ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Intra-body communication; path loss; microwave probes; channel characterization; fat tissue; ex-vivo; phantom; dielectric properties; topology optimization.
Online: 3 July 2018 (15:08:56 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7–2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of 1.4 dB and 3.8 dB per 20 mm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: hypertension; obesity; body composition; intra-abdominal fat; sleep apnea; obstructive
Online: 10 May 2022 (04:45:21 CEST)
Background: Elevated fasting plasma glucose and visceral fat area (VFA) is highly prevalent in obese adults. This study investigated the associations between systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and laboratory, anthropometric, heart rate variability (HRV), and obstructive sleep apnea markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 95 obese patients treated at Obesity Treatment and Surgery Center, located in Salvador, BA, Brazil. SAH data were obtained from electronic medical records of patients. To evaluate the association of SAH with the predictor variables, the sample was stratified in Normotense Group (NG) and Hypertensive Group (HG), and laboratory markers, body composition, polysomnography data, and HRV were measured. Results: The average age of the NG was 36.3 ± 10.1 and HG 40.4 ± 10.6 years, 73.7% were women in the NG and 57.9% in HG; 82.4% in HG had insulin resistance. In the multivarious logistics regression model with adjustments age, sex, height, and oxyhemoglobin saturation, SAH was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose mg/dL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96; 95% interval confidence [CI] = 0.92 - 0.99) and VFA cm2 (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97 - 0.99). The area under curve the VFA was 0.728; CI 95% (0.620 - 0.836) and fasting plasma glucose 0.693; CI 95% (0.582 - 0.804). Conclusions: Lower VFA and fasting plasma glucose concentrations were inversely associated with SAH. These results indicate opportunities to improve the outcome in obese patients through counseling and clinical interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0036.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Non-verbal communication; neuroscience; body language; gestures
Online: 2 October 2023 (08:37:59 CEST)
This publication delves into the intricate world of human communication, extending beyond the realm of spoken and written language to explore the profound influence of non-verbal communication. Focusing on body language—comprising gestures, facial expressions, postures, and movements—it reveals the pivotal role it plays in conveying emotions, intentions, and psychological states. The rapidly evolving fields of neuroscience and cognitive science are investigating the neural mechanisms and cognitive processes that underpin the interpretation and utilization of these non-verbal cues. Notably, the amygdala's involvement in processing emotional facial expressions has provided a neurological foundation for our emotional understanding in non-verbal communication. Concurrently, cognitive psychology sheds light on how perception, attention, and memory influence our interpretation of non-verbal cues and communication strategies.In our modern, technologically advancing society characterized by global interconnectivity and cultural diversity, the significance of non-verbal communication, especially in digital and virtual contexts, is paramount. The transformation of non-verbal expression into digital symbols like emoticons and emojis raises questions regarding its ability to maintain authenticity and emotional understanding. This publication endeavors to comprehensively explore the fundamental role of body language and non-verbal communication in contemporary society. By integrating insights from psychology, neuroscience, social sciences, and digital technologies, it aims to elucidate the underlying mechanisms guiding non-verbal communication. Additionally, it delves into the implications of non-verbal communication across diverse domains, including interpersonal communication, the workplace, politics, advertising, and the virtual world.The research presented herein strives to offer a thorough understanding of interpersonal dynamics, relationships, and social behavior, with the goal of promoting the development of more effective, conscious, and ethically guided communication strategies. Ultimately, this analysis aspires to inspire further interdisciplinary research and reflection, addressing emerging challenges and fully leveraging the potential of non-verbal communication in modern society. This, in turn, guides our path towards a communication landscape that is more inclusive, authentic, and empathetic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Triple I; chorioamnionitis; intra-amniotic infection; intra-amniotic inflammation; placental histology; early neonatal sepsis.
Online: 31 March 2023 (11:20:43 CEST)
Chorioamnionitis (CA) at term of pregnancy can have infectious and/or inflammatory origin and is associated with adverse outcomes. Triple I (Intrauterine Inflammation, Infection or both, TI) has been proposed to reduce the overdiagnosis of infection and the neonatal overtreatment. The aim of the study is to identify clinical and histological variables predicting adverse outcomes when TI has been suspected and/or confirmed. This retrospective cohort study included 404 pregnancies ≥37 g.a. that were divided into 5 all-inclusive and mutually exclusive groups. TI was defined according to NICHD definition of 2015 and it could be confirmed (TI+) or not (TI-) by histological examination. Signs of infection/inflammation not respecting the definition of TI were classified as “Clinical suspicion”, supported (CS+) or not (CS-) by histology. Histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) without clinical manifestation represented fifth group. Whole Placental Involvement (WPLI), was defined as a histological inflammation involving maternal and fetal side. There were 113 TI+, 30 TI-, 186 CS+, 35 CS- and 40 isolated HCA. WPLI was diagnosed in 133 cases (39.2%). Composite neonatal outcome (CNO) occurred in 114 cases (28.2%) while composite maternal outcome (CMO) occurred in 192 cases (47.5%). TI+ compared to CS+ was more predictive of CNO (p=0.001), CMO (p<0.001) and WPLI (p=0.005). WPLI was related both to CNO (p<0.001) and CMO (p=0.046). TI+ and WPLI showed similar sensitivity but different specificity in predicting CNO. At logistic regression, CNO was independently predicted by TI+ (OR 2.21; p=0.001) and by WPLI (OR 2.23; p=0.001). TI, compared to CS, is a better predictor of CNO and can be useful for the identification of newborns at risk.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0789.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: sacroiliac; fusion; intra-articular; minimally invasive
Online: 23 April 2023 (08:03:17 CEST)
Abstract: (1) Background: Minimally-invasive sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion is the preferred surgical intervention to treat chronically severe pain associated with SIJ degeneration and dysfunction. (2) Methods: This paper details the ten-step surgical procedure associated with the postero-inferior approach using the PsiF™DNA Sacroiliac Joint Fusion System. (3) Results: The posterior surgical approach with an inferior operative trajectory (postero-inferior) utilizes easily identifiable landmarks to provide the safest, most direct access to the articular joint space for transfixing device placement. Implanting the device through the subchondral bone, provides maximum fixation and stabilization of the joint by utilizing an optimal amount of cortical bone-implant interface. Approaching the joint from the inferior trajectory also places the implant perpendicular to the S1 endplate at a “pivot point” near the sacral axis of rotation, which addresses the most significant motion of the joint. (4) Conclusions: Further observational data from real-world clinical use are encouraged to further validate this procedure as the surgical preference for minimally-invasive SIJ fusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0654.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: dog; intra-abdominal pressure; dexmedetomidine; hypercapnia; PulseCO
Online: 9 August 2023 (03:13:15 CEST)
Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) elevation during capnoperitoneum can cause adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects. This study aimed to determine if a sequentially increased IAP affects cardiovascular and respiratory variables in anesthetized dogs and evaluate the effects of constant rate infusion of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on cardiovascular and respiratory variables with increased IAP. Five dogs were anesthetized, instrumented, and the Veress needle was equipped to adjust the IAP using a carbonic anhydrase insufflator. Stabilization was conducted for 1 h, and physiological variables were measured in IAPs of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mmHg and after desufflation. After the washout period, the dogs underwent similar procedures along with constant rate infusion of dexmedetomidine. Cardiovascular effects of increased IAP up to 20 mmHg were not significant in healthy beagle dogs and those administered with dexmedetomidine. In the control group, the arterial pressure slightly increased, but not statistically significant, at an IAP of 20 mmHg compared with that at baseline (mean arterial blood pressure, p = 0.399; systolic arterial blood pressure, p = 0.293; diastolic arterial blood pressure, p = 0.141). When comparing the control and dexmedetomidine groups, overall significant effects of dexmedetomidine were noted on heart rate, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance during the experiment. Respiratory effects were not affected by abdominal insufflation when compared between different IAPs and between the two groups. Overall, an increased IAP of until 20 mmHg did not significantly affect cardiovascular and respiratory variables in both control and dexmedetomidine groups. This study suggests that dexmedetomidine infusion administration is applicable in laparoscopic procedures in healthy dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0349.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Body dissatisfaction, Body image, Female students, Perfection
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:07:43 CEST)
Many university female students are concerned about their bodies. Body image perception has become a public health issue globally. This study aimed to explore factors contributing to body image dissatisfaction among female students at the University of Venda. The study was qualitative in nature and employed exploratory research design. A sample of 10 female students enrolled at the University of Venda were identified using convenience sampling method. A pre-tested, semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data and thematic content analysis technique was used to analyse the collected data. The findings of the study showed that body comparison, societal beauty standards, social media, and body shaming by family and friends were the main factors contributing to student’s body image dissatisfaction. The findings further revealed that lack of self-confidence, stress, avoidance, anxiety and depressive symptoms were the challenges faced by students with body image dissatisfaction. Acceptance. Self-care, and healthy diet were identified as coping strategies to help deal with the challenges of student’s body image dissatisfaction. Conclusively, students should be encouraged to seek professional help timeously, to help navigate their body image concerns to avoid decline in their daily functioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: musculoskeletal pain; body height; body weight; schoolchildren
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:07:54 CET)
Background Children often suffer the nonspecific musculosceletal pain as reported in literature. Aim To determine relationship between body weights with development of musculoskeletal pain and to determine whether growing in body height is associated with musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren. Subjects/ Methods A prospective longitudinal study included 1315 school children aged 7-14 years (652 boys and 663 girls) and was performed in 13 elementary schools in B&H. Child body height and body weight were measured. The survey of perception of musculoskeletal pain in different body regions of subjects was conducted by adjusted Nordic Musculosceletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Results The highest prevalence of an overweight and obesity in the 10th year 35.7% and the lowest frequency 17.8% in the 14th year was. In the age 14th obesity was’nt found. Boys have more prevalence of overweight. Using logistic regression model, we found that school children with normal BMI were protected with increased body height of acute lower back pain (β= -0.089, 95%CI, -9.730- -0.023, P< 0.049), and increased body height was protector of obese school children of acute upper back pain (β= -0.356, 95%CI, -14.077- -3.878, P< 0.001) and chronic lower back pain (β= -0.356, 95%CI, -14.077- -3.878, P< 0.001). Conclusion Schoolchildren with normal weight more often have had musculosceletal pain than those with overweight or obesity. This can be associated with intense physical growth period in height, especially. The assumption is that the increase in height changes the relationship between excessive BMI and musculoskeletal pain in children of school age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1088.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rainfall; climate change; water supply; intra-annual variations
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:04:27 CEST)
Climate change is an issue that is the order of the day, and among the many consequences it has on the environment one is its influence on the amount and frequency of rainfall on our planet, since our water supply depends on them. Therefore, in order to quantify these effects, a rainfall analysis has been carried out using data collected in Bilbao over the last 150 years. Thanks to this, it has been possible to observe that, although the total annual amount seems to suffer a slight decrease, hardly quantifiable with certainty, it is true that the intra-annual patterns are more concentrated at certain times of the year, with greater imbalances between one month and another than in previous years. However, taking into account the capacity of the reservoirs that supply the Greater Bilbao area, it can be concluded that this does not pose any problem for Bilbao's supply, at least at present.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0157.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: feline; panleukopenia; canine parvovirus; metagenomics; diversity; intra-host
Online: 12 May 2022 (04:07:11 CEST)
Feline panleukopenia (FPL), a highly contagious and frequently fatal disease of cats, is caused by Feline parvovirus (FPV) and Canine parvovirus (CPV). We characterized the diversity of these Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 variants in 18 faecal samples collected from domestic cats with FPL during an outbreak, using targeted parvoviral DNA metagenomics to a mean depth of >10,000 X coverage per site. All samples comprised FPV alone. Compared to the reference FPV genome, isolated in 1967, 44 mutations were detected. Ten of these were non-synonymous, including 9 in non-structural genes and one in VP1/VP2 (Val232Ile), which was the only one to exhibit inter-host diversity, being present in five sequences. There were five other polymorphic nucleotide positions, all with synonymous mutations. Intra-host diversity at all polymorphic positions was low with sub-consensus variant frequencies (SVF) of >1% except for two positions (2108 and 3208) in two samples with SVF of 1.1 – 1.3%. Intra-host nucleotide diversity was measured across the whole genome (0.7 - 1.5%) and for each gene, and was highest in the NS2 gene of four samples (1.2 – 1.9%). Overall, intra-host viral genetic diversity was limited and most mutations observed were synonymous, indicative of a low background mutation rate and strong selective constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: insulin resistance; body weight; body fat; visceral fat; waist circumference; body mass index
Online: 28 February 2018 (04:43:50 CET)
The incidence of obesity which leads to insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic disorder increases in developing countries including Indonesia. Male adult has higher risk to have abdominal obesity than female which is associated with cardiometabolic disorders. Several anthropometric measurements have been proposed to predict IR. The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF) or visceral fat percentage (VF) could become a better predictor of IR in healthy young male adult. Total of 140 healthy young male adults ranging from 18-25 years were recruited in the study. Insulin resistance was measured by calculating Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Subjects with HOMA-IR value >75th percentile with cut off 3.75 were defined as IR. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, BMI, WC were performed whereas BF and VC were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). IR had significant strong correlation with body weight, BMI, WC, BF and VF. The area under curve of body mass, BF, VF were greater than WC and BMI. Anthropometric measurements correlated strongly with IR but body weight, BF, VF have stronger correlation than WC and BMI in healthy young male adult.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1618.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: body image; body schema; gender; interoception; motor imagery
Online: 28 November 2023 (01:45:38 CET)
Body image disturbance (BID) involves negative attitudes towards shape and weight and is associated with lower levels of interoception (awareness of and attention toward internal physiological states). This association is considered a risk factor for developing eating disorders (EDs) and is linked to altered sensorimotor representations of the body (i.e., body schema). BIDs manifest across genders and are currently understudied in men. This study investigated gender-related differences in BID and its relationship to the body schema and interoception. Data were collected from 86 men and women. BID was assessed using questionnaires measuring self-objectification, state, and trait body dissatisfaction. Interoceptive sensibility was measured via the MAIA-2. The body schema was indexed via an embodied mental rotation task. Results showed that women reported higher BID than men across all scales. Gender differences in sub-components of interoceptive sensibility were found. Overall, both gender and interoceptive sensibility predicted BID. However, interoceptive sensibility exhibited its own unique association with BID beyond the influence of gender. BID, IS and gender were not significant predictors of performance in the body schema task. Therefore, while gender predicts differences in BID and interoceptive sensibility, there was no evidence of gender-related differences in body schema.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0754.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human body segments; body dimensions; biomechanical modeling; anthropometry
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:54:14 CEST)
The knowledge of human body proportion and segmental properties of limbs, head and trunk are of fundamental importance in biomechanical research. As many methods are employed, it is important to know which they are currently available, which data on human body masses, lengths, center of mass (COM) location, weights and moment of inertia are available and which methods are most suitable for a specific research purposes. The present review examines the literature concerning human body segments properties for biomechanical purposes. It emerges that data obtained in studies on cadaveric specimens are still the most accurate, whilst technological tools currently available are manifolds, each one with proper advantages and disadvantages. Classical studies were focused mainly on white men, while in recent year the available data of body segments has been extended to children, woman, and other races. Also, data on special population (obese, pregnant women) are starting to appear in the scientific literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: thinness, girls, youth, body satisfaction, body mass index
