transport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; laser metal deposition; thin walls; sharp corner; cartesian kinematic; FAGOR 8070 CNC
Online: 18 November 2020 (14:23:11 CET)
In this work, the manufacture of thin walls with sharp corners has been optimized by adjusting the limits of a 3-axis cartesian kinematics through data recorded and analyzed off-line, such as axis speed, acceleration and the positioning of the X and Y axes. The study was carried out with two powder materials (SS316L and IN718) using the directed energy deposition process with laser. 1 mm thick walls were obtained with only one bead per layer and straight/sharp corners at 90º. After adjusting the in-position parameter G502 for positioning precision on the FAGOR 8070 CNC system, it has been possible to obtain walls with minimal accumulation of material in the corner, and with practically constant layer thickness and height, with a radii of internal curvature between 0.11 and 0.24 mm for two different precision configuration. The best results have been obtained by identifying the correct balance between the decrease in programmed speed and the precision in the positioning to reach the point defined as wall corner, with speed reductions of 29% for a programmed speed of 20 mm/s and 61% for a speed of 40 mm/s. The walls show minimal defects such as residual porosities, and the microstructure is adequate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0143.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: equal-channel angular pressing; ECAP; shear band; matrix band; kinematic hardening; FEM; strain localization
Online: 20 December 2017 (10:01:31 CET)
Equal-Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is a method used to introduce severe plastic deformation into a metallic billet without changing its geometry. In special cases strain localization occurs and a pattern consisting of regions with high and low deformation (so-called shear and matrix bands) can emerge. This paper studies this phenomenon numerically adopting two-dimensional finite element simulations of one ECAP pass. The mechanical behavior of aluminum is modeled using phenomenological plasticity theory with isotropic or kinematic hardening. The effects of the two different strain hardening types are investigated numerically by systematic parameter studies: While isotropic hardening only causes minor fluctuations in the plastic strain fields, a material with high initial hardening rate and sufficient strain hardening capacity can exhibit pronounced localized deformation after ECAP. The corresponding finite element simulation results show a regular pattern of shear and matrix bands. This result is confirmed experimentally by ECAP-processing of AA6060 material in a severely cold worked condition, where microstructural analysis also reveals the formation of shear and matrix bands. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental and numerical results in terms of shear and matrix band width and length scale. The simulations provide additional insights regarding the evolution of the strain and stress states in shear and matrix bands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0335.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: cosmological parameters numerical values; cosmology early universe; galaxies kinematic and dynamic; galaxies Coma cluster; galaxies evolution
Online: 28 May 2019 (11:00:50 CEST)
A cosmological model was developed using the equation of state of photon gas, as well as cosmic time. The primary objective of this model is to see if determining the observed rotation speed of galactic matter is possible, without using dark matter (halo) as a parameter. To do so, a numerical application of the evolution of variables in accordance with cosmic time and a new state equation was developed to determine precise, realistic values for a number of cosmological parameters, such as energy of the universe , cosmological constant Λ, curvature of space k, energy density , age of the universe etc. Some assumptions were put forth in order to solve these equations. The current version of the model partially explains several of the observed phenomena that raise questions. Numerical application of the model has yielded the following results, among others: Initially, during the Planck era, at the very beginning of Planck time, , the universe contained a single photon at Planck temperature Planck energy in the Planck volume. During the photon inflation phase (before characteristic time ~10-9 ), the number of original photons (alphatons) increased at each unit of Planck time and geometrical progression ~n3, where n is the quotient of cosmic time over Planck time . Then, the primordial number of photons reached a maximum of N~1089, where it remained constant. It's primordial photons (alphatons) are still present today and represents the essential of the energy contained in the universe via the cosmological constante . Such geometric growth in the number of photons can bring a solution to the horizon problem through exchange and a photon energy volume that is in phase with that of the the volume energy of the universe. The age of the universe in cosmic time that is in line with positive energy conservation (in terms of conventional thermodynamics) and the creation of proton, neutron, electron, and neutrino masses, is ~76 [Gy] (observed . The predicted total mass (p, n, e and n), based on the Maxwell-Juttner relativistic statistical distribution, is ~7x1050 . The predicted cosmic neutrino mass is ≤ 8.69x10-32 (≤ 48.7 ) if based on observations of SN1987A. The temperature variation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), as measured by Planck, can be said to be partially due to energy variations in the universe (DU/U) during the primordial baryon synthesis (energy jump from the creation of protons and neutrons). In this model, what is usually referred to as dark energy actually corresponds to the energy of the universe that has not been converted to mass, and which acts on the mass created by the energy-mass equivalence principle and the cosmological gravity field, , associated with the cosmological constant, which is high during primordial formation of the galaxies (<1 [Gy]). A look at the Casimir effect makes it possible to estimate a minimum Casimir pressure and thus determine our possible relative position in the universe at cosmic time 0,1813 (t0/tW=13,8 /76,1 ). Therefore, from the observed age of 13,8 [Gy], we can derive a possible cosmic age of 76,1 [Gy]. That energy of the universe, when taken into consideration during the formation of the first galaxies (< 1 [Gy]), provides a relatively adequate explanation of the non-Keplerian rotation of galactic masses. Indeed, such residual, non-baryonic energy, when considered in Newton’s gravity equation, adds the term , which can partially explain, without recourse to dark matter, the rotations of some galaxies, such as M33, UGC12591, UGC2885, NGC3198, NGC253, DDO161, UDG44, the MW and the Coma cluster. Today, in the MW, that cosmological gravity force is in the order of 1026 times smaller than the conventional gravity force. The model predicts an acceleration of the mass in the universe (q~ 0,986); the energy associated with curvature is the driving force behind the expansion of the universe, rather than the energy associated with the cosmological constant . An equation to determine expansion is obtained using the energy form of the Friedmann equation relative to Planck power and cosmic time or Planck force acting at the frontier of the universe moving at c. This constant Planck force, from unknown sources, acts everywhere to the expansion of the universe as a stretching effect on the volume. Finally, the model partly explains the value a0 of the MOND theory. Indeed, a0 is not a true constant, but depends on the cosmological constant at the time the great structures were formed (~1 [Gy]), as well as an adjustment of the typical mass and dimension of those great structures, such as galaxies. The constant a0 is a different expression of the cosmological gravity force as expressed by the cosmological constant, Λ, acting through the energy-mass equivalent during the formation of the structures. It does not put in question the value of G.