REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: manipulator control; flexible sensor; manufacturing process; gesture recognition; EMG control; data gloves
Online: 6 July 2023 (11:42:59 CEST)
With the development of artificial intelligence technology, manipulators, as an important part of the work of intelligent robots, can replace humans to perform various complex tasks. In recent years, there have been many studies on the remote control of manipulators using various control technologies. Starting from the manufacturing materials of flexible sensors used for manipulators, this paper introduces the base materials, sensing materials, and flexible electrode materials of flexible sensors, respectively, and summarizes the performance of flexible sensors made based on the characteristics of different materials. The basic principles of dipping and coating, lithography, inkjet printing, screen printing, 3D printing and so on are introduced from the perspective of flexible sensor manufacturing process. Some different functions of sensors achieved by different structural designs, such as: tensile cracking, microchannels, etc. are also introduced. Then, from the perspective of recognition accuracy of the manipulator, two kinds of control methods based on flexible sensor by data glove control and surface EMG control are classified and introduced, and the problems existing in three aspects of flexible sensor material preparation, manufacturing process and control series design are summarized. Finally, the possible future research directions in this field are suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0535.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Ground Settlement; Marine Reclamation Land; SBAS-InSAR; Tianjin Binhai New Area
Online: 7 September 2023 (12:12:14 CEST)
In order to alleviate the conflict between populations and land-resource, Tianjin has adopted multi-phase reclamation projects to formed large-scale artificial reclamation land. However, the reclamation areas are susceptible to subsidence, which demonstrate a serious threat to infrastructure and people’s lives and property. The SBAS-InSAR was used to acquired surface deformation of Tianjin Binhai New Area from January 2017 year to December 2022 year, analyzed in depth the response relationship between land subsidence and reclamation projects time as well as the land use type. The results show that the Lingang Industrial Zone was the earliest to be reclaimed, with extensive reclamation completed by 2016 year, while Nangang Industrial Zone and Hangu Port started reclamation projects in 2009 year, some areas are still currently under construction. There is a strong correlation between surface deformation and reclamation time, the severe land subsidence occurred over newly reclaimed areas. Surface deformation gradually intensifies from west to east, the maximum surface settlement in Nangang Industrial Zone, Lingang Industrial Zone from the west to the east has changed from -50 mm to -890 mm,45 mm to -580 mm, respectively, reclamation area of Hangu Port with maximum surface deformation is -250 mm. Significant differences deformation among different land use types, which reclamation projects completed in the same time. Subsidence is positively correlated with surface load, in areas with higher surface loads, the surface settlement is also severer,the average surface settlement for the heavy shipyard, 67 grain storage tanks, 27 grain storage tanks, road, and bare land are -201 mm, -166 mm, -107 mm, -64 mm, and -43 mm, respectively. This study reveals significant differences of surface deformation in the reclamation completed at different times and the load is the main driving factor of settlement difference in the reclamation land completed at the same time. Which has important guiding significance for preventing and controlling geological disasters in the reclamation area and later development planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0649.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: monocyte, VCAM-1, microsphere, capillary vessel, microemboli
Online: 8 June 2023 (14:02:33 CEST)
The restriction of normal blood flow is the cause of many diseases including stroke and coronary artery diseases. To study the consequences of vessel blockade, previous models mainly focused on major arteries and have been well studied. However, the sequela from interruption of capillary vessels by microemboli was less well characterized. In this study, we exploited polystyrene microspheres as a mimicry of microemboli and found that microspheres of this size can be trapped in capillary vessels of all organs without causing apparent acute morbidities of the host. Interestingly, we accidentally found significantly increased recruitment of monocyte to the brain vasculature expressing low levels of Ly6C expression, but not to other organs. Further study revealed the spleen is the major origin of the recruited monocyte. Most importantly, VCAM-1 which is constitutively expressed on mouse brain vasculature orchestrates the recruitment of monocyte. Blockade of VCAM-1 in mice can substantially reduce monocyte recruitment. Interestingly, monocytes get activated through TNF- signaling which likely happens in the spleen instead of the brain. Collectively, we found a unique monocyte recruitment strategy in the brain comparing to other orangs, in response to capillary blockade induced by polystyrene microspheres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1209.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Breast cancer; Activity prediction; Random forest; Feature selection; Bayesian hyperparameter optimization; AdaBoosting
