REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0529.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Oral microbiome; oral cavity; dysbiosis; oral diseases; systemic diseases
Online: 22 June 2021 (07:47:57 CEST)
The human oral microbiome refers to an ecological community of symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms found in the oral cavity. The oral cavity is a suitable environment that provides various kinds of biological niches such as teeth, tongue, and oral mucosa. The oral cavity is the gateway between the external environment and the human body, maintaining oral homeostasis, protecting the mouth, and preventing disease. On the flip side, the oral microbiome plays an important role in triggering, development, and progression of oral and systemic diseases. Currently, disease diagnosis through the analysis of the human oral microbiome has been realized with the recent development of innovative detection technology, and is overwhelmingly promising compared to the previous era. It has been found that patients with oral diseases and systemic diseases have variations in the oral microbiome compared to normal subjects. This narrative review provides insight into the pathophysiological role that oral microbiome plays in influencing oral and systemic diseases, and updates the knowledge related to the oral microbiome over the past 30 years. A wide range of updates was provided with the latest knowledge of the oral microbiome to help researchers and clinicians in both academic and clinical aspects. The microbial community information can be utilized in non-invasive diagnosis and help develop a new paradigm in precision medicine, which will benefit human health in the era of post-metagenomics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: gingiva; bisphosphonate; soft tissue; fibroblasts; keratinocytes; bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis of the jaws
Online: 15 October 2016 (08:03:48 CEST)
Since the first description of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) numerous research groups have focused on possible pathological mechanisms including the suppression of the bone turnover of the jaw, antiangiogenic effects and soft tissue toxicity. In our review we focused on summarizing the role of the soft tissues in the development and progression of BRONJ. The biological behavior of fibroblasts can be significantly influenced by bisphosphonates (BP) such as a concentration dependent reduction of cell viability. High concentrations of BP can induce apoptosis and necrosis of the cells. Comparable effects could be detected for keratinocytes. Compared to non-nitrogen containing bisphosphonates nitrogen-containing BP have worse effects on cell biology by blocking the mevalonate pathway. Next to this the cell architecture and the expression levels of several genes and proteins are significantly disturbed by BP. These inhibitory effects of BP are in accordance with BP related reduced angiogenesis and neovascularization and could underline the hypothesis that inhibition of fibroblasts and keratinocytes results in delayed wound healing and can induce and trigger BRONJ.