ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: antifungal resistance; isavuconazole; cystic fibrosis; pulmonary disease; Aspergillus fumigatus; pulmonary aspergillosis; respiratory disease; antifungal stewardship; therapeutic drug monitoring; minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
Online: 16 February 2022 (05:12:39 CET)
Background: The burden of resistant fungal infection is rising in patients with pulmonary disease. Options for antifungal therapy are limited, and the only orally-available antifungals, the triazoles, demonstrate inter and intra-patient variability, non-linear kinetics, toxicity, drug interactions and increasing antifungal resistance. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole has been necessary to ensure their safety and efficacy, but is considered unnecessary for the newest triazole isavuconazole, use of which is increasing. Aims: To characterise isavuconazole susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates in a tertiary respiratory referral centre to understand prevalence of isavuconazole antimicrobial resistance. To retrospectively review experience of isavuconazole use in this setting, assessing tolerability and therapeutic drug monitoring. Methods: A retrospective observational analysis of adult patients with respiratory disease in a tertiary hospital setting between Sept 2016 and Aug 2021. Clinical cultures were collected and triazole Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were recorded (based on Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI method)). Isavuconazole trough drug levels were carried out as part of the standard of care. Clinical outcomes of treatment were evaluated, along with drug tolerance and TDM. Results: During the study period, isavuconazole susceptibility testing was performed on 26 Aspergillus spp isolates. 80.8% of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates were non-wild type and had isavuconazole MIC > 1mg/L, and 73.0% had MIC above the EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) of 2mg/L. There was good correlation between isavuconazole MIC and voriconazole MIC (r =0.7, p=0.0002). 54 patients had isavuconazole therapy over the study period with a median duration of 7.7 months (IQR 0.79 - 16.42). 67% of patients were able to tolerate isavuconazole, despite toxicity with prior azole treatment being the primary indication for use (in 61.8%). Increased age (r=0.29; p=0.03 (95%CI 0.02,0.52)) and gender (r for female sex=-0.31; p=0.027 (95%CI -0.52,0.036) were associated risk factors for development of adverse events (AEs). 127 Isavuconazole TDM levels were performed over the study period with 90% >1mg/L and 72% >2mg/L. Dose change from manufacturer’s dose recommendation, however, was required in 15% of patients to achieve a serum drug concentration above the EUCAST ECOFF or Area of technical uncertainty (ATU) value of 2mg/L. Conclusion: In our study, we show use of Isavuconazole as salvage therapy in chronic pulmonary fungal disease setting with high prevalence of azole resistance. Isavuconazole MICs demonstrated good correlation with voriconazole MICs suggesting the latter could be a useful surrogate marker for isavuconazole susceptibility. Although Isavuconazole achieved excellent serum drug concentrations at standard dose compared to other azole drugs, we highlight the importance of antifungal stewardship and TDM monitoring to optimise therapy in this setting.