ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0626.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: multispectral lidar; single-photon lidar; building data; 3D reconstruction
Online: 28 August 2020 (08:49:07 CEST)
This paper investigated building data from multispectral and single-photon Lidar systems. The multispectral datasets from the individual channels and fused channels were explored. The multispectral and single-photon Lidar data were compared across multiple aspects: the data acquisition geometry, number of echoes, intensity, density, resolution, data defects, noise level, and the absolute and relative accuracy. In addition, we explored the performance of the multispectral and single-photon data for roof plane detection for eight complex/stylish buildings to investigate the suitability of these data for 3D building reconstruction. The building data from the single-photon and multispectral Lidar systems were evaluated with respect to the reference building vector data with an accuracy of better than 5 cm. The advantages and disadvantages of both technologies and their applications in the urban building environment are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0497.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: leaf water content; hyperspectral spectroscopy; leaf water potential; drought; diurnal cycle; plant water status; relative water content; equivalent water thickness; Dracaena marginate; water stress; leaf water variation
Online: 25 August 2021 (15:00:37 CEST)
Water plays a crucial role in maintaining plant functionality and drives many ecophysiological processes. The distribution of water resources is in a continuous change due to global warming affecting the productivity of ecosystems around the globe, but there is a lack of non-destructive methods capable of continuous monitoring of plant and leaf water content that would help us in understanding the consequences of the redistribution of water. We studied the utilization of novel small hyperspectral sensors in the 1350-2450 nm spectral range in non-destructive estimation of leaf water content in laboratory and field conditions. We found that the sensors captured up to 96% of the variation in equivalent water thickness (EWT, g/m2) and up to 90% of the variation in relative water content (RWC). These laboratory findings were supported by field measurements, where repeated leaf spectra measurements were in good agreement (R2=0.79) with a time-lagged change of tree xylem diameter. Further tests were done with an indoor plant (Dracaena marginate Lem.) by continuously measuring leaf spectra while drought conditions developed, which revealed detailed diurnal dynamics of leaf water content. We conclude that close-range hyperspectral spectroscopy can provide a novel tool for continuous measurement of leaf water content at the single leaf level and help us to better understand plant responses to varying environmental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0003.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: under-canopy surveys; UAV laser scanning; tree height; stem curve; stem volume; field reference; forest plot
Online: 1 April 2021 (09:53:15 CEST)
Automation of forest field reference data collection has been an intensive research objective for laser scanning scientists ever since the invention of terrestrial laser scanning more than two decades ago. Recently, it has been proposed that such automated data collection providing both the tree heights and stem curves would require a combination of above-canopy UAV point clouds and terrestrial point clouds. In this study, we demonstrate that an under-canopy UAV laser scanning system utilizing a rotating laser scanner can alone provide accurate estimates of the canopy height and the stem volume for the majority of the trees in a boreal forest. To this end, we mounted a rotating laser scanner based on a Velodyne VLP-16 sensor onboard a manually piloted UAV. The UAV was commanded with the help of a live video feed from the onboard camera of the UAV. Since the system was based on a rotating laser scanner providing varying view angles, all important elements such as treetops, branches, trunks, and ground could be recorded with laser hits. In an experiment including two different forest structures, namely sparse and obstructed canopy, we showed that our system can measure the heights of individual trees with a bias of -20 cm and a standard error of 40 cm in the sparse forest and with a bias of -65 cm and a standard error of 1 m in the obstructed forest. The accuracy of the obtained tree height estimates was equivalent to airborne above-canopy UAV surveys conducted in similar forest conditions. The higher underestimation and higher inaccuracy in the obstructed site can be attributed to three trees with a height exceeding 25 m and the applied laser scanning system VLP-16 that had a limited height measurement capacity when it comes to trees taller than 25 m. Additionally, we used our system to estimate the stem volumes of individual trees with a standard error