ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0115.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: Mach's principle; GR; Borsuk-Ulam theorem; topology; Page and Wootters mechanism; dimensional anisotropy
Online: 5 November 2021 (10:58:49 CET)
We create a model universe by equipping a topological surface (system) with compact dimensions insulated by an information blocking horizon. The insulated compact WF can produce entanglement independent of distance. Interaction between the system and the WF changes the curvature of the first and the quantum state (frequency) of the second in an interconnected relationship. Thus, the field curvature measures the evolution of the particle WF as time. Positive field curvature creates pressure, whereas negative field curvature generates a vacuum, satisfying the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem and the Page and Wootters mechanism of static time. The accumulation of pressure or vacuum generates poles with contrasting dimensionalities, two-dimensional black hole horizons (time infinite), and four-dimensional cosmic voids (time zero). The orthogonality of the field and the compact WF give rise to global self-regulation that fine-tunes the cosmic parameters and can promote fractal topology. The four-dimensional vacuum in cosmic voids can produce an accelerating expansion without dark energy. When gravity effects are eliminated, we find a new, so far unexplored, order-increasing side of entropy. The verifiable and elegant hypothesis satisfies Mach's principle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0050.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Banach–Tarski paradox; brain; power law; fractal; oscillations; information
Online: 6 April 2020 (11:36:49 CEST)
Neuroscientists are able to detect physical changes in information entropy in available neurodata. However, the information paradigm is inadequate to fully describe nervous dynamics and mental activities such as perception. This paper provides an effort to build explanations to neural dynamics alternative to thermodynamic and information accounts. We recall the Banach–Tarski paradox (BTP), which informally states that, when pieces of a ball are moved and rotated without changing their shape, a synergy between two balls of the same volume is achieved instead of the original one. We show how and why BTP might display this physical and biological synergy meaningfully, making it possible to tackle nervous activities. The anatomical and functional structure of the central nervous system’s nodes and edges allows to perform a sequence of moves inside the connectome that doubles the amount of available cortical oscillations. In particular, a BTP-based mechanism permits scale-invariant nervous oscillations to amplify and propagate towards far apart brain areas. Paraphrasing the BPT’s definition, we could state that: when a few components of a self-similar nervous oscillation are moved and rotated throughout the cortical connectome, two self-similar oscillations are achieved instead of the original one. Furthermore, based on topological structures, we illustrate how, counterintuitively, the amplification of scale-free oscillations does not require information transfer.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0107.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Geometry & Topology Keywords: donut-like; infinity; paths; physical geometry; networks, Alexander horned sphere
Online: 9 February 2020 (15:55:03 CET)
Physical measurements might display range values extending towards infinite. The occurrence of infinity in physical equations, such as the black hole singularities, is a troublesome issue that causes many theories to break down when assessing extreme events. Different methods, such as re-normalization, have been proposed to avoid detrimental infinity. Here a novel technique is proposed, based on physical geometrical considerations and the Alexander Horned sphere, that permits to undermine infinity in physical equations. In this unconventional approach, a continuous monodimensional line becomes an assembly of countless bidimensional lines that superimpose in quantifiable knots and bifurcations.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Brain; Borsuk-Ulam theorem; sensation; environment; ecological theory
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:12:37 CET)
During the exploration of the surrounding environment, the brain links together external inputs, giving rise to perception of a persisting object. During imaginative processes, the same object can be recalled in mind even if it is out of sight. Here, topological theory of shape provides a mathematical foundation for the notion of persistence perception. In particular, we focus on ecological theories of perception, that account for our knowledge of world objects by borrowing a concept of invariance in topology. We show how a series of transformations can be gradually applied to a pattern, in particular to the shape of an object, without affecting its invariant properties, such as boundedness of parts of a visual scene. High-level representations of objects in our environment are mapped to simplified views (our interpretations) of the objects, in order to construct a symbolic representation of the environment. The representations can be projected continuously to an environmental object that we have seen and continue to see, thanks to the mapping from shapes in our memory to shapes in Euclidean space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0160.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: holes; grid; shapes; homology; uncertainty
Online: 18 February 2019 (10:49:02 CET)
