ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0573.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: prediction; solar irradiation; machine learning; artificial neural network; random forest; vector support machine
Online: 23 March 2021 (15:51:55 CET)
Different machine learning models (multiple linear regression, vector support machines, artificial neural networks and random forests) are applied to predict the monthly global irradiation (MGI) from different input variables (latitude, longitude and altitude of meteorological station, month, average temperatures, among others) of different areas of Galicia (Spain). The models were trained, validated and queried using data from three stations, and each best machine model was checked in two independent stations. The results obtained confirmed that the best ML methodology is the ANN model which presents the lowest RMSE value in the validation and querying phases 122.6·10kJ/(m2∙day) and 113.6·10kJ/(m2∙day), respectively, and predict conveniently for independent stations, 201.3·10kJ/(m2∙day) and 209.4·10kJ/(m2∙day), respectively. Given the good results obtained, it is convenient to continue with the design of artificial neural networks applied to the analysis of monthly global irradiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0682.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fed-batch fermentation; kefir grains; probiotic culture; whey
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:12:13 CEST)
Nowadays, probiotics has been proposed for substituting antibiotics in animal feed, since the European Union (EU) banned the latter compounds in 2006 to avoid their serious side effects on human health. Therefore, this work aimed to produce a probiotic product by fed-fermentation of whey with kefir grains for use in animal feed. The whey was fermented with a combination of kefir grains AGK1 and the free biomass present in whole milk fermented milk used to activate these kefir grains. The probiotic culture obtained was characterized with high levels of biomass, total viability and antibacterial activity. Some probiotic properties of the probiotic culture were investigated in vitro, including its survival at low pH values, under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, after freezing in skim milk at − 20 ºC, and in the commercial feed during storage at room temperature. The viable cells of lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeasts exhibited higher tolerance to acidic pH and simulated gastrointestinal conditions when the cells were protected with skim milk and piglet feed, compared with washed cells. The results indicated the feasibility of producing a probiotic product at a low cost with a potential application in animal feed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0311.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: nisin; antibacterial molecule; batch fermentation; four-dimensional LV equation; Lactococcus lactis.
Online: 12 February 2021 (15:12:52 CET)
Nisin, an antibacterial compound produced by Lactococcus lactis strains, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to be used as a safe food additive to control the growth of undesirable pathogenic bacteria. Nisin is commonly described as a pH-dependent primary metabolite, since its production depends on growth and culture pH evolution. However, the relationship between bacteriocin synthesis and the consumption of the limiting nutrient has not been described until now. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a competitive four-dimensional Lotka Volterra-like equation to describe the relationships between culture pH, limiting nutrient (total nitrogen: TN) consumption and production of biomass (X) and nisin (BT) in four series of batch fermentation with L. lactis CECT 539 in diluted whey (DW)-based media. The developed four-dimensional LV-like equation (with a unique set of parameters) could not be used to describe all cultures belonging to each fermentation series. However, the four-dimensional LV-like equation described accurately each individual culture, providing a good description of the relationships between pH, TN, X and BT, higher values for R2 and F-ratios, lower values (< 10%) for the mean relative percentage deviation modulus, with bias and accuracy factor values approximately equal to one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0226.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: kefir grains; red table grapes; kefir-like beverage; fed-batch fermentation; volatile compounds
Online: 15 October 2021 (14:04:51 CEST)
The aim of this work was to study the production of kefir-like beverage by fed-batch fermentation of red table grape juice at initial pHs of 3.99 (fermentation A) and 5.99 (fermentation B) with kefir grains during four repeated 24-h fed-batch subcultures. However, all kefir-like beverages (KLB) were characterized by low alcoholic grade (≤ 3.6%, v/v) and lactic and acetic acid concentrations. The beverages obtained from fermentation B had lower concentrations of sugars and higher microbial counts than the KLB obtained in fermentation A. In addition, the KLB from fermentation B were the most aromatic and had the highest contents in alcohols, esters, aldehydes and organic acids compared to the non-fermented juice and KLB from fermentation A. These results indicate the possibility of obtaining red table grapes KLB with their own distinctive aromatic characteristics and a high content in probiotic viable cells, contributing to the valorization of this fruit.