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: kinematic model; fiber Bragg grating; deformations; machine tools calibration; predicted model; multiple regression analysis; finite element analysis
Online: 29 December 2016 (07:39:26 CET)
Structural deformations are one of the most significant factor that affects machine tool (MT) positioning accuracy. These induced errors are complex to be represented by a model, nevertheless they need to be evaluated and predicted in order to increase the machining performance. This paper presents a novel approach to calibrate a machine tool in real-time, analyzing the thermo-mechanical errors through Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors embedded in the MT frame. The proposed configuration consists of an adaptronic structure of passive materials, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP), equipped by FBG sensors that are able to measure in real-time the deformed conditions of the frame. By using a proper thermo-mechanical kinematic model, the displacement of the end effector may be predicted and corrected when it is subjected to external undesired factors. By starting from a set of FE simulations to develop a model able to describe the MT structure stresses, a prototype has been fabricated and tested. The scope was to compare the numerical model with the experimental tests using FBG sensors. The experimental campaign has been performed varying the structure temperature over time and measuring the tool tip point (TTP) positions. The obtained results showed a substantial matching between the real and the predicted position of TTP confirming the effectiveness of the proposed calibration system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0039.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: episodic rainfall; multilayered aquifer; unsaturated flow; preferential flow; kinematic dispersion wave model; random walk; confined-unconfined flow conversion
Online: 2 August 2020 (15:19:09 CEST)
The paper presents a modeling framework to analyze the effect of episodic rainfall supply on groundwater dynamics in the Ionian coastal plain multilayered aquifer. The focus is essentially on the short-term behavior of the shallowest layer, with a specific analysis on episodic rainfall events. In the studied aquifer, groundwater level responds sensitively to rainfall events, highlighting the presence of preferential recharge zones. The hydraulic head peak is a function of groundwater level antecedent to the rainfall event. A kinematic dispersion wave model was used to model infiltration processes via preferential pathways. A one-dimensional and non-linear particle based numerical model was developed. Particles with constant water volume travel according to celerity and hydraulic dispersion to simulate the infiltration rate wave through the vadose zone. The flow rate that reaches the water table represents the input function to determine groundwater level fluctuations along groundwater flow direction and according to the lithological features of the surficial levels of the multilayered aquifer, its storage capacity changes passing from unconfined to confined conditions. The model was validated with high time resolution time series of precipitation and groundwater level coming from Terra Montonata meteo-climatic and groundwater level monitoring station. The developed model represents a basis for evaluating and predicting groundwater discharge of the shallowest layers of the Ionian coastal multilayered aquifer under natural conditions including episodic rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0696.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: equations of motion; Lagrange variables; invariants; energy model of mechanics; superposition principle; kinematic parameters of energy; free oscillations; resonance
Online: 28 May 2021 (11:31:05 CEST)
The mechanisms of natural oscillations and resonance are described, considering the peculiarities of the transformation of elastic and kinetic energy in the implementation of the law of conservation of energy in local and integral volumes of the body, using the concept of mechanics based on the concepts of space, time and energy. When describing the motion in the Lagrange form, the elastic deformation energy of the particles is determined by the quadratic invariant of the tensor, whose components are the partial derivatives of Euler variables with respect to Lagrange variables. The increment of the invariant due to elastic deformation is represented as the sum of two scalars, one of which depends on the average value of the relative lengths of the edges of the particles in the form of an infinitesimal parallelepiped, the second is equal to the standard deviation of these lengths from the average value. It is shown that each of the scalars can be represented in the form of two dimensionless kinematic parameters of elastic energy, which participate in different ways in the implementation of the law of conservation of energy. One part of the elastic energy passes into kinetic energy and participates in the implementation of the law of conservation of energy for the body as a whole, considering external forces. The second part is not converted into kinetic energy but changes the deformed state of the particles in accordance with the equations of motion while maintaining the same level of the part of the elastic energy of the particles used for this. The kinematic parameters differ from the volume density of the corresponding types of energy by a factor equal to the elastic modulus, which is directly proportional to the density and heat capacity of the material and inversely proportional to the volume compression coefficient. Transverse, torsional, and longitudinal vibrations are considered free and under resonance conditions. The mechanisms of transformation of forced vibrations into their own after the termination of external influences and resonance at the superposition of free and forced vibrations with the same or similar frequency are considered. The formation of a new free wave at each cycle with an increase in the amplitude, which occurs mainly due to internal energy sources, and not external forces, is justified.