Starting from unidentified objects moving inside a two-dimensional Euclidean manifold, we propose a simple method to detect the topological changes that occur during their reciprocal interactions and shape morphing. This method, which allows the detection of topological holes development and disappearance, makes it possible to solve the uncertainty due to disconnectedness, lack of information and absence of objects’ sharp boundaries, i.e., the three troubling issues which prevent scientists to select the required proper sets/subsets during their experimental assessment of natural and artificial dynamical phenomena, such as fire propagation, wireless sensor networks, migration flows, neural networks’ and cosmic bodies’ analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: tessellation; forensic picture; bullets; homology; proximity
Online: 13 November 2018 (10:41:14 CET)
Here we show how a recently-introduced method from algebraic topology, namely proximal planar vortex 1-cycles, might be helpful in detecting hidden features of the shapes and holes in images, therefore contributing to the solution of both cold and fresh forensic cases. In particular, we test the efficacy of this technique by assessing one of the most puzzling cases of recent history, i.e., Aldo Moro’s death. Terrorists of the Red Brigades claimed that they killed Moro when he was placed inside the trunk of a car,shooting him with a barrage of bullets. We demonstrate, based on the analysis of the photographs taken during the autoptic procedure, that the terrorist’s account does not hold true. Our results, showing different series of shots, point towards a three-step execution, with the first phasestaking place outside the car. In conclusion, the novel forensic analysis method introduced in this paper permits the evaluation of a collection of vortex cycles/nerves equipped with a connectedness proximity, which makes it possible to assess unexpected spatial clusters in photographs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0446.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Borsuk-Ulam theorem; antipodal points; quantum entanglement; holographic principle
Online: 22 September 2018 (23:29:55 CEST)
The entangled antipodal points on black hole surfaces, recently described by t’Hooft, display an unnoticed relationship with the Borsuk-Ulam theorem. Taking into account this observation and other recent claims, suggesting that quantum entanglement takes place on the antipodal points of a S3 hypersphere, a novel framework can be developed, based on algebraic topological issues: a feature encompassed in an S2 unentangled state gives rise, when projected one dimension higher, to two entangled particles. This allows us to achieve a mathematical description of the holographic principle occurring in S2. Furthermore, our observations let us to hypothesize that a) quantum entanglement might occur in a four-dimensional spacetime, while disentanglement might be achieved on a motionless, three-dimensional manifold; b) a negative mass might exist on the surface of a black hole.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0027.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: points; lines; brain; continuum; physical equations; topology; curvature; infinity
Online: 3 September 2018 (11:34:18 CEST)
Starting from the tenets of human imagination, i.e., the concepts of lines, points and infinity, we provide a biological demonstration that the skeptical claim “human beings cannot attain knowledge of the world” holds true. We show that the Euclidean account of the point as “that of which there is no part” is just a conceptual device, untenable in our physical/biological realm: terms like “lines, surfaces and volumes” label non-existent, arbitrary properties. We also elucidate the psychological and neuroscientific features hardwired in our brain that lead us humans to think to points and lines as truly occurring in our environment. Therefore, our current scientific descriptions of objects’ shapes, graphs and biological trajectories in phase spaces need to be revisited, leading to a proper portrayal of the real world’s events. In order to provide also a positive account, we view miniscule bounded physical surface regions as the basic objects in a biological context in a traversal of spacetime instead of the usual Euclidean points. Our account makes it possible to erase a painstaking problem that causes many theories to break down and/or being incapable of describing extreme events: the unwanted occurrence of infinite values in equations, such as singularity in the description of black holes. We propose a novel approach, based on point-free geometrical standpoints, that banishes infinitesimals and leads to a tenable physical/biological geometry. We conclude that points, lines, volumes and infinity do not describe the world, rather they are fictions introduced by ancient surveyors of land surfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0021.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Einstein; manifold; Hilbert space; Abelian; dagger category
Online: 3 September 2018 (10:51:51 CEST)
The unexploited unification of general relativity and quantum physics is a painstaking issue that prevents physicists to properly understanding the whole of Nature. Here we propose a pure mathematical approach that introduces the problem in terms of group theory. Indeed, we build a cyclic groupoid (a nonempty set with a binary operation defined on it) that encompasses both the theories as subsets, making it possible to join together two of their most dissimilar experimental results, i.e., the commutativity detectable in our macroscopic relativistic world and the noncommutativity detectable in the quantum, microscopic world. This approach, combined with the Connes fusion operator, leads to a mathematical framework useful in the investigation of relativity/quantum mechanics relationships.