Online: 21 March 2018 (16:00:02 CET)
Psychological wellbeing can be impacted substantially by changes in body image during youth, which can be a predictive factor for positive or negative attitudes, such as for self-esteem and satisfaction. In this study, adherence to the thinness model and to healthy behaviours were analysed in terms of the emotional patterns and body management of the young female Italian population (N = 2287). Skinny girls fitting better with the thinness model tended to develop higher positive emotional patterns, but their body management was low. Findings suggest the urgent need for preventive programmes to enhance awareness of healthy behaviours against appearance models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Neonatal microbiome; Maternal effect; Placental Microbiome; intra-uterine development
Online: 6 November 2023 (08:10:26 CET)
The field of human microbiome and gut microbial diversity research has witnessed a profound transformation, driven by advances in omics technologies. These advancements have unveiled essential connections between microbiome alterations and severe conditions, spurring the development of new frameworks through epidemiological studies. Traditionally, each individual was thought to harbor unique microbial communities acquired early in life, but recent research challenges this belief. The neonatal microbiome's onset, influenced by factors like delivery mode and maternal health, remains a subject of intense debate, hinting at potential intrauterine microbial processes. In-depth research reveals associations between microbiome profiles and specific health outcomes, ranging from obesity to neurodevelopmental disorders. Understanding these diverse microbiome profiles is essential for unraveling the intricate relationships between the microbiome and health outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0321.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Intra–Seasonal rain fall characteristics; Short rains; WRF Model
Online: 30 August 2019 (09:57:58 CEST)
Rainfall is a major climate parameter whose variation in space and time influences activities in different weather sensitive sectors such as agriculture, transport, and energy among others. Therefore, accurately forecasting rainfall is of paramount importance to the development of these sectors. In this regard, this study sought to contribute to quantitative forecasting of rainfall over Eastern Uganda through assessing the Weather Research and Forecasting model’s ability to simulate the intra–seasonal characteristics of the September to December rain season. These were: onset and cessation dates; wet days and lengths of the wet spells. The data used in the study included daily ground rainfall observations and lateral and boundary conditions data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) final analysis at 1 0 horizontal resolution and at a temporal resolution of 6 hours for the entire study period were used to initialize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The study considered four weather synoptic weather stations namely; Jinja, Serere, Soroti and Tororo. The results show that the WRF model generally simulated fewer wet days at each station except for Tororo. Also, the WRF model simulated earlier onset and cessation dates of the rainfall season and overestimated the length of the wet spells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0389.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: body composition; body condition score; body parameters; fat; live weight; ewes condition; im-age analysis
Online: 6 June 2023 (05:54:38 CEST)
Farmers are continually looking for new reliable, objective and non-invasive methods for evaluation of ewe condition. Live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) are used by farmers as a basis to determine the condition of the animal. Body composition is an important aspect of monitoring animal condition. The body composition is the amount of fat, lean and bone; knowing the amount of each is important because the information can be used for better strategic management interventions. Experiments were conducted to establish the relationship between body composition and body parameters, at key life’s stages (weaning and pre-mating), using measurements automatically determined by an image processing ap-plication at Lincoln University sheep farm for 88 Coopworth ewes. Computerized Tomography technology was used to develop relationship with body parameters and a subset was used to validate the predicted model. Multivariate linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANNs) and regression tree (RT) statistical analysis methods were evaluated to determine their efficacy to predict body fat, lean and bone. The results showed a correlation between fat, lean and bone determined by CT and the fat, lean, bone weight estimated by live weight and body parameters calculated using the image processing application with R2 values of 0.90 for fat, 0.72 for lean and 0.50 for bone using ANNs statistical model. From these results, farmers can utilize accurate measures of fat which will enhance nutritional and management practices.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:50:10 CEST)
TThe passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Question-naire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, (p=0.001), and the subscales of dieting (p=0.01) and bulimia. (p=0.001). Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. (p=0.01). The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both profes-sional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0471.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:10:51 CEST)
The passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, and the subscales of dieting and bulimia. Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both professional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ultrawideband (uwb); localization; ranging; body wearable sensors; human body shadowing
Online: 23 September 2019 (11:36:26 CEST)
In recent years, several Ultrawideband (UWB) localization systems have already been proposed and evaluated for accurate position estimation of pedestrians. However, most of them are evaluated for a particular wearable sensor position; hence the accuracy obtained is subject to a given wearable sensor position. In this paper, we study the effects of body wearable sensor positions i.e., chest, arm, ankle, wrist, thigh, fore-head, hand, on the localization accuracy. The conclusion drawn is that the fore-head is the best, and the chest is the worst body sensor location for tracking a pedestrian. While the fore-head position is able to set an error lower than 0.35 m (90th percentile), the chest is able to set 4 m. The reason for such a contrast in the performance lies in the fact that in NLOS situations, the chest as an obstacle is larger in size and thickness than any other part of the human body, which the UWB signal needs to overcome to reach the target wearable sensor. And so, the large errors arise due to the signal arriving at the target wearable sensor from reflections of a nearby object or a wall in the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1908.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction; DNA polymerases; Intra-protein interactions; Protein satbility
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:46:21 CEST)
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a widely used technique in the biosciences and has become increasingly popular in recent years. One of the key elements of this technique is the use of a DNA polymerase that is heat-stable and retains fidelity during the process. To this end, archaeal Fam-ily-B DNA polymerases are preferred due to their high thermostability and fidelity. In particular, the DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus (Taq DNApol) is widely utilized in PCR procedures. In this work, a novel in-silico structure-based methodology was employed to examine the most heat-tolerant DNA polymerase available. In spite of this, Thermococcus kodakarensis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus DNApol are more stable and heat-tolerant DNApols due to their high number of intra-protein interactions. Variations in the content of polar amino acids also played a significant role in the increase in heat stability. A further factor contributing to the stability of proteins is the stabilization of helix in secondary structure through the use of charged amino acids. DNApol from these organisms has been shown to be suitable for use in PCR, as well as in other biological processes able to withstand high temperatures. In this study, it has been demonstrated that im-provements in PCR performance can be easily obtained by blending elements from closely related archaeal polymerases, a strategy that may, in the future, be extended to other archaeal polymer-ases. This approach allowed for a comprehensive analysis of the enzyme's thermal stability and fidelity, leading to an improved understanding of the polymerase's properties and potential ap-plications
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: dry eye; tear break-up time; intra-ocular pressure; seasonality
Online: 29 December 2019 (09:17:39 CET)
Purpose: To evaluate seasonal variation in intra-ocular pressure (IOP) with and without short tear break-up time (SBUT, BUT ≤ 5 s). Methods: This study enrolled 176 patients who visited one of six eye clinics in Japan for IOP measurement at every season. The mean patient age was 67.9 years, including 79 males. We compared the seasonal variation in IOP (mean ± SD) across spring (Mar-May), summer (Jun-Aug), fall (Sep-Nov), and winter (Dec-Feb). Results: The IOP (mmHg) in winter and summer, respectively, was 12.8 ± 3.7 and 12.8 ± 3.1 for non-glaucoma patients without SBUT (n = 47, P = 0.964), 14.8 ± 3.4 and 13.3 ± 3.4 for non-glaucoma patients with SBUT (n = 57, P < 0.001), 14.3 ± 3.2 and 14.1 ± 3.4 for glaucoma patients without SBUT (n = 36, P = 0.489), and 13.3 ± 3.0 and 11.6 ± 2.9 for glaucoma with SBUT (n = 36, P < 0.001). Seasonal variation was largest across the seasons in the glaucoma with SBUT group, and the magnitude of seasonal variation correlated with BUT (β = 0.228, P = 0.003). Conclusions: Seasonal variation tended to be larger in patients with SBUT than those without SBUT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; radiotherapy; intra-arterial chemotherapy; head and neck cancer
Online: 7 May 2018 (08:48:20 CEST)
Purpose: The aim of present study was to compare the treatment results of daily cisplatin (CDDP), weekly docetaxel (DOC) intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (DIACRT) regimen and weekly CDDP intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (WIACRT) for patients with tongue cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2016, a total of 11 patients treated with WIACRT and 45 patients treated with DIACRT were enrolled in present study. In DIACRT group, 25 patients had T2, 20 patients had T3. A total of 9 patients had T2 and 2 had T3 in WIACRT (p = NS). In DIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (DOC, total 60 mg/m2; CDDP, total 150 mg/m2) and daily concurrent radiotherapy (RT) (total, 60 Gy). In WIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (CDDP, total 360 mg/m2) and daily concurrent RT (total, 60 Gy). Results: The median follow-up periods for DIACRT and WIACRT were 61 and 66 months respectively. The 5-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rate were 94.5% and 89.6% for DIACRT group, 60.6% and 63.6% for WIACRT group respectively. The LC rate and OS of DIACRT group were significantly higher than that of WIACRT group. As regards toxicities, no treatment-related deaths were observed during the follow-up periods both in two groups. Conclusions: DIACRT was found to be feasible and effective for patients with tongue cancer and could become a new treatment modality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: lung transplantation; body mass index; nutrition; body composition; lean body mass; muscle mass; leptin; sarcopenia; creatinine-height index
Online: 1 November 2019 (13:02:51 CET)
Lung transplantation offers patients with end stage lung disease an opportunity for a better quality of life, but with limited organ availability it is paramount that selected patients have the best opportunity for successful outcomes. Nutrition plays a central role in post-surgical outcomes and historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used as the de facto method of assessing a lung transplant candidate’s nutritional status. Here we review the historical origins of BMI in lung transplantation, summarize the current BMI literature, and review studies of alternative/complementary body composition assessment tools, including lean psoas area, creatinine-height index, leptin, and dual x-ray absorptometry. These body composition measures quantify lean body mass versus fat mass and may provide a more comprehensive analysis of a patient’s nutritional state than BMI alone.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1508.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: zoom dysmorphia; body dysmorphic disorder; screening; scale; questionnaire; telehealth; body image
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:41:57 CEST)
Zoom dysmorphia (ZD) is a facial dysmorphia triggered or aggravated by frequent virtual meetings. The frequent use of videoconferencing platforms has been linked to a distorted perception of facial images as individuals have an increased awareness of their appearance, given constant video feedback. As a result, dysmorphic concerns can develop. It is crucial to identify ZD as the condition interferes with the individual’s life and can trigger or aggravate body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). A standardized approach for screening ZD in non-psychiatric settings has yet to be defined. We discuss the features of ZD and the challenges of screening for ZD in a virtual setting. To facilitate the recognition of ZD in telehealth consultations, we propose a comprehensive ZD screening questionnaire that includes questions related to typical ZD features and a BDD-focused question. The questionnaire is concise and allows the identification of individuals with a potential ZD. A BDD assessment in such individuals should follow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 genomic variability; viral quasispecies; immunocompromised subjects; intra-host
Online: 4 December 2023 (10:04:22 CET)
During the COVID-19 pandemic, immunosuppressed patients showed prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infections, with several studies reporting the accumulation of mutations in the viral genome. The weakened immune system present in these individuals, along with the effect of antiviral thera-pies, are thought to create a favourable environment for intra-host viral evolution and have been linked to the emergence of new viral variants, which strongly challenged the containment measures and some therapeutic treatments. To assess whether an impaired immunity could lead to an increased instability of viral genomes, longitudinal nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from eight immunocompromised patients and fourteen non-immunocompromised subjects, all undergoing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intra-host viral evolution was compared between the two groups through deep sequencing, exploiting a probe-based enrichment method to minimize the possibility of artefactual mutations commonly generated in amplicon-based methods, which heavily rely on PCR amplification. Although, as expected, immunocompromised patients expe-rienced significantly longer infections, the acquisition of novel intra-host viral mutations was similar between the two groups. Moreover, a thorough analysis of viral quasispecies showed that the variability of viral populations in the two groups is comparable not only at the consensus level, but also when considering low frequency mutations. This study suggests that a compro-mised immune system alone does not affect SARS-CoV-2 within-host genomic variability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1855.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: autologous, intra-articular, knee osteoarthritis, micrograft technology, pain management, regenerative medicine
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:47:45 CEST)
Autologous micrografting technology (AMT®) involves the use of autologous micrografts to stimulate/enhance the repair of damaged tissue. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of the AMT® procedure in patients with early stages of knee osteoarthritis. Briefly, the AMT® procedure involved extraction of auricular cartilage, disaggregation using the Rigeneracons® SRT in 4.0 mL of saline solution and injection of the disaggregated micrografts into the external femorotibial compartment area of the affected knee. Ten patients (4 men, 6 women; age range: 37─84 years) were included in the study. In all patients, there was a steady improvement in knee instability, pain, swelling, mechanical locking, stair climbing and squatting at 1- and 6-months post-procedure. Improvement in mobility was observed as early as 3 weeks post-procedure in 2 patients. Significant improvements were seen in mean scores of all five subscales of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS [KOOS symptoms, KOOS pain, KOOS ADL, KOOS sport and recreation, and KOOS quality-of-life]) between pre-procedure and 1- and 6-months post-procedure (all p≤0.05). Autologous auricular cartilage micrografts obtained by AMT® procedure (using Rigenera® technology) is an effective and safe protocol in the treatment of early-stage knee osteoarthritis. These encouraging findings need to be validated in a larger patient population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1322.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: free energy principle; active inference; new materialism; intra-action; agential realism
Online: 19 June 2023 (08:35:38 CEST)
The free energy principle (FEP) is a mathematical and scientific principle that describes the relationship between the physical behavior of a dynamical system and the interpretation of such behavior as carrying out inference. It blurs the boundary between the ontological mode of the system of interest and the epistemological significance it acquires through its dynamic interaction with the environment. New materialism (or neo-materialism), despite lacking a single definition, refers to a range of emerging perspectives that attempt to dismantle the long-held divisions between ontology, epistemology, and even ethics, with the aim of achieving a comprehensive transformation of naturalized thinking. In this context, new materialism provides powerful tools to reframe some of the conceptual foundations of the FEP. This paper is the first in a series that aims to systematically construct a neo-materialistic perspective for the FEP, exploring its wide-ranging implications. It serves as an introduction to the series, arguing for the justification of deploying new materialism to reframe the FEP and introducing some essential concepts to be utilized in developing a neo-materialistic account of the FEP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0342.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: cluster based routing; FLOC clustering method; weighting algorithm; intra-cluster communication
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:46:02 CET)
