REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: STAT3; prostate cancer; bladder cancer; upper tract urothelial carcinoma; renal cell carcinoma; penile cancer; testicular cancer
Online: 8 August 2022 (15:09:21 CEST)
Nowadays molecular research is essential for the better understanding of tumor cells pathophysiology. The increasing number of neoplasms is taken under ‘the molecular magnifying glass’ therefore it is possible to discover complex relationships between cytophysiology and tumor cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) belongs to the family of latent cytoplasmic transcription factors called STATs which comprises seven members: STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B, STAT6. Those proteins play important role in cytokine-activated gene expression by transducing signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Abnormal prolonged activation results in tumorigenesis, metastasis, cell proliferation, invasion, migration and angiogenesis. Inhibition of this transcription factor inhibits previously mentioned effects in cancer cells whereas normal cells are not affected. Hence STAT3 might be a viable target for cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: prostate cancer; lymph node invasion; radical prostatectomy
Online: 11 April 2022 (14:13:34 CEST)
Lymph node invasion in prostate cancer is a significant prognostic factor indicating worse prognosis. While it affects significantly both survival rates and recurrence, proper management remains a heated issue. Thorough evaluation of risk factors associated with nodal involvement, such as lymph node density or extracapsular extension, is crucial to establish potential expansion of the disease and to substratify patients clinically. There are multiple strategies that may be taken into consideration for patients with positive lymph nodes. Nowadays therapeutic methods are generally based on observation, radiotherapy, and androgen deprivation therapy. However current guidelines are incoherent in terms of indication of the most effective management approach. Future management strategies will be expected to reach for novel diagnostic tools and therapies, such as photodynamic therapy or diagnostic imaging with prostate specific membrane antigen. Nevertheless, this heterogeneous group of men remains a vast therapeutic concern, and both clarification of the guidelines and optimal substratification of patients is required.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0387.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: upper tract urothelial carcinoma; radical nephroureterectomy; ureteroscopy; oncological outcomes.
Online: 16 July 2021 (16:17:14 CEST)
Background: The incidence of intravesical recurrence (IVR) following radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) is reported in up to 50% of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). It was suggested that preoperative diagnostic ureteroscopy (URS) could increase the IVR rate after RNU, however, the available data are often conflicting. Thus, in this systematic review and meta-analysis we sought to synthesize that available data for the impact of pre-RNU URS for UTUC on IVR and other oncological outcomes; Materials and methods: A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases was performed in June 2020. Cumulative analyses of hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were conducted. The primary endpoint was intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS), with the secondary endpoints being cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), and metastasis-free survival (MFS); Results: Among a total of 5489 patients included in the sixteen selected papers, 2387 (43.4%) underwent diagnostic URS before RNU and 3102 (56.6%) did not. Pre-RNU diagnostic URS was significantly associated with worse IVRFS after RNU (HR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.29-1.61, p<0.001) than RNU alone. However, subgroup analysis including patients without biopsy during URS revealed no significant impact of diagnostic URS on IVRFS (HR=1.28, 95% CI: 0.90-1.80, p=0.16). The results of other analyses showed no significant differences in CSS (HR=0.94, p=0.63), OS (HR: 0.94, p=0.56), and MFS (HR: 0.91, p=0.37) between patients who underwent URS before RNU and those who did not. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis confirm that diagnostic URS prior to RNU is significantly associated with worse IVRFS, albeit with no concurrent impact on the other long-term survival outcomes. Our results indicate that URS has a negative impact on IVRFS only when combined with endoscopic biopsy. Future studies are warranted to assess the role of immediate postoperative intravesical chemotherapy in patients undergoing biopsy during URS for suspected UTUC.