at the level of 10%. This level of error is equivalent to the error obtained when merging above-canopy UAV laser scanner data with terrestrial point cloud data. Future research is needed for testing new sensors, for implementing autonomous operation inside canopies through collision avoidance and navigation through canopies, and for developing robust methods that work also with more complex forest structure. The results show that we do not necessarily need a combination of terrestrial point clouds and point clouds collected using above-canopy UAV systems in order to accurately estimate the heights and the volumes of individual trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: spatiotemporal; time series; bi-temporal; ground-based LiDAR; tree growth
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:56:08 CEST)
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been adopted as a feasible technique to digitize trees and forest stands, providing accurate information on tree and forest structural attributes. However, there is limited understanding on how a variety of forest structural changes can be quantified using TLS in boreal forest conditions. In this study, we assessed the accuracy and feasibility of TLS in quantifying changes in the structure of boreal forests. We collected TLS data and field reference from 37 sample plots in 2014 (T1) and 2019 (T2). Tree stems typically have planar, vertical, and cylindrical characteristics in a point cloud, and thus we applied surface normal filtering, point cloud clustering, and RANSAC-cylinder filtering to identify these geometries and to characterize trees and forest stands at both time points. The results strengthened the existing knowledge that TLS has the capacity to characterize trees and forest stands in space and showed that TLS could characterize structural changes in time in boreal forest conditions. Root-mean-square-errors (RMSEs) in the estimates for changes in the tree attributes were 0.99-1.22 cm for diameter at breast height (Δdbh), 44.14-55.49 cm2 for basal area (Δg), and 1.91-4.85 m for tree height (Δh). In general, tree attributes were estimated more accurately for Scots pine trees, followed by Norway spruce and broadleaved trees. At the forest stand level, an RMSE of 0.60-1.13 cm was recorded for changes in basal area-weighted mean diameter (ΔDg), 0.81-2.26 m for changes in basal area-weighted mean height (ΔHg), 1.40-2.34 m2/ha for changes in mean basal area (ΔG), and 74-193 n/ha for changes in the number of trees per hectare (ΔTPH). The plot-level accuracy was higher in Scots pine-dominated sample plots than in Norway spruce-dominated and mixed-species sample plots. TLS-derived tree and forest structural attributes at time points T1 and T2 differed significantly from each other (p < 0.05). If there was an increase or decrease in dbh, g, h, height of the crown base, crown ratio, Dg, Hg, or G recorded in the field, a similar outcome was achieved by using TLS. Our results provided new information on the feasibility of TLS for the purposes of forest ecosystem growth monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0399.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning; unmanned aerial vehicle; image matching; remote sensing; forest inventory
Online: 27 March 2020 (02:30:55 CET)
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides detailed three-dimensional representation of the surrounding forest structure. However, due to close-range hemispherical scanning geometry, the ability of TLS technique to comprehensively characterize all trees and especially the upper parts of forest canopy is often limited. In this study, we investigated how much forest characterization capacity can be improved in managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands if TLS point cloud is complemented with a photogrammetric point cloud acquired from above the canopy using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In this multisensorial (TLS+UAV) close-range sensing approach, the used UAV point cloud data was considered feasible especially in characterizing the vertical forest structure and improvements were obtained in estimation accuracy of tree height as well as plot-level basal-area weighted mean height (Hg) and mean stem volume (Vmean). Most notably the root mean square error (RMSE) in Hg improved from 0.88 m to 0.58 m and the bias improved from -0.75 m to -0.45 m with the multisensorial close-range sensing approach. However, in managed Scots pine stands the mere TLS captured also the upper parts of the forest canopy rather well. Both approaches were capable of deriving stem number, basal area, Vmean, Hg and basal area-weighted mean diameter with a relative RMSE less than 5.5% for all of the sample plots. Although the multisensorial close-range sensing approach mainly enhanced characterization of forest vertical structure in single-species, single-layer forest conditions, representation of more complex forest structures may benefit more from point clouds collected with sensors of different measurement geometries.