REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0668.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: photosynthesis; nutrient and water absorption; abiotic stress resistance; yield; biosensor
Online: 11 September 2023 (10:11:28 CEST)
Carbon dots are carbon based nanoparticles, which have the characteristics of simple preparation process, photoluminescence, biocompatibility, adjustable surface function, water solubility, and low toxicity. They are widely used in biological applications such as imaging, biosensing, photocatalysis, and molecular transfer. It has also aroused great interest among researchers in agriculture and has made significant progress in improving crop growth and production. This review presents the physiological functions of carbon dots for crop growth and development, photosynthesis, water and nutrient absorption, and abiotic stress resistance and their applications in improving ecological environment and agriculture as biosensors, and the future application prospects and research directions of carbon dots in agriculture were prospected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0150.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: optical remote sensing images; convolutional block attention module; cross-layer connection channel; lightweight GSConv; Wise-IoU loss function; median + bilateral filter; object detection
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:08:14 CEST)
Due to the special characteristics of the shooting distance and angle of remote sensing satellites, the pixel area ratio of ship targets is small and the feature expression is insufficient, which leads to unsatisfactory ship detection performance and even situations such as missed detection and false detection. In this study, we propose an improved-YOLOv5 algorithm. The improvement strategies mainly include: (1) Add the Convolutional Block Attention Module (CBAM) into the Backbone to enhance the extraction of target-adaptive optimal features; (2) Introduce cross-layer connection channel and lightweight GSConv structure into the Neck to achieve higher-level multi-scale feature fusion and reduce the number of model parameters; (3) The Wise-IoU loss function is used to cal-culate the localization loss in the Output, and assign reasonable gradient gains to cope with dif-ferences in image quality. In addition, during the preprocessing stage of experimental data, a me-dian and bilateral filter method is used for noise reduction to reduce interference from ripples and waves and highlight the information of ship features. The experimental results show that Im-proved-YOLOv5 has a significant improvement in recognition accuracy compared to various mainstream target detection algorithms; Compared to the original YOLOv5s, the mean Average Precision (mAP) has improved by 3.2% and the Frames Per Second (FPN) has accelerated by 8.7%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0962.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD); Domain precursor simulation method; Low-speed wake; Flow structure
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:03:44 CEST)
This research delves into the impact of complex low-speed wake flow structures on the aerodynamic characteristics of objects downstream. It employs the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method and the domain precursor simulation method to compare traditional methods and validate this approach. The study generates several flow structures of parallel dual-cylinder wakes with different scales and spacing. The variations in the aerodynamic coefficient of three downstream objects at various times passing through wakes of varying scales are appropriately compared and analyzed. The study establishes that the wake with a cylinder spacing of G=1.5 has a more compact and concentrated modal structure than that with a cylinder spacing of G=0.35. Smaller objects are more responsive to the wake flow structure with a spacing of G=1.5, whereas larger objects respond more to the flow structure with a spacing of G=0.35. The achieved results also reveal that the aerodynamic force coefficients of objects passing through the wakefield at different times are closely related to the temporal characteristics of the wake flow structure with different scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0442.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Carbonaceous material; Raman spectra; gold deposit; Hainan; Organic matter
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:52:43 CEST)
Carbonaceous material (CM) is common in meta-sediments and is generally interpreted to be intimately associated with gold mineralization. For the Bumo deposit in Hainan Province, South China, CM is mainly hosted by greenschist facies- to amphibolite-facies metamophic rocks of the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic Baoban Group and by auriferous veins and is used as an important gold prospecting indicator. However, the genesis of CM and the relationship with gold mineralization are still not clear. Field work and thin section observation indicates that two types of CM occur, i.e., layered and veinlet. Layered CM, up to meters thick, prevails in the deposit. More importantly, Au-bearing sulfides are commonly distributed along the boundary between the quartz veins and layered CM. In contrast, veinlet CM, co-precipitated with gold and sulfides, has the thickness of micro- to centi- meters, and these thin veins occur in quartz veins and hydrothermally altered rocks. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis indicates that layered CM has a stringy shape and laminate structure, while veinlet CM occurs as isometric particles. Raman carbonaceous material geothermometer indicates that layered CM with high maturity is formed at elevated temperatures of 400 – 550°C, consistent with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. In contrast, veinlet CM with low maturity is formed at 200 – 350°C, generally consistent with gold mineralization. In addition, layered CM has δ13C values ranging from -30 to -20%, demonstrating a biogenic origin. Consequently, it is interpreted that layered CM is formed by a pre-ore metamorphic event during Caledonian, and its reducing nature promotes gold precipitation via destabilization of aqueous Au bisulfide complexes or facilitating sulfidation. Veinlet CM is hydrothermal origin, and its precipitation modified the chemical conditions of ore fluids, leading to the destabilization of Au complexes and thus favorable for mineralization.