ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1334.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: hematite electroreduction; boehmitic bauxite; Al extraction; reductive leaching; red mud; bauxite residue; magnetite; waste utilization
Online: 19 July 2023 (10:44:46 CEST)
Reductive leaching in the Bayer cycle using of iron (2+) allows Al extraction to be significantly increased by magnetization of Al-goethite and Al-hematite. However, the use of expensive iron (2+) salts or iron powder as a source of iron (2+) leads to a significant increase in production costs. In this work, the feasibility of a new method, the reductive leaching of bauxite using an electrolysis process, was investigated. Reduction of iron minerals of boehmitic bauxite in both Bayer solution and purely alkaline solutions were carried out. Experiments were performed using a plate cathode and a bauxite suspension in alkaline solution, as well as using a bulk cathode with a stainless-steel mesh at the bottom of the cell as the current supply. During the electrolysis process, the potential of the cathode relative to the reference electrode was measured as a function of current at different concentrations of solid (100-300 g L–1) and suspension temperatures (95-120 °C). It is shown that the current efficiency using suspension and plate cathode with the predominant deposition of Fe doesn’t exceed 50% even with the addition of magnetite to increase the contact of solid phase with the current supply. With the use of a bulk cathode, the reduction of iron minerals leads predominantly to the formation of magnetite with the efficiency of using electric current more than 80%. As a result of preliminary desilication and electroreduction it is possible to extract more than 97% of Al from bauxite, and to increase the iron content in the bauxite residue to 57-58%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2206.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: boehmite; atmospheric leaching; alkali; hematite reduction; red mud valorization; Mössbauer spectroscopy
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:44:12 CEST)
The Bayer process is the maim method of alumina production worldwide. The use of low-quality bauxites for alumina production results in the formation of a significant amount of technogenic waste - bauxite residue (BR). The Bayer reductive method is one possible way to eliminate BR stockpiling, but it requires high-pressure leaching at temperatures higher than 220 °C. In this research, the possibility of boehmitic bauxite atmospheric pressure leaching at both the first and second stages or high-pressure leaching at the second stage with the simultaneous reduction of hematite was investigated. Bauxite and solid residue after NaOH leaching were characterized using XRD, SEM-EDS, and Mössbauer spectroscopy methods. The first stage of leaching under atmospheric pressure with the addition of Fe(II) species in a strong alkali solution (330-400 g L–1 Na2O) results in a partial reduction of the iron minerals and an extraction of more than 60% of Si and 5-25% of Al (depending on caustic modulus of solution) after 1 h. The obtained desilicated bauxite was subjected to atmospheric leaching at 120 °C in a strong alkali solution (350 g L-1) or high-pressure leaching at 160-220 °C using the Bayer process mother liquor in order to obtain a concentrate with a magnetite content higher than 83 wt. %.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0388.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: alumina; Bayer process; bauxite; seeded precipitation; coarse gibbsite; agglomeration.
Online: 21 December 2022 (06:56:02 CET)
The addition of active seed for increasing the precipitation rate leads to the formation of fine Al(OH)3 particles that complicates separation of solid from the mother liquor. In this study, the enhanced precipitation of coarse Al(OH)3 from sodium aluminate solution using active agglomerated seed was investigated. Aluminum salt (Al2(SO4)3) were used for active agglomerated seed precipitation at the initial of the process. About 50% of precipitation rate was obtained when these agglomerates were used as a seed in the amount of 20 g L–1 at 25 °C within 10 h. The agglomerated active seed and precipitate samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM images showed that agglomerates consist of flake-like particles that can be stick together by bayerite (β-Al(OH)3) acting as a binder. The precipitation temperature above 35 °C and the high concentration of free alkali (αk > 3) lead to the agglomerates refinement that can be associated with the bayerite dissolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0413.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: bauxite residue; red mud; scandium; acid leaching; kinetics; shrinking core model; waste utilization.
Online: 23 November 2021 (09:07:23 CET)
One of the potential sources of rare-earth elements (REEs) is the solid waste from alumina industry - bauxite residue, known as “red mud” (RM). The main REEs from the raw bauxite are concentrated in RM after the Bayer leaching process. The earlier worldwide studies were focused on the scandium (Sc) extraction from RM by concentrated acids to enhance the extraction degree. This leads to the dissolution of major oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3) from RM. This article studies the possibility of selective Sc extraction from alkali fusion red mud (RMF) by diluted nitric acid (HNO3) leaching at pH ≥ 2 to prevent co-dissolution of Fe2O3. RMF samples have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sc extraction has been found to be 71.2 % at RMF leaching by HNO3 at pH=2 and at 80 °C during 90 min. The kinetic analysis of experimental data by the shrinking core model has shown that Sc leaching process is limited by the interfacial diffusion and the diffusion through the product layer. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was 19.5 kJ/mol. We have established that according to EPMA of RMF, Sc is associated with iron minerals; it could act as the product layer. The linear dependence of Sc extraction of magnesium (Mg) extraction has been revealed. This fact indicates that Mg can act as a leaching agent of Sc presented in RMF by ion-exchangeable phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0105.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: alkali leaching; red mud; high-iron waste; disposal; Al-goethite; conversion; magnetite
Online: 7 November 2022 (04:30:13 CET)
Bauxite residue (BR), also known as red mud, is a by-product of the production of alumina via the Bayer process. Because of the high sodium oxide and other impurities content, this material is not used to obtain iron or other iron-containing products. In this paper, the hydro-chemical conversion of goethite (FeOOH) to magnetite (Fe3O4) in high-iron BR from the Friguia alumina refinery (Guinea) by Fe2+ ions in highly concentrated alkaline media was studied. The simultaneous extraction of Al and Na made it possible to obtain a product containing more than 96% Fe3O4. The results show that the magnetization of Al-goethite and Al-hemetite accelerates the dissolution of the Al from the iron mineral solid matrix and from the desilication product (DSP). After ferrous sulfate (FeSO4·7H2O) was added directly at the FeO:Fe2O3 molar ratio of 1:1 at 120 °C for 150 min in the solution with the 360 g L-1 Na2O concentration, the alumina extraction ratio reached 96.27% for the coarse bauxite residue size fraction (Sands) and 87.06% for fine BR obtained from red mud. The grade of iron (total iron in the form of iron element) in the residue can be increased to 69.55% for Sands and 58.31% for BR. The solid residues obtained after leaching were studied by XRD, XRF, TG-DTA, VSM, Mössbauer spectroscopy and SEM to evaluate the conversion and leaching mechanisms and the recovery ratio of Al from different minerals. The iron-rich residues can be used in the steel industry or as a pigment.