ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: H7N9 avian influenza; pseudovirus; neutralization assay; relative luminescence units (RLU)
Online: 6 January 2017 (10:21:52 CET)
In March 2013, a novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus was emerged in China, which cause rapidly progressive pneumonia and with a high fatality rate. Serologic studies to evaluate neutralizing antibodies of infected patients and birds are invaluable tools for immunogenicity research of H7N9 and epidemiological investigation. Conventional neutralization assays are laborious and time-consuming which also hampered by biosafety requirement. In this study, We construct and produce pseudovirus bearing the full-length hemagglutinin (HA) of H7N9 virus in the Env-defective, luciferase-expressing HIV-1 backbone. The production of lentiviral pseudovirus was analysed by HA gene specific real-time reverse-transcription PCR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Western Blot assay to prove the nucleic acid replication, the morphology of virus, and the expression of HA protein in pseudovirus. After that pseudovirus based inhibition assay was established to detect neutralizing antibodies of a panel of serum samples. Our results demonstrated that H7N9 pseudovirus which had single-cycle infection was generated. By comparing the neutralization antibody titers, pseudovirus based neutralization test could be recognized as an alternative of conventional microneutralization (MN). Hence, we conclude that it is possible to use pseudovirus inhibition assay to screen sera samples, as well as evaluate vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies against H7N9 virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0049.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: mental accounting; agricultural water fee; behavioral economics; decision making; information processing; representativeness; negative psychological externalities
Online: 25 August 2016 (10:12:08 CEST)
To better understand farmers’ refusal and corresponding negative emotions to pay agricultural water fee under current policy in rural China, this paper applies mental accounting, a behavioral economics framework, to explore how the governmental policies of reform of rural taxes and fees, direct agricultural subsidy programs and agricultural water fee individually influence farmers’ decisions in paying agricultural water fee. Using fieldwork data from 577 farmers and 20 water managers in Sichuan, we explore farmers’ information processing regarding paying agricultural water fee via three sequential mental accounting processes, with the associated underlying principles and measures behind each process. We find that the information processing in three mental accounting scenarios related to the agricultural water fee elucidates farmers’ observed behaviors in rural China. Generally, in the three mental accounting scenarios, two conditional intuitive expectations and nine conditional intuitive preferences are formed, however, the conditions of those expectations or preferences cannot be matched with the facts due to the reform of rural taxes and fees, the direct agricultural subsidy programs and the internal attributes of agricultural water fee, which interpret those negative behaviors in rural China. Additionally, this paper offers a view into how previous policies create negative psychological externalities (such as farmers’ psychological dependence on the government) through mental accounting to negatively influence agents’ subsequent decision making; it highlights the significance of underlying mental factors and information processing of negative behaviors in policymaking for managing or conserving common pool resources.