ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0400.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke; green mass; tubers; feed value
Online: 24 December 2021 (10:58:03 CET)
Being a valuable source of inulin, fructose and pectin, Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is one of the most promising bioenergy crops for common usage. Animals have been reported to eat both Jerusalem artichoke green mass and tubers with pleasure. On the one hand, Jerusalem artichoke is cultivated on the area of about 3 thousand hectares in Russia. On the other hand, there are more than 200 crop species. So it is critical to choose a proper variety suitable both for soil and climatic conditions. The purpose of the research is to study Jerusalem artichoke, taking into account varietal characteristics appropriate for forage production. Research objects – varieties of Jerusalem artichoke: early ripening Skorospelka (RF); mid-early Vylgortskiy (RF); mid-season Dieticheskiy (RF), Kaluzhskiy (RF), Korenevskiy (RF), Nadezhda (RF), Nakhodka (RF), Podmoskovniy (RF), Sireniki (RB), Blank Brekos (France), Violet de Rense (France); late ripening Interest (RF), Interest 21 (RF), Novosti VIRa (RF), Tadzhikskiy Krasniy (USSR), Spindle (Germany). The soil for evaluating Jerusalem artichoke varieties was from experimental plot base "Korenevo". It is characterized as sod-slightly podzolic sandy loam. The field trial was established and the records and observations were carried out in accordance with the requirements of the field experiment methodology (1985), and the Program and methodology for evaluating Jerusalem artichoke varieties in test nurseries (2014). The varieties Vylgortskiy, Dieticheskiy, Nadezhda, Nakhodka, Sireniki, Skorospelka, Blank Brekos and Kaluzhskiy were found to reach due height of 155 - 170 cm at the end of the growing season; the varieties Podmoskovniy, Interest reached proper height of 175 - 208 cm; the varieties Interest 21, Tadzhikskiy and Violet de Rense were about 220 - 235 cm in hight; as for the varieties Korenevskiy, Novost VIRa, Spindlу their hight was 270 - 280 cm. According to aggregate amount of feed units per 1 ha, the following varieties have been shown to be the most reasonable for fodder production: Novost VIRa (22,438 fodder units), Nadezhda (19,928 fodder units), Korenevskiy (17,798 fodder units), Shpindle (16,887 fodder units), Dieticheskiy (16,395 fodder units), and Interest (16,116 fodder units). The highest total coefficient of energy efficiency has been found in the following varieties: Novost VIRa – 3.09, Tadzhikskiy – 2.78; Spindle – 2.68; Korenevskiy – 2.43; Interest – 2.10; Skorospelka – 1.98. The results of experimental and theoretical studies obtained were verified on-the-farm conditions based on a seed-speciality farm LLC Kaluga-Agro (the Kaluga region) and demonstrated beneficial effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0565.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Salt stress; Jerusalem artichoke; Time series analysis; RNA-seq
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:55:51 CET)
Background: Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is tolerant to salinity stress and has high economic value. The salt tolerance mechanisms of Jerusalem artichoke are still unclear. Especially in the early stage of Jerusalem artichoke exposure to salt stress, the plant physiology, biochemistry and gene transcription are likely to undergo large changes. Elucidating these changes may be of great significance to understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms of it. Results: We obtained high-quality transcriptome from leaves and roots of Jerusalem artichoke exposed to salinity (300 mM NaCl) for 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, with 150,129 unigenes and 9023 DEGs (Differentially Expressed Genes). The RNA-seq data were clustered into time-dependent groups (nine clusters each in leaves and roots); gene functions were distributed evenly among the groups convergence. KEGG enrichment analysis showed the genes related to plant hormone signal transduction were enriched in almost all treatment comparisons. Under salt stress, genes belongs to PYL (abscisic acid receptor PYR / PYL family), PP2C (Type 2C protein phosphatases), GH3 (Gretchen Hagen3), ETR (ethylene receptor), EIN2/3 (ethylene-insensitive protein 2/3), JAZ (Genes such as jasmonate ZIM-domain gene) and MYC2 (Transcription factor MYC2) had extremely similar expression patterns. The results of qPCR of 12 randomly selected genes confirmed the accuracy of RNA-seq. Conclusions: Under the impact of high salinity (300mM) environment, Jerusalem artichoke in the seedling stage was difficult to survive for a long time, and the phenotype was severe in the short term. Based on the expression of genes on the time scale, we found that the distribution of gene functions in time is relatively even. Upregulation of the phytohormone signal transduction had a crucial role in the response of Jerusalem artichoke seedlings to salt stress, the genes of abscisic acid, auxin, ethylene, and jasmonic acid had the most obvious change pattern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0033.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: willow-leaf sunflower; Jerusalem artichoke; supercritical extraction; water as co-solvent; antimicrobial activity; biocidal effect
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:47:35 CET)
The extracts from the aerial parts of Helianthus salicifolius A. Dietr and Helianthus tuberosus L. collected in June were obtained using carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction with water as co-solvent. The antimicrobial activity in vitro of these extracts were determined against the reference species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi, representing by the yeast species of Candida spp. The following parameters were estimated: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Both extracts were found to possess antimicrobial activity with MIC = 0.62-5 mg mL-1 for bacteria and MIC = 5-10 mg mL-1 for yeasts, showing bactericidal (MBC/MIC = 2-4) or fungicidal effect (MFC/MIC = 1-2 ). The highest activity was observed against S. aureus ATCC 29213 (MIC = 0.62 mg mL-1 for H. salicifolius extract; MIC = 2.5 mg mL-1 for H. tuberosus extract). Bactericidal effect of both extracts against S. aureus ATCC 29213 was confirmed by time-kill assay. Higher antioxidant activity was found for H. tuberosus extract (EC50 = 0.332 mg mL-1) as compared to that of H. salicifolius (EC50 = 0.609 mg mL-1). The total polyphenol content (TPC) expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was 13.75 ± 0.50 mg GAE (g of H. salicifolius extract)-1 and 33.06 ± 0.80 mg GAE (g of H. tuberosus extract)-1. There was a correlation between the antioxidant potential of both extracts and TPC but not between antistaphylococcal activity and TPC. The obtained data suggest potential application of these extracts as the natural preparations with the biocidal activity, including those with antistaphylococcal activity. Besides, both extracts may be regarded as potential natural conservants in cosmetics as well as natural preservatives in food.