ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: urban freight transport; multi agent; vehicle routing problem; decarbonization; fuel cell electricvehicles; well to wheel; total cost of ownership
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:58:43 CEST)
The option of decarbonizing urban freight transport using Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) seems promising.However, there is currently a strong debate whether Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) might be the bettersolution. The question arises as to how a fleet of FCEV influences the operating cost, the Greenhouse Gas(GHG) emissions and primary energy demand in comparison to BEVs and to Internal Combustion EngineVehicle (ICEV). To investigate this, we simulate the urban food retailing as a representative share of urbanfreight transport using a multi-agent transport simulation software. Synthetic routes as well as fleet size andcomposition are determined by solving a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). We compute the operating costsusing a total cost of ownership (Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)) analysis and the use phase emissions as wellas primary energy demand using the Well To Wheel (WTW) approach. While a change to BEV results in 17 -23% higher costs compared to ICEV, using FCEVs leads to 22 - 57% higher costs. Assuming today’s electricitymix, we show a GHG emission reduction of 25% compared to the ICEV base case when using BEV. Currenthydrogen production leads to a GHG reduction of 33% when using FCEV which however cannot be scaled tolarger fleets. Using current electricity in electrolysis will increase GHG emission by 60% compared to the basecase. Assuming 100% renewable electricity for charging and hydrogen production, the reduction from FCEVsrises to 73% and from BEV to 92%. The primary energy requirement for BEV is in all cases lower and forhigher compared to the base case. We conclude that while FCEV have a slightly higher GHG savings potentialwith current hydrogen, BEV are the favored technology for urban freight transport from an economic andecological point of view, considering the increasing shares of renewable energies in the grid mix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Decarbonization Methodology; Urban Traffic; Agent-Based Transport Simulation; Life Cycle Assessment; Sustainability; Total Cost of Ownership; Charging Concepts; Conceptual Vehicle Design; Battery Electric Vehicles; Vehicle Routing Problem
Online: 6 December 2020 (18:16:16 CET)
This paper presents a new methodology to derive and analyze strategies for a fully decarbonized urban transport system which combines conceptual vehicle design, a large-scale agent-based transport simulation, operational cost analysis, and life cycle assessment for a complete urban region. The holistic approach evaluates technical feasibility, system cost, energy demand, transportation time and sustainability-related impacts of various decarbonization strategies. In contrast to previous work, the consequences of a transformation to fully decarbonized transport system scenarios are quantified across all traffic segments, considering procurement, operation and disposal. The methodology can be applied to arbitrary regions and transport systems. Here, the metropolitan region of Berlin is chosen as a demonstration case. First results are shown for a complete conversion of all traffic segments from conventional propulsion technology to battery electric vehicles. The transition of private individual traffic is analyzed regarding technical feasibility, energy demand and environmental impact. Commercial goods, municipal traffic and public transport are analyzed with respect to system cost and environmental impacts. We can show a feasible transition path for all cases with substantially lower greenhouse gas emissions. Based on current technologies and today’s cost structures our simulation shows a moderate increase in total systems cost of 13-18%.