Online: 17 August 2023 (03:57:54 CEST)
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. The pathogenesis of this disease is closely related to the estrogen receptor alpha subtype (ERα). Therefore, it is of great importance to develop effective inhibitors of ERα activity for the treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, we propose a novel ensemble machine learning model for quantitative structure-activity relationship of anti-breast cancer drugs, which can effectively predict drug activity in small samples with multiple characteristic variables. To avoid the problem of over-fitting caused by low-correlation independent variables, the scoring mechanism of random forest was improved by incorporating three relevance indicators, including the maximum mutual information number, Pearson correlation coefficient and distance correlation coefficient, and 20 optimal molecular descriptors were selected. The Bayesian hyperparameter optimization method was used to optimize the parameters of multiple linear regression (MLR), support vector regression (SVR), and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), respectively. The AdaBoost strong learner was constructed by combining the weak learner with the weighted linear addition method. The results show that the proposed ensemble learning model has the best prediction performance compared to the three basic learner models and the CNN-LSTM combination prediction model. The root mean square error was reduced by 7.60%-26.51%. The mean relative error was reduced by 6.46%-30.92%. Goodness of fit increased by 9.57%-36.94%. Finally, the biological activities of 50 candidate compounds for ERα inhibitors were predicted, and it was found that 4-[2-benzyl-1-[4-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethoxy)phenyl]but-1-enyl]phenol had an excellent biological activity value pIC50, which had the potential to be an ERα inhibitor. The model proposed in this paper has good prediction accuracy, which can provide an effective reference for the discovery and development of anti-breast cancer drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0979.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: image processing; K-means clustering algorithm; Traversal algorithm; Indirect solution method
Online: 14 August 2023 (08:57:37 CEST)
The utilization of tempered blast furnace (BF) slag through the direct fiber forming process to create high-value thermal insulation materials offers a dual benefit: it efficiently harnesses the latent heat within unused slag and substantially enhances the value of blast-furnace slag utilization. However, gauging the melting properties of iron slag under high temperatures is a challenge. In this study, we explore the melting behavior of SiO2 within a high-temperature molten pool. We employ dynamic visual data (video stream) captured via a non-contact charge coupled device (CCD) video recording system to extract SiO2 contours through image processing. The change in image centroid characteristics is used to establish a convolution function relationship, and MATLAB's traversal search algorithm determines SiO2's centroid position. Given that SiO2 is proportionate to crucible pixels, the area of SiO2 is calculated through pixel statistics within these contours. Subsequently, we propose a new indirect method to process image information, yielding SiO2 volume and mass at different time points. An exponential fitting yields the melting rate function of SiO2. Finally, we compare this indirect method with shape from shading (SFS), quantitative characterization, and dimensional analysis techniques. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of each method. Our findings reveal that the indirect solution method presented here boasts straightforward calculation steps and imposes minimal image format requirements. This research provides theoretical and technical support for blast-furnace slag's direct fiber forming process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0445.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: perovskite; crystal structure; electrochemical performance; LaMnO3
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:31:22 CET)
In this paper, the sol−gel method was used to synthesize powders of LaMnO3 (LMO), La0.85Ca0.15MnO3 (LCM), and La0.85Sr0.15MnO3 (LSM). We investigated the impact of substituting Ca and Sr at the A−site on the perovskite crystal structure and electrochemical capabilities of LMO. LCM retained its orthogonal structure in comparison to the parent LMO components, whereas LSM transitioned to a rhombic structure. At 0.5 A/g, the specific capacitance of LCM and LSM electrodes is 185.5 F/g and 248 F/g, respectively.The specific capacitance of LCM was more three times than that of the LMO electrode. Among the three samples (LMO, 22.25 m2 g−1; LSM, 31.56 m2 g−1), the LCM sample exhibited the highest specific surface area of 38.79 m2 g−1. The charge transfer resistances of the LMO, LCM, and LSM are 0.48 Ω, 0.36 Ω, and 0.38 Ω, correspondingly. The LCM electrode exhibits the greatest capacitance performance due to its more refined morphology, increased concentration of oxygen vacancy, and more complete utilization of the perovskite bulk structure. The above results demonstrate that Ca or Sr substitution of A−site compounds has great potential for supercapacitor applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0427.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: high energy milling; bicuseo; thermoelectric performance; microstructure; double doping
