ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0268.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: land surface temperature; remote rensing; reanalysis; ECMWF
Online: 24 September 2019 (05:18:26 CEST)
Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable in surface-atmosphere energy and water exchanges. The main goals of this study are to (i) evaluate the LST of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim and ERA5 reanalyses over Iberian Peninsula using the Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF) product and to (ii) understand the main drivers of the LST errors in the reanalysis. Simulations with the ECMWF land-surface model in offline mode (uncoupled) were carried out over the Iberian Peninsula and compared with the reanalysis data. Several sensitivity simulations were performed in a confined domain centered in Southern Portugal to investigate potential sources of the LST errors. The Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS) fraction of green vegetation cover (FCover) and the European Space Agency’s Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI) Land Cover dataset were explored. We found a general underestimation of daytime LST and slightly overestimation at night-time. The results indicate that there is still room for improvement in the simulation of LST in ECMWF products. Still, ERA5 presents an overall higher quality product in relation to ERA-Interim. Our analysis suggested a relation between the large daytime cold bias and vegetation cover differences between (ERA5 and CGLS FCocver) with a correlation of -0.45. The replacement of the low and high vegetation cover by those of ESA-CCI provided an overall reduction of the large Tmax biases during summer. The increased vertical resolution of the soil at the surface, has a positive impact, but much smaller when compared with the vegetation changes. The sensitivity of the vegetation density parameter, that currently depends on the vegetation type, provided further proof for a needed revision of the vegetation in the model, as there is a reasonable correlation between this parameter and the Tmax mean errors when using the ESA-CCI vegetation cover (while the same correlation cannot be reproduced with the original model vegetation). Our results support the hypothesis that vegetation cover is one of the main drivers of the LST summertime cold bias in ERA5 over Iberian Peninsula.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: solar radiation; meteosat second generation; validation; land surface modelling
Online: 27 October 2019 (04:25:31 CET)
High frequency knowledge of the spatio-temporal distribution of the Downwelling Surface Shortwave Flux (DSSF) and its diffuse fraction (fd) at the surface is nowadays essential for understanding climate processes at the surface-atmosphere interface, plant photosynthesis and carbon cycle, and for the solar energy sector. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis operationally delivers estimation of the MDSSFTD (Downwelling Surface Short-wave radiation Fluxes – Total and Diffuse fraction) product with an operational status since the year 2019. The method for the retrieval was presented in the companion paper . The part 2 now focuses on the evaluation of the MDSSFTD algorithm and presents the comparison of the corresponding outputs, i.e. total DSSF and diffuse fraction (fd) components, against in-situ measurements acquired at four BSRN stations over a seven-month period. The validation is performed on an instantaneous basis. We show that the satellite estimates of DSSF and fd meet the target requirements defined by the user community for all-sky (clear and cloudy) conditions. For DSSF, the requirements are 20Wm-2 for DSSF<200Wm-2, and 10% for DSSF>=200Wm-2. The MBE and rMBE compared to the ground measurements are 3.618Wm-2 and 0.252%, respectively. For fd, the requirements are 0.1 for fd<0.5, and 20% for fd>=0.5. The MBE and rMBE compared to the ground measurements are -0.044 and -17.699%, respectively. The study also provides a separate analysis of the product performances for clear sky and cloudy sky conditions. The importance of representing the cloud-aerosol radiative coupling in the MDSSFTD method is discussed. Finally, it is concluded that the quality of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) forecasts currently available is enough accurate to obtain reliable diffuse solar flux estimates. This quality of AOD forecasts was still a limitation a few years ago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0073.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: land surface temperature; thermal infrared; calibration; generalized split-window; mono-window; database; radiative transfer
Online: 16 September 2016 (13:12:09 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is routinely retrieved from remote sensing instruments using semi-empirical relationships between top of atmosphere (TOA) radiances and LST, using ancillary data such as total column water vapor or emissivity. These algorithms are calibrated using a set of forward radiative transfer simulations that return the TOA radiances given the LST and the thermodynamic profiles. The simulations are done in order to cover a wide range of surface and atmospheric conditions and viewing geometries. This work analyses calibration strategies, considering some of the most critical factors that need to be taken into account when building a calibration dataset, covering the full dynamic range of relevant variables. A sensitivity analysis of split-windows and single channel algorithms revealed that selecting a set of atmospheric profiles that spans the full range of surface temperatures and total column water vapor combinations that are physically possible seems beneficial for the quality of the regression model. However, the calibration is extremely sensitive to the low-level structure of the atmosphere indicating that the presence of atmospheric boundary layer features such as temperature inversions or strong vertical gradients of thermodynamic properties may affect LST retrievals in a non-trivial way. This article describes the criteria established in the EUMETSAT Land Surface Analysis – Satellite Application Facility to calibrate its LST algorithms applied both for current and forthcoming sensors.