ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1810.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: border areas; tourism ecological security; spatial evolution; drivers
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:40:17 CEST)
Tourism activities generally have a ∩-type lock on the level of tourism ecological security in an area, but when applied to the border areas of China, there are certain specificities in the spatial evolution of tourism ecological security (TES) compared to traditional findings. This paper measures tourism ecological security in China’s border areas from 2009 to 2020 by using the DPSIR model with the superefficient SBM-DEA and analyzes the spatial differences, evolutionary characteristics, and driving factors of tourism ecological security in border areas by using Pearson’s correlation coefficients, center of gravity models, and geographic probes: (1) The overall tourism ecological security index of China’s border provinces is relatively good. Tourism activities do not completely affect the traditional “∩ lock” of the border provinces. The tourism ecological security level of the border provinces presents three spatial-temporal changes (“∩” type, “U” type, “\” type) and four evolution trends (“high–high–high”, “middle–middle–medium”, “medium–low–low”, and “low–low–low”). (2) The overall tourism ecological security level in border areas is polarized between high and low levels, and the ecological security efficiency of the three large areas is spatially characterized as “Southwest Area > Northeast Area > Northwest Area”, and the center of gravity of ecological security is mostly concentrated in Xinjiang, Tibet, and Neimenggu, where the ecological security level is higher. (3) Social and environmental factors are the main factors that influence tourism ecological security in border areas, while economic factors account for a smaller proportion. Accordingly, this thesis also proposes the driving mechanism of the ecological security of tourism sites in border areas in China with a view to providing theoretical support for policy formulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: collision risk; trajectory data; toll plaza diverging area; random parameters ordered logit model
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:47:17 CEST)
Different toll collection types of vehicles and different distribution of tollbooths lead to the toll plaza diverging area becoming a typical vehicle weaving area with frequent crossing behaviors and conflicts on highways. This study aims to identify contributing factors to conflict risks of four vehicle-following patterns in a toll plaza diverging area by developing random parameters ordered logit models with heterogeneity in means and variances. The model can flexibly capture the unobserved heterogeneity of the contributing factors in different vehicle-following patterns. Real-world vehicle trajectory data obtained from the toll plaza diverging area in Nanjing, China, are used for model estimation. The results show that vehicle-following patterns with the same toll collection types have higher percentage of severe conflict risks. The average acceleration of the following vehicles, lane marking indicator, the initial lanes and lane-changes of vehicles are significantly associated with the collision risk levels. The standard deviation of surrogate safety measures of all vehicles in sub-segments are found differ significantly between vehicle-following patterns. Furthermore, a series of likelihood ratio tests are adopted to test the spatial dependence in sub-segments of the diverging area. The findings of this study could provide valuable information for safety improvement in toll plazas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1062.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: LiDAR; Tree Segmentation; Tree Species Identification; Tree Species Identification; DBN; Forest Parameter
Online: 27 April 2023 (09:35:20 CEST)
The rapid development of LiDAR technology has promoted great changes in forest resource surveys. The airborne LiDAR point cloud can provide precise tree height and detailed vertical structure of the tree stands. Coordinating some representative ground sample plots, LiDAR can be used to estimate key forest resource indicators such as forest stock volume, diameter at breast height, and forest biomass at a large scale. By establishing relationship models between the forest parameters of sample plots and the calculated parameters of LiDAR, these developments may eventually expand the models to large-scale forest resource surveys of entire areas. In this study, eight sample plots in northeast China are used to verify and update the information using point cloud obtained by the LiDAR scanner riegl-vq-1560i. Firstly, the tree crowns are segmented using the profile-rotating algorithm, and dominant trees height are used to check and rectify the tree locations. Secondly, considering the correlation between forestry parameters and tree species, we establish models to distinguish between species using geometric characteristics of tree crowns. Thirdly, when the tree species is known, parameters such as height, crown width, diameter at breast height, biomass and stock volume can be extracted from trees. The prediction models of forestry parameters can also be verified, which can be extended to accurate large-scale forestry surveys based on LiDAR data. Finally, experiment results demonstrate that the F-score of the eight plots in the tree segmentation exceed 0.95, the accuracy of tree species correction exceeds 90%, and the R2 of tree height, east-west canopy width, north-south canopy width, diameter at breast height, above-ground biomass and stock volume are 0.893, 0.757, 0.694, 0.840, 0.896 and 0.891, respectively. The above results indicate that the LiDAR-based estimation of forestry parameters is practical and that these forestry parameter prediction models can be widely applied in forest resource monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1021.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: camera calibration; registration; normalized Zernike moments; corresponding point matching; essential matrix; relative orientation; absolute orientation; point cloud coloring
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:54:51 CEST)