Online: 7 November 2023 (09:41:03 CET)
The layered oxyselenide BiCuSeO has garnered significant interest because of its ability to exhibit low thermal conductivity and a high Seebeck coefficient. This study involved the preparation of Bi1−xNaxCuSeO1−xFx(x=0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) ceramics through the processes of high energy ball milling and cold isostatic pressing. A systematic study was conducted to investigate the impact of co−doping Na/F on the thermoelectric performance of BiCuSeO ceramics. Replacing Bi3+ with Na+ results in the introduction of a considerable amount of holes, leading to a notable enhancement in the electrical conductivity and power factor. The conductivity was significantly increased from 9.10 S cm−1 in the pure BiCuSeO to 94.5 S cm−1 in Bi0.85Na0.15CuSeO0.85F0.15 at 323 K. At 823 K, the power factor of the Bi0.85Na0.15CuSeO0.85F0.15 sample achieved 44.8×10−5 W/ m K2. Moreover, the Bi1−xNaxCuSeO1−xFx ceramics exhibit a minimum thermal conductivity of 0.43 W m−1 K−1. As a result, the Bi0.85Na0.15CuSeO0.85F0.15 sample achieves a maximum ZT value of 0.78, which is 7.09 times greater than that of the pure BiCuSeO sample (0.11) .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: DEHP; biochemical pathways; immobilization; MBR; bacterial community dynamics
Online: 9 January 2020 (05:00:48 CET)
A bacterial strain that could effectively degrade DEHP was isolated from the activated sludge and identified as Bacillus sp. by DNA sequencing. The biochemical degradation pathway of DEHP was further analyzed by GC-MS, and the results showed that DEHP was first decomposed into phthalates (DBP). Diuretic sylycol (DEP) was then generated, and phthalates (PA) were generated by a continuous de-ehelateization reaction. Phthalic acid (PA) was oxidized, dehydrogenated, and decarboxylated into protocatechins. Protocatechins enter the TCA cycle through orthotopic ring opening. To enhance DEHP degradation, sodium alginate and calcium chloride were used as embedding and cross-linking materials, and the strain was immobilized. The immobilization conditions were optimized via an orthogonal experiment, and the results showed that the optimal immobilization conditions were SA mass fraction of 4%, CaCl2 mass fraction of 5%, ratio of bacteria to SA of 1:1, and the crosslinking time of 6 hours. The immobilized bacteria agent was further applied to MBR systems. The results showed that the removal rate of DEHP (5mg/L) in the system by immobilized bacteria was 91.9%, which is significantly higher than that of free bacteria. The 3, 4-dioxygenase gene and microbial community dynamics were analyzed by q-PCR and Illumina Miseq sequencing. The q-PCR results showed that the number of copies of 3, 4-dioxygenase gene in the immobilized system was significantly higher than that of free bacteria. Illumina Miseq sequencing results showed that Micromonospora, Rhodococcus, Bacteroides and Pseudomonas were the dominant generas in the MBR system. The analysis of bacterial community structure indicated that immobilization technology had a positive impact on the system stability. The results implied that this immobilized technique had potential applications in DEHP wastewater treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0022.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: P. pseudoannulata; Cadmium; Transcriptome; RT-qPCR
Online: 8 October 2016 (11:07:25 CEST)
Pardosa pseudoannulata is one of the most common wandering spiders in agricultural fields and a potentially good bioindicator for heavy metal contamination. However, little is known about the mechanism by which spiders respond to heavy metals at the molecular level. In this study, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of the spiders and to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) after cadmium exposure. We obtained 60,489 assembled unigenes, 18,773 of which were annotated in the public databases. Ultimately, 3450 cDNA simple sequence repeats were identified and validated as potential molecular markers in the unigenes. A total of 2939, 2491 and 3759 DEGs were detected among the three libraries of two Cd-treated groups and the control. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that metabolism processes and digestive system function were predominately enriched in response to Cd stress. At the cellular and molecular levels, significantly enriched pathways in lysosomes and phagosomes as well as replication, recombination and repair demonstrated that oxidative damage resulted from Cd exposure. Based on the selected DEGs, certain critical genes involved in defence and detoxification were analysed. These results may elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying spiders' responses to heavy metal stress.