ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0281.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: microevolution; adaptation; ecometabolomics; ACCase-inhibiting herbicides
Online: 28 April 2022 (10:23:01 CEST)
Herbicide resistance is an evolutionary process that affects entire agricultural regions' yield and productivity. The high number of farms and the diversity of weed management can generate hot selection spots along regions. Resistant biotypes can present a diversity of mechanisms of resistance and resistance factors depending on selective conditions inside the farm; this situation is similar to predicts by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. In Mexico, the agricultural region of Bajio has been affected by herbicide resistance for 25 years. To date, Avena fatua L. is one of the most abundant and problematic weed species. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism of resistance of biotypes with failures in the weed control in 70 wheat and barley crop fields in Bajio, Mexico. The results showed that 70% of farms have biotypes with TSR, the most common mutations where Trp – 1999 – Cys, Asp – 2078 – Gly, Ile – 2041 – Asn, such mutations confer cross-resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. Metabolomic fingerprinting showed four different metabolic expression patterns. The results confirmed that in the Bajio exist multiple selection sites for both resistance mechanisms, which proves that this area can be considered as a geographic mosaic of resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0118.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: iVikodak; Balsas Basin; tomate milpero; native plants
Online: 8 June 2022 (06:02:31 CEST)
Michoacan state has a long history in plant domestication’s. Physalis ixocarpa is a native plant that growth associated to corn crops from this region. Such plants have similar fruits to Physalis philadelphica (husk tomate). Due to the domestication process includes the adaptation to environmental factors, we ask if 1) Does P. ixocarpa has the capacity of association with bacterial communities of the zone where it was domesticated?, and 2) Does the rhizobiome of this plant can increase the potential functions in the soil?. An experiment was established in a traditional milpa system. Samples of rhizobiome from corn, P. ixocarpa, P. philadelphica, and soil were sequenced using Next Generation Sequencing in the region 16S. The potential function, metabolic pathway reconstruction and participation of each bacteria genus was inferred using iVikodak platform. A total of 34 Phyla and 795 genera were identified. Purine metabolism's was the principal function, where all rizhobiomes showed similar metabolic pathways. However, the difference among plant species is the participation of the distinct genera in the purine metabolism. We conclude that rhizobiome of P. ixocarpa shows complementarity for the soil functions, and their utilization can be helpful in zones where the agricultural practices have degraded microbiological soil conditions.