REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0260.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: mitochondria; invertebrate; reactive oxygen species; oxidative phosphorylation
Online: 16 July 2018 (08:27:03 CEST)
Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are poised to become a global health crisis, and therefore understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis is critical for the development of therapeutic strategies. Mutations in genes encoding presenilin occur in most familial Alzheimer’s disease but the role of PSEN in AD is not fully understood. In this review, the potential modes of pathogenesis of AD are discussed, focusing on calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function. Moreover, research using Caenorhabditis elegans to explore the effects of calcium dysregulation due to presenilin mutations on mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration is explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0152.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; oxidative stress; presenilin; mitochondria; calcium; neuronal dysfunction; Nrf2
Online: 11 July 2022 (08:03:08 CEST)
A Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are major contributors to the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanisms driving mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are unclear. Familial AD (fAD) is an early onset form of AD caused primarily by mutations in the presenilin-encoding genes. Previously, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system to study presenilin function, we found that loss of C. elegans presenilin orthologue, SEL-12, results in elevated mitochondrial and cytosolic calcium levels. Here, we provide evidence that elevated neuronal mitochondrial generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent neurodegeneration in sel-12 mutants are a consequence of the increase of mitochondrial calcium levels and not cytosolic calcium levels. We also identify mTORC1 signaling as a critical factor in sustaining high ROS in sel-12 mutants in part through its repression of the ROS scavenging system SKN-1/Nrf. Our study reveals that SEL-12/presenilin loss disrupts neuronal ROS homeostasis by increasing mitochondrial ROS generation and elevating mTORC1 signaling, which exacerbates this imbalance by suppressing SKN-1/Nrf antioxidant activity.