Subject: Keywords: arithmetic figures; Pascal’s triangle; geometrization of brain; central nervous system; nonlinear
Online: 4 December 2019 (04:43:17 CET)
The brain, rather than being homogeneous, displays an almost infinite topological genus, because is punctured with a very high number of topological vortexes, i.e., .e., nesting, non-concentric brain signal cycles resulting from inhibitory neurons devoid of excitatory oscillations. Starting from this observation, we show that the occurrence of topological vortexes is constrained by random walks taking place during self-organized brain activity. We introduce a visual model, based on the Pascal’s triangle and linear and nonlinear arithmetic octahedrons, that describes three-dimensional random walks of excitatory spike activity propagating throughout the brain tissue. In case of nonlinear 3D paths, the trajectories in brains crossed by spiking oscillations can be depicted as the operation of filling the numbers of the octahedrons in the form of “islands of numbers”: this leads to excitatory neuronal assemblies, spaced out by empty area of inhibitory neuronal assemblies. These procedures allow us to describe the topology of a brain of infinite genus, to assess inhibitory neurons in terms of Betti numbers, and to highlight how non-linear random walks cause spike diffusion in neural tissues when tiny groups of excitatory neurons start to fire.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: arithmetic figures, black hole, deterministic model, geometrization of physics, random walk
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:23:11 CET)
The Universe, rather than being homogeneous, displays an almost infinite topological genus, because it is punctured with a countless number of gravitational vortexes, i.e., black holes. Starting from this view, we aim to show that the occurrence of black holes is constrained by geometric random walks taking place during cosmic inflationary expansion. At first, we introduce a visual model, based on the Pascal’s triangle and linear and nonlinear arithmetic octahedrons, which describes three-dimensional cosmic random walks. In case of nonlinear 3D paths, trajectories in an expanding Universe can be depicted as the operation of filling the numbers of the octahedrons in the form of “islands of numbers”: this leads to separate cosmic structures (standing for matter/energy), spaced out by empty areas (constituted by black holes and dark matter). These procedures allow us to describe the topology of an universe of infinite genus, to assess black hole formation in terms of infinite Betti numbers, to highlight how non-linear random walks might provoke gravitational effects also in absence of mass/energy, and to propose a novel interpretation of Beckenstein-Hawking entropy: it is proportional to the surface, rather than the volume, of a black hole, because the latter does not contain information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0021.v1
Online: 5 May 2019 (12:45:15 CEST)
Relationships among near set theory, shape maps and recent accounts of the Quantum Hall effect pave the way to quantum computations performed in higher dimensions. We illustrate the operational procedure to build a quantum computer able to detect, assess and quantify a fourth spatial dimension. We show how, starting from two-dimensional shapes embedded in a 2D topological charge pump, it is feasible to achieve the corresponding four-dimensional shapes, which encompass a larger amount of information. This novel, relatively straightforward architecture not only permits to increase the amount of available qbits in a fixed volume, but also converges towards a solution to the problem of optical computers, that are not allowed to tackle quantum entanglement through their canonical superposition of electromagnetic waves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0570.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Einstein; manifold; Hilbert space; Abelian; living cell; Borsuk-Ulam theorem; topology
Online: 28 September 2018 (13:32:05 CEST)
The unexploited unification of quantum physics, general relativity and biology is a keystone that paves the way towards a better understanding of the whole of Nature. Here we propose a mathematical approach that introduces the problem in terms of group theory. We build a cyclic groupoid (a nonempty set with a binary operation defined on it) that encompasses the three frameworks as subsets, representing two of their most dissimilar experimental results, i.e., 1) the commutativity detectable both in our macroscopic relativistic world and in biology; 2) and the noncommutativity detectable both in the microscopic quantum world and in biology. This approach leads to a mathematical framework useful in the investigation of the three apparently irreconcilable realms. Also, we show how cyclic groupoids encompassing quantum mechanics, relativity theory and biology might be equipped with dynamics that can be described by paths on the twisted cylinder of a Möbius strip.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0296.v1
Online: 17 April 2020 (08:30:13 CEST)
Collective spread of aggregated viral particles may have beneficial effects on viral capability to survive in the external environment, to counteract immune responses, and to successfully colonize host cells. Here we ask whether SARS-Cov-2 particles, responsible for COVID-19, display collective clustering behavior. Looking at microphotographs and movies of SARS-Cov-2 particles emerging from the surface of cultured cells, we describe single virions that tend to aggregate in progressively larger globular assemblies, until a network-like appearance is achieved. When SARS-Cov-2 particles stick into each other, the squeezing of single virions leads to improved viral package in host’s fluids. We discuss how these findings might explain both the ability to spread of SARS-Cov-2 and the clinical severity of COVID-19 in humans, paving the way to novel therapeutic strategies to mechanically disrupt collective clustering.