ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0205.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: antibody coating; proximity-enhanced reaction; immunoglobulins; IgG; protein A; protein G; bio-interaction; immunoprecipitation; pull-down assay; immunocapture; stabilization; yield; regeneration; nanoparticles; microparticles; biochips; immunosensor; photochemical crosslinker; click chemistry; herceptin; trastuzumab
Online: 18 April 2019 (07:55:11 CEST)
Crosslinking of proteins for their irreversible immobilization on surfaces is a proven and popular method. However, many protocols lead to random orientation and the formation of undefined or even inactive by-products. Most concepts to obtain a more targeted conjugation or immobilization requires the recombinant modification of at least one binding partner, which is often impractical or prohibitively expensive. Here a novel method is presented, which is based on the chemical preactivation of Protein A or G with selected conventional crosslinkers. In a second step, the antibody is added, which is subsequently crosslinked in the Fc part. This leads to an oriented and covalent immobilization of the immunoglobulin with a very high yield. Protocols for Protein A and Protein G with murine and human IgG are presented. This method may be useful for the preparation of columns for affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation, antibodies conjugated to magnetic particles, permanent and oriented immobilization of antibodies in biosensor systems, microarrays, microtitration plates or any other system, where the loss of antibodies needs to be avoided, and maximum binding capacity is desired. This method is directly applicable even to antibodies in crude cell culture supernatants, raw sera or protein-stabilized antibody preparations without any purification nor enrichment of the IgG. This new method delivered much higher signals as a traditional method and, hence, seems to be preferable in many applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein affinity enrichment; bioseparation; immunoprecipitation; immunocapture; affinity chro-matography; solid phase; carrier; material; corundum; polyglycerol; aromatic amino acid analysis; self-assembled monolayers (SAM), periodate oxidation; reductive amination; antibodies; IgG; im-munoglobulins; glutaraldehyde; polyglycerol; hyperbranched polymer
Online: 1 August 2022 (04:42:41 CEST)
Nonporous corundum powder, known as an abrasive material in the industry, was functionalized covalently with protein binders to isolate and enrich specific proteins from complex matrices. The materials based on corundum were characterized by TEM, ESEM, BET, DLS, and zeta potential measurements. The strong Al-O-P bonds between the corundum surface and amino phosphonic acids are used to introduce functional groups for further conjugations. The common crosslinker glutaraldehyde was compared with a hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG) of around 10 kDa. The latter is oxidized with periodate to generate aldehyde groups that can covalently react with the amines of the surface and the amino groups from the protein via a reductive amination process. The amount of bound protein was quantified via aromatic amino acid analysis (AAAA). This work shows that oxidized polyglycerol can be used as an alternative to glutaraldehyde. With polyglycerol, more of the model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) could be attached to the surface under the same conditions, and lower nonspecific binding (NSB) was observed. As a proof of concept, IgG was extracted with protein A from crude human plasma. The purity of the product was examined by SDS-PAGE. A binding capacity of 1.8 mg IgG per g of corundum powder was achieved. The advantages of corundum are the very low price, extremely high physical and chemical stability, pressure resistance, favorable binding kinetics, and flexible application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: aluminum oxide; sapphire; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; nickel chelate; EDTAD; protein affinity enrichment; hexaHis-Tag; his6; 6xHis; his8; bioseparation; IMAC purification; immunocapture; enrichment; affinity chromatography; solid phase; carrier; material; corundum; nickel; recombinant protein; Escherichia coli; bacterial lysates; protein A/G; cytoplasm
Online: 6 April 2023 (12:37:55 CEST)
Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) is a popular and valuable method for the affinity purification of polyhistidine-tagged recombinant proteins. However, it often shows practical limitations, which might require cumbersome optimizations, additional polishing, and enrichment steps. Here, we present functionalized corundum particles for the efficient, economical, and fast purification of recombinant proteins in a column-free format. The corundum surface is first derivatized with the amino silane APTES, then EDTA dianhydride, and subsequently loaded with nickel ions. The Kaiser test, well-known in solid-phase peptide synthesis, was used to monitor amino silanization and the reaction with EDTA dianhydride. In addition, ICP-MS was performed to quantify the metal-binding capacity. His-tagged protein A/G (PAG), mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA), was used as a test system. The PAG binding capacity was around 3 mg protein per gram of corundum. Cytoplasm obtained from different E. coli strains was examined as an example of a complex matrix. The imidazole concentration was varied in the loading and washing buffers. As expected, higher imidazole concentrations during loading are usually beneficial when higher purities are desired. Even when higher sample volumes, such as one liter, were used, recombinant protein down to a concentration of 1 µg/mL could be isolated selectively. Comparing the corundum material with standard Ni-NTA agarose beads indicated higher purities of proteins isolated using corundum. His6-MBP-mSA2, a fusion protein consisting of monomeric streptavidin and maltose-binding protein in the cytoplasm of E. coli, was purified successfully. To show that this method is also suitable for mammalian cell culture supernatants, purification of the SARS-CoV-2-S-RBD His8 expressed in human Expi293F cells was performed. The material cost of the nickel-loaded corundum material (without regeneration) is estimated to be less than 30 cents for 1 gram of functionalized support or 10 cents per milligram of isolated protein. Another advantage of the novel system is the corundum particles' extremely high physical and chemical stability. The new material should be applicable in small laboratories and large-scale industrial applications. In summary, we could show that this new material is an efficient, robust, and cost-effective purification platform for the purification of His-tagged proteins, even in challenging, complex matrices and large sample volumes of low product concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0553.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus; purification; affinity extraction; affinity chromatography, CCMV-binding peptide; virus-like particles; VLP, plant virus, nanotechnology, nanoparticles; virus production; safety issues; ultracentrifugation-free protocol; molecular dynamics
Online: 30 January 2023 (10:09:14 CET)
Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is a plant virus explored as a nanotechnological platform. The robust self-assembly mechanism of its capsid protein allows for drug encapsulation and targeted delivery. Additionally, the capsid nanoparticle can be used as a programmable platform to display different molecular moieties. In view of future applications, efficient production and purification of plant viruses is a key step. In established protocols, the need for ultracentrifugation is a significant limitation due to cost, difficult scalability, and safety issues. In addition, the purity of the final virus isolate often remains unclear. Here, an advanced protocol for the purification of CCMV from infected plant tissue was developed, focusing on efficiency, economy, and final purity. The protocol involves precipitation with PEG 8000, followed by an affinity extraction using a novel peptide aptamer. The efficiency of the protocol was validated using size exclusion chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, reversed-phase HPLC, and sandwich immunoassay. It was demonstrated that the final eluate of the affinity column is of exceptional purity (98.4%) determined by HPLC and detection at 220 nm. The scale-up of our proposed method seems to be straightforward, which opens the way to the large-scale production of such nanomaterials. This highly improved protocol may facilitate the use and implementation of plant viruses as nanotechnological platforms for in vitro and in vivo applications.