ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Intra-body communication; path loss; microwave probes; channel characterization; fat tissue; ex-vivo; phantom; dielectric properties; topology optimization.
Online: 3 July 2018 (15:08:56 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7–2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of 1.4 dB and 3.8 dB per 20 mm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: hypertension; obesity; body composition; intra-abdominal fat; sleep apnea; obstructive
Online: 10 May 2022 (04:45:21 CEST)
Background: Elevated fasting plasma glucose and visceral fat area (VFA) is highly prevalent in obese adults. This study investigated the associations between systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and laboratory, anthropometric, heart rate variability (HRV), and obstructive sleep apnea markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 95 obese patients treated at Obesity Treatment and Surgery Center, located in Salvador, BA, Brazil. SAH data were obtained from electronic medical records of patients. To evaluate the association of SAH with the predictor variables, the sample was stratified in Normotense Group (NG) and Hypertensive Group (HG), and laboratory markers, body composition, polysomnography data, and HRV were measured. Results: The average age of the NG was 36.3 ± 10.1 and HG 40.4 ± 10.6 years, 73.7% were women in the NG and 57.9% in HG; 82.4% in HG had insulin resistance. In the multivarious logistics regression model with adjustments age, sex, height, and oxyhemoglobin saturation, SAH was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose mg/dL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96; 95% interval confidence [CI] = 0.92 - 0.99) and VFA cm2 (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97 - 0.99). The area under curve the VFA was 0.728; CI 95% (0.620 - 0.836) and fasting plasma glucose 0.693; CI 95% (0.582 - 0.804). Conclusions: Lower VFA and fasting plasma glucose concentrations were inversely associated with SAH. These results indicate opportunities to improve the outcome in obese patients through counseling and clinical interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0207.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: musculoskeletal pain; body height; body weight; schoolchildren
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:07:54 CET)
Background Children often suffer the nonspecific musculosceletal pain as reported in literature. Aim To determine relationship between body weights with development of musculoskeletal pain and to determine whether growing in body height is associated with musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren. Subjects/ Methods A prospective longitudinal study included 1315 school children aged 7-14 years (652 boys and 663 girls) and was performed in 13 elementary schools in B&H. Child body height and body weight were measured. The survey of perception of musculoskeletal pain in different body regions of subjects was conducted by adjusted Nordic Musculosceletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Results The highest prevalence of an overweight and obesity in the 10th year 35.7% and the lowest frequency 17.8% in the 14th year was. In the age 14th obesity was’nt found. Boys have more prevalence of overweight. Using logistic regression model, we found that school children with normal BMI were protected with increased body height of acute lower back pain (β= -0.089, 95%CI, -9.730- -0.023, P< 0.049), and increased body height was protector of obese school children of acute upper back pain (β= -0.356, 95%CI, -14.077- -3.878, P< 0.001) and chronic lower back pain (β= -0.356, 95%CI, -14.077- -3.878, P< 0.001). Conclusion Schoolchildren with normal weight more often have had musculosceletal pain than those with overweight or obesity. This can be associated with intense physical growth period in height, especially. The assumption is that the increase in height changes the relationship between excessive BMI and musculoskeletal pain in children of school age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0157.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: feline; panleukopenia; canine parvovirus; metagenomics; diversity; intra-host
Online: 12 May 2022 (04:07:11 CEST)
Feline panleukopenia (FPL), a highly contagious and frequently fatal disease of cats, is caused by Feline parvovirus (FPV) and Canine parvovirus (CPV). We characterized the diversity of these Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 variants in 18 faecal samples collected from domestic cats with FPL during an outbreak, using targeted parvoviral DNA metagenomics to a mean depth of >10,000 X coverage per site. All samples comprised FPV alone. Compared to the reference FPV genome, isolated in 1967, 44 mutations were detected. Ten of these were non-synonymous, including 9 in non-structural genes and one in VP1/VP2 (Val232Ile), which was the only one to exhibit inter-host diversity, being present in five sequences. There were five other polymorphic nucleotide positions, all with synonymous mutations. Intra-host diversity at all polymorphic positions was low with sub-consensus variant frequencies (SVF) of >1% except for two positions (2108 and 3208) in two samples with SVF of 1.1 – 1.3%. Intra-host nucleotide diversity was measured across the whole genome (0.7 - 1.5%) and for each gene, and was highest in the NS2 gene of four samples (1.2 – 1.9%). Overall, intra-host viral genetic diversity was limited and most mutations observed were synonymous, indicative of a low background mutation rate and strong selective constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: insulin resistance; body weight; body fat; visceral fat; waist circumference; body mass index
Online: 28 February 2018 (04:43:50 CET)
The incidence of obesity which leads to insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic disorder increases in developing countries including Indonesia. Male adult has higher risk to have abdominal obesity than female which is associated with cardiometabolic disorders. Several anthropometric measurements have been proposed to predict IR. The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF) or visceral fat percentage (VF) could become a better predictor of IR in healthy young male adult. Total of 140 healthy young male adults ranging from 18-25 years were recruited in the study. Insulin resistance was measured by calculating Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Subjects with HOMA-IR value >75th percentile with cut off 3.75 were defined as IR. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, BMI, WC were performed whereas BF and VC were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). IR had significant strong correlation with body weight, BMI, WC, BF and VF. The area under curve of body mass, BF, VF were greater than WC and BMI. Anthropometric measurements correlated strongly with IR but body weight, BF, VF have stronger correlation than WC and BMI in healthy young male adult.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0754.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: human body segments; body dimensions; biomechanical modeling; anthropometry
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:54:14 CEST)
The knowledge of human body proportion and segmental properties of limbs, head and trunk are of fundamental importance in biomechanical research. As many methods are employed, it is important to know which they are currently available, which data on human body masses, lengths, center of mass (COM) location, weights and moment of inertia are available and which methods are most suitable for a specific research purposes. The present review examines the literature concerning human body segments properties for biomechanical purposes. It emerges that data obtained in studies on cadaveric specimens are still the most accurate, whilst technological tools currently available are manifolds, each one with proper advantages and disadvantages. Classical studies were focused mainly on white men, while in recent year the available data of body segments has been extended to children, woman, and other races. Also, data on special population (obese, pregnant women) are starting to appear in the scientific literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0190.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: thinness, girls, youth, body satisfaction, body mass index
Online: 21 March 2018 (16:00:02 CET)
Psychological wellbeing can be impacted substantially by changes in body image during youth, which can be a predictive factor for positive or negative attitudes, such as for self-esteem and satisfaction. In this study, adherence to the thinness model and to healthy behaviours were analysed in terms of the emotional patterns and body management of the young female Italian population (N = 2287). Skinny girls fitting better with the thinness model tended to develop higher positive emotional patterns, but their body management was low. Findings suggest the urgent need for preventive programmes to enhance awareness of healthy behaviours against appearance models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0321.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Intra–Seasonal rain fall characteristics; Short rains; WRF Model
Online: 30 August 2019 (09:57:58 CEST)
Rainfall is a major climate parameter whose variation in space and time influences activities in different weather sensitive sectors such as agriculture, transport, and energy among others. Therefore, accurately forecasting rainfall is of paramount importance to the development of these sectors. In this regard, this study sought to contribute to quantitative forecasting of rainfall over Eastern Uganda through assessing the Weather Research and Forecasting model’s ability to simulate the intra–seasonal characteristics of the September to December rain season. These were: onset and cessation dates; wet days and lengths of the wet spells. The data used in the study included daily ground rainfall observations and lateral and boundary conditions data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) final analysis at 1 0 horizontal resolution and at a temporal resolution of 6 hours for the entire study period were used to initialize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The study considered four weather synoptic weather stations namely; Jinja, Serere, Soroti and Tororo. The results show that the WRF model generally simulated fewer wet days at each station except for Tororo. Also, the WRF model simulated earlier onset and cessation dates of the rainfall season and overestimated the length of the wet spells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: dry eye; tear break-up time; intra-ocular pressure; seasonality
Online: 29 December 2019 (09:17:39 CET)
Purpose: To evaluate seasonal variation in intra-ocular pressure (IOP) with and without short tear break-up time (SBUT, BUT ≤ 5 s). Methods: This study enrolled 176 patients who visited one of six eye clinics in Japan for IOP measurement at every season. The mean patient age was 67.9 years, including 79 males. We compared the seasonal variation in IOP (mean ± SD) across spring (Mar-May), summer (Jun-Aug), fall (Sep-Nov), and winter (Dec-Feb). Results: The IOP (mmHg) in winter and summer, respectively, was 12.8 ± 3.7 and 12.8 ± 3.1 for non-glaucoma patients without SBUT (n = 47, P = 0.964), 14.8 ± 3.4 and 13.3 ± 3.4 for non-glaucoma patients with SBUT (n = 57, P < 0.001), 14.3 ± 3.2 and 14.1 ± 3.4 for glaucoma patients without SBUT (n = 36, P = 0.489), and 13.3 ± 3.0 and 11.6 ± 2.9 for glaucoma with SBUT (n = 36, P < 0.001). Seasonal variation was largest across the seasons in the glaucoma with SBUT group, and the magnitude of seasonal variation correlated with BUT (β = 0.228, P = 0.003). Conclusions: Seasonal variation tended to be larger in patients with SBUT than those without SBUT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0110.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oral cancer; radiotherapy; intra-arterial chemotherapy; head and neck cancer
Online: 7 May 2018 (08:48:20 CEST)
Purpose: The aim of present study was to compare the treatment results of daily cisplatin (CDDP), weekly docetaxel (DOC) intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (DIACRT) regimen and weekly CDDP intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (WIACRT) for patients with tongue cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2016, a total of 11 patients treated with WIACRT and 45 patients treated with DIACRT were enrolled in present study. In DIACRT group, 25 patients had T2, 20 patients had T3. A total of 9 patients had T2 and 2 had T3 in WIACRT (p = NS). In DIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (DOC, total 60 mg/m2; CDDP, total 150 mg/m2) and daily concurrent radiotherapy (RT) (total, 60 Gy). In WIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (CDDP, total 360 mg/m2) and daily concurrent RT (total, 60 Gy). Results: The median follow-up periods for DIACRT and WIACRT were 61 and 66 months respectively. The 5-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rate were 94.5% and 89.6% for DIACRT group, 60.6% and 63.6% for WIACRT group respectively. The LC rate and OS of DIACRT group were significantly higher than that of WIACRT group. As regards toxicities, no treatment-related deaths were observed during the follow-up periods both in two groups. Conclusions: DIACRT was found to be feasible and effective for patients with tongue cancer and could become a new treatment modality.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:50:10 CEST)
TThe passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Question-naire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, (p=0.001), and the subscales of dieting (p=0.01) and bulimia. (p=0.001). Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. (p=0.01). The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both profes-sional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0471.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:10:51 CEST)
The passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, and the subscales of dieting and bulimia. Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both professional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ultrawideband (uwb); localization; ranging; body wearable sensors; human body shadowing
Online: 23 September 2019 (11:36:26 CEST)
In recent years, several Ultrawideband (UWB) localization systems have already been proposed and evaluated for accurate position estimation of pedestrians. However, most of them are evaluated for a particular wearable sensor position; hence the accuracy obtained is subject to a given wearable sensor position. In this paper, we study the effects of body wearable sensor positions i.e., chest, arm, ankle, wrist, thigh, fore-head, hand, on the localization accuracy. The conclusion drawn is that the fore-head is the best, and the chest is the worst body sensor location for tracking a pedestrian. While the fore-head position is able to set an error lower than 0.35 m (90th percentile), the chest is able to set 4 m. The reason for such a contrast in the performance lies in the fact that in NLOS situations, the chest as an obstacle is larger in size and thickness than any other part of the human body, which the UWB signal needs to overcome to reach the target wearable sensor. And so, the large errors arise due to the signal arriving at the target wearable sensor from reflections of a nearby object or a wall in the environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: lung transplantation; body mass index; nutrition; body composition; lean body mass; muscle mass; leptin; sarcopenia; creatinine-height index