With the continuous development of 3D city modeling, traditional close-range photogrammetry is limited by complex processing procedures and incomplete 3D depth information, making it unable to meet high-precision modeling requirements. In contrast, the integration of LiDAR and camera in mobile measurement systems provides a new and highly effective solution. The LiDAR can quickly and accurately acquire the 3D spatial coordinates of target objects, while optical imagery contains abundant color information. If the two can be integrated, they can play an important role in multiple fields such as streetscape modeling, archaeology and digital city, etc. Currently, integrated mobile measurement systems commonly require cameras, lasers, POS and IMU, thus the hardware cost is relatively expensive and the system integration is complex. Therefore, in this paper we propose a simple ground mobile measurement system composed of a LiDAR and a GoPro camera without a POS system, providing a more convenient and reliable way to automatically obtain 3D point cloud data with spectral information. The automatic point cloud coloring based on video images mainly includes four aspects: (1) Establishing models for radial distortion and tangential distortion to correct video images. (2) Establishing a registration method based on normalized Zernike moments to obtain the exterior orientation elements. Normalized Zernike moments are region-based shape descriptors that can reflect the features of images in multiple dimensions even for low-quality video images. The results show that registration based on normalized Zernike moments provides a good result, with an error accuracy of 0.5-1 pixel, which is far higher than registration based on a collinearity equation. (3) Establishing adjacent video image relative orientation based on essential matrix decomposition and nonlinear optimization. This involves uniformly using the SURF algorithm with distance restriction and RANSAC to select corresponding points, which can improve the reliability of the corresponding points. The results indicate that the accuracy of the relative orientation method is high. Moreover, this method can converge to good results for stereo image pairs with large rotation angles and displacement amounts. Therefore, relative orientation based on essential matrix decomposition and nonlinear optimization has good applicability. (4) The video imagery suffers from significant motion blur and boundary distortion. Therefore, a point cloud coloring method based on Gaussian distribution with central region restriction is adopted. Only pixels within the central region are considered valid for coloring. Then, the point cloud is colored based on the mean of the Gaussian distribution of the color set. Experimental results show that the coloring accuracy between the video imagery and point cloud data is high, meeting the accuracy requirements of applications such as tunnel detection, street-view modeling and 3D urban modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0313.v1
Online: 13 April 2023 (08:34:00 CEST)
The upper ocean heat content in the equatorial Pacific usually serves as a primary precursor for an upcoming El Niño, while the strong atmospheric perturbations such as westerly wind burst and easterly wind surge sometimes play a decisive role in determining the final intensity of the event. The tropical Pacific Ocean has just experienced a rare 3-year La Niña, which accumulated a huge amount of warm water in the western basin by the winter of 2022. Using a state-of-the-art climate prediction system, here we show that the restored warm water is sufficient to boost a strong El Niño toward the end of 2023, and that an extreme event could take place if a few sizable westerly wind bursts would occur in spring and early summer. This prediction is not sensitive to initial errors within the tropical Pacific, but may be subject to some uncertainties brought about by influences from elsewhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0577.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Re–Os isotopic chronology; Pre–treatment means; Petroleum generation time; Lower Paleozoic petroleum; western part of China
Online: 19 April 2023 (08:51:30 CEST)
With the targets of petroleum exploration transferred to the deep and ancient strata, abundant oil and gas resources have been found in the Lower Paleozoic and older strata in central and western China. Due to complex evolutionary processes including multiple episodes of hydrocarbon accumulation and ubiquitously accompanied by secondary alterations, significant uncertainties were remained for the generation time and accumulation processes of these revealed petroleum. In this paper, relative pure Re and Os elements existing in the asphaltene fractions of Lower Cambrian solid bitumen collected from the Guangyuan area, western Sichuan Basin, SW China and another Middle–Lower Ordovician heavy oils in the Aiding area of the Tahe oilfield in the Tarim Basin, NW China were successfully obtained by the sample pre-treatments, and Re–Os isotopic analysis was subsequently carried out for the dating of these two petroleum. The Re–Os isotopic composition indicates a generation time of Guangyuan bitumen to locate between 572 Ma and 559 Ma, corresponding to the late Sinian period of Neoproterozoic era. By the means of Re–Os isochron ages, initial 187Os/188Os ratios, and carbon isotopic compositions, the Lower Cambrian bitumen is supposed to be originated from source rocks of the Doushantuo Formation in the Sinian strata and subsequently migrated into the reservoirs of Dengying Formation. These previously reserved petroleum had been transformed to present bitumen by the destruction of reservoirs caused by tectonic uplift. The Re–Os dating results of Middle–Lower Ordovician heavy oil of Tarim Basin supposed that it was formed between 450 Ma to 436 Ma, corresponding to the Late Ordovician–Early Silurian system, and the generated petroleum is likely to migrate into the Middle–Lower Ordovician karst reservoirs to form early oil reservoirs. With tectonic uplift, these oil reservoirs were degraded and reformed to be present heavy oil reservoirs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0578.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Mo-Si-based alloys; alloying; rare earth elements; oxidation behavior; mechanism
Online: 31 August 2021 (15:58:50 CEST)
Traditional refractory materials such as nickel-based superalloys have been gradually unable to meet the performance requirements of advanced materials. The Mo-Si-based alloy, as a new type of high temperature structural material, has entered the vision of researchers due to its charming high temperature performance characteristics. However, its easy oxidation and even "pesting oxidation" at medium temperatures limit its further applications. In order to solve this problem, researchers have conducted large numbers of experiments and made breakthrough achievements. Based on these research results, the effects of rare earth elements like La, Hf, Ce and Y on the microstructure and oxidation behavior of Mo-Si-based alloys were systematically reviewed in the current work. Meanwhile, this paper also provided an analysis about the strengthening mechanism of rare earth elements on the oxidation behavior for Mo-Si-based alloys after discussing the oxidation process. Furthermore, the research focus about the oxidation protection of Mo-Si-based alloys in the future was prospected to expand the application field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0284.v1
Online: 20 September 2022 (02:44:31 CEST)
The change of tire groove depth will have a huge impact on tire performance, and the use of excessively worn tires is not conducive to the driving safety of automobiles. Tire groove depth detection has become one of the annual inspection items of automobiles, but the research on its related detection technology is still relatively backward. Based on the principle of monocular vision ranging (MVR), image processing technology and cloud platform technology, this paper develops a tire groove depth detection system, which realizes non-destructive detection of tire groove depth. In addition, the system uses the cloud platform to store the test results, and builds a multi-level data management system, allowing car owners to keep track of the tire wear status and historical changes, which is of great significance to ensuring driving safety.