Cluster-based routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks is considered one of the convenient methods of routing. The existence of Cluster Head (CH) in a group of nodes for data forwarding improves the performance of routing in terms of routing overhead and power consumption. In this paper, a clustering algorithm using hierarchical routing for mobile ad hoc networks is proposed. In the proposed method, first, clusters are formed by the FLOC clustering method with low overlapping. Then, according to the most important network criteria, including hop count, noise ratio, distance, remaining energy, and link expiration time, head clusters are selected based on the weighting algorithm. To transfer data in the proposed method, two types of communication are used, e.g., inter-cluster communication and intra-cluster communication in which the shortest path to the target cluster is selected. The proposed P-METHOD technique is based on hierarchy and clustering as well as using a weighted algorithm that reduces delay in data transmission on the network. Moreover, P-METHOD is evaluated here via extensive simulations carried out in NS-2. The simulation results indicate that the MANET network performance metrics are improved in terms of average throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), delay, residual energy, and lifetime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: intra row spacing; intercropping; land equivalent ratio; sorghum (Teshale); groundnut (Fetene)
Online: 20 October 2016 (08:45:36 CEST)
In eastern part of Ethiopia groundnut is very commonly intercropped with sorghum. Even though intercropping of sorghum with groundnut is practiced in the eastern part of Ethiopia the population density at what ratio should not be known. Therefore determining the population ratio is found to be crucial to draw management options. The study was conducted at two locations at Fadis (on station) and Babile (sub- station). Sorghum variety (Teshale) and groundnut (Fetene) were used as planting materials. All agronomic data were collected and analyzed by using GenStat software. Significant different were obtained among the treatments. The research result showed that, there were significance difference for both sorghum and ground nut yield per hectare in the years (2014 and 2015) among treatments. The result over time(in 2014 and 2015) at Fadis and Erer showed that the highest sorghum and groundnut yield per hectare were obtained/harvested from the intra row spacing of 25cmx20cm and 30cmx20cm intercropping sorghum with ground nut system with (1.27 and 1.31) respectively. The highest LER (1.31) and highest GMV (10218.00 ETBr/ha) were obtained from the intercropping of 30cmx20cm (Sorghum & groundnut). Clearly showed that, with intercropping of sorghum and Groundnut, it is possible to produce additional yield of sorghum without significant reduction in groundnut yield. As a result of this, the intra spacing of the main crop (sorghum) 25cm and 30cm and for the subsidiary crop (groundnut) 20cm was recommended for further production in the study areas of eastern Harerghe zone and similar agro-ecologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0210.v1
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:44:55 CEST)
We propose a method for the estimation of the spectral response of a photodetector, using only the variation of the temperature of a black body source without the need of an expensive monochromator or a circular filter. The proposed method is suitable especially for infrared detectors in which the cut – off wavelength and the responsivity vs. wavelength is not exactly known. The method provides a rough estimation of the curve S(l) solving a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. The precision of this technique depends on the number of temperatures at which the detector output is measured. Some example is given in order to better explain the proposed technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0198.v1
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:11:12 CET)
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of transduser design and its elements, and their materials on temperature in deeper layers of tissues measurement results. A digital modeling was performed to evaluate the influence of the properties of transduser design elements. Experimental research was carried out. Revealed that the accuracy, similar to that of an invasive method using needle probes, can be achieved by measuring the temperature in deeper muscle layers using the proposed transducer.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: body shape index; body roundness index; metabolic risk factors; Southern China adults
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:44:12 CEST)
This purpose was to compare the ability of body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) with waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body adiposity index (BAI) to predict metabolic risk. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 17,360 Chinese subjects (were aged 18-95 years old) who escaped cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were measured by trained staff. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and optimal cutoff values of obesity indices were recruited to compare the predictive ability for metabolic risk factors. The mean age of subjects was 53.7(13.1) years, 41.6 % were males. Within young group (<60 years), the areas under the curve (AUC) demonstrated that WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BRI were able to similarly predict high metabolic risk in males (0.74 vs. 0.74 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) and in females (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.71 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73), while the approximate predictive ability were only acquired in males (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.70 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) within elder group (≥60 years). The optimal cut-off values of BRI for high metabolic risk were calculated in males (<60 y: 3.49 vs. ≥60 y: 3.46) and females (<60 y: 3.47 vs. ≥60 y: 3.60). Meanwhile, BRI displayed a strong prediction to elevated BP and elevated TG in males (AUC = 0.64; AUC = 0.70) and to elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA in females (AUC = 0.67; AUC = 0.69; AUC =0.70). BRI was able to similarly predict high metabolic risk compared to WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI, while ABSI was not. Moreover, BRI revealed specific predictive ability for elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0530.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: scoliosis surgery; pre-, intra- and postoperative neuromonitoring; electromyography; electroneurography; motor evoked potentials
Online: 7 August 2023 (12:00:08 CEST)
Neuromonitoring of the efferent nerve impulses transmission in the spinal cord tracts during surgical scoliosis treatment makes it possible to assess whether the functional status is deteriorating, affecting the procedure's safety. Is there any relationship between pre- and intraoperative motor evoked potentials recordings and does idiopathic scoliosis (IS) surgical correction improve directly the spinal efferent transmission? This study aimed to compare the results of surface recorded electromyography (EMG), electroneurography (ENG, M and F-waves), and especially motor evoked potentials (MEP) from tibialis anterior (TA) muscle bilaterally in 353 girls with the right idiopathic scoliosis (types 1A-4C according to Lenke classification). It has not yet been documented whether the results of MEPs recordings induced by transcranial single magnetic stimulus (TMS, pre – and postoperatively) and trains of electrical stimuli (TES; intraoperatively in T0-before surgery, T1 – after pedicle screws implantation, T2 – after scoliosis curvature distraction and derotation following two rods implantation) can be compared for diagnostic verification of improvement of the spinal neural transmission. The study also attempted to determine whether the constant level of optimal anesthesia during the certain surgical steps of scoliosis treatment affects the parameters of MEPs recorded during neuromonitoring procedures. No neurological deficits have been observed postoperatively. Values of amplitudes but not latencies in MEPs recordings evoked with TMS in IS patients compared before and after surgery indicated a slight improvement in the efferent transmission of neural impulses within the fibers of the spinal tracts postoperatively. Results of all neurophysiological studies in IS patients were significantly asymmetrical and recorded worse on the concave side, suggesting greater neurological motor deficits at p=0.04. This asymmetry had been significantly reduced following IS surgery. The surgeries in IS patients brought significant improvement (p=0.04) in parameters of amplitudes of sEMG recordings, however reflecting still the consequences of the neurogenic injury of TA muscle motor units. ENG studies results indicated the symptoms of the axonal type injury in peroneal motor fibers improved only on the concave side at p=0.04 in parallel with the significant improvement of F-waves parameters, which suggests that surgeries might result in the lumbar ventral roots decompression. There were not detected significant differences in amplitudes or latencies of MEPs induced with TMS or TES comparing the parameters recorded preoperatively (one day before surgery) and intraoperatively in T0. The amplitudes of TES evoked MEPs increased gradually at p=0.04 in the subsequent periods (T1 and T2) of observation. The significant reduction of MEPs latency at p=0.05 was observed only at the end of the IS surgery. Studies on the possible connections between the level of anesthesia fluctuations and the required TMS stimulus strength, as well as the MEPs amplitude changes measured in T0-T2 revealed lack of relationships. It is not likely that they could be the factors influencing the efferent transmission in spinal pathways beside the surgical procedures. Considering that MEPs amplitude parameter reflects the number of axons excited from the motor cortex and transmitting the efferent impulses via spinal descending tracts in the white matter, pre- (TMS evoked) and intraoperative (TES evoked) recordings are reliable for evaluating the patient’s neurological status before and during surgical scoliosis correction procedures. The results of this study indicate an agreement between preoperative and early-intraoperative evaluations with these both diagnostic methods. An increase of MEPs amplitude parameters recorded on both sides after scoliosis surgery proves immediate improvement of the total efferent spinal cord transmission. Considering comparative pre- and postoperative sEMG and ENG recordings it can be concluded that surgeries might directly result in the additional lumbar ventral roots decompression. Our results of the tests on the possible variability of the anesthesia level on the parameters of intraoperative recorded MEPs show no clear relationships. We can conclude that MEPs parameters changes are determined by the surgery procedures during neuromonitoring, not the anesthesia conditions if they are kept stable, which influences a decrease in the number of false-positive neuromonitoring warnings. Further studies on a larger population of patients with long-lasting observation postoperatively are required to confirm the presented conclusions on the direct influences of scoliosis surgery on improvement of the motor function in patients with IS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0732.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; diltiazem; intra-cerebroventricular; streptozotocin; cognition; amyloid beta; anti-oxidant enzymes
Online: 11 July 2023 (12:29:33 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neuropsychiatric disorder and a common cause of progressive dementia. Diltiazem (DTZ), the non-dihydropyridine benzothiazepine class of calcium channel blocker (CCB), used clinically in angina and other cardiovascular disorders have proven neurological benefits. In the present study, the neuroprotective anti-dementia effects of DTZ against intra-cerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced sporadic AD (SAD)-type rat model was investigated. ICV-STZ-induced cognitive impairments were measured by passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks. Anti-oxidative enzyme status, pro-inflammatory markers, and amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein expression in rat brain tissues were measured by ELISA kits, Western blotting, and immunostaining techniques. Data revealed that ICV-STZ injection in rats significantly induced cognitive deficits and altered the levels of oxidative and pro-inflammatory markers (p < 0.05 ~ p < 0.001). Treatment with DTZ (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg. p.o.) daily for twenty-one days, 1 h before a single ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg) injection, significantly improved cognitive impairments, ameliorated the ICV-STZ-induced altered nitrite, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, and IL-1β) and anti-oxidative enzyme levels (superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione). Further, DTZ restored the increased Aβ protein expression in ICV-STZ-induced brain tissue Considering the data obtained, DTZ exhibited a potential neuroprotective anti-dementia role in ICV-STZ-induced SAD-type conditions in rats and might be repurposed as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment and management of AD and related dementia pathologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Inflammatory; cytokines; biomarkers; intra-articular fracture; cartilage; joint injury; synovial fluid; osteoarthritis
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:08:12 CET)
Intra-articular fractures are a major cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Despite adequate surgical treatment, the long-term risk for PTOA is high. Previous studies reported that joint injuries initiate an inflammatory cascade characterized by elevation of synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to cartilage degradation and PTOA development. This review summarizes the literature on the post-injury regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the markers of cartilage destruction in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (1960–February 2020) and included studies that were performed on human participants and included control groups. Two investigators assessed the quality of the included studies using Covidence and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS Based on the surveyed literature, several synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, interferon-y, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were significantly elevated in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures compared to control. A simultaneous elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-1RA was also observed. In contrast, IL-13, CTX-II, and aggrecan concentrations did not differ significantly between the compared cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Overall, intra-articular fractures are associated with an increase in inflammation-related synovial cytokines. However, more standardized studies which focus on the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at different time points are needed.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: total hip arthroplasty; intra-operative femur fracture risk; bone elastic-plastic behavior
Online: 23 July 2020 (09:41:30 CEST)
Total Hip Arthroplasty is one of the most successful surgery. However, due to the worldwide growing population life expectancy and the related incidence of age-dependent bone diseases, a growing number of cases of intra-operative fractures lead to revision surgery with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Surgeons choose the type of the implant, either cemented or cementless prosthesis, on the basis of the age, the quality of the bone and the general medical conditions of the patients. Generally, no quantitative measures are available to assess the intra-operative fracture risk. Consequently, the decision-making process is mainly based on medical operators’ expertise and qualitative information obtained by imaging. Motivated by this scenario, we here propose a mechanical-supported strategy to assist surgeons in their decisions, by giving intelligible maps of the risk fracture which take into account the interplay between actual strength distribution inside the bone tissue and its response to the forces exerted by the implant. To this end, we produce charts and patient-specific synthetic “traffic-light” indicators of fracture risk, by making use of ad hoc analytical solutions to predict the stress levels in the bone by means of CT-based mechanical and geometrical parameters of the patient. We felt that, if implemented in a friendly software or proposed as an app, the strategy could constitute a practical tool to help the medical decision-making process, in particular with respect to the choice of adopting cemented or cementless implant
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: obesity; diabetes; body weight; body composition; glucose tolerance; insulin tolerance; incretin; energy expenditure
Online: 12 February 2019 (10:37:42 CET)
Background/Goals: The gut hormone PYY secreted from intestinal L-cells has been implicated in the mechanisms of satiation via Y2-receptor (Y2R) signaling in the brain and periphery and is a major candidate for mediating the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery on appetite and body weight. Methods: Here we assessed the role of Y2R signaling in the response to low- and high-fat diets and its role in the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure and glucose handling, in global Y2R-deficient (Y2RKO) and wildtype mice made obese on high-fat diet. Results: Both male and female Y2RKO mice responded normally to low- and high-fat diet in terms of body weight, body composition, fasting levels of glucose and insulin, as well as glucose and insulin tolerance for up to 30 weeks of age. Contrary to expectations, obese Y2RKO mice also responded similarly to RYGB compared to WT mice for up to 20 weeks after surgery, with initial hypophagia, sustained body weight loss, and significant improvements in fasting insulin, glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR, and liver weight compared to sham-operated mice. Furthermore, non-surgical Y2RKO mice weight-matched to RYGB showed the same improvements in glycemic control as Y2RKO mice with RYGB that were similar to WT mice. Conclusions: PYY signaling through Y2R is not required for the normal appetite-suppressing and body weight-lowering effects of RYGB in this global knockout mouse model. Potential compensatory adaptations of PYY signaling through other receptor subtypes or other gut satiety hormones such as GLP-1 remain to be investigated.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: obesity; weight bias; body image; body dissatisfaction; exposure avoidance; shape dissatisfac-tion; empty stomach
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:10:22 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between weight-bias internalization and eat-ing-disorder psychopathology in treatment-seeking patients with severe obesity using a network approach. Two thousand, one hundred and thirteen patients with obesity consecutively admitted to a specialist clinical unit for obesity were recruited from January 2016 to February 2023. Body mass index was measured, and each patient completed the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBSI) and the Eating Disorder Examination Interview (EDE). Network analysis showed that the most central and highly interconnected nodes in the network were related to the EDE items exposure avoidance, dissatisfaction with shape, and wanting an empty stomach. Bridge nodes were found, but the bootstrap difference test on expected bridge influence indicated non-significant centrality differences. Nevertheless, the eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization network structure in patients seeking treatment for obesity indicate the prominent role of body dissatisfaction and control of eating and weight in these psychological constructs. This finding, if replicated, could pave the way for a new understanding of the psychological mechanisms operating in patients with obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Whole body cryotherapy (WBC); skin temperature; extreme cold; human body
