REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1219.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; risk assessment; mitigation; resilience; pandemic modeling; lessons learned
Online: 17 May 2023 (09:59:40 CEST)
The emergence of novel pathogens is a well-known epidemiological risk, however, the unexpected emergence of a truly novel coronavirus-mediated pandemic, SARS-nCOV2 (COVID-19), underscored the significance of understanding this contagion. The COVID-19 pandemic caused unprecedented social, economic, and educational disruptions on a scale never seen before. In addition to social protocols, the development of safe, effective, affordable COVID-19 vaccines was developed within months, the cornerstone to mitigating this pandemic. We present an overview of the evolution of the SARS-nCOV2 pandemic from a historical perspective and describe its biology and behavior, especially the immunological aspects of the disease. We further provide an overview of COVID-19 therapeutics, treatment, and vaccine development. It is critical to understand the transmission mechanism of the disease to control and mitigate its progression. We describe cohort studies to identify secondary and tertiary syndromes. The transmission characteristics help its diagnosis and detection. During the pandemic, a lot of emphasis was placed on personal protection equipment. It is now concluded that the virus particles spread by aerosol dispersion. While the recommended distance may not be sufficient, the use of personal protective equipment and social distancing may be helpful in close-quarters environments. Such protocols in conjunction with safe and effective vaccines and personal hygiene are among the safe practices. While we learn from our experience, this review provides a holistic view of COVID-19, so we are better prepared for a future pandemic. In addition to a wide-spectrum automated analytics system, we also suggest that the use of artificial intelligence in conjunction with data analytics can further reduces the risk of speculatively diagnosing agents incorrectly, to eliminate future pandemic, where the novelty can be the cloud-based presumptive diagnosis.