Online: 1 November 2019 (13:02:51 CET)
Lung transplantation offers patients with end stage lung disease an opportunity for a better quality of life, but with limited organ availability it is paramount that selected patients have the best opportunity for successful outcomes. Nutrition plays a central role in post-surgical outcomes and historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used as the de facto method of assessing a lung transplant candidate’s nutritional status. Here we review the historical origins of BMI in lung transplantation, summarize the current BMI literature, and review studies of alternative/complementary body composition assessment tools, including lean psoas area, creatinine-height index, leptin, and dual x-ray absorptometry. These body composition measures quantify lean body mass versus fat mass and may provide a more comprehensive analysis of a patient’s nutritional state than BMI alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0342.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: cluster based routing; FLOC clustering method; weighting algorithm; intra-cluster communication
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:46:02 CET)
Cluster-based routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks is considered one of the convenient methods of routing. The existence of Cluster Head (CH) in a group of nodes for data forwarding improves the performance of routing in terms of routing overhead and power consumption. In this paper, a clustering algorithm using hierarchical routing for mobile ad hoc networks is proposed. In the proposed method, first, clusters are formed by the FLOC clustering method with low overlapping. Then, according to the most important network criteria, including hop count, noise ratio, distance, remaining energy, and link expiration time, head clusters are selected based on the weighting algorithm. To transfer data in the proposed method, two types of communication are used, e.g., inter-cluster communication and intra-cluster communication in which the shortest path to the target cluster is selected. The proposed P-METHOD technique is based on hierarchy and clustering as well as using a weighted algorithm that reduces delay in data transmission on the network. Moreover, P-METHOD is evaluated here via extensive simulations carried out in NS-2. The simulation results indicate that the MANET network performance metrics are improved in terms of average throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), delay, residual energy, and lifetime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0084.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: intra row spacing; intercropping; land equivalent ratio; sorghum (Teshale); groundnut (Fetene)
Online: 20 October 2016 (08:45:36 CEST)
In eastern part of Ethiopia groundnut is very commonly intercropped with sorghum. Even though intercropping of sorghum with groundnut is practiced in the eastern part of Ethiopia the population density at what ratio should not be known. Therefore determining the population ratio is found to be crucial to draw management options. The study was conducted at two locations at Fadis (on station) and Babile (sub- station). Sorghum variety (Teshale) and groundnut (Fetene) were used as planting materials. All agronomic data were collected and analyzed by using GenStat software. Significant different were obtained among the treatments. The research result showed that, there were significance difference for both sorghum and ground nut yield per hectare in the years (2014 and 2015) among treatments. The result over time(in 2014 and 2015) at Fadis and Erer showed that the highest sorghum and groundnut yield per hectare were obtained/harvested from the intra row spacing of 25cmx20cm and 30cmx20cm intercropping sorghum with ground nut system with (1.27 and 1.31) respectively. The highest LER (1.31) and highest GMV (10218.00 ETBr/ha) were obtained from the intercropping of 30cmx20cm (Sorghum & groundnut). Clearly showed that, with intercropping of sorghum and Groundnut, it is possible to produce additional yield of sorghum without significant reduction in groundnut yield. As a result of this, the intra spacing of the main crop (sorghum) 25cm and 30cm and for the subsidiary crop (groundnut) 20cm was recommended for further production in the study areas of eastern Harerghe zone and similar agro-ecologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0210.v1
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:44:55 CEST)
We propose a method for the estimation of the spectral response of a photodetector, using only the variation of the temperature of a black body source without the need of an expensive monochromator or a circular filter. The proposed method is suitable especially for infrared detectors in which the cut – off wavelength and the responsivity vs. wavelength is not exactly known. The method provides a rough estimation of the curve S(l) solving a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. The precision of this technique depends on the number of temperatures at which the detector output is measured. Some example is given in order to better explain the proposed technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: body temperature; sensors; transduser
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:11:12 CET)
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of transduser design and its elements, and their materials on temperature in deeper layers of tissues measurement results. A digital modeling was performed to evaluate the influence of the properties of transduser design elements. Experimental research was carried out. Revealed that the accuracy, similar to that of an invasive method using needle probes, can be achieved by measuring the temperature in deeper muscle layers using the proposed transducer.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: body shape index; body roundness index; metabolic risk factors; Southern China adults
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:44:12 CEST)
This purpose was to compare the ability of body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) with waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body adiposity index (BAI) to predict metabolic risk. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 17,360 Chinese subjects (were aged 18-95 years old) who escaped cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were measured by trained staff. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and optimal cutoff values of obesity indices were recruited to compare the predictive ability for metabolic risk factors. The mean age of subjects was 53.7(13.1) years, 41.6 % were males. Within young group (<60 years), the areas under the curve (AUC) demonstrated that WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BRI were able to similarly predict high metabolic risk in males (0.74 vs. 0.74 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) and in females (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.71 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73), while the approximate predictive ability were only acquired in males (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.70 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) within elder group (≥60 years). The optimal cut-off values of BRI for high metabolic risk were calculated in males (<60 y: 3.49 vs. ≥60 y: 3.46) and females (<60 y: 3.47 vs. ≥60 y: 3.60). Meanwhile, BRI displayed a strong prediction to elevated BP and elevated TG in males (AUC = 0.64; AUC = 0.70) and to elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA in females (AUC = 0.67; AUC = 0.69; AUC =0.70). BRI was able to similarly predict high metabolic risk compared to WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI, while ABSI was not. Moreover, BRI revealed specific predictive ability for elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Inflammatory; cytokines; biomarkers; intra-articular fracture; cartilage; joint injury; synovial fluid; osteoarthritis
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:08:12 CET)
Intra-articular fractures are a major cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Despite adequate surgical treatment, the long-term risk for PTOA is high. Previous studies reported that joint injuries initiate an inflammatory cascade characterized by elevation of synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to cartilage degradation and PTOA development. This review summarizes the literature on the post-injury regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the markers of cartilage destruction in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (1960–February 2020) and included studies that were performed on human participants and included control groups. Two investigators assessed the quality of the included studies using Covidence and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS Based on the surveyed literature, several synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, interferon-y, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were significantly elevated in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures compared to control. A simultaneous elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-1RA was also observed. In contrast, IL-13, CTX-II, and aggrecan concentrations did not differ significantly between the compared cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Overall, intra-articular fractures are associated with an increase in inflammation-related synovial cytokines. However, more standardized studies which focus on the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at different time points are needed.
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: total hip arthroplasty; intra-operative femur fracture risk; bone elastic-plastic behavior
Online: 23 July 2020 (09:41:30 CEST)
Total Hip Arthroplasty is one of the most successful surgery. However, due to the worldwide growing population life expectancy and the related incidence of age-dependent bone diseases, a growing number of cases of intra-operative fractures lead to revision surgery with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Surgeons choose the type of the implant, either cemented or cementless prosthesis, on the basis of the age, the quality of the bone and the general medical conditions of the patients. Generally, no quantitative measures are available to assess the intra-operative fracture risk. Consequently, the decision-making process is mainly based on medical operators’ expertise and qualitative information obtained by imaging. Motivated by this scenario, we here propose a mechanical-supported strategy to assist surgeons in their decisions, by giving intelligible maps of the risk fracture which take into account the interplay between actual strength distribution inside the bone tissue and its response to the forces exerted by the implant. To this end, we produce charts and patient-specific synthetic “traffic-light” indicators of fracture risk, by making use of ad hoc analytical solutions to predict the stress levels in the bone by means of CT-based mechanical and geometrical parameters of the patient. We felt that, if implemented in a friendly software or proposed as an app, the strategy could constitute a practical tool to help the medical decision-making process, in particular with respect to the choice of adopting cemented or cementless implant
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: obesity; diabetes; body weight; body composition; glucose tolerance; insulin tolerance; incretin; energy expenditure
Online: 12 February 2019 (10:37:42 CET)
Background/Goals: The gut hormone PYY secreted from intestinal L-cells has been implicated in the mechanisms of satiation via Y2-receptor (Y2R) signaling in the brain and periphery and is a major candidate for mediating the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery on appetite and body weight. Methods: Here we assessed the role of Y2R signaling in the response to low- and high-fat diets and its role in the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure and glucose handling, in global Y2R-deficient (Y2RKO) and wildtype mice made obese on high-fat diet. Results: Both male and female Y2RKO mice responded normally to low- and high-fat diet in terms of body weight, body composition, fasting levels of glucose and insulin, as well as glucose and insulin tolerance for up to 30 weeks of age. Contrary to expectations, obese Y2RKO mice also responded similarly to RYGB compared to WT mice for up to 20 weeks after surgery, with initial hypophagia, sustained body weight loss, and significant improvements in fasting insulin, glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR, and liver weight compared to sham-operated mice. Furthermore, non-surgical Y2RKO mice weight-matched to RYGB showed the same improvements in glycemic control as Y2RKO mice with RYGB that were similar to WT mice. Conclusions: PYY signaling through Y2R is not required for the normal appetite-suppressing and body weight-lowering effects of RYGB in this global knockout mouse model. Potential compensatory adaptations of PYY signaling through other receptor subtypes or other gut satiety hormones such as GLP-1 remain to be investigated.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: body posture defects; the shape of anterior-posterior spinal curvatures; body composition; school-children
Online: 11 April 2020 (05:38:01 CEST)
The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the shape of the anterior-posterior curvature of the spine and body composition in school-children. The study included 257 children, aged 11-12. Correct spinal curvature was established in 106 (41.08%) subjects. Other types included: decreased kyphosis and correct lordosis - 40 participants (15.50%), correct kyphosis and decreased lordosis - 24 individuals (9.30%), increased kyphosis and correct lordosis - 17 subjects (6.59%), correct kyphosis and increased lordosis - 22 children (8.53%), decreased kyphosis and decreased lordosis - 32 people (12.40%), decreased kyphosis and increased lordosis - 4 of the examined subjects (1.55%), increased kyphosis and lordosis - 13 people (5.04%). In addition, 134 (51.94%) demonstrated scoliotic posture and 8 (3.10%) scoliosis. There were significant relationships between the shape of the anterior-posterior curvatures and body composition in school-children. Those with a strong body build (predominance of mesomorphs) were generally characterised by the correct formation of these curvatures. In contrast, lean people (with the predominance of ectomorphic factors) were more likely to experience abnormalities. No correlations with body composition were observed in the group with scoliotic posture or scoliosis.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Ribosomal DNA; ribosomal RNA; mammalian genome; intra- and inter-individual variations; development; diseases.
Online: 26 February 2021 (11:35:55 CET)
Repetitive nature of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene makes the sequencing of hundreds copies of mammalian 45S rDNA (about 45-kb per copy) extremely difficult and its assembly is often excluded. Increasing evidence shows that 45S rDNA variations (copy number or single nucleotide), structural ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcript variants, and non-structural rRNA transcripts (sense and anti-sense long noncoding rRNAs that include promoter rRNAs, and rRNA-derived fragments) play essential roles in mammalian development and diseases. Complete pictures of the hundreds copies of 45S rDNA and their rRNA transcripts require further innovation in sequencing techniques that include bioinformatics. The advancements in mammalian rDNA and rRNA sequencings and the discoveries of novel functions of the rDNA variants and rRNA transcripts are discussed here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0428.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: inter- and intra-host nucleotide variations; Hepatitis A virus; next-generation sequencing; pyrosequencing
Online: 21 September 2018 (04:59:34 CEST)
The accurate virus detection, strain discrimination, and source attribution of contaminated food items remains a persistent challenge because of the high mutation rates anticipated to occur in foodborne RNA viruses, such as Hepatitis A virus (HAV). This has led to predictions of the existence of more than one sequence variant between the hosts (inter-host) or within an individual host (intra-host). However, there have been no reports of intra-host variants from an infected single individual, and little is known about the accuracy of the single nucleotide variations (SNVs) calling with various methods. In this study, the presence and identity of viral SNVs, either between HAV clinical specimens or among a series of samples derived from HAV clone1-infected FRhK4 cells, were determined following analyses of nucleotide sequences generated using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and pyrosequencing methods. The results demonstrate the co-existence of inter- and intra-host variants both in the clinical specimens and the cultured samples. The discovery and confirmation of multi-viral RNAs in an infected individual is dependent on the strain discrimination at the SNV level, and critical for successful outbreak traceback and source attribution investigations. The detection of SNVs in a time series of HAV infected FRhK4 cells improved our understanding on the mutation dynamics determined probably by different selective pressures. Additionally, it demonstrated that NGS could potentially provide a valuable investigative approach toward SNV detection and identification for other RNA viruses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0439.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: cognition; cognitive functions; localization; lesion studies; body perception; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); electrical microsimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation; extrastriate body area; fusiform body area
Online: 28 July 2022 (11:16:04 CEST)
It is one of the central goals of cognitive neuroscience to understand how structure and function relate in the brain. We review how cognitive function characterization has been approached in the past. In addition, we examine the ongoing efforts, as well as the implications for the future. Clinical studies on patients with lesions have provided key insights into the relationship between brain areas and behavior over the past century. We describe cognitive function according to localization considering these early efforts for characterization. We chose a perceptual-cognitive function, namely body perception, to describe our current efforts. Using body perception as an example, we summarize contemporary techniques. Finally, we outline the trajectory of current progress into the future and discuss the implications for clinical and basic neuroscience.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0215.v1
Online: 11 November 2022 (03:53:06 CET)
Aging is a complex biological process, with gradual and progressive decline in structure and function in many organ systems. Our objective is to determine if structural changes produced by aging, vary with sex, in a stressful situation such as dehydration. The expression of Slc12a3 mRNA in renal cortex, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin, was evaluated in male and female rats aged 3 and 18 months submitted or not to water deprivation (WD) for 48 hours. When comparing ages, 18-month-old males showed lower expression of Slc12a3 mRNA than 3-month-old males, and control and WD 18-moth-old male and female rats exhibited higher expression of α-SMA than respective 3-month-old rats. Fibronectin was higher in both control and WD 18-month-old males than respective 3-month-old males. In females, only control 18-month-old rats showed higher fibronectin than control 3-month-old rats. When we compared sex, control and WD 3-month-old female rats had lower expression of Slc12a3 mRNA than re-spective males. WD 18-month-old male rats presented higher expression of fibronectin and α-SMA than WD 18-month-old female rats. When we compared hydric condition, WD 18-month-old males displayed lower relative expression of Slc12a3 mRNA and higher α-SMA expression than control 18-month-old males. Aging, sex, and dehydration lead to alteration in kidney structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0355.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Neck Muscle Vibration; Proprioception; Body Schema
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:45:37 CEST)
Upper limb control depends on accurate internal models of limb position relative to the head and neck, accurate sensory inputs, and accurate cortical processing. Transient alterations in neck afferent feedback induced by muscle vibration may impact upper limb proprioception. This research aimed to determine the effects of neck muscle vibration on upper limb proprioception using a novel elbow repositioning task (ERT). 26 right-handed participants aged 22.21 2.64 performed the ERT consisting of three target angles between 80-90 (T1), 90-100 (T2) and 100-110 (T3). Controls (CONT) (n=13, 6F) received 10 minutes of rest and the vibration group (VIB) (n=13, 6F) received 10 minutes of 60Hz vibration over the right sternocleidomastoid and left cervical extensor muscles. Task performance was reassessed following experimental manipulation. Significant time by group interactions occurred for T1: (F1,24 = 25.330, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.513) where CONT improved by 26.08% and VIB worsened by 134.27%, T2: (F1,24 = 16.157, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.402) where CONT improved by 20.39% and VIB worsened by 109.54%, and T3: (F1,24 = 21.923, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.447) where CONT improved by 37.11% and VIB worsened by 54.39%. Improvements in repositioning accuracy indicates improved proprioceptive ability with practice in controls. Decreased accuracy following vibration suggests that vibration altered proprioceptive inputs used to construct body schema, leading to inaccurate joint position sense and the observed changes in elbow repositioning accuracy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0014.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: body plan; archetype; burden; generative entrenchment
Online: 1 March 2022 (10:17:43 CET)
A body plan is a stable configuration of characters for a major taxonomic group, such as chordates or arthropods. Despite widespread casual reliance on the concept for guiding comparisons within and between groups, the nature of body plans as well as the biological causes underlying their evolution have remained elusive. This paper proposes an abstract mechanistic model of body plan identity. We hypothesize that body plans are an evolutionary phenomenon that only applies to a relatively small subset of major clades, rather than being associated with each and every so-called “phylum.” Body plans arise in evolution by stepwise accretion, and require a level of developmental complexity that is only found in some animal clades. Further, we suggest that, parallel to the developmental mechanisms controlling character identity, there are “body plan identity mechanisms” (BpIMs) that maintain entire configurations of characters while possessing a mechanistic architecture that is itself stable and traceable through evolutionary change. These BpIMs, we suggest, are entrenched intercellular signaling networks operating between transient embryonic structures that are destined to differentiate into distinct individualized characters. The activity of a BpIM results in a transient long-range integration of the embryo that is highly sensitive to genetic and environmental perturbations, and that can be detected morphologically as a conserved phylotypic stage. This model is illustrated with detailed interpretations of the notochord signaling system and the segment polarity network as candidate BpIMs in vertebrates and arthropods, respectively. We conclude by contrasting the proposed developmental-mechanistic conception of body plans with the phylogenetic notion of ground plans, and sketch the general outlines of an empirical research program on body plan evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Obesity; Eating Disorder; Body Image; Adolescents.
Online: 16 September 2021 (16:34:57 CEST)
There is growing recognition of the adverse effects of body image dissatisfaction (BID) and eating disorder (ED) symptoms on adolescent health. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ED symptoms, BID, and their relationship in adolescents from public schools in Southern Brazil. A total of 782 schoolchildren (male: n=420, female: n=362); age: 15 ± 0,4 years) answered a self-administrated questionnaire to identify sociodemographic data. Children´s Figure Rating Scale was adopted to identify body image and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to investigate ED symptoms. Inferential statistics and hierarchical model-controlled logistic regression were used for association between variables. Most of the schoolchildren reported being satisfied with their bodies. However, we observed a higher prevalence of dissatisfaction among girls for being overweight and thinness among boys. Female students and students from schools located in the central area of the city showed higher chances of developing ED symptoms, and the absence of symptoms of ED appeared to act as a protective factor against BID in schoolchildren. Results of this study show the need to reflect on these factors that influence the development of ED and non-acceptance of their own body in a population concerned with their physical appearance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0064.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: body; action; abstract concepts; metacognition; sociality
Online: 2 August 2021 (23:19:08 CEST)
Recent research has shown that the sensorimotor system plays a significant role in a variety of cognitive processes. In this paper, we will review recent studies performed in our lab (Body Action Language Lab, BALLAB) or in labs with which we collaborate, showing the involvement of the sensorimotor system at different levels. With the purpose of expounding on this aspect, we focus on studies that highlight two main characteristics of the involvement of the sensorimotor systems. First, we concentrate on the flexibility of sensorimotor grounding during interaction with objects. We report evidence showing how social context and current situations influence affordance activation. We then focus on the tactile and kinesthetic involvement in body-object interaction. Second, we illustrate flexible sensorimotor grounding in word use. We review studies showing that not only concrete words, like “bottle,” but also abstract words, like “freedom,” “thinking,” and “perhaps,” are grounded in the sensorimotor system. We report evidence showing that abstract words activate sensory modalities and involve the mouth effector more than concrete words due to their privileged relationship with language, both outer and inner speech. We discuss the activation of the mouth sensorimotor system in light of studies on adults (e.g., studies employing articulatory suppression), children (e.g., studies on the effects of pacifier use on word acquisition and processing), and infants (e.g. studies on emergence of new words). Finally, we pinpoint possible mechanisms at play in the acquisition and use of abstract concepts. We argue that with abstract concepts, we rely more on other people to learn or negotiate the meaning of words; we have called this mechanism social metacognition.Social metacognition is bidirectionally linked to our sensorimotor system. On the one hand, linguistic explanations constitute a primary source of grounding that may be re-enacted when retrieving a concept, for example through inner speech. On the other hand, it leads us to feel closer and be more synchronous in movement with others, who can help us understand the meaning of very complex words. Overall, we show that the sensorimotor system provides a grounding basis not only for objects and concrete words but also for more abstract and concrete ones. We conclude by arguing that future research should address and deepen two different and interrelated aspects concerning the involvement of the sensorimotor system during object and word processing. First, the sensorimotor system is flexibly modulated by the context, as studies on affordances reveal. Second, the sensorimotor system can be involved at different levels, and its role can be integrated and flanked by that of other systems, like the linguistic one, as studies on abstract concepts clearly show. We urge future research aimed at unravelling the role of the sensorimotor system in cognition to fully explore the complexity of this intricate-and sometimes slippery-relation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0504.v1
Online: 19 November 2020 (11:06:21 CET)
Meganthropus palaeojavanicus was known very tall with body height of 8 feet and this made M. palaeojavanicus as the tallest hominid ever existed. This species was living in closed tropical woodland and hilly landscape as the fossil remains were found in a remote forest in Sangiran, central Java. Owing large body size, it may influence the foraging ecology of M. palaeojavanicus to cope with the terrain. In here, this study aimed to model the M. palaeojavanicus foraging ecology along terrain gradients. The model indicates that within 5 km home range radius, the most suitable foraging areas were in north east since these areas have more flat landscapes with slopes of <7.5%. While less suitable areas in north west and south west areas were characterized by hilly landscapes with rugged terrain and steep slopes with slopes of >62.8%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0310.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Euler's equation; rigid body; rotation; Maple
Online: 14 August 2020 (06:32:59 CEST)
Finding a solution for Euler's equations is a classic mechanics problem. This study revisits the problem with numerical approaches. For ease of teaching and research, a Maple code comprising 2 lines is written to find a numerical solution for the problem. The study's results are validated by comparing these with previous studies. Our results confirm the correctness of the principle of maximum moment of inertia of the rotating body, which is verified by thermodynamics. As an essential part of this study, the Maple code is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0132.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Maturity Model; Sustainability assessment; Supply Chain; Intra- and inter-organizational perspec-tive; TBL dimensions
Online: 9 January 2023 (01:27:50 CET)
Nowadays, frameworks and models are critical to enabling organizations to identify their current sustainability integration into business and to follow up on these initiatives over time. In this context, the maturity models offer a structured way of analyzing how a supply chain meets specific sustainability requirements and which areas demand attention to reach maturity levels. This study proposes a five-level maturity model to help supply chains identify their level of engagement with sustainability practices combining three perspectives: intra and inter-organizational sustainability practices, triple-bottom-line approach and critical areas for sustainability. All the steps followed in constructing the maturity model were based on a literature review, and case studies supported its improvement, application, and testing. The proposed model presents many advantages, such as being used as a self-assessment tool, a roadmap for sustainability behaviour improvement, and a benchmarking tool to evaluate and compare standards and best practices among organizations and supply chains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: land expropriation; intra-racial tension; social cohesion; political and traditional elitism; marginalised landless majority
Online: 11 December 2019 (11:38:36 CET)
Section 25(2) of the Constitution of South Africa protects property rights and the White Paper on Land Reform demonstrate tolerance and wisdom in the application of land reform policies. The central argument to this research was whether amendment of Section 25 (2) of the constitution to allow expropriation of land without compensation redresses redistribution of land for social cohesion and political stability. The researcher argues that, currently, Section 25 of the constitution provides for expropriation without compensation but at the same time protects property rights reducing the pace of redistribution. Hence, an amendment of section 25 (2) may remove the property right clause and accelerate expropriation without compensation. But whether the removal of the property right clause and acceleration of the process of expropriation without compensation will result to equitable and fair distribution of land to the majority of landless South Africans is not certain. The study concludes that, amendment of Section 25(2) is a justifiable process and priorities must be given to equity in redistribution to the majority landless at the margins of communities and not elites. If the amendment of Section 25 (2) cannot guarantee equity in redistribution for all ill respective of race, social cohesion, political stability and economic growth, intra-racial tensions may emerge. Such tensions may further compound the land question and affects investors’ confidence in South Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: intra-abdominal pressure; abdominal compartment syndrome; pressure sensor; negative pressure wound therapy; open abdomen;
Online: 11 January 2018 (09:17:10 CET)
1) Introduction: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a frequently applied open abdomen (OA) treatment. There are only a few experimental data supporting this method and describing the optimal settings and pressure distribution in the abdominal cavity during this procedure. The aim of our study was to evaluate pressure values at different points of the abdominal cavity during NPWT in experimental abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) animal model. 2) Methods: In this study (permission Nr. 13/2014/UDCAR) 27 Hungahib pigs (15.4- 20.2 kg) were operated. ACS was generated by implanting a plastic bag in the abdomen through mini-laparotomy and filled with 2100- 3300 ml saline solution (37 C°) to an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) of 30 mmHg. After 3 hours, NPWT (Vivano Med ® Abdominal Kit, Paul Hartmann AG, Germany) or Bogota bag was applied. NPWT group was divided into -50, -100 and 150 mmHg suction group. Pressure distribution to the abdominal cavity was monitored at 6 different points of the abdomen via a multichannel pressure monitoring system. 3) Results: The absolute pressure levels were significantly higher above than below the layer. The values of the pressure were similar in the midline than laterally. Amongst the bowels, the pressure values changed periodically between 0 and -12 mmHg which might be caused by the peristaltic movements. 4) Conclusions: The porcine model of the present study seems to be well applicable for investigating ACS and NPWT. It was possible to provide valuable for clinicians. The pressure was well distributed by the protective layer to the lateral parts of the abdomen and this phenomenon did not change considerably during the therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0100.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: omicron; alpha; delta; deltacron; recombination; RNA editing; intra-host variants; tropisms; ox-idative damage; Wuhan
Online: 6 July 2022 (15:27:32 CEST)
The successive waves of the Covid-19 pandemic are driven by SARS-CoV-2 variants that reached critical detection levels in different parts of the world. But how evolved the Wuhan virus since its detection in December 2019 into the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529) variants of concern? This is a story of mice and men, of up to 1,000,000 infected cells in one person, where each cell produces between 105 and 106 viral RNAs, of immune-compromised patients, the digestive tract and viral recombination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Intraoral Scanners; Intra-Oral Scanners; CAD/CAM; Digital Dentistry; Trueness; Precision; Accuracy; Scanners; Lab Scanners
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:44:19 CEST)
(1) Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the full arch scan accuracy (precision and trueness) of nine digital intra-oral scanners and four lab scanners. Previous studies have compared the accuracy of some intra-oral scanners, but as this is a field of quickly developing technologies, a more up-to-date study was needed to assess the capabilities of currently available models.; (2) Methods: The present in vitro study compared nine different intraoral scanners (Omnicam 4.6; Omnicam 5.1; Primescan; CS 3600; Trios 3; Trios 4; Runyes; i500 and DL206) as well as four lab light scanners (Einscan SE; 300e; E2 and Ineos X5) to investigate the accuracy of each scanner by examining the overall trueness and precision. Ten aligned and cut scans from each of the intra-oral and lab scanners in the in vitro study were brought into CloudCompare. A comparison was made with the master STL using the CloudCompare 3D analysis best-fit algorithm. The results were recorded along with individual standard deviation and a colorimetric map of the deviation across the surface of the STL mesh; a comparison was made to the master STL, quantified at specific points. ; (3) Results: In the present study, the Primescan had the best overall trueness (17.3 ± 4.9). Followed by (in order of increasing deviation) the Trios 4 (20.8 ± 6.2), i500 (25.2 ± 7.3), CS3600 (26.9 ± 15.9), Trios 3 (27.7 ± 6.8), Runyes (47.2 ± 5.4), Omnicam 5.1 (55.1 ± 9.5), Omnicam 4.6 (57.5 ± 3.2) and Launca DL206 (58.5 ± 22.0). Regarding the lab light scanners, the Ineos X5 had the best overall trueness with (0.0 ± 1.9). Followed by (in order of increasing deviation) the 3Shape E2 (3.6 ± 2.2), Up3D 300E (12.8 ± 2.7), and Einscan SE (14.9 ± 9.5); (4) Conclusions: This study confirms that all current generations of intra-oral digital scanners can capture a reliable, reproducible full arch scan in dentate patients. Out of the intra-oral scanners tested, no scanner produced results significantly similar in trueness to the Ineos X5. However, the Primescan was the only one to be statistically of a similar level of trueness to the 3Shape E2 lab scanner. All scanners in the study had mean trueness of under 60-micron deviation. While this study can compare the scanning accuracy of this sample in a dentate arch, the scanning of a fully edentulous arch is more challenging. The accuracy of these scanners in edentulous cases should be examined in further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0198.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Magnesium deficiency; Body composition; Chronic kidney failure.
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:27:18 CEST)
(1) Background: Reduced magnesium (Mg) levels may be associated with a faster de-cline in renal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum and uri-nary Mg levels with body composition and inflammatory markers; (2) Methods: Lon-gitudinal study with patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing non-dialysis treatment in stages 3A, 3B and 4. Venous samples were collected after a 12-hour night fast. Body composition was evaluated by Double X-Ray Emission Absorptiometry and Air Displacement Plethysmog-raphy; (3) Results: The sample consisted of 134 patients. In the adjusted linear regression model, uric acid, percentage of lean mass and ali-mentar intake of Mg were positively associated with the sergic Mg. Triglyceride levels, WC and fat mass percentage were negatively associated with serum Mg. For the Mg urinal, in the adjusted model, the eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate), IL (interleukin 6), food intake of Mg and the percentage of lean mass showed a positive correlation.; (4) Conclusions: Serum Mg levels were positively associated with lean mass and negatively with total and central body fat and urinary Mg was positively associated with IL6 and lean mass.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0522.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: astragalus; body mass; Bovid; Pleistocene; population density
Online: 22 September 2020 (11:37:26 CEST)
Astragalus bone is one of the most important fossil records as it can reconstruct the prehistoric life. Respectively, this study aims to model the body mass, habitat preference, and population density of prehistoric bovid Duboisia santeng (Dubois 1891) in eastern Java island in the early Pleistocene. The astragali from 9 specimens were used to estimate the body mass and population density. Likewise regression models are used to analyze the relationship between astragalus lateral length, width, and body mass compared to the astragalus of extant Bovid species. The result revealed the body mass average was 60.3 kg (95%CI: 58.9-61.7) and this indicates the D. santeng belongs to large herbivores. While the population density was estimated at about 5.39 individuals per km2 (95% CI: 3.18-7.6).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: vitamin D; obesity; weight-loss; body composition
Online: 12 April 2020 (16:44:13 CEST)
Background: Vitamin D was studied in regards to its possible impact on body mass reduction and metabolic changes in adults and children with obesity yet there were no studies assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation during a weight management programme in children and adolescence. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of 26 weeks of vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese children undergoing an integrated 12-months’ long weight loss programme on body mass reduction, body composition and bone mineral density. Methods: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Vitamin D deficient patients ( <30 ng/ml level of vitamin D) aged 6-14, participating in multidisciplinary weight management programme were randomly allocated to receiving vitamin D (1200 IU) or placebo for the first 26 weeks of the intervention. Results: Out of the 152 qualified patients, 109 (72%) completed a full cycle of four visits scheduled in the programme. There were no difference in the level of BMI change. Although the reduction was greater in the vitamin D vs. placebo group (-4.28 ± 8.43 vs. -2.53 ±6.10) the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.319). Similarly the reduction in fat mass – assessed both using bioimpedance and DEXa was achieved, yet the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study ads substantial results to support the thesis on no effect of vitamin D supplementation on body weight reduction in children and adolescents with vitamin D insufficiency undergoing a weight management programme. Trial registration no: NCT 02828228; trial registration date: 8 June 2016 registered in: ClinicalTrials.gov.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0206.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: body self-image; adolescent; anthropometry; nutritional status
Online: 16 April 2018 (10:51:45 CEST)
The critical changes in physical appearance during adolescence can considerably influence the self-appraisal of body image. The purpose of this study is to analyze body self-image gender differences in Mediterranean adolescents, and his relationships to the anthropometric characteristics of this population in different phases of the adolescence. Participants were 809 Mediterranean teenagers (396 females) aged 11 to 17. A relative low prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was observed among healthy urban Mediterranean adolescents (boys 17.3%; girls 22.7%). Girls showed statistically significantly higher mean BSQ scores than boys (M = 61.7, SD = 26.6 versus M = 56.3, SD = 27.1; p < 0.001). Girls in the late adolescence were more often classified as being dissatisfied (31%) in comparison to those in the early adolescent group (19.1%; p < 0.05). There was a good correlation of BSQ scores with all the anthropometric variables in males but not in females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: coffee; obesity; body mass index; waist circumference
Online: 30 September 2017 (05:12:52 CEST)
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5,995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption was evaluated using the food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity measured by BMI (≥ 3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-3.34; P for the trend < 0.001) and abdominal obesity measured by WC (≥ 3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.59-2.79; P for the trend < 0.001). The positive association between daily coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: salivary glands, minor salivary glands, salivary gland carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, in situ carcinoma, intra-cystic carcinoma
Online: 8 April 2020 (14:46:41 CEST)
Aims: To report on the clinico-pathological features of a series of 12 intra-oral mucoepidermoid carcinomas showing exclusive intra-cystic growth. Methods and methods: All mucoepidermoid carcinomas diagnosed in the period 1990-2012 were retrieved, the original histological preparations were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis, and from selected cases, showing exclusive intra-cystic neoplastic component, additional sections were cut at 3 subsequent 200m intervals and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, PAS and Alcian Blue, to possibly identify tumor invasion of the adjacent tissues, which could have been overlooked in the original histological preparations. Also, pertinent findings collected from the clinical charts and follow-up data were analyzed. Results: We identified 14 intraoral mucoepidermoid carcinomas treated by conservative surgery and with a minimum follow up of 5 years. The neosplasm were located in the hard palate (9 cases), the soft palate (2), the cheeck (2) and the retromolar trigone (1). In all instances histological examination was revealed the presence of a single cystic space, containing clusters of columnar, intermediate, epidermoid, clear and mucous-producing cells, the latter exhibiting distinct intra-cytoplasmic mucin production, as confirmed by PAS and Alcian Blue stains. The cysts were entirely circumscribed by fibrous connective tissue and no solid areas or infiltrating tumour clusters were detected. Conservative surgical resection was performed in all cases and no recurrences or nodal metastases were observed during the follow up period. Conclusions: Mucoepidermoid carcinomas showing prominent (>20%) intra-cystic proliferation currently are considered low-grade tumours. In addition, we also unveil the possibility that mucoepidermoid carcinomas, at least in their early growth phase, may display an exclusive intra-cystic fashion and might be considered as in situ carcinomas, unable to infiltrate adjacent tissues or metastasize.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: decentralized water systems; cluster approach; intra-cluster homogeneity; Water Supply Systems (WSS); Urban Water Systems (UWS)
Online: 14 September 2019 (19:33:09 CEST)
Abstract: Current models in design of urban water management systems and their corresponding infrastructure using centralized designs have commonly failed from the perspective of cost effectiveness and inability to adapt to the future changes. These challenges are driving cities towards using decentralized systems. While there is great consensus on the benefits of decentralization; currently no methods exist which guide decision-makers to define the optimal boundaries of decentralized water systems. A new clustering methodology and tool to decentralize water supply systems (WSS) into small and adaptable units is presented. The tool includes two major components: (i) minimization of the distance from source to consumer by assigning demand to the closest water source, and (ii) maximization of the intra-cluster homogeneity by defining the cluster boundaries such that the variation in population density, land use, socio-economic level, and topography within the cluster is minimized. The methodology and tool are applied to Arua Town in Uganda. Four random cluster scenarios and a centralized system were created and compared with the optimal clustered WSS. It was observed that the operational cost of the four cluster scenarios is up to 13.9 % higher than the optimal, and the centralized system is 26.6% higher than the optimal clustered WSS, consequently verifying the efficacy of the proposed method to determine an optimal cluster boundary for WSS. In addition, optimal homogeneous clusters improve efficiency by encouraging reuse of wastewater and stormwater within a cluster and by minimizing leakage through reduced pressure variations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0437.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: freshman; weight gain; body composition; diet; physical activity
Online: 12 September 2022 (11:10:16 CEST)
Background: Students in the United States gain weight significantly during their first year of university, however limited data are available for Australian students. Methods: This 12-month observational study was conducted to monitor monthly body weight and composition, as well as quarterly eating behaviours, dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and basal metabolic rate changes amongst first-year Australian university students. Participants were first-year university students over 18 years. Results: Twenty-two first-year university students (5 males and 17 females) completed the study. Female students gained weight significantly at two, three, and four-months (+0.9 kg; +1.5 kg; +1.1 kg, p <0.05). Female waist circumference (2.5 cm increase at three-months, p = 0.012), and body fat also increased (+0.9%, p = 0.026 at three-months). Intakes of sugar, saturated fat (both >10% of total energy), and sodium exceeded recommended levels (>2000 mg) at 12-months. Greater sedentary behaviours were observed amongst male students throughout the study (p <0.05). Conclusions: Female students are at risk of unfavourable changes in body composition during the first year of university, while males are at risk of increased sedentary behaviours. High intakes of saturated fat, sugars, and sodium warrant future interventions in such a vulnerable group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0053.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; EEG; optical illusions; alpha oscillations
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:44:14 CET)
Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with imagined defects in appearance. Optical illusions induce illusory effects that distort the presented stimulus thus leading to ambiguous percepts. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated whether BDD is related to differentiated perception during illusory percepts. Methods: 18 BDD patients and 18 controls were presented with 39 optical illusions together with a statement testing whether or not they perceived the illusion. After a delay period, they were prompted to answer whether the statement is right/wrong and their degree of confidence for their answer. We investigated differences of BDD on task performance and self-reported confidence and analysed the brain oscillations during decision-making using nonparametric cluster statistics. Results: Behaviorally, the BDD group exhibited reduced confidence when responding incorrectly, potentially attributed to higher levels of doubt. Electrophysiologically, the BDD group showed significantly reduced alpha power at mid-central scalp areas, suggesting impaired allocation of attention. Interestingly, the lower the alpha power of the identified cluster, the higher the BDD severity, as assessed by BDD psychometrics. Conclusions: Results evidenced that alpha power during illusory processing might serve as a quantitative EEG biomarker of BDD, potentially associated with reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0106.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: cesarean section; body mass index; obesity; meta-analysis
Online: 7 December 2021 (13:48:15 CET)
Overweight/obesity is one of the most important health problem worldwide. Birth by cesarean section has been shown to influence long-term health outcome including obesity. The aim of this systematic review-meta-analysis is to examine whether cesarean section increases the risk of offspring’ s overweight/obesity. The study follows the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. A systematic literature search was con-ducted on Scopus, PubMed, and WoS until December 2020. For inclusion, studies must have re-ported either (I) both Birth by cesarean section and adult (≥ 18 years) offspring BMI, (II) cohort or case–control study design and (III) a risk estimate. Heterogeneity testing was performed using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed by Egger’s test and Begg’s test. Me-ta-analysis was performed through a random effect model. Eleven studies with a combined population of 180.408 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The overall analysis (n = 18) yielded a combined risk estimate for overweight/obesity of 1.19 (95% CI 1.08-1.31) and the test of heterogeneity resulted Q=53,37 (I2 = 70,37 %, P≤0•0001). The risk of offspring obesity is 1.23 (95% CI 1.09-1.39) and the test of heterogeneity resulted Q=39.50 (I2= 72,15%, P≤0•0001). Children born by cesarean section have an increased risk of developing obesity in adulthood
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: elite athletes; olympic sailors; body temperature; heat adaptation
Online: 27 April 2021 (11:41:24 CEST)
Objective On the eve of the summer Olympic Games in Tokyo research focus has shifted on the core temperature responses of elite athletes competing in the heat. In the absence of the field data of core temperature during Olympic sailing competition aim of the present study was to identify core temperature response during the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Test Event. Methods Four elite athletes from Olympic sailing (177.5±5.2 cm, 71.1±7.4 kg, body mass index 22.5±1.4 kg/m2, 24.8±3.7 yrs, VO2max 50.6±7.2 mL/min/kg)): 2 males and 2 females participated in the study. Core temperature was recorded using e-Celsius ingestible capsules, heart rate using a heart rate monitor. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were measured using portable meteo station. Results Core temperature was recorded at water environment via an ingestible capsule in 4 sailors during the training (T), and competition (C), respectively. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were hot and humid: during training temperature were 30.9°C±1.7°C and relative humidity 81.4%±2.8%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 41°C±4°C and during competition temperature was 31.2°C±2.3°C and relative humidity 87.2%±4.4%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 45.2°C±8.9°C. Core temperature increased during training reaching higher peak values (38.6°C±0.4°C) and during competition (38.9°C±0.4°C). The highest temperature recorded was 39.4°C (C). Conclusion The current study provides unique information into the core temperature parameters under heat stress in elite Olympic sailors during training and race event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0611.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: validity; reliability; assessment; body image; self-evaluation; students
Online: 22 April 2021 (14:05:42 CEST)
Body-Esteem Scale is an assessment tool for adolescents and adults that evaluate three dimensions of self-evaluations of one’s body. Body-Esteem Scale has been translated and validated in some countries since America down to Europe. Lack of translation and reliability evidence in Portugal was detected. This study aimed to translate and test the validity and reliability of the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) in students in the context of Portuguese higher educa-tion. A total of 173 students (60.7% are female) with a mean age of 19.7 (standard deviation = 2.2) years participated. Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to assess the underlying dimensions of BESAA. Construct validity was evaluated through correlation with the Appearance Schemas Inventory – Revised and a three-factor model (“Appearance”, ‘‘Weight’’ and “Attribu-tion’’) was established. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the construct validity of the instrument. Items that had factor weights (λ)<.40 were removed, as well as those that were considered redundant by the modification indices estimated by the Lagrange Multipliers (LM) method (LM>11, p<.001). We observed high correlations between theoretically similar factors, and low correlations between different factors. The Portuguese BESAA showed adequate validity and reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: anthropometry; height; somatotype; body mass; soccer; sports performance
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:03:33 CET)
The aim of this article was to examine if there are position-specific differences in the morphological characteristics of sub-elite female football players and to establish normative standards for this level of female football players. The morphological features of 101 sub-elite female football players (age: 21.8±2.7 years) were assessed. Twenty anthropometric sites were used in the measurements of body composition and somatotype. The average value of body fat percentage was 20.8±5.7%. The somatotype of the overall group was 4.0–2.4–2.1. Positional significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences were found between goalkeepers and outfield players in morphological characteristics. Goalkeepers were taller, heavier, possessed the highest body fat percentage and showed higher values for all skinfolds, breadth, girth and length measurements. However, there were very few practically worthwhile differences between the outfield positions. Positional groups did not differ (p ≤ 0.05) in somatotype characteristics either. The study suggests that at sub-elite level there are mainly differences between goalkeepers and outfield players, but outfield players are homogeneous when comparing morphological characteristics. These results may serve as normative values for future comparisons regarding the morphological characteristics of female football players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0267.v1
Online: 14 January 2021 (12:47:52 CET)
Background: Overweight and obesity are becoming serious public health menace in the world today. Weight gain is skyrocketing across the globe due to growing economy, fast food expansion and a shift towards more sedentary living. However, most people lack knowledge regarding risks associated with overweight and obesity. Aim: The study aimed to explore the knowledge level of bankers in the Ho Municipality on the health risks associated with overweight and obesity. Methodology: A cross-sectional study design with quantitative method was employed. The study spanned from September 7, 2018 to April 25, 2019. A self-administered questionnaire and convenience sampling technique were used to obtain data. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 Developer and the results presented in statistical tables and graphs. Results: Of 136 participants investigated, 67 (49.3%) were between 31 - 40 years. 2 participants (1.5%) were underweight, 49(36.0%) had normal weight, 43(31.6%) were overweight while 42 (30.9%) were obese. The study revealed that female bankers were prone to overweight (37.78%) while the males were prone to obesity (56.52%). Participants generally had low knowledge and awareness on health risks of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Most bankers in the Ho Municipality were overweight and obese due to insufficient knowledge and low awareness on the risks associated with overweight and obesity. Public education and awareness creation are urgently needed to stem the tide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0052.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: body composition; physical fitness; sedentary behavior; nutritional status
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:51:42 CET)
Mexico shows a high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. Geographical location and cultural environment could play a role in the promotion of healthy lifestyles in terms of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB) and nutrition. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in body composition (BC), physical fitness (PF), PA and nutritional status of adolescents from the state of Jalisco (Mexico). The study involved 469 students aged 13-17 years (55.0% girls) from 8 high schools. BC was analyzed by bioimpedance, and PF by standardized field tests. Objective measurements of PA and SB were taken in a subsample (n=240). Energy intake (EI) was calculated from two 24h recalls. Rural residents presented a higher prevalence of overweight, waist circumference, trunk fat mass, regional fat free mass and muscle handgrip strength (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.06). Cardiorespiratory fitness was similar among participants, whereas urban adolescents showed higher muscle power, speed-agility and flexibility scores (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.07). Overall lifestyle behavior in urban adolescents was more sedentary (p<0.05, ηp2= 0.11). EI was similar in both locations. In conclusion, urban Mexican adolescents presented a generally higher sedentary behavior and better fitness and fatness profile than their rural peers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: spatiotemporal parameters; gait; gender; age; Body Mass Index
Online: 9 September 2020 (07:12:18 CEST)
Studies on the gait's parameters have been identified on the patients population. Most researchers confirm that the patients walk differently than normal people and they may have a risk for falls. Consistent finding and description of gender, age, and body mass index differences in gait studies is rare in healthy subjects. A cross-sectional study with forty-five young adult (F = 20, M = 25) was conducted. Stadiometer and Physilog 4 inertial sensors were used for data collection. A gait analyser 5.2 software (GaitUp, S.A. Lausanne, Switzerland) was used to determine spatiotemporal parameters. No statistically significant differences were found in any bilateral foot gait parameters with respect to gender, age, and body mass index. Females are found with higher total double support and cadence than males. Cadence also increases with age. Obese people showed lower gait speed, cadence, and total double support. These findings may be beneficial to those who have abnormal gait pattern due to age, body mass index differences, decreased muscle strength, spasticity, and joint mobility. This important informations should be considered to rehabilitate patients with abnormal gait patterns to controlling dynamic balance and riks to falling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: sport; health; body mass index; obesity; morbidity; mortality
Online: 28 July 2020 (04:21:17 CEST)
The classic Body Mass Index, (BMI), developed in the 19th century by the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet  is an important indicator of the risk of death, of obesity, of negative health consequences, body fat percentage and of the shape of the body. While he BMI is assumed to indicate obesity in sedentary people and in people who do not practice sports, it is undisputed and a consensus among researchers  that Body Mass Index (BMI) is not a good indicator for obesity in people who developed their body through heavy physical work or sport but also in other segments of population such as those who appear to have a normal weight but in fact have a high body fat percentage and obese methabolism. The BMI also does not include all the variables essential for a health predictor. The BMI is not always a good predictor of metabolic disease, people who appear of healthy weight according to BMI have in some cases an obese metabolic syndrome. The BMI was developed as a law of natural sciences and “social physics” , as it was called then, before the middle of the 19th century, and it had been used from the 70s for medical purposes, to detect obesity and the risk of mortality . The BMI has a huge importance for modern society, affected by an obesity epidemic . BMI has applications in medicine, sport medicine, sport, fitness, bodybuilding, insurance, nutrition, pharmacology. The main limitation of the BMI is that it does not account for body composition including non fat body mass such as muscles, joints, body frame and makes no difference between fat and non fat components of the body weight. The body composition and the proportion of fat and muscles make a difference in health outcomes  …. Body composition makes a difference also in the level of sport performance for athletes of every level. In nearly two centuries since the Body Mass Index was developed, no formula had been successfully developed to account for body composition and make the difference between muscle and fat in a consistent way. This can be considered a longstanding open problem of major importance for society. The objective of this analysis is to develop new formulae taking into account the health implication of body composition measured through indirect, simple indicators and making the difference between muscles and fat, healthy and non healthy metabolism. The formulae developed in this article are the only formula to successfully generalize BMI and make this difference. I develop a direct generalization of BMI, in the mathematical and physiological sense to account for fat and fat free mass and muscles, small and large body frames. It is the first such generalization because the classic BMI can be determined as a particular case of my formulae in the strict mathematical and practical physiologic sense. No other formula generalized the BMI to make the difference between fat and a large frame and muscles has ever been published in nearly two centuries since the BMI formula had been developed. The formulae I developed explain and generalize the conclusions of a large number of highly cited empirical experiments cited in the reference section.  .. Most of the experimental proof I bring in support of my formulae and bodyweight quantification theory comes from many highly cited experimental research publications in medicine, sports medicine, sport science and physiology. My formulae explain also performance in decades of competitive sports and athletics
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0415.v1
Online: 29 March 2020 (03:12:09 CEST)
Social distancing, washing hands and good hygiene are essential and currently the most potent methods available to curb down the unprecedented speed by which the new coronavirus is spreading across the globe. Even under lockdown, which is necessary to significantly reduce the number of people that get infected by an ill person, are there additional measures that each of us can embrace to even further reduce the risk of infection and the severity of the COVID-19 disease? Given the lack of licensed drugs that target SARS-CoV-2 specifically, we have to look into additional non-specific defense mechanisms that animals and humans evolved to protect themselves from pathogen invasions. The goal of this article is to describe how various of our non-specific defense mechanisms work, which actually precede the inflammatory response, and to discuss whether we can exploit the unique features of the coronavirus envelope and the self-cleaning machinery of the human respiratory tract to strengthen our self-defense. The challenge is to actively interfere with supportive measures during the short time window between getting exposed and before an inflammatory response gets initiated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0067.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: Mathematical Model; Streamline; Shape of the body; Theory
Online: 5 April 2019 (15:28:58 CEST)
This article attempts to propose a mathematical model and potential explanation regarding the unavoidable impact of a rigid body's peculiar shape on the seamless flow over it. The solid body completely immersed in a Newtonian fluid and respectively has a relative open circuit flow on it will typically experience various observable phenomena. These typical phenomena in laminar flow are explained using the proposed theory rather than conventional approximations or several partial theories. This article respectively represents an understanding of the laminar flow over a rigid body's external surface with due respect to its distinctive shape and size. To formulate a more realistic and simplified mathematical model for open circuit laminar flow over a body, a mathematical model is proposed based on the historical data of aerodynamics and theoretical mechanics. This mathematical model is intended to properly estimate forces on the continuous surface of the body in a laminar flow, to properly explain, understand and predict various phenomena like flow separation, flow transition, down-wash, stalling at the higher angle of attack, stalling velocity and how cambered airfoil can typically generate lift at a zero incidence angle. Most of all a mathematical model and the mechanism of streamline formation in an open-circuit laminar with respect to the shape and size of the body are illustrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0061.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: body-worn cameras; police; activation; attitudes; principled agents
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:03:46 CET)
What drives an individual police officer to activate his body-worn camera (BWC)? Some evidence suggests officer attitudes and resistance to the technology contributes to the equivocal results in studies testing for BWCs effect on use-of-force, complaints, and other outcomes of interest. Leveraging a novel survey and administrative dataset, we investigate the predictors of BWC activation among 147 police officers in a single agency. With a test of three nested models, we find job function covariates offer robust predictive power of how often an officer activates her or his BWC. Neither demographic nor attitudinal measures significantly predict BWC activations, except for a negative relationship with how officers perceive BWC impacts on professional discretion. The study furnishes empirical support for understanding officers as Principled Agents: job function, guided by administrative policy is the most explanatory and parsimonious, while models of attitudes and demographics fail to improve upon the job function model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: celiac disease; body composition; gluten free diet; children
Online: 15 October 2018 (13:19:09 CEST)
The primary and proven therapy, in cases of celiac disease (CD), is a rigorous gluten-free diet. However, there are reports of its negative effects in the form of nutritional deficiencies, obesity and adverse changes in body composition. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a gluten free diet (GFD) on the body composition of children with CD. In a case-controlled study (n = 41; mean age 10.81 y; SD = 3.96) children with CD, in various stages of treatment, underwent medical assessment. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. More than half of the examined children (n = 26) followed a GFD. CD children had significantly higher mean values of the fat free mass (FFM% = 80.68 vs. 76.66, p = 0.015), and total body water (TBW% = 65.22 vs. 60.47, p = 0.012), and lower mean values of the fat mass (FM% = 19.32 vs. 23.34, p = 0.015). Children who were on a GFD presented slightly higher, but not statistically significant, mean values of FM and FFM, than children who did not follow dietary recommendations (FM [kg] = 7.48 vs. 5.24, p = 0.064; FM% = 20.81 vs. 16.73, p = 0.087; FFM [kg] = 28.19 vs. 22.62, p = 0.110). After minimum one year of a GFD, CD children showed significantly higher values of FFM [kg] (p = 0.001), MM [kg] (p < 0.001), TBW [L] (p < 0.001) and BCM [kg] (p < 0.001). Furthermore, CD children who were on a GFD presented significantly higher weight (p = 0.034) and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.021) increase. The children adhering to a GFD demonstrate a tendency towards higher indices of selected body composition components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nuts; walnuts; body weight; adiposity; obesity; elderly; energy
Online: 14 September 2018 (08:05:18 CEST)
Objective: To assess the effects of chronic walnut consumption on body weight and adiposity in elderly individuals. Methods: The Walnuts And Healthy Aging study is a dual-center (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University [LLU]), 2-year randomized parallel trial. This report concerns only the LLU cohort. Healthy elders (mean age 69 y, 67% women) were randomly assigned to walnut (n = 183) or control diets (n = 173). Subjects in the walnut group received packaged walnuts (28–56 g/d), equivalent to ≈15% of daily energy requirements, to incorporate into their habitual diet, while those in the control group abstained from walnuts. Adiposity was measured periodically, and data were adjusted for in-trial changes in self-reported physical activity. Results: After 2 years, body weight significantly decreased (P = 0.031), while body fat significantly increased (P = 0.0001). However, no significant differences were observed between the control and walnut groups regarding body weight (−0.6 kg and −0.4 kg, respectively, P = 0.67) or body fat (+0.9% and +1.3%, respectively, P = 0.53). Lean body mass, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio remained essentially unchanged. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings of primary analysis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that walnuts can be incorporated into the daily diet of healthy elders without concern for adverse effects on body weight or body composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0042.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Pentagon; fivefold morphology; body plan; spatial organization; morphospace.
Online: 2 August 2018 (09:00:56 CEST)
A basic pattern in the body plan architecture of many animals, plants and some molecular and cellular systems is five-part units. This pattern has been understood as a result of genetic blueprints in development and as a widely conserved evolutionary character. Despite some efforts, a definitive explanation of the abundance of pentagonal symmetry at so many levels of complexity is still missing. Based on both, a computational platform and a statistical spatial organization argument, we show that five-fold morphology is substantially different from other abundant symmetries like three-fold, four-fold and six-fold symmetries in terms of spatial interacting elements. We develop a measuring system to determine levels of spatial organization in 2D polygons (homogeneous or heterogeneous partition of defined areas) based in principles of regularity in a morphospace. We found that spatial organization of five-fold symmetry is statistically higher than all other symmetries studied here (three to ten-fold symmetries) in terms of spatial homogeneity. The significance of our findings is based on the statistical constancy of geometrical constraints derived from spatial organization of shapes, beyond the material or complexity level of the many different systems where pentagonal symmetry occurs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: corticospinal tract; optic radiations; tractography; transcranial magnetic stimulation; subdural strip electrodes; intra-operative neuro-monitoring; parietal lobe
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:08:09 CEST)
Background: The role played by the non-dominant parietal lobe in motor cognition, attention and spatial awareness networks has potentiated the use of awake surgery. When this is not feasible, asleep monitoring and mapping techniques should be used to achieve an onco-functional balance. Objective: This study aims to assess the feasibility of a dual-strip method to obtain direct cortical stimulation for continuous real-time cortical monitoring and subcortical mapping of motor and visual pathways simultaneously in parietal lobe tumour surgery. Methods: Single-centre prospective study between May’19-November’20 of patients with intrinsic non-dominant parietal-lobe tumours. Two subdural strips were used to simultaneously map and monitor motor and visual pathways. Results: Fifteen patients were included. With regards to motor function, a large proportion of patients had abnormal interhemispheric resting motor threshold ratio (iRMTr) (71.4%), abnormal Cortical Excitability Score (CES) (85.7%), close distance to the corticospinal tract – Lesion-To-Tract Distance (LTD) – 4.2mm, Cavity-To-Tract Distance (CTD) – 7mm and intraoperative subcortical distance - 6.4mm. Concerning visual function, the LTD and CTD for optic radiations (OR) were 0.5mm and 3.4mm, respectively; the mean intensity for positive subcortical stimulation of OR was 12mA±2.3mA and 5/6 patients with deterioration of VEPs>50% had persistent hemianopia and transgression of ORs. 12 patients remained stable, one patient had a de-novo transitory hemiparesis, and two showed improvements in motor symptoms. A higher iRMTr for lower limbs was related with a worse motor outcome (p=0.013) and a longer CTD to OR was directly related with a better visual outcome (p=0.041). At 2 weeks after hospital discharge, all patients were ambulatory at home and all proceeded to have oncological treatment. Conclusion: We propose motor and visual function boundaries for asleep surgery of intrinsic non-dominant parietal tumours. Pre-operative abnormal cortical excitability of the motor cortex, deterioration of the VEP recordings and CTD<2mm from the OR were related to poorer outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: virtual reality; exercise; overweight; body mass index; depression; immersion
Online: 29 December 2022 (03:52:25 CET)
Background: This study explored the effects of a virtual reality exercise program on overweight middle-aged women. Methods: This randomized controlled trial included women 4065 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of 23 kg/m2 or more living in D city. The virtual reality environment was set up by attaching an IoT sensor to an indoor bicycle and linking it with a smartphone, enabling exercise in an immersive virtual reality through a head-mounted display. Results: In the virtual reality exercise group, the BMI was significantly decreased after the 8-week intervention compared with the baseline value (F=100.806, p<.001). The depression scores were significantly different among the three groups, with the intervention effect being more significant in the virtual reality exercise group than in the indoor bicycle exercise and con-trol groups (F=3.462, p<.001). Furthermore, the levels of exercise fun (F=12.373, p<.001) and exer-cise immersion (F=14.629, p<.001) were significantly higher in the virtual reality exercise group than in the indoor bicycle exercise and control groups. Conclusions: The virtual reality exercise program positively affected the BMI and the levels of depression, exercise fun, and exercise im-mersion in overweight middle-aged women. It is an effective home exercise program for obesity management in this population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diabetes; antioxidant; antihyperglycemic; lipid profile; body weight; algal treatments
Online: 14 December 2022 (03:17:46 CET)
Currently, algae arouse a growing interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic area due to the fact that they have a great diversity of bioactive compounds with the potential for pharmacological, cosmetic, and nutraceutical applications. Many of these bioactive compounds are secondary metabolites whose amounts in the algae vary with varying environmental conditions. Free radicals and other active oxygen derivatives are recognized as a natural by-product of aerobic metabolism. However, reactive oxygen species directly participate in mechanisms related to various pathological states such as cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's, among others. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease resulting from changes in glucose metabolism and/or deficient production/action of insulin. This review has as its main objective to reveal the potential antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of algae extracts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: colorectal neoplasm; nutrition assessment; body composition; electric impedance; prognosis
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:33:30 CEST)
Background: Some studies have shown that an increase in visceral fat is associated with postoperative clinical and oncologic outcomes. However, no studies have used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to determine the effects of visceral fat on the oncologic outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA) and clinical, and oncologic outcomes in CRC. Methods: This study included 203 patients who underwent anthropometric measurements by BIA before surgical treatment for CRC between January 2016 and June 2020. Results: According to the cutoff level of VFA by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 85 (40.5%) patients had a low VFA, and 119 (59.5%) had a high VFA. Multivariate analysis found that preoperative CRP (hazard ratio [HR], 3.882; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–15.051; p=0.050) and nodal stage (HR, 7.996; 95% CI, 1.414–45.209; p=0.019) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, while sex (HR, 0.110; 95% CI, 0.013–0.905; p=0.040), lymphovascular invasion (HR, 3.560; 95% CI, 1.098–11.544; p=0.034), and VFA (HR, 4.263; 95% CI, 1.280–14.196; p=0.040) were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusion: High VFA preoperatively measured by BIA was associated with inflammations and was an independent prognostic factor for DFS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0309.v9
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: obesity; body weight regulation; macronutrients; energy balance theory; mass balance model; paradigm shift; living review
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:18:08 CEST)
According to known laws of physics, chronic positive mass balance is the actual etiology of obesity, not positive energy balance. The relevant physical law in terms of body mass regulation is the Law of Conservation of Mass, not the Law of Conservation of Energy. A recently proposed mass balance model (MBM) describes the temporal evolution of body weight and body composition under a wide variety of feeding experiments, and it seems to provide a highly accurate description of the very best experimental human feeding data. By shifting to a mass balance paradigm of obesity, a deeper understanding of this disease may follow in the near future. The purpose of this living review is to present the core issues of the upcoming paradigm shift as well as some practical applications related to the topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0349.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: yak; semantic segmentation; binocular vision; body size; weight stimation
Online: 9 March 2022 (10:02:00 CET)
In order to solve the labor-intensive and time-consuming problem in the process of measuring yak body ruler and weight in yak breeding industry in Qinghai Province, a non-contact method for measuring yak body ruler and weight was proposed in this experiment, and key technologies based on semantic segmentation, binocular ranging and neural network algorithm were studied to boost the development of yak breeding industry in Qinghai Province. Main conclusions: (1) Study yak foreground image extraction, and implement yak foreground image extraction model based on U-net algorithm; select 2263 yak images for experiment, and verify that the accuracy of the model in yak image extraction is over 97%. (2) Develop an algorithm for estimating yak body ruler based on binocular vision, and use the extraction algorithm of yak body ruler related measurement points combined with depth image to estimate yak body ruler. The final test shows that the average estimation error of body height and body oblique length is 2.6%, and the average estimation error of chest depth is 5.94%. (3) Study the yak weight prediction model; select the body height, body oblique length and chest depth obtained by binocular vision to estimate the yak weight; use two algorithms to establish the yak weight prediction model, and verify that the average estimation error of the model for yak weight is 10.7% and 13.01% respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0521.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: emotional processing; disgust; cocaine dependence; alcohol dependence; face; body
Online: 31 December 2021 (12:58:19 CET)
Background: Different drugs damage the frontal cortices, particularly the prefrontal areas involved in both emotional and cognitive functions, with a consequence of decoding emotion deficits for people with substance abuse. The present study aims to explore the cognitive impairments in drug abusers through facial, body and disgust emotion recognition, expanding the investigation of emotions, processing, measuring accuracy and response velocity. Method: We enrolled 13 addicted to cocaine and 12 alcohol patients attending treatment services in Italy, comparing them with 33 matched controls. Facial emotion and body posture recognition tasks, a disgust rating task, and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale were included in the experimental assessment. Results: We found that emotional processes are differently influenced by cocaine and alcohol, suggesting that these substances impact diverse cerebral systems. Conclusion: The contribution made by the duration of consumption on emotional processing seems far less important than for cognitive processes. Drug abusers seem to be slower on elaboration of emotions and, in particular, of disgust emotion. Considering that the participants were not impaired in cognition, our data support the hypothesis that emotional impairments emerge independently from damage to cognitive functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hardened steel; cubic boron nitride; rolling body; structural equations
Online: 6 December 2021 (11:55:19 CET)
This article deals primarily with the problem of determining the cutting force when machining hardened steels. Secondary issues are focused on the evaluation of surface quality on machined samples and the recommendation of cutting conditions. A wide variety of components are used in engineering, the final heat treatment of which is hardening. These components are usually critical in a particular product. The quality of these components determines the correct functioning of the entire technical equipment and ultimately its service life. In our case, these are the core parts of thrust bearings, specifically the rolling elements. The subject of the experiment is machining these components in the hardened state with cubic boron nitride tools and continuous measurement of the cutting force using a dynamometer. The following evaluation assesses the surface quality by both touch and non-touch methods. A structural equation with appropriate constant and exponents was then constructed from the data obtained using the dynamometer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0113.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Body-size; Cerrado; Evolutionary history; Nymphalidae; Phylogeny; Species traits
Online: 5 November 2021 (10:35:29 CET)
Introduction: Body size is correlated with many aspects of an animal species' natural history, such as life span, abundance, dispersal capacity and diet breadth. However, contrasting trends have been reported for the relationship between body size and these ecological traits. Methods: Butterfly species from fruit-feeding guilds were used to investigate whether body size correlates with species abundances, dispersal, permanence, and diet breadth in a Neotropical savanna in Brazil (Cerrado). We used Blomberg’s K and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares models (PGLS) to measure phylogenetic signal strength in species traits, and to estimate size-dispersal-diet breadth associations while taking shared ancestry into account. Results: 539 individuals from 27 species were captured, and 190 individuals were recaptured, representing a 35% recapture rate. We found that body size negatively influenced butterfly abundance. In contrast, body size was positively associated with dispersal levels, distance traveled, number of traps visited, individual permanence, and diet breadth. These results indicate that larger butterflies have a greater proportion of dispersing individuals over longer distances, as they permanence were detected over longer periods than their smaller relatives. Moreover, larger butterflies are more generalized, based on the number of host plant families and genera they consume. Smaller butterflies demand fewer resources, which is reflected in their higher survival in small patches, and may explain their lower dispersal ability, and higher diet specialization. Nevertheless, lower dispersal ability, if not compensated by large population sizes, may threaten small-bodied species inhabiting environments with intense deforestation rates, such as the Cerrado. Conclusions: Body size positively influences dispersal and diet breadth in the fruit-feeding butterflies collected in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: human body; anthropometric dimensions; personalization; subject-specific model; biofidelity
Online: 20 September 2021 (14:15:24 CEST)
Virtual human body models contribute to designing safe and user-friendly products through virtual prototyping. Anthropometric biomechanical models address different physiques using average dimensions. In designing personal protective equipment, biomechanical models with the correct geometry and shape shall play a role. The presented study shows the variations of subject-specific anthropometric dimensions from the average for the different population groups in the Czech Republic and China as a background for the need for personalized human body models. The study measures a set of clothing industry dimensions of Czech children, Czech teens, Czech adults and Chinese adults and compares them to the corresponding age average, which is represented by a scaled anthropometric human body model. The cumulative variation of clothing industry dimensions increases the farer is the population group from the average. It is smallest for the Czech adults 7.54% ± 6.63%, Czech teens report 7.93% ± 6.25% and Czech children differ 9.52% ± 6.08%. Chinese adults report 10.86% ± 11.11%. As the variations of the particular clothing industry dimensions from the average prove the necessity of having personalized subject-specific models, the personalization of particular body segments using the measured clothing industry dimensions leading to a subject-specific virtual model is addressed. The developed personalization algorithm results in the continuous body surface desired for contact applications for assessing body behavior and injury risk under impact loading.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0578.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: homology; developmental mechanism; evidential integration; eumetazoan body plan; phylogenetics
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:45:06 CEST)
Reconstructing ancestral species is a challenging endeavour: fossils are often scarce or enigmatic, and inferring ancestral characters based on novel molecular approaches (e.g. comparative genomics or developmental genetics) has long been controversial. A key philosophical challenge pertinent at present is the lack of a theoretical framework capable of evaluating inferences of homology made through integration of multiple kinds of evidence (e.g. molecular, developmental, or morphological). Here, I present just such a framework. I start with a brief history and critical assessment of attempts at inferring morphological homology through developmental genetics. I then bring attention to a recent model of homology, namely Character Identity Mechanisms (DiFrisco, Love, & Wagner, 2020), intended partly to elucidate the relationships between morphological characters, developmental genetics, and homology. I utilise and build on this model to construct the evaluative framework mentioned above, which judges the epistemic value of evidence of each kind in each particular case based on three proposed criteria: effectiveness, admissibility, and informativity, as well as providing a generalised guideline on how it can be scientifically operationalised. I then point out the evolution of the eumetazoan body plan as a case in point where the application of this framework can yield satisfactory results, both empirically and conceptually. I will conclude with a discussion on some potential implications for more general philosophy of biology and philosophy of science, especially surrounding evidential integration, models and explanation, and reductionism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0060.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: aggregative multicellularity; fruiting body; stalk formation; social amoebae; dictyostelium
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:10:59 CEST)
Throughout the eukaryotic tree of life, amoeboid organisms have evolved that aggregate upon starvation and form multicellular fruiting bodies, consisting of a ball of spores atop a stalk. This chapter discusses the remarkable convergent evolution of a stalked fruiting body in these different taxa. It then discusses a well-studied group of aggregative fruiters, the cellular slime molds, in more detail. These organisms exhibit substantial variation in their stalk formation and composition, which allows a better understanding of the evolution, maintenance and possible functions of stalked fruiting bodies, but also points to potential costs and benefits of different types of stalks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: BMI; Body Mass Index; Grip Strength; Health; Sport; strength
Online: 8 August 2020 (17:53:09 CEST)
The Body Mass Index (BMI) formula has been developed by Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet and published in 1840  as a law of nature and society, based on statistics about the weight and height of the population of that time, the first part of the 19th century. He called it “social physics”. From then, for nearly two centuries, the BMI had been the most important formula describing the normal relations and ratio of weight to the square of the height for humans. The problem arises if the BMI formula, developed in the first part of the 19th century is still good today when the type of work people perform is very different? In modern times, most people are less muscular than at the time when the BMI was developed because they do not work physically as heavy as at that time. In many cases, the Body Mass index can predict mortality, morbidity and illness but not always, for example cases such as (a) the obesity paradox for some cardiovascular problems and (b) the U shape mortality paradox as well as (c) false positive obesity diagnostic in regard to people who are strong and muscular, have low body fat percentage but are classified as obese by the BMI and (d) cases where BMI is normal but people have an “obese metabolism” (e) BMI normal but high fat percentage. The objective is to develop a formula good for all body types, a formula that makes the difference between fat and non-fat body weight such as muscle and body frame and quantifies the effect of strength and fitness, which BMI does not. Another objective is to develop a formula to predict the health risks and fitness status of people, better than BMI. The first generalizations of BMI using anthropometric metrics could be found in , where I discuss and analyze many formulae, developed, tested, and simulated by me, using similar new methods, accounting for body shape, physical shape and body function, making the difference between muscle mass and fat, fat and non fat body weight. Nearly all formulae and methods developed and proposed in this new model are new, never published before. Many experiments published before, in highly cited papers show that grip strength and muscle strength is a predictor of health, mortality, morbidity, endocrine and metabolic disease outside the BMI and anthropometric measures. The purpose of my formula is to explain the outcome of those experiments and create a formula which predicts these experiments [21-41].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0274.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; bone turnover markers; leptin; body composition
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:33:41 CEST)
The link between scoliotic deformity and bone metabolism in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has not been well researched. Moreover, the data concerning the cross-talk between fat tissue content/hormonal activity and bone markers in this group of patients are lacking. The objective of this study was to correlate the extent of scoliotic-curve severity with the bone turnover vs. leptin level and nutritional status in girls with AIS. The study encompassed 77 AIS girls, aged 14.7 ± 2.17 years. Scoliotic curve severity assessed by Cobb’s angle was categorized as mild (10-19o) moderate (20-39º) or severe (≥40º). Corrected height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI), corrected height Z-score, BMI Z-score and waist/height ratio (WHtR) were calculated for the entire group. Body composition parameters: fat mass (FAT), fat-free mass (FFM) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Bone turnover markers (osteocalcin (OC) and amino terminal of collagen cross-links NTx) and leptin levels were assessed in serum. Multiple regression analysis showed that, OC, NTx (negatively with p<0.05) and leptin (positively with p<0.01) were significantly associated with curve severity in AIS girls. Moreover, Cobb’s angle was positively correlated with W/HtR (p<0.01)and FAT (p<0.05). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences in leptin (p<0.05 vs. mild only), OC (p<0.05 vs. mild and moderate)) and W/HtR (p<0.01 and p<0.05 vs. mild and moderate respectively) between the three AIS severity subgroups. OC was significantly lower in the severe AIS subgroup, while leptin and W/HtR were significantly higher. Significant correlations between leptin and anthropometrical parameters as BMI z-score and W/HtR were shown. Leptin level correlated also significantly with BMI z score (p<0.001), W/HtR (p<0.0001) and body composition parameters (p<0.000001). Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between NTx and leptin level (p<0.05). Bone metabolism in AIS girls seems to be altered and significantly related to the scoliotic curve severity. Leptin may be a crucial link in the cross-talk between bone turnover and body composition in this group of patients. Further studies concerning this topic are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; physical fitness; body composition; functional mobility; physiotherapy
Online: 27 September 2019 (03:03:10 CEST)
Background and objectives: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many potential factors (spasticity, immobilization, glucocorticoids use) which can deteriorate the anthropometrical status and body composition and may have the potential impact on the functional mobility and basic motor skills improvement after physiotherapy. The aim of the study was to assess the functional mobility and basic motor skills in patients with MS and to correlate them with disability and anthropometrical status and body composition parameters. Materials and Methods: Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed in 36 patients with MS before and after 4 weeks of physiotherapy. Body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (W/HtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed in this group. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and fat mass (FAT), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were expressed as percentage of body mass. Clinical status was assessed by EDSS and AI scales. Results: After physiotherapy, there was a significant improvement in functional mobility and basic motor skills assessed by total distance in 6MWT (p<0.001) and in TUG trials (p<0.001). Positive significant correlations were found between the results obtained in both tests (either before and after physiotherapy) vs. FFM, TBW and PMM, whilst worse results in functional mobility and basic motor skills correlated significantly with higher WHtR, WHR and FAT (p<0.05). Clinical status (EDSS) were significantly related to the WHtR and body composition parameters with the same manner as the results in the either 6MWT and TUG. However, there were no significant relationships between BMI vs. either clinical status (EDSS, AI) and functional mobility tests results in patients with MS. Conclusions: Functional mobility and basic motor skills may be significantly improved during the physiotherapy, but they are related to the anthropometrical status and body composition of MS patients. Moreover, disability status is also significantly related to this parameters. Body composition deterioration seems to be the important target for the therapeutic intervention in MS patients. For proper nutritional status assessment in patients with MS, body composition analysis or WHtR instead BMI should to be used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: image analysis; Turin Shroud; body-image formation; energy propagation