Online: 17 May 2023 (12:39:36 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the impact of body heat loss on the thermal and aerodynamic conditions in a whole-body cryotherapy chamber. The underlying hypothesis is that the heat generated by the human body alters the thermal and aerodynamic environment inside the cabin. A numerical study was conducted to test this hypothesis to analyze the thermodynamic exchanges between the human body and the cabin during a 3-minute whole-body cryotherapy session. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was used to study the unsteady heat transfer between the human body and the interior of the cryotherapy cabin. A thermal boundary condition, based on a mathematical model developed from experimental data, was applied to simulate skin cooling kinetics over time. The post-processing of the 3D results, including temperature, velocity fields, and thermal flux maps at the body surface, provided insight into the thermo-convective mechanisms involved in a whole-body cryotherapy session. The study found that body heat loss significantly affects the temperature fields inside the cabin, leading to global modifications of the aeraulic and thermal conditions. These findings suggest that cryotherapy protocols may need to be adjusted or the cabin set temperature optimized to enhance the therapeutic benefits.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: body posture defects; the shape of anterior-posterior spinal curvatures; body composition; school-children
Online: 11 April 2020 (05:38:01 CEST)
The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the shape of the anterior-posterior curvature of the spine and body composition in school-children. The study included 257 children, aged 11-12. Correct spinal curvature was established in 106 (41.08%) subjects. Other types included: decreased kyphosis and correct lordosis - 40 participants (15.50%), correct kyphosis and decreased lordosis - 24 individuals (9.30%), increased kyphosis and correct lordosis - 17 subjects (6.59%), correct kyphosis and increased lordosis - 22 children (8.53%), decreased kyphosis and decreased lordosis - 32 people (12.40%), decreased kyphosis and increased lordosis - 4 of the examined subjects (1.55%), increased kyphosis and lordosis - 13 people (5.04%). In addition, 134 (51.94%) demonstrated scoliotic posture and 8 (3.10%) scoliosis. There were significant relationships between the shape of the anterior-posterior curvatures and body composition in school-children. Those with a strong body build (predominance of mesomorphs) were generally characterised by the correct formation of these curvatures. In contrast, lean people (with the predominance of ectomorphic factors) were more likely to experience abnormalities. No correlations with body composition were observed in the group with scoliotic posture or scoliosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: anti-interference; interrupted-sampling repeater jamming; intra-pulse orthogonal waveform; characteristics of continuity
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:40:19 CEST)
Abstract: Interrupted-sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ) is a kind of intra-pulse coherent decep-tion jamming that can generate false target peaks in the range profile and interfere with the de-tection and tracking of real targets. In this paper, an anti-ISRJ method based on the intra-pulse orthogonal waveform is proposed, which can recognize common interference signals by com-paring sub-signal matched filtering results. For some special scenes where real targets cannot be directly differentiated from false targets, a new recognition method based on the energy discon-tinuity of the interference signal in the time domain is proposed in this paper. The method pro-posed in this paper can recognize real and false targets in all ISRJ modes without any prior in-formation, such as jammer parameters, with a small amount of calculation, which is suitable for actual radar systems. Simulation experiments using different interference parameters show that although this method has a 3dB loss of pulse compression gain, it can completely suppress dif-ferent kinds of ISRJ interference when the SNR before pulse compression is higher than -20dB, with 100 % target detection probability.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Ribosomal DNA; ribosomal RNA; mammalian genome; intra- and inter-individual variations; development; diseases.
Online: 26 February 2021 (11:35:55 CET)
Repetitive nature of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene makes the sequencing of hundreds copies of mammalian 45S rDNA (about 45-kb per copy) extremely difficult and its assembly is often excluded. Increasing evidence shows that 45S rDNA variations (copy number or single nucleotide), structural ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcript variants, and non-structural rRNA transcripts (sense and anti-sense long noncoding rRNAs that include promoter rRNAs, and rRNA-derived fragments) play essential roles in mammalian development and diseases. Complete pictures of the hundreds copies of 45S rDNA and their rRNA transcripts require further innovation in sequencing techniques that include bioinformatics. The advancements in mammalian rDNA and rRNA sequencings and the discoveries of novel functions of the rDNA variants and rRNA transcripts are discussed here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0428.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: inter- and intra-host nucleotide variations; Hepatitis A virus; next-generation sequencing; pyrosequencing
Online: 21 September 2018 (04:59:34 CEST)
The accurate virus detection, strain discrimination, and source attribution of contaminated food items remains a persistent challenge because of the high mutation rates anticipated to occur in foodborne RNA viruses, such as Hepatitis A virus (HAV). This has led to predictions of the existence of more than one sequence variant between the hosts (inter-host) or within an individual host (intra-host). However, there have been no reports of intra-host variants from an infected single individual, and little is known about the accuracy of the single nucleotide variations (SNVs) calling with various methods. In this study, the presence and identity of viral SNVs, either between HAV clinical specimens or among a series of samples derived from HAV clone1-infected FRhK4 cells, were determined following analyses of nucleotide sequences generated using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and pyrosequencing methods. The results demonstrate the co-existence of inter- and intra-host variants both in the clinical specimens and the cultured samples. The discovery and confirmation of multi-viral RNAs in an infected individual is dependent on the strain discrimination at the SNV level, and critical for successful outbreak traceback and source attribution investigations. The detection of SNVs in a time series of HAV infected FRhK4 cells improved our understanding on the mutation dynamics determined probably by different selective pressures. Additionally, it demonstrated that NGS could potentially provide a valuable investigative approach toward SNV detection and identification for other RNA viruses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0439.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cognition; cognitive functions; localization; lesion studies; body perception; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); electrical microsimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation; extrastriate body area; fusiform body area
Online: 28 July 2022 (11:16:04 CEST)
It is one of the central goals of cognitive neuroscience to understand how structure and function relate in the brain. We review how cognitive function characterization has been approached in the past. In addition, we examine the ongoing efforts, as well as the implications for the future. Clinical studies on patients with lesions have provided key insights into the relationship between brain areas and behavior over the past century. We describe cognitive function according to localization considering these early efforts for characterization. We chose a perceptual-cognitive function, namely body perception, to describe our current efforts. Using body perception as an example, we summarize contemporary techniques. Finally, we outline the trajectory of current progress into the future and discuss the implications for clinical and basic neuroscience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2096.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: body composition; physical activity; intellectual disability
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:09:45 CET)
This study aims to assess several morphofunctional parameters in female teenagers with and without intellectual disability to characterise normality and its disturbances. More precisely, the purpose was to examine the factors contributing to the differences in body composition elements between groups, such as the physical activity level. To evaluate these parameters, we used bioelectrical impedance analysis technology (BIA), most commonly used in studies concerning body composition because it is non-invasive, quick, with high data fidelity; it can be easily moved to various locations and applied straightforwardly among populations with diverse types of intellectual disability. Our research sample comprised 212 subjects (boys and girls) aged 17.1±0.6, divided into six groups by gender and type of intellectual disability. The study found influences of physical activity level on body composition components. In addition, we report a highly significant relationship for p<0.05, body mass index and the independent variable (No. of min./week) in some groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0651.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: body composition; pubescent; somatic maturity; football
Online: 11 October 2023 (14:19:41 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to compare players anthropometric (AP) and body composition (BC) characteristics between different maturity bands (pre-PHV, circa-PHV, post-PHV)) in youth elite football. This study considered 320 male football players (mean age 13.8 y.) from U14 (n=157) and U15 (n=163) age-groups. The Khamis-Roche method was used for calculating the percentage of predicted adult height (PAH) at the time of observation based on which the players were further divided into maturity bands (pre-PHV ≤ 87%, circa-PHV = 88-95%, post-PHV > 95%). Height and weight were measured, body mass index (BMI), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW), body fat mass (BFM), percentage of body fat (%BF), skeletal muscle mass (SMM), FFM of both upper limbs and lower limbs and FFM of trunk were estimated according to In-body 270. All observed AP and BC characteristics differed between maturity bands (F= 139.344 – 7.925; p< 0.001; large effect sizes) except the BFM (F= 2.998; p=0.051; small effect size). Current somatic maturity stage of athletes should be considered while evaluating BC results, otherwise there is a risk of misinterpretation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1277.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: body control; awareness; balance; training; assessment
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:28:25 CEST)
Proprioception is an essential part of human movement and body awareness. It is the body's perception of its own spatial understanding, which helps us to accurately move our limbs and maintain balance. Purpose: This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge and analyse bibliometric data about proprioception in gymnastics and acrobatics. Methodology: This article consisted of two phases: 1) a bibliometric review (based Web of Science) and 2) a systematic review (Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus) of literature. "Gymnast*", "propriocep*", were utilized as search terms to find and choose published data. From a total of 164 studies, 30 were included for data extraction (n participants= 1432 of different age, sports, physical activities, and physical condition. Heterogeneity of studies design and assessment make it difficult to interpret the outcomes and the effect of proprioceptive interventions and comparations between samples. Proprioception is difficult to define in gymnastics considering the evidence references and the physiological considerations. Also, assessment tools used do not necessary evaluate proprioception globally considering the senses involved in gymnastics. Gymnastics training enhances joint awareness and force sense, improving proprioception and reducing injury risk. Proprioceptive exercises should be incorporated into gymnastics programs to enhance stability and precision in movements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0254.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Centella asiatica; body weight; obesity; adipocyte
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:36:10 CEST)
To understand the mechanisms involved in the anti-obesity effects Centella asi-atica (CA), we examined body weight, serum levels, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, histological analysis, and the expression of cholesterol homeostasis- and lipid metabolism-related genes in mice with high-fat, high-sugar diet (HFHSD)-induced obesity that were orally treated with CA for 12 weeks. Eight-week-old, male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to the following four groups (eight mice/group): NOR, normal diet; Control, HFHSD; CA-L, HFHSD+CA 300 mg/kg; CA-H, HFHSD+CA 600 mg/kg. CA treatment signifi-cantly attenuated HFHSD-induced increase in body weight gain, serum glucose, serum triacylglycerol, and WAT weight (p < 0.05). Compared to that in Control group, adipocyte diameter and macrovesicular area of epididymal WAT signif-icantly decreased with CA treatment (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), 3- hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR), and stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD 1) were significantly downregulated in the CA-H group compared to the Control group (p < 0.05). CA exerts anti-obesity effects by lowering body fat accumulation via regulat-ing gene expression in the liver and thus, is a potential lipid-lowering agent.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: aging; body composition; kidney; sex differences
Online: 11 November 2022 (03:53:06 CET)
Aging is a complex biological process, with gradual and progressive decline in structure and function in many organ systems. Our objective is to determine if structural changes produced by aging, vary with sex, in a stressful situation such as dehydration. The expression of Slc12a3 mRNA in renal cortex, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin, was evaluated in male and female rats aged 3 and 18 months submitted or not to water deprivation (WD) for 48 hours. When comparing ages, 18-month-old males showed lower expression of Slc12a3 mRNA than 3-month-old males, and control and WD 18-moth-old male and female rats exhibited higher expression of α-SMA than respective 3-month-old rats. Fibronectin was higher in both control and WD 18-month-old males than respective 3-month-old males. In females, only control 18-month-old rats showed higher fibronectin than control 3-month-old rats. When we compared sex, control and WD 3-month-old female rats had lower expression of Slc12a3 mRNA than re-spective males. WD 18-month-old male rats presented higher expression of fibronectin and α-SMA than WD 18-month-old female rats. When we compared hydric condition, WD 18-month-old males displayed lower relative expression of Slc12a3 mRNA and higher α-SMA expression than control 18-month-old males. Aging, sex, and dehydration lead to alteration in kidney structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Neck Muscle Vibration; Proprioception; Body Schema
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:45:37 CEST)
Upper limb control depends on accurate internal models of limb position relative to the head and neck, accurate sensory inputs, and accurate cortical processing. Transient alterations in neck afferent feedback induced by muscle vibration may impact upper limb proprioception. This research aimed to determine the effects of neck muscle vibration on upper limb proprioception using a novel elbow repositioning task (ERT). 26 right-handed participants aged 22.21 2.64 performed the ERT consisting of three target angles between 80-90 (T1), 90-100 (T2) and 100-110 (T3). Controls (CONT) (n=13, 6F) received 10 minutes of rest and the vibration group (VIB) (n=13, 6F) received 10 minutes of 60Hz vibration over the right sternocleidomastoid and left cervical extensor muscles. Task performance was reassessed following experimental manipulation. Significant time by group interactions occurred for T1: (F1,24 = 25.330, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.513) where CONT improved by 26.08% and VIB worsened by 134.27%, T2: (F1,24 = 16.157, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.402) where CONT improved by 20.39% and VIB worsened by 109.54%, and T3: (F1,24 = 21.923, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.447) where CONT improved by 37.11% and VIB worsened by 54.39%. Improvements in repositioning accuracy indicates improved proprioceptive ability with practice in controls. Decreased accuracy following vibration suggests that vibration altered proprioceptive inputs used to construct body schema, leading to inaccurate joint position sense and the observed changes in elbow repositioning accuracy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: body plan; archetype; burden; generative entrenchment
Online: 1 March 2022 (10:17:43 CET)
A body plan is a stable configuration of characters for a major taxonomic group, such as chordates or arthropods. Despite widespread casual reliance on the concept for guiding comparisons within and between groups, the nature of body plans as well as the biological causes underlying their evolution have remained elusive. This paper proposes an abstract mechanistic model of body plan identity. We hypothesize that body plans are an evolutionary phenomenon that only applies to a relatively small subset of major clades, rather than being associated with each and every so-called “phylum.” Body plans arise in evolution by stepwise accretion, and require a level of developmental complexity that is only found in some animal clades. Further, we suggest that, parallel to the developmental mechanisms controlling character identity, there are “body plan identity mechanisms” (BpIMs) that maintain entire configurations of characters while possessing a mechanistic architecture that is itself stable and traceable through evolutionary change. These BpIMs, we suggest, are entrenched intercellular signaling networks operating between transient embryonic structures that are destined to differentiate into distinct individualized characters. The activity of a BpIM results in a transient long-range integration of the embryo that is highly sensitive to genetic and environmental perturbations, and that can be detected morphologically as a conserved phylotypic stage. This model is illustrated with detailed interpretations of the notochord signaling system and the segment polarity network as candidate BpIMs in vertebrates and arthropods, respectively. We conclude by contrasting the proposed developmental-mechanistic conception of body plans with the phylogenetic notion of ground plans, and sketch the general outlines of an empirical research program on body plan evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Obesity; Eating Disorder; Body Image; Adolescents.
Online: 16 September 2021 (16:34:57 CEST)
There is growing recognition of the adverse effects of body image dissatisfaction (BID) and eating disorder (ED) symptoms on adolescent health. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ED symptoms, BID, and their relationship in adolescents from public schools in Southern Brazil. A total of 782 schoolchildren (male: n=420, female: n=362); age: 15 ± 0,4 years) answered a self-administrated questionnaire to identify sociodemographic data. Children´s Figure Rating Scale was adopted to identify body image and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to investigate ED symptoms. Inferential statistics and hierarchical model-controlled logistic regression were used for association between variables. Most of the schoolchildren reported being satisfied with their bodies. However, we observed a higher prevalence of dissatisfaction among girls for being overweight and thinness among boys. Female students and students from schools located in the central area of the city showed higher chances of developing ED symptoms, and the absence of symptoms of ED appeared to act as a protective factor against BID in schoolchildren. Results of this study show the need to reflect on these factors that influence the development of ED and non-acceptance of their own body in a population concerned with their physical appearance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: body; action; abstract concepts; metacognition; sociality
Online: 2 August 2021 (23:19:08 CEST)
Recent research has shown that the sensorimotor system plays a significant role in a variety of cognitive processes. In this paper, we will review recent studies performed in our lab (Body Action Language Lab, BALLAB) or in labs with which we collaborate, showing the involvement of the sensorimotor system at different levels. With the purpose of expounding on this aspect, we focus on studies that highlight two main characteristics of the involvement of the sensorimotor systems. First, we concentrate on the flexibility of sensorimotor grounding during interaction with objects. We report evidence showing how social context and current situations influence affordance activation. We then focus on the tactile and kinesthetic involvement in body-object interaction. Second, we illustrate flexible sensorimotor grounding in word use. We review studies showing that not only concrete words, like “bottle,” but also abstract words, like “freedom,” “thinking,” and “perhaps,” are grounded in the sensorimotor system. We report evidence showing that abstract words activate sensory modalities and involve the mouth effector more than concrete words due to their privileged relationship with language, both outer and inner speech. We discuss the activation of the mouth sensorimotor system in light of studies on adults (e.g., studies employing articulatory suppression), children (e.g., studies on the effects of pacifier use on word acquisition and processing), and infants (e.g. studies on emergence of new words). Finally, we pinpoint possible mechanisms at play in the acquisition and use of abstract concepts. We argue that with abstract concepts, we rely more on other people to learn or negotiate the meaning of words; we have called this mechanism social metacognition.Social metacognition is bidirectionally linked to our sensorimotor system. On the one hand, linguistic explanations constitute a primary source of grounding that may be re-enacted when retrieving a concept, for example through inner speech. On the other hand, it leads us to feel closer and be more synchronous in movement with others, who can help us understand the meaning of very complex words. Overall, we show that the sensorimotor system provides a grounding basis not only for objects and concrete words but also for more abstract and concrete ones. We conclude by arguing that future research should address and deepen two different and interrelated aspects concerning the involvement of the sensorimotor system during object and word processing. First, the sensorimotor system is flexibly modulated by the context, as studies on affordances reveal. Second, the sensorimotor system can be involved at different levels, and its role can be integrated and flanked by that of other systems, like the linguistic one, as studies on abstract concepts clearly show. We urge future research aimed at unravelling the role of the sensorimotor system in cognition to fully explore the complexity of this intricate-and sometimes slippery-relation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0504.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: body size; foraging; hominid; slope; terrain
Online: 19 November 2020 (11:06:21 CET)
Meganthropus palaeojavanicus was known very tall with body height of 8 feet and this made M. palaeojavanicus as the tallest hominid ever existed. This species was living in closed tropical woodland and hilly landscape as the fossil remains were found in a remote forest in Sangiran, central Java. Owing large body size, it may influence the foraging ecology of M. palaeojavanicus to cope with the terrain. In here, this study aimed to model the M. palaeojavanicus foraging ecology along terrain gradients. The model indicates that within 5 km home range radius, the most suitable foraging areas were in north east since these areas have more flat landscapes with slopes of <7.5%. While less suitable areas in north west and south west areas were characterized by hilly landscapes with rugged terrain and steep slopes with slopes of >62.8%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0310.v1
Online: 14 August 2020 (06:32:59 CEST)
Finding a solution for Euler's equations is a classic mechanics problem. This study revisits the problem with numerical approaches. For ease of teaching and research, a Maple code comprising 2 lines is written to find a numerical solution for the problem. The study's results are validated by comparing these with previous studies. Our results confirm the correctness of the principle of maximum moment of inertia of the rotating body, which is verified by thermodynamics. As an essential part of this study, the Maple code is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0027.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: facial expression recognition; convolutional neural networks; loss function; intra-class variations; inter-class variations
Online: 1 November 2023 (09:33:37 CET)
Facial expression recognition is crucial for understanding human emotions and nonverbal communication. With the growing prevalence of facial recognition technology and its various applications, accurate and efficient facial expression recognition has become a significant research area. However, most previous methods have focused on designing unique deep-learning architectures while overlooking the loss function. This study presents a new loss function that allows simultaneous consideration of inter- and intra-class variations to be applied to CNN architecture for facial expression recognition. More concretely, this loss function reduces the intra-class variations by minimizing the distances between the deep features and their corresponding class centers. It also increases the inter-class variations by maximizing the distances between deep features and their non-corresponding class centers, and the distances between different class centers. Numerical results from several benchmark facial expression databases, such as Cohn-Kanade Plus, Oulu-Casia, MMI, and FER2013, are provided to prove the capability of the proposed loss function compared with existing ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0132.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Maturity Model; Sustainability assessment; Supply Chain; Intra- and inter-organizational perspec-tive; TBL dimensions
Online: 9 January 2023 (01:27:50 CET)
Nowadays, frameworks and models are critical to enabling organizations to identify their current sustainability integration into business and to follow up on these initiatives over time. In this context, the maturity models offer a structured way of analyzing how a supply chain meets specific sustainability requirements and which areas demand attention to reach maturity levels. This study proposes a five-level maturity model to help supply chains identify their level of engagement with sustainability practices combining three perspectives: intra and inter-organizational sustainability practices, triple-bottom-line approach and critical areas for sustainability. All the steps followed in constructing the maturity model were based on a literature review, and case studies supported its improvement, application, and testing. The proposed model presents many advantages, such as being used as a self-assessment tool, a roadmap for sustainability behaviour improvement, and a benchmarking tool to evaluate and compare standards and best practices among organizations and supply chains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land expropriation; intra-racial tension; social cohesion; political and traditional elitism; marginalised landless majority
Online: 11 December 2019 (11:38:36 CET)
Section 25(2) of the Constitution of South Africa protects property rights and the White Paper on Land Reform demonstrate tolerance and wisdom in the application of land reform policies. The central argument to this research was whether amendment of Section 25 (2) of the constitution to allow expropriation of land without compensation redresses redistribution of land for social cohesion and political stability. The researcher argues that, currently, Section 25 of the constitution provides for expropriation without compensation but at the same time protects property rights reducing the pace of redistribution. Hence, an amendment of section 25 (2) may remove the property right clause and accelerate expropriation without compensation. But whether the removal of the property right clause and acceleration of the process of expropriation without compensation will result to equitable and fair distribution of land to the majority of landless South Africans is not certain. The study concludes that, amendment of Section 25(2) is a justifiable process and priorities must be given to equity in redistribution to the majority landless at the margins of communities and not elites. If the amendment of Section 25 (2) cannot guarantee equity in redistribution for all ill respective of race, social cohesion, political stability and economic growth, intra-racial tensions may emerge. Such tensions may further compound the land question and affects investors’ confidence in South Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: intra-abdominal pressure; abdominal compartment syndrome; pressure sensor; negative pressure wound therapy; open abdomen;
Online: 11 January 2018 (09:17:10 CET)
1) Introduction: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a frequently applied open abdomen (OA) treatment. There are only a few experimental data supporting this method and describing the optimal settings and pressure distribution in the abdominal cavity during this procedure. The aim of our study was to evaluate pressure values at different points of the abdominal cavity during NPWT in experimental abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) animal model. 2) Methods: In this study (permission Nr. 13/2014/UDCAR) 27 Hungahib pigs (15.4- 20.2 kg) were operated. ACS was generated by implanting a plastic bag in the abdomen through mini-laparotomy and filled with 2100- 3300 ml saline solution (37 C°) to an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) of 30 mmHg. After 3 hours, NPWT (Vivano Med ® Abdominal Kit, Paul Hartmann AG, Germany) or Bogota bag was applied. NPWT group was divided into -50, -100 and 150 mmHg suction group. Pressure distribution to the abdominal cavity was monitored at 6 different points of the abdomen via a multichannel pressure monitoring system. 3) Results: The absolute pressure levels were significantly higher above than below the layer. The values of the pressure were similar in the midline than laterally. Amongst the bowels, the pressure values changed periodically between 0 and -12 mmHg which might be caused by the peristaltic movements. 4) Conclusions: The porcine model of the present study seems to be well applicable for investigating ACS and NPWT. It was possible to provide valuable for clinicians. The pressure was well distributed by the protective layer to the lateral parts of the abdomen and this phenomenon did not change considerably during the therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0709.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: LiFi; Light Fidelity; wireless communication; intra-vehicular data transmission; VLC; intelligent transportation system; LED; optics
Online: 11 October 2023 (09:20:55 CEST)
Given the recent advances in information technology, speed has become an important requirement in data transmission. Given that an LED (light emitting diode) can turn on and off several thousand or even millions of times per second, then LiFi (light fidelity) technology has strong advantages over WiFi (wireless fidelity) in terms of speed. In this research project, a consortium involving an academic institution decided to evaluate the maturity of LiFi technology and design a demonstrator that could be integrated in a vehicle via an intra-vehicle data transmission system. The demonstrator is to implement a two-way LiFi communication between the reading light of a vehicle and a portable device such as a tablet or smartphone. The nomadic device must display, via an interface, data in real time. The data is RNT (Digital Terrestrial Radio) and TNT (Digital Terrestrial Television) provided by an in-house antenna. LiFi depends on optical technology. The optical characteristics have significant influences on the system. The paper shows ways to improve the system’s throughput, communication range, and reception area. By replacing the reading light with a more powerful one with better optical characteristics, the communication range and reception area improve. By using symmetrical power supply, the throughput improves. Likewise, by using optical filters that eliminate noise, the throughput also improves. We have demonstrated that LiFi data transmission in the vehicle is feasible; low-definition videos were successfully transmitted. The paper acknowledges that there are still various avenues for this work’s improvement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0100.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: omicron; alpha; delta; deltacron; recombination; RNA editing; intra-host variants; tropisms; ox-idative damage; Wuhan
Online: 6 July 2022 (15:27:32 CEST)
The successive waves of the Covid-19 pandemic are driven by SARS-CoV-2 variants that reached critical detection levels in different parts of the world. But how evolved the Wuhan virus since its detection in December 2019 into the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529) variants of concern? This is a story of mice and men, of up to 1,000,000 infected cells in one person, where each cell produces between 105 and 106 viral RNAs, of immune-compromised patients, the digestive tract and viral recombination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Intraoral Scanners; Intra-Oral Scanners; CAD/CAM; Digital Dentistry; Trueness; Precision; Accuracy; Scanners; Lab Scanners
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:44:19 CEST)
(1) Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the full arch scan accuracy (precision and trueness) of nine digital intra-oral scanners and four lab scanners. Previous studies have compared the accuracy of some intra-oral scanners, but as this is a field of quickly developing technologies, a more up-to-date study was needed to assess the capabilities of currently available models.; (2) Methods: The present in vitro study compared nine different intraoral scanners (Omnicam 4.6; Omnicam 5.1; Primescan; CS 3600; Trios 3; Trios 4; Runyes; i500 and DL206) as well as four lab light scanners (Einscan SE; 300e; E2 and Ineos X5) to investigate the accuracy of each scanner by examining the overall trueness and precision. Ten aligned and cut scans from each of the intra-oral and lab scanners in the in vitro study were brought into CloudCompare. A comparison was made with the master STL using the CloudCompare 3D analysis best-fit algorithm. The results were recorded along with individual standard deviation and a colorimetric map of the deviation across the surface of the STL mesh; a comparison was made to the master STL, quantified at specific points. ; (3) Results: In the present study, the Primescan had the best overall trueness (17.3 ± 4.9). Followed by (in order of increasing deviation) the Trios 4 (20.8 ± 6.2), i500 (25.2 ± 7.3), CS3600 (26.9 ± 15.9), Trios 3 (27.7 ± 6.8), Runyes (47.2 ± 5.4), Omnicam 5.1 (55.1 ± 9.5), Omnicam 4.6 (57.5 ± 3.2) and Launca DL206 (58.5 ± 22.0). Regarding the lab light scanners, the Ineos X5 had the best overall trueness with (0.0 ± 1.9). Followed by (in order of increasing deviation) the 3Shape E2 (3.6 ± 2.2), Up3D 300E (12.8 ± 2.7), and Einscan SE (14.9 ± 9.5); (4) Conclusions: This study confirms that all current generations of intra-oral digital scanners can capture a reliable, reproducible full arch scan in dentate patients. Out of the intra-oral scanners tested, no scanner produced results significantly similar in trueness to the Ineos X5. However, the Primescan was the only one to be statistically of a similar level of trueness to the 3Shape E2 lab scanner. All scanners in the study had mean trueness of under 60-micron deviation. While this study can compare the scanning accuracy of this sample in a dentate arch, the scanning of a fully edentulous arch is more challenging. The accuracy of these scanners in edentulous cases should be examined in further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2035.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; body mass index; vaccination; evolution
Online: 31 October 2023 (08:28:08 CET)
Body mass index has been studied as one of the factors that negatively influences COVID-19. In this work we intend to analyze this influence. A representative sample of the population of Beira Interior was used (around 2%), to which immunity research and a socio-demographic survey were carried out. It was found that obesity influences the vaccination rate, and all other variables analyzed were not influenced by the body mass index.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0616.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: assessment; body; mass; index; women; healthcare services
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:42:35 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is calculated by dividing a person's height in meters by their weight in kilograms and is always expressed in kg/m2. BMI is a reliable risk indicator for various diseases that can develop due to a higher percentage of body fat. There is a possibility of developing certain medical conditions including heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, breathing problems and some malignancies that increase with BMI. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to identify the trends in the Body Mass Index (BMI) of women visiting Better Life Primary Health Care Centre in Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria for various healthcare services. METHODOLOGY: Seventy (70) women who participated in this study were randomly selected using systematic random sampling. Their necessary information was obtained using a prepared record sheet to collect their data. Results were analysed using SPSS version 21. RESULTS: The results show mean age of the respondents is 30.50 + 6.52921 21 (30%) were between 31 – 35 years, 21 (30%) were traders, 36 (51%) had tertiary education, 39 (55.7%) were between 151 – 160 cm in height. 32 (45.7%) were between 60 – 80 kg in weight and 30 (42.9%) had normal weight, respectively. CONCLUSION: Body Mass Index (BMI) calculation is an essential tool that can help in identifying one of the significant public health issues that leads to obesity; a predisposing factor to various medical conditions like hypertension, musculoskeletal issues, heart diseases, cancers, and lots more. It is therefore important to incorporate BMI calculation into routine checks to prevent or reduce health burdens that may arise from obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1891.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: thermography; tendons; quadriceps muscle; body temperature regulation
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:09:33 CEST)
In the last decade there has been a growing interest in infrared thermography in the field of sports medicine in order to elucidate the mechanisms of thermoregulation. The aim of this study was to describe bilateral variations in skin temperature of the anterior thigh and patellar tendon in healthy athletes, to provide a model of baseline tendon and muscle thermoregulation in healthy sprinters following a unilateral isokinetic fatigue protocol. Fifteen healthy national-level sprinters underwent unilateral isokinetic force testing and electrostimulation in which body temperature was measured before, during, and after the protocol using an infrared thermographic camera. ANOVA detected a significant difference in the time x side interaction for patellar temperature changes (p≤0.001) and a significant difference in the time x side interaction for quadriceps temperature changes (p≤0.001). The thermal challenge produces homogeneous changes evident in quadriceps areas, but not homogeneous in tendon areas. these data show that metabolic and blood flow changes may depend on the physical and mechanical properties of each tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1846.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: team sports; explosive strength; body composition; CMJ
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:24:30 CEST)
Player’s performance in an intense sport such as basketball is known to be related to attributes like speed, agility, and power. This study presents a comparative analysis of associations between anthropometric assessment and physical performance in different age-group elite youth basketball players, while simultaneously identifying the predictors for speed and agility in these players. U14 (n=44), U15 (n=45) and U16 (n=51) players were tested for anthropometry, lower body power, speed, and agility. U16 players were found to be taller, heavier, more muscular than U14 and U15 players. Also, the U16 group showed better performance in all performance tests. Age had a significant positive correlation with countermovement (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) performance in U14 players, and a significant negative correlation with 10m and 20m sprint times in U15 group. CMJ and DJ emerged as the most significant predictors for sprint and agility variables, respectively. Body fat percentage was found to be a significant predictor for the speed and agility tests in all age groups, but a negative lower-body power predictor. Therefore, besides all sport-specific and fitness tests, it is essential to place emphasis on the percentage of body fat when designing players’ individualized training programs, and during team selection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Magnesium deficiency; Body composition; Chronic kidney failure.
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:27:18 CEST)
(1) Background: Reduced magnesium (Mg) levels may be associated with a faster de-cline in renal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum and uri-nary Mg levels with body composition and inflammatory markers; (2) Methods: Lon-gitudinal study with patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing non-dialysis treatment in stages 3A, 3B and 4. Venous samples were collected after a 12-hour night fast. Body composition was evaluated by Double X-Ray Emission Absorptiometry and Air Displacement Plethysmog-raphy; (3) Results: The sample consisted of 134 patients. In the adjusted linear regression model, uric acid, percentage of lean mass and ali-mentar intake of Mg were positively associated with the sergic Mg. Triglyceride levels, WC and fat mass percentage were negatively associated with serum Mg. For the Mg urinal, in the adjusted model, the eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate), IL (interleukin 6), food intake of Mg and the percentage of lean mass showed a positive correlation.; (4) Conclusions: Serum Mg levels were positively associated with lean mass and negatively with total and central body fat and urinary Mg was positively associated with IL6 and lean mass.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0522.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: astragalus; body mass; Bovid; Pleistocene; population density
Online: 22 September 2020 (11:37:26 CEST)
Astragalus bone is one of the most important fossil records as it can reconstruct the prehistoric life. Respectively, this study aims to model the body mass, habitat preference, and population density of prehistoric bovid Duboisia santeng (Dubois 1891) in eastern Java island in the early Pleistocene. The astragali from 9 specimens were used to estimate the body mass and population density. Likewise regression models are used to analyze the relationship between astragalus lateral length, width, and body mass compared to the astragalus of extant Bovid species. The result revealed the body mass average was 60.3 kg (95%CI: 58.9-61.7) and this indicates the D. santeng belongs to large herbivores. While the population density was estimated at about 5.39 individuals per km2 (95% CI: 3.18-7.6).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin D; obesity; weight-loss; body composition
Online: 12 April 2020 (16:44:13 CEST)
Background: Vitamin D was studied in regards to its possible impact on body mass reduction and metabolic changes in adults and children with obesity yet there were no studies assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation during a weight management programme in children and adolescence. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of 26 weeks of vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese children undergoing an integrated 12-months’ long weight loss programme on body mass reduction, body composition and bone mineral density. Methods: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Vitamin D deficient patients ( <30 ng/ml level of vitamin D) aged 6-14, participating in multidisciplinary weight management programme were randomly allocated to receiving vitamin D (1200 IU) or placebo for the first 26 weeks of the intervention. Results: Out of the 152 qualified patients, 109 (72%) completed a full cycle of four visits scheduled in the programme. There were no difference in the level of BMI change. Although the reduction was greater in the vitamin D vs. placebo group (-4.28 ± 8.43 vs. -2.53 ±6.10) the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.319). Similarly the reduction in fat mass – assessed both using bioimpedance and DEXa was achieved, yet the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study ads substantial results to support the thesis on no effect of vitamin D supplementation on body weight reduction in children and adolescents with vitamin D insufficiency undergoing a weight management programme. Trial registration no: NCT 02828228; trial registration date: 8 June 2016 registered in: ClinicalTrials.gov.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: body self-image; adolescent; anthropometry; nutritional status
Online: 16 April 2018 (10:51:45 CEST)
The critical changes in physical appearance during adolescence can considerably influence the self-appraisal of body image. The purpose of this study is to analyze body self-image gender differences in Mediterranean adolescents, and his relationships to the anthropometric characteristics of this population in different phases of the adolescence. Participants were 809 Mediterranean teenagers (396 females) aged 11 to 17. A relative low prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was observed among healthy urban Mediterranean adolescents (boys 17.3%; girls 22.7%). Girls showed statistically significantly higher mean BSQ scores than boys (M = 61.7, SD = 26.6 versus M = 56.3, SD = 27.1; p < 0.001). Girls in the late adolescence were more often classified as being dissatisfied (31%) in comparison to those in the early adolescent group (19.1%; p < 0.05). There was a good correlation of BSQ scores with all the anthropometric variables in males but not in females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: coffee; obesity; body mass index; waist circumference
Online: 30 September 2017 (05:12:52 CEST)
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5,995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption was evaluated using the food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity measured by BMI (≥ 3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-3.34; P for the trend < 0.001) and abdominal obesity measured by WC (≥ 3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.59-2.79; P for the trend < 0.001). The positive association between daily coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: salivary glands, minor salivary glands, salivary gland carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, in situ carcinoma, intra-cystic carcinoma
Online: 8 April 2020 (14:46:41 CEST)
Aims: To report on the clinico-pathological features of a series of 12 intra-oral mucoepidermoid carcinomas showing exclusive intra-cystic growth. Methods and methods: All mucoepidermoid carcinomas diagnosed in the period 1990-2012 were retrieved, the original histological preparations were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis, and from selected cases, showing exclusive intra-cystic neoplastic component, additional sections were cut at 3 subsequent 200m intervals and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, PAS and Alcian Blue, to possibly identify tumor invasion of the adjacent tissues, which could have been overlooked in the original histological preparations. Also, pertinent findings collected from the clinical charts and follow-up data were analyzed. Results: We identified 14 intraoral mucoepidermoid carcinomas treated by conservative surgery and with a minimum follow up of 5 years. The neosplasm were located in the hard palate (9 cases), the soft palate (2), the cheeck (2) and the retromolar trigone (1). In all instances histological examination was revealed the presence of a single cystic space, containing clusters of columnar, intermediate, epidermoid, clear and mucous-producing cells, the latter exhibiting distinct intra-cytoplasmic mucin production, as confirmed by PAS and Alcian Blue stains. The cysts were entirely circumscribed by fibrous connective tissue and no solid areas or infiltrating tumour clusters were detected. Conservative surgical resection was performed in all cases and no recurrences or nodal metastases were observed during the follow up period. Conclusions: Mucoepidermoid carcinomas showing prominent (>20%) intra-cystic proliferation currently are considered low-grade tumours. In addition, we also unveil the possibility that mucoepidermoid carcinomas, at least in their early growth phase, may display an exclusive intra-cystic fashion and might be considered as in situ carcinomas, unable to infiltrate adjacent tissues or metastasize.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: decentralized water systems; cluster approach; intra-cluster homogeneity; Water Supply Systems (WSS); Urban Water Systems (UWS)
Online: 14 September 2019 (19:33:09 CEST)
Abstract: Current models in design of urban water management systems and their corresponding infrastructure using centralized designs have commonly failed from the perspective of cost effectiveness and inability to adapt to the future changes. These challenges are driving cities towards using decentralized systems. While there is great consensus on the benefits of decentralization; currently no methods exist which guide decision-makers to define the optimal boundaries of decentralized water systems. A new clustering methodology and tool to decentralize water supply systems (WSS) into small and adaptable units is presented. The tool includes two major components: (i) minimization of the distance from source to consumer by assigning demand to the closest water source, and (ii) maximization of the intra-cluster homogeneity by defining the cluster boundaries such that the variation in population density, land use, socio-economic level, and topography within the cluster is minimized. The methodology and tool are applied to Arua Town in Uganda. Four random cluster scenarios and a centralized system were created and compared with the optimal clustered WSS. It was observed that the operational cost of the four cluster scenarios is up to 13.9 % higher than the optimal, and the centralized system is 26.6% higher than the optimal clustered WSS, consequently verifying the efficacy of the proposed method to determine an optimal cluster boundary for WSS. In addition, optimal homogeneous clusters improve efficiency by encouraging reuse of wastewater and stormwater within a cluster and by minimizing leakage through reduced pressure variations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1433.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Biomarkers; metabolomics; nonhuman primates; preterminal; total-body irradiation
Online: 22 November 2023 (13:47:20 CET)
Ionizing radiation exposure is known to induce molecular and cellular injury, inflicting a cascade of potentially catastrophic events leading to tissue and organ damage. Metabolomic analysis allows for the identification and quantification of small molecules downstream of genomic changes induced by radiation exposure. We aimed to characterize metabolomic changes that underscore the prefinal stage of lethally irradiated rhesus nonhuman primates (NHPs). Peripheral blood was drawn at baseline, post-exposure as well as at the preterminal stage of NHPs (immediately prior to death in moribund NHPs), which did not survive exposure with 7.2 Gy total-body radiation (LD70/60). Herein, we analyzed global metabolomic changes using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS) in plasma samples of NHPs collected at various timepoints in relation to irradiation. The overall goal was to identify metabolic shifts present immediately prior to death. Our findings, for the first time, show that radiation induced significant time dependent metabolic perturbations when compared to pre-irradiation samples, particularly in the glycerophospholipid metabolism and steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism pathways. These findings provide valuable insights for identifying biomarkers for lethality, which may be helpful for triage during a mass casualty scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0281.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: amputation; body image; validation study; reproducibility of results
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:43:49 CET)
Background: Assessing body image and personalized rehabilitation in lower limb amputation is essential to measure impact on an individual’s quality of life and psychosocial wellbeing. The aim of this study was to develop a Spanish version of the Amputee Body Image Scale (ABIS-E) for Spanish-speaking lower limb amputee. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted including amputee patients in local in Madrid, Spain. Clinical outcomes about body image (Amputee Body Image Scale, ABIS), health-related quality of life (EuroQol-5D-5L), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS), pain (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, BPI-SF) and functional capacity (Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire, PEQ) were collected. Results: Seventy-three participants were assessed. Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC=0.847) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.753) were obtained. Three factors were extracted in the factor analyses. Convergent validity with Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated for the depression and anxiety questionnaires (HADS) (values between .57 and .67), functional capacity (PEQ) (values between -.35 and .71) and quality of life (EQ-5D-5L) (values between -.37 and .61). Conclusions: The ABIS-E is a reliable and valid tool for measuring body image in the Spanish population with a lower limb amputation, potentially useful in primary care to identify psychosocial problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: MethylRAD-Seq; A. japonicus; body wall; age identification
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:21:09 CEST)
The A. japonicus industry has expanded significantly, but no research has focused on how to de-termine the age of A. japonicus during farming. Correctly estimating the age of A. japonicus can provide a decision-making basis for the breeding process, and data for the protection of A. japonicus aquatic germplasm resources. DNA methylation levels in the body wall of Apostichopus japonicus at 4 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years old were determined by MethylRAD-Seq, and differentially methylated genes related to age were screened. The results of the study found that 441 and 966 differentially methylated genes were detected at CCGG and CCWGG sites, respectively. As-partate aminotransferase, succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, the histone H2AX, heat shock protein Hsp90, aminopeptidase N, cell division cycle CDC6, Ras GTPase activating protein (RasGAP), slit guidance ligand slit 1, integrin linked kinase ILK, mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase Mtor, protein kinase A Pka, and autophagy-related 3 atg3 these genes may play key roles in the growth and aging process of A. japonicus. This study provided data for identifying the age of A. japonicus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: female athletes; winter sports; nutrition; altitude; body composition
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:49:31 CEST)
Eating disorders, especially restrictive eating, are common among female athletes. There are two main types of winter sports, those that are practised outdoors on snow (-25 to +5ºC and 2500 m), such as alpine skiing or snowboarding, and those that are practiced indoors on ice (5-10º C at low altitude), such as figure skating and ice hockey. The aim of this research was to identify the nutritional status and potential risk of female athletes practising winter sports considering the altitude of training. The sample was composed of 58 women (aged 19.81 years (SD: 12.61) who were competitors in some winter sports. Anthropometrics and nutritional variables were taken. Statistically significant differences were found between groups for all the characteristics except thigh skinfold and neither group had an EI that matched their TEE. Both groups met at least 2/3rd of the RDI for all minerals and vitamins, except iodine, fluorine, vit D, E and retinol. This study suggest that female winter sports athletes have insufficient energy, vitamin and mineral intake that can be worsened by altitude.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1620.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: diagnostic; stem cells; human body; transplantations; regenerative medicine
Online: 23 August 2023 (04:33:23 CEST)
Stem cells can be used in cellular therapy. This happended in order to replace damaged cells or having aim to regenerate organs. The definition of stem cells can be extended. From this point of view, we can mention taking in consideration the idea in which it is known that these cells form the base of the building body. More than, we can mention that stem cells are characterized by two knowing properties namely differentiation and selfrenewal. Based on the observation that differentiation of adult stem cells into specific derivativescan be controlled by laboratory techniques, it is anticipated that adult stem cells may become the basis of therapies for many, and various types of medical conditions. Taking on stem cells, regenerative medicine (RM) it is known as being one of the hottest topics in biotechnology nowadays. From this purpose, stem cells can be used in regenerative medicine (RM). The principles of regeneration are found in different types of cultures, from long time ago, centuries etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: monocular camera; world coordinates; pose measurement; rigid body
Online: 15 August 2023 (10:33:35 CEST)
A method of measuring the absolute pose parameters of a moving rigid body using a monocular camera is proposed, aiming at addressing calibration difficulties and inconsistencies of repeated measurements of the rigid-body pose for a camera having a varying focal length. The proposed method does not require calibration beforehand. Using more than six non-coplanar control points symmetrically arranged in the rigid-body and world coordinate systems, the matrices of rotation and translation between the camera and two coordinate systems are obtained and the absolute pose of the rigid body measured. In this paper, formulas of the absolute pose measurement of a moving rigid body are deduced systematically and the complete implementation is presented. Position and attitude measurement experiments carried out on a three-axis precision turntable show that the average absolute error in the attitude angle of a moving rigid body measured by an uncalibrated camera at different positions changes by no more than 0.2 degrees. Analysis of the three-dimensional coordinate errors of the centroid of a moving rigid body shows little deviation in measurements made at three camera positions, with the maximum deviation of the average absolute error being 0.53 cm and the maximum deviation of the standard deviation being 0.66 cm. The proposed method can measure the absolute pose of a rigid body and is insensitive to the position of the camera in the measurement process. This work thus provides guidance for the repeated measurement of the absolute pose of a moving rigid body using a monocular camera.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1334.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: body composition; ergogenic aids; adipose tissue; strength training
Online: 19 June 2023 (09:06:57 CEST)
Adiposity is associated with adverse health conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The combination of resistance exercise and creatine supplementation has been shown to decrease body fat % in adults ≥ 50 years of age. However, the effects in adults < 50 years of age is unknown. To address this limitation, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed several meta-analyses comparing studies that included resistance exercise and creatine supplementation to resistance exercise and placebo. Twelve studies were included involving 266 participants. Adults (< 50 years of age) that supplemented with creatine and performed resistance exercise experienced a significant reduction in body fat % (-1.19%, p=0.006) and a non-significant reduction in absolute fat mass (-0.09 kg, p=0.88). Collectively, the combination of resistance exercise and creatine supplementation produces a very small reduction in body fat % in adults < 50 years of age.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0969.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: electrocardiography; infant formula; breastfeeding; body mass index; asthma
Online: 14 June 2023 (03:36:23 CEST)
BACKGROUND: It has been known for decades that breastfeeding leads to a lower risk of asthma, respiratory infections, or metabolic syndrome at school age. In addition, evidence is now accumulating on the influence of breast milk on the shape, volume, or function of the heart and lungs. Within this field of research into the effects of breast milk on the structure of the heart and lungs, we have set out to analyze the differential electrocardiographic characteristics of schoolchildren who were once breastfed. METHOD: Observational cross-sectional study including 138 children aged 6 or 12 consecutively presenting to a well-child clinic between May and December 2022. Inclusion criteria: the ability to perform reproducible ECG records, the feasibility of weighing and measuring patient, and breastfeeding data collected from birth. RESULTS: Using the 40º cut-off value for the mean P-wave axis among schoolchildren, 76% of never breastfed children in our sample have a P-wave axis in a more vertical position than the mean as compared to 58% of ever-breastfed children (OR:2.25;95%CI:3.13-1.36); there was no other significant difference between infant feeding groups in somatometric characteristics or ECG parameters, CONCLUSION: We found a significant difference of the mean values of the P-wave axis between never and ever breastfed children. Although this report should be approached cautiously, these findings add to the renewed interest in discerning developmental interventions to improve cardiovascular health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0250.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Peanut oil body; caproic acid; demulsification; oil quality
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:13:03 CEST)
Aqueous enzymatic method is a green oil extraction technology with limited industrial application owing to the need for demulsification of the oil body intermediate product. Existing demulsification methods have problems including low demulsification rates and high costs, such that new methods are needed. Free fatty acids produced by lipid hydrolysis can affect the stability of peanut oil body (POB) at a certain concentration. After screening even-carbon fatty acids with carbon chain lengths below ten, caproic acid was selected for demulsification of POB using response surface methodology and a Box–Behnken design. Under the optimal conditions (caproic acid concentration, 0.22%; material-to-liquid ratio, 1:4.7 (w/v); time, 61 min; and temperature, 79 C), a demulsification rate of 97.87% was achieved. Caproic acid not only adjusted the reaction system pH to cause aggregation of the POB interfacial proteins, but also decreased the interfacial tension and viscoelasticity of the interfacial film with increasing caproic acid concentration to realize POB demulsification. Compared with pressed oil and soxhlet-extracted oil, the acid value and peroxide value of caproic acid demulsified oil were increased, while the unsaturated fatty acid content and oxidation induction time were decreased. However, the tocopherol and tocotrienol contents were higher than those of the soxhlet-extracted oil. This study provides a new method for the demulsification of POB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0608.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Football; athletic performance; body composition; Latin-American soccers
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:38:34 CEST)
Knowledge of body composition is essential for athletes for their sport performance. It has yet to be determined whether differences in body composition are present between international and non-international players playing in the same elite professional club competition. Similarly, it is not yet clear whether differences in body composition according to ethnic origin exist in the elite professional game, where relative homogeneity is to be expected among soccer players. There is no single anthropometric profile that guarantees sporting success, as the somatotype of football players differs according to their individual characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess the description and comparison of the body composition profile of latin american professional football players playing in european leagues. The sample was composed of 238 subjects football players from European professional football leagues. Differences were found in all variables measured. The present study shows that in Latin American professional football players playing in Europe, there are significant differences in different body composition variables such as weight, height, WC, skinfold and fat values. This means that the treatment of these data and the possible classifications of sporting performance carried out in football clubs should be different to other European or African-American football players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0437.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: freshman; weight gain; body composition; diet; physical activity
Online: 12 September 2022 (11:10:16 CEST)
Background: Students in the United States gain weight significantly during their first year of university, however limited data are available for Australian students. Methods: This 12-month observational study was conducted to monitor monthly body weight and composition, as well as quarterly eating behaviours, dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and basal metabolic rate changes amongst first-year Australian university students. Participants were first-year university students over 18 years. Results: Twenty-two first-year university students (5 males and 17 females) completed the study. Female students gained weight significantly at two, three, and four-months (+0.9 kg; +1.5 kg; +1.1 kg, p <0.05). Female waist circumference (2.5 cm increase at three-months, p = 0.012), and body fat also increased (+0.9%, p = 0.026 at three-months). Intakes of sugar, saturated fat (both >10% of total energy), and sodium exceeded recommended levels (>2000 mg) at 12-months. Greater sedentary behaviours were observed amongst male students throughout the study (p <0.05). Conclusions: Female students are at risk of unfavourable changes in body composition during the first year of university, while males are at risk of increased sedentary behaviours. High intakes of saturated fat, sugars, and sodium warrant future interventions in such a vulnerable group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; EEG; optical illusions; alpha oscillations
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:44:14 CET)
Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with imagined defects in appearance. Optical illusions induce illusory effects that distort the presented stimulus thus leading to ambiguous percepts. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated whether BDD is related to differentiated perception during illusory percepts. Methods: 18 BDD patients and 18 controls were presented with 39 optical illusions together with a statement testing whether or not they perceived the illusion. After a delay period, they were prompted to answer whether the statement is right/wrong and their degree of confidence for their answer. We investigated differences of BDD on task performance and self-reported confidence and analysed the brain oscillations during decision-making using nonparametric cluster statistics. Results: Behaviorally, the BDD group exhibited reduced confidence when responding incorrectly, potentially attributed to higher levels of doubt. Electrophysiologically, the BDD group showed significantly reduced alpha power at mid-central scalp areas, suggesting impaired allocation of attention. Interestingly, the lower the alpha power of the identified cluster, the higher the BDD severity, as assessed by BDD psychometrics. Conclusions: Results evidenced that alpha power during illusory processing might serve as a quantitative EEG biomarker of BDD, potentially associated with reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0106.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: cesarean section; body mass index; obesity; meta-analysis
Online: 7 December 2021 (13:48:15 CET)
Overweight/obesity is one of the most important health problem worldwide. Birth by cesarean section has been shown to influence long-term health outcome including obesity. The aim of this systematic review-meta-analysis is to examine whether cesarean section increases the risk of offspring’ s overweight/obesity. The study follows the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. A systematic literature search was con-ducted on Scopus, PubMed, and WoS until December 2020. For inclusion, studies must have re-ported either (I) both Birth by cesarean section and adult (≥ 18 years) offspring BMI, (II) cohort or case–control study design and (III) a risk estimate. Heterogeneity testing was performed using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed by Egger’s test and Begg’s test. Me-ta-analysis was performed through a random effect model. Eleven studies with a combined population of 180.408 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The overall analysis (n = 18) yielded a combined risk estimate for overweight/obesity of 1.19 (95% CI 1.08-1.31) and the test of heterogeneity resulted Q=53,37 (I2 = 70,37 %, P≤0•0001). The risk of offspring obesity is 1.23 (95% CI 1.09-1.39) and the test of heterogeneity resulted Q=39.50 (I2= 72,15%, P≤0•0001). Children born by cesarean section have an increased risk of developing obesity in adulthood
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: elite athletes; olympic sailors; body temperature; heat adaptation
Online: 27 April 2021 (11:41:24 CEST)
Objective On the eve of the summer Olympic Games in Tokyo research focus has shifted on the core temperature responses of elite athletes competing in the heat. In the absence of the field data of core temperature during Olympic sailing competition aim of the present study was to identify core temperature response during the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Test Event. Methods Four elite athletes from Olympic sailing (177.5±5.2 cm, 71.1±7.4 kg, body mass index 22.5±1.4 kg/m2, 24.8±3.7 yrs, VO2max 50.6±7.2 mL/min/kg)): 2 males and 2 females participated in the study. Core temperature was recorded using e-Celsius ingestible capsules, heart rate using a heart rate monitor. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were measured using portable meteo station. Results Core temperature was recorded at water environment via an ingestible capsule in 4 sailors during the training (T), and competition (C), respectively. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were hot and humid: during training temperature were 30.9°C±1.7°C and relative humidity 81.4%±2.8%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 41°C±4°C and during competition temperature was 31.2°C±2.3°C and relative humidity 87.2%±4.4%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 45.2°C±8.9°C. Core temperature increased during training reaching higher peak values (38.6°C±0.4°C) and during competition (38.9°C±0.4°C). The highest temperature recorded was 39.4°C (C). Conclusion The current study provides unique information into the core temperature parameters under heat stress in elite Olympic sailors during training and race event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0611.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: validity; reliability; assessment; body image; self-evaluation; students
Online: 22 April 2021 (14:05:42 CEST)
Body-Esteem Scale is an assessment tool for adolescents and adults that evaluate three dimensions of self-evaluations of one’s body. Body-Esteem Scale has been translated and validated in some countries since America down to Europe. Lack of translation and reliability evidence in Portugal was detected. This study aimed to translate and test the validity and reliability of the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) in students in the context of Portuguese higher educa-tion. A total of 173 students (60.7% are female) with a mean age of 19.7 (standard deviation = 2.2) years participated. Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to assess the underlying dimensions of BESAA. Construct validity was evaluated through correlation with the Appearance Schemas Inventory – Revised and a three-factor model (“Appearance”, ‘‘Weight’’ and “Attribu-tion’’) was established. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the construct validity of the instrument. Items that had factor weights (λ)<.40 were removed, as well as those that were considered redundant by the modification indices estimated by the Lagrange Multipliers (LM) method (LM>11, p<.001). We observed high correlations between theoretically similar factors, and low correlations between different factors. The Portuguese BESAA showed adequate validity and reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: anthropometry; height; somatotype; body mass; soccer; sports performance
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:03:33 CET)
The aim of this article was to examine if there are position-specific differences in the morphological characteristics of sub-elite female football players and to establish normative standards for this level of female football players. The morphological features of 101 sub-elite female football players (age: 21.8±2.7 years) were assessed. Twenty anthropometric sites were used in the measurements of body composition and somatotype. The average value of body fat percentage was 20.8±5.7%. The somatotype of the overall group was 4.0–2.4–2.1. Positional significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences were found between goalkeepers and outfield players in morphological characteristics. Goalkeepers were taller, heavier, possessed the highest body fat percentage and showed higher values for all skinfolds, breadth, girth and length measurements. However, there were very few practically worthwhile differences between the outfield positions. Positional groups did not differ (p ≤ 0.05) in somatotype characteristics either. The study suggests that at sub-elite level there are mainly differences between goalkeepers and outfield players, but outfield players are homogeneous when comparing morphological characteristics. These results may serve as normative values for future comparisons regarding the morphological characteristics of female football players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0267.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Knowledge; Overweight; Obesity; Body Mass Index; Health Risks
Online: 14 January 2021 (12:47:52 CET)
Background: Overweight and obesity are becoming serious public health menace in the world today. Weight gain is skyrocketing across the globe due to growing economy, fast food expansion and a shift towards more sedentary living. However, most people lack knowledge regarding risks associated with overweight and obesity. Aim: The study aimed to explore the knowledge level of bankers in the Ho Municipality on the health risks associated with overweight and obesity. Methodology: A cross-sectional study design with quantitative method was employed. The study spanned from September 7, 2018 to April 25, 2019. A self-administered questionnaire and convenience sampling technique were used to obtain data. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 Developer and the results presented in statistical tables and graphs. Results: Of 136 participants investigated, 67 (49.3%) were between 31 - 40 years. 2 participants (1.5%) were underweight, 49(36.0%) had normal weight, 43(31.6%) were overweight while 42 (30.9%) were obese. The study revealed that female bankers were prone to overweight (37.78%) while the males were prone to obesity (56.52%). Participants generally had low knowledge and awareness on health risks of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Most bankers in the Ho Municipality were overweight and obese due to insufficient knowledge and low awareness on the risks associated with overweight and obesity. Public education and awareness creation are urgently needed to stem the tide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0052.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: body composition; physical fitness; sedentary behavior; nutritional status
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:51:42 CET)
Mexico shows a high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. Geographical location and cultural environment could play a role in the promotion of healthy lifestyles in terms of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB) and nutrition. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in body composition (BC), physical fitness (PF), PA and nutritional status of adolescents from the state of Jalisco (Mexico). The study involved 469 students aged 13-17 years (55.0% girls) from 8 high schools. BC was analyzed by bioimpedance, and PF by standardized field tests. Objective measurements of PA and SB were taken in a subsample (n=240). Energy intake (EI) was calculated from two 24h recalls. Rural residents presented a higher prevalence of overweight, waist circumference, trunk fat mass, regional fat free mass and muscle handgrip strength (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.06). Cardiorespiratory fitness was similar among participants, whereas urban adolescents showed higher muscle power, speed-agility and flexibility scores (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.07). Overall lifestyle behavior in urban adolescents was more sedentary (p<0.05, ηp2= 0.11). EI was similar in both locations. In conclusion, urban Mexican adolescents presented a generally higher sedentary behavior and better fitness and fatness profile than their rural peers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: spatiotemporal parameters; gait; gender; age; Body Mass Index
Online: 9 September 2020 (07:12:18 CEST)
Studies on the gait's parameters have been identified on the patients population. Most researchers confirm that the patients walk differently than normal people and they may have a risk for falls. Consistent finding and description of gender, age, and body mass index differences in gait studies is rare in healthy subjects. A cross-sectional study with forty-five young adult (F = 20, M = 25) was conducted. Stadiometer and Physilog 4 inertial sensors were used for data collection. A gait analyser 5.2 software (GaitUp, S.A. Lausanne, Switzerland) was used to determine spatiotemporal parameters. No statistically significant differences were found in any bilateral foot gait parameters with respect to gender, age, and body mass index. Females are found with higher total double support and cadence than males. Cadence also increases with age. Obese people showed lower gait speed, cadence, and total double support. These findings may be beneficial to those who have abnormal gait pattern due to age, body mass index differences, decreased muscle strength, spasticity, and joint mobility. This important informations should be considered to rehabilitate patients with abnormal gait patterns to controlling dynamic balance and riks to falling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sport; health; body mass index; obesity; morbidity; mortality
Online: 28 July 2020 (04:21:17 CEST)
The classic Body Mass Index, (BMI), developed in the 19th century by the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet  is an important indicator of the risk of death, of obesity, of negative health consequences, body fat percentage and of the shape of the body. While he BMI is assumed to indicate obesity in sedentary people and in people who do not practice sports, it is undisputed and a consensus among researchers  that Body Mass Index (BMI) is not a good indicator for obesity in people who developed their body through heavy physical work or sport but also in other segments of population such as those who appear to have a normal weight but in fact have a high body fat percentage and obese methabolism. The BMI also does not include all the variables essential for a health predictor. The BMI is not always a good predictor of metabolic disease, people who appear of healthy weight according to BMI have in some cases an obese metabolic syndrome. The BMI was developed as a law of natural sciences and “social physics” , as it was called then, before the middle of the 19th century, and it had been used from the 70s for medical purposes, to detect obesity and the risk of mortality . The BMI has a huge importance for modern society, affected by an obesity epidemic . BMI has applications in medicine, sport medicine, sport, fitness, bodybuilding, insurance, nutrition, pharmacology. The main limitation of the BMI is that it does not account for body composition including non fat body mass such as muscles, joints, body frame and makes no difference between fat and non fat components of the body weight. The body composition and the proportion of fat and muscles make a difference in health outcomes  …. Body composition makes a difference also in the level of sport performance for athletes of every level. In nearly two centuries since the Body Mass Index was developed, no formula had been successfully developed to account for body composition and make the difference between muscle and fat in a consistent way. This can be considered a longstanding open problem of major importance for society. The objective of this analysis is to develop new formulae taking into account the health implication of body composition measured through indirect, simple indicators and making the difference between muscles and fat, healthy and non healthy metabolism. The formulae developed in this article are the only formula to successfully generalize BMI and make this difference. I develop a direct generalization of BMI, in the mathematical and physiological sense to account for fat and fat free mass and muscles, small and large body frames. It is the first such generalization because the classic BMI can be determined as a particular case of my formulae in the strict mathematical and practical physiologic sense. No other formula generalized the BMI to make the difference between fat and a large frame and muscles has ever been published in nearly two centuries since the BMI formula had been developed. The formulae I developed explain and generalize the conclusions of a large number of highly cited empirical experiments cited in the reference section.  .. Most of the experimental proof I bring in support of my formulae and bodyweight quantification theory comes from many highly cited experimental research publications in medicine, sports medicine, sport science and physiology. My formulae explain also performance in decades of competitive sports and athletics
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0415.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: coronavirus; self-defense mechanisms of the human body
Online: 29 March 2020 (03:12:09 CEST)
Social distancing, washing hands and good hygiene are essential and currently the most potent methods available to curb down the unprecedented speed by which the new coronavirus is spreading across the globe. Even under lockdown, which is necessary to significantly reduce the number of people that get infected by an ill person, are there additional measures that each of us can embrace to even further reduce the risk of infection and the severity of the COVID-19 disease? Given the lack of licensed drugs that target SARS-CoV-2 specifically, we have to look into additional non-specific defense mechanisms that animals and humans evolved to protect themselves from pathogen invasions. The goal of this article is to describe how various of our non-specific defense mechanisms work, which actually precede the inflammatory response, and to discuss whether we can exploit the unique features of the coronavirus envelope and the self-cleaning machinery of the human respiratory tract to strengthen our self-defense. The challenge is to actively interfere with supportive measures during the short time window between getting exposed and before an inflammatory response gets initiated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0067.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Mathematical Model; Streamline; Shape of the body; Theory
Online: 5 April 2019 (15:28:58 CEST)
This article attempts to propose a mathematical model and potential explanation regarding the unavoidable impact of a rigid body's peculiar shape on the seamless flow over it. The solid body completely immersed in a Newtonian fluid and respectively has a relative open circuit flow on it will typically experience various observable phenomena. These typical phenomena in laminar flow are explained using the proposed theory rather than conventional approximations or several partial theories. This article respectively represents an understanding of the laminar flow over a rigid body's external surface with due respect to its distinctive shape and size. To formulate a more realistic and simplified mathematical model for open circuit laminar flow over a body, a mathematical model is proposed based on the historical data of aerodynamics and theoretical mechanics. This mathematical model is intended to properly estimate forces on the continuous surface of the body in a laminar flow, to properly explain, understand and predict various phenomena like flow separation, flow transition, down-wash, stalling at the higher angle of attack, stalling velocity and how cambered airfoil can typically generate lift at a zero incidence angle. Most of all a mathematical model and the mechanism of streamline formation in an open-circuit laminar with respect to the shape and size of the body are illustrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0061.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: body-worn cameras; police; activation; attitudes; principled agents
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:03:46 CET)
What drives an individual police officer to activate his body-worn camera (BWC)? Some evidence suggests officer attitudes and resistance to the technology contributes to the equivocal results in studies testing for BWCs effect on use-of-force, complaints, and other outcomes of interest. Leveraging a novel survey and administrative dataset, we investigate the predictors of BWC activation among 147 police officers in a single agency. With a test of three nested models, we find job function covariates offer robust predictive power of how often an officer activates her or his BWC. Neither demographic nor attitudinal measures significantly predict BWC activations, except for a negative relationship with how officers perceive BWC impacts on professional discretion. The study furnishes empirical support for understanding officers as Principled Agents: job function, guided by administrative policy is the most explanatory and parsimonious, while models of attitudes and demographics fail to improve upon the job function model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: celiac disease; body composition; gluten free diet; children
Online: 15 October 2018 (13:19:09 CEST)
The primary and proven therapy, in cases of celiac disease (CD), is a rigorous gluten-free diet. However, there are reports of its negative effects in the form of nutritional deficiencies, obesity and adverse changes in body composition. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a gluten free diet (GFD) on the body composition of children with CD. In a case-controlled study (n = 41; mean age 10.81 y; SD = 3.96) children with CD, in various stages of treatment, underwent medical assessment. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. More than half of the examined children (n = 26) followed a GFD. CD children had significantly higher mean values of the fat free mass (FFM% = 80.68 vs. 76.66, p = 0.015), and total body water (TBW% = 65.22 vs. 60.47, p = 0.012), and lower mean values of the fat mass (FM% = 19.32 vs. 23.34, p = 0.015). Children who were on a GFD presented slightly higher, but not statistically significant, mean values of FM and FFM, than children who did not follow dietary recommendations (FM [kg] = 7.48 vs. 5.24, p = 0.064; FM% = 20.81 vs. 16.73, p = 0.087; FFM [kg] = 28.19 vs. 22.62, p = 0.110). After minimum one year of a GFD, CD children showed significantly higher values of FFM [kg] (p = 0.001), MM [kg] (p < 0.001), TBW [L] (p < 0.001) and BCM [kg] (p < 0.001). Furthermore, CD children who were on a GFD presented significantly higher weight (p = 0.034) and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.021) increase. The children adhering to a GFD demonstrate a tendency towards higher indices of selected body composition components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nuts; walnuts; body weight; adiposity; obesity; elderly; energy
Online: 14 September 2018 (08:05:18 CEST)
Objective: To assess the effects of chronic walnut consumption on body weight and adiposity in elderly individuals. Methods: The Walnuts And Healthy Aging study is a dual-center (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University [LLU]), 2-year randomized parallel trial. This report concerns only the LLU cohort. Healthy elders (mean age 69 y, 67% women) were randomly assigned to walnut (n = 183) or control diets (n = 173). Subjects in the walnut group received packaged walnuts (28–56 g/d), equivalent to ≈15% of daily energy requirements, to incorporate into their habitual diet, while those in the control group abstained from walnuts. Adiposity was measured periodically, and data were adjusted for in-trial changes in self-reported physical activity. Results: After 2 years, body weight significantly decreased (P = 0.031), while body fat significantly increased (P = 0.0001). However, no significant differences were observed between the control and walnut groups regarding body weight (−0.6 kg and −0.4 kg, respectively, P = 0.67) or body fat (+0.9% and +1.3%, respectively, P = 0.53). Lean body mass, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio remained essentially unchanged. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings of primary analysis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that walnuts can be incorporated into the daily diet of healthy elders without concern for adverse effects on body weight or body composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0042.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Pentagon; fivefold morphology; body plan; spatial organization; morphospace.
Online: 2 August 2018 (09:00:56 CEST)
A basic pattern in the body plan architecture of many animals, plants and some molecular and cellular systems is five-part units. This pattern has been understood as a result of genetic blueprints in development and as a widely conserved evolutionary character. Despite some efforts, a definitive explanation of the abundance of pentagonal symmetry at so many levels of complexity is still missing. Based on both, a computational platform and a statistical spatial organization argument, we show that five-fold morphology is substantially different from other abundant symmetries like three-fold, four-fold and six-fold symmetries in terms of spatial interacting elements. We develop a measuring system to determine levels of spatial organization in 2D polygons (homogeneous or heterogeneous partition of defined areas) based in principles of regularity in a morphospace. We found that spatial organization of five-fold symmetry is statistically higher than all other symmetries studied here (three to ten-fold symmetries) in terms of spatial homogeneity. The significance of our findings is based on the statistical constancy of geometrical constraints derived from spatial organization of shapes, beyond the material or complexity level of the many different systems where pentagonal symmetry occurs.