Online: 18 October 2018 (03:55:21 CEST)
Recent studies on the image of the Turin Shroud (TS) lead to think it could have been formed through a not well-identified mechanism of energy radiation. In order to remove some lacunas about this imaging process, a reverse engineering method has been applied to it, arriving to exclude some possible mechanisms. The image formation of a human face wrapped on a cloth by using an ad-hoc developed software has been simulated. The results of different kinds of the radiation depending from different parameters have been simulated, each one connected with accredited hypotheses. On the basis of the comparison among the different images produced by the software and the TS Face, some useful information both about the kind of radiation and the cloth wrapping conditions have been obtained. The effect of image distortion of a cloth wrapped around a face has been discussed too by defining the best laws of radiation and of their attenuation with distance. A Lambertian law is not compatible with the TS image. A vertical radiation shows a problem in reproducing the requested resolution. A radiation perpendicular to the emitting surface, like that produced by an electric field appears promising to explain the TS Face.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: physical activity; accelerometer; neck circumference; obesity; body composition; anthropometric
Online: 2 July 2018 (08:58:54 CEST)
The present study investigated the association of accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with neck circumference (NC) in adolescents and adults from eight Latin American countries. The sample consisted of 2370 participants from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health, a multicenter cross-sectional nutrition and health surveillance study of a nationally representative sample from eight Latin American countries. An Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to monitor MVPA. Adolescents were categorized as NC > 34.25 cm in boys and NC > 31.25 cm in girls, and adults were categorized as NC > 39 cm in men and NC > 35 cm in women. The average time of MVPA was 34.88 min/day, ranging from 31.16 in Venezuela to 40.27 in Chile. Concerning NC, 37.0% of the sample was classified as having elevated NC. Chile was the country with the highest percentage of people with elevated NC (56.9%), and Colombia had the lowest percentage (24.8%). Overall, the MVPA (min/day) was associated with elevated NC (OR = 0.994, CI95% = 0.990–0.998). In Costa Rica and Peru, there were significant associations between MVPA and NC when analyzed by country. Further research is required to understand the differences between countries in the observed associations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0048.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Aging, Nutrition, Diet, Muscle atrophy, Body wasting, Food choice
Online: 5 February 2018 (23:43:16 CET)
Inadequate protein intake can impair protein balance and lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, impaired body growth, and functional decline. Foods provide both non-essential (NEAAs) and essential amino acids (EAAs) that may convey different metabolic stimuli to specific organs and tissues. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of six diets with various EAA/NEAA blends on body composition and the risk of developing tissue wasting in late middle-aged male mice. Mice consuming NEAA-based diets, although showing increased food and calorie intake, suffered the most severe weight loss. Interestingly, even moderate NEAAs prevalence was able to induce inflammatory catabolic stimuli, generalized body wasting and systemic metabolic alterations. Complete depletion of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue and a severe loss (>75%) of brown adipose tissue were observed together with muscle wasting. Conversely, EAA-based diets induced significant decreases in weight by reducing primarily fat reserves, but improved clinical parameters. Tissue wasting was caused by altered AA quality, independent of reduced nitrogen or caloric intake. Our results indicate that an optimized balance of AA composition is necessary for preserving overall bodily energy status. These findings are particularly relevant in the context of aging and may be exploited for contrasting its negative correlates including body wasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0057.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: galaxies; clusters; general; methods N-body simulations; cosmology; theory
Online: 9 December 2016 (16:38:17 CET)
We explore the possibility of using the external regions of galaxy clusters to measure their mass accretion rate (MAR). The main goal is to provide a method to observationally investigate the growth of structures on the nonlinear scales of galaxy clusters. We derive the MAR by using the mass profile beyond the splashback radius, evaluating the mass of a spherical shell and the time it takes to fall in. The infall velocity of the shell is extracted from N-body simulations. The average MAR returned by our prescription in the redshift range z=[0, 2] is within 20-40% of the average MAR derived from the merger trees of dark matter haloes in the reference N-body simulations. Our result suggests that the external regions of galaxy clusters can be used to measure the mean MAR of a sample of clusters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0361.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Paleozoic granitoids; pegmatites; age; collisional; intra-plate; magmatism; mineralogical and geochemical types; mineralization; minerals; post-collisinal; amazonite; genesis
Online: 18 January 2021 (16:14:03 CET)
The paper presents new data on mineralogical-geochemical peculiarities of the granites and pegmatites of the Baikal area (Olkhon Region) with implications for the age, generation conditions and geodynamic settings of magmatism. The early Paleozoic granitoids of the Olkhon region are syncollisional formations produced from the gneiss-schistose substratum of the Olkhon metamorphic sequences. Pegmatoid granites and pegmatites of the Region were generated within a wide age range (458-390 Ma) and include different mineralogical and geochemical types. Amongst the Early Paleozoic granitoids, pegmatoid rocks are products of the collisional magmatism evolution and are similar to granites in terms of the mineral composition and distribution patterns of rare and rare earth elements. On the Olkhon island (Baikal lake) the pegmatite of the Tashkiney vein belong to the Be-Nb-Ta mineralogical-geochemical type demonstrating high contents of W, Sn U, Th and very low concentrations of Li and volatile components (F, B). In the Pryolkhonye area, vein pegmatite Iliksin is with Li, Be, Nb, Ta mineralization (lepidolite, vorobyevite, samarskite et al). The studied pegmatite veins are similar both by the profound negative Ba, Sr, Eu, and Zr anomalies. The zircons from the Tashkiney vein (390±5.0 Ma) and of the Iliksin vein (430.1±2.2 Ma, U-Pb isotope LA ICP MS metod) indicate the formation of pegmatite at the late post-collisional stage of magmatism in the Olkhon Region. As regard to mineralogical and geochemical characteristics, vein pegmatites with amazonite (Ainsky and Ulan-Nur) belong to the Li-F type. The tantalum mineralization, represented by microlites and minerals of the columbite-tantalite group is associated with the Ainsky amazonite pegmatite. As opposed to the Early Paleozoic syncollisional granitoids and pegmatoid formations, the middle Paleozoic vein bodies of pegmatites (Tashkiney, Iliksin, Ainsky, Ulan-Nur) are regarded as rare-metal pegmatites. In terms of geochemical characteristics, they are similar to the rare-metal pegmatoid granites and pegmatites of the intra-plate setting widespread in Mongolia and Transbaikalia. The rare-metal mineralization in the Olkhon region may be genetically related to the evolution of Be-Nb-Ta and Li-F types of the post-collisional granites and pegmatites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0235.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: African locust bean; climate change; cluster analysis; genetic intra-specific diversity; polymorphic information content; food and nutrition security
Online: 20 October 2019 (16:01:21 CEST)
African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) is a multi-purpose economic tree with genetic potentials in sub-Saharan Africa. Its cultivation and production is declining with increased aging and genetically threatened throughout its natural ranges. Research efforts are needed to change the present scenario to sustainable cultivation and utilization, hence this present study. This study was aimed at evaluating genetic diversity and geographical spread relationships of twenty landraces collected from different ecological zones of Nigeria using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Ten SSR markers were screened and five primers (PbL02, PbL03, PbL04, PbL05 and PbL09) were selected based on clear amplification products and reproducible scorable bands. The SSR primers detected a total of 55 alleles ranged from 10 to 14 alleles with a mean of 11. The percentage polymorphisms were high and ranged from 68.75 % in PbL04 to 84.21 % in PbL05 with a mean of 74.16 %. The polymorphic information content (PIC) was in the range of 0.31 in PbL02 to 0.37 in PbL09. The genetic diversity and heterozygosity values ranged from 0.39 to 0.50 and 0.00 to 0.68 while the average genetic distance for all pair wise comparisons was 0.31.The first five Principal Component (PC) accounted for 70.20 % of the total variation out of which PC1 (31.50%) and PC2 (19.20%) extracted 49.70% molecular similarity. The dendrogram resulted in separation of the 19 landraces into three major clusters based on unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average. Cluster I comprised of five landraces: ABNo130 and BENo023; OYNo11, KANo125 and NiNo262 while cluster II had only one (BANo116). Cluster III was diverse comprising 13 landraces: ZANo188, KNNo162, KENo220, GMNo076 and EbNo260, ADNo64, EdNo164, KANo137, KENo217, KwNo270, NiNo241, OsNo206 and PLNo120. The homogeneity of alleles among the studied landraces suggested suspicion of loss of genetic intra-specific variation among the landraces of P. biglobosa which calls for concerted efforts toward better cultivation, conservation, management, utilization and genetic improvement of the species in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Fiber-reinforced composite post; Short-glass fiber reinforced composite; Endodontically-treated teeth; Intra-radicular adhesion; Push-out bond strength
Online: 21 December 2022 (02:08:24 CET)
: This study was aimed at assessing adaptation and bonding of discontinuous (short) glass fiber-reinforced composite to intraradicular dentin EverX Flow (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), when used as intracanal composite filling and anchorage instead of traditional fiber posts. (2) Methods: Seventy intact extracted human teeth were endodontically treated and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10), depending on the materials used in the post space. In Group 1, a 2-bottle universal adhesive G2 Bond Universal + EverX Flow were tested. In group 2, a single-component universal adhesive G-Premio Bond + EverX Flow were used. In groups 3 and 4 the same materials are tested, but after cleaning of the canal walls with 17% EDTA and final irrigation with 5.25% NaOCl Ultrasound Activated. In the last three Groups (5-7) traditional prefabricated GC Fiber Posts 1.6 mm silanized with G-Multi Primer for 1 minute are cemented with a dual-cured composite resin cement (GradiaCore), after ultrasonic irrigation in the groups 6 and 7. In each group, 1 mm-thick slices from each sample (n=10) were cut for light microscope and SEM inspection for study materials adaption to the dentin and for measuring push-out strength of post / cemement material to the dentin / prefabricated post. These results were statistically analyzed: as the data distribution was not normal, the Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance by Ranks had to be applied. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Push-out forces varied between 6.66-8.37 MPa. No statistically significant differences were recorded among the groups. Microscopic examination showed that ultrasonic irri-gation increased adaptation of the materials to the dentin surface. There was a trend of higher bond strength among the tested groups when EverX Flow was used. Also, the type of failure was more often cohesive when ultrasonic irrigation and two-step adhesive system were used. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it may be concluded that when EverX Flow was used for intracanal anchorage in the post-endodontic recon-struction, similar push-out retentive forces and strength to those of traditional fiber posts cemented with particulate filler resin composite cements were achieved. Although further studies are necessary, EverX Flow represents an effective alternative to traditional fiber post adhesion in particular when used in combination with the two-step adhesive system and ultrasonic activation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: catheter-associated infection; CAUTI; urinary tract infection; healthcare-associated infection; active drain line clearance; burns; intra-abdominal pressure; measurement
Online: 30 September 2022 (04:13:24 CEST)
OBJECTIVE A quality improvement study to assess catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rate post-implementation of a bladder catheter with integrated active drain line urine clearance and automated intra-abdominal pressure monitoring in a burn intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN Eight-year retrospective before and after study (2015–2022). SETTING A single American Burn Association verified Burn Center with fourteen inpatient beds. PATIENTS Patients meeting criteria for admission to a Burn Center METHODS Retrospective cohort study following the implementation of a novel urine output monitoring system with integrated drain line and urine clearance. Data from a 48-month (from January 2015-December 2018) historical control (period 1) were compared to data from a 28-month (from January 2020 to April 2022) post-implementation period (period 2). Pre- and post-implementation CAUTI event incidences were compared. Charts were reviewed to characterize the patients. RESULTS A total of 42 CAUTIs in 2243 patients were identified using the National Health and Safety Network (NHSN) definition during the analyzed period. There were 40 CAUTI events in period 1 and two CAUTIs in period 2. The incidence of CAUTI events pre-implementation was 0.030 (mean of 10 CAUTI events per year) compared to 0.002 (mean of 1 CAUTI event per year) post-implementation of an automatic drain line clearing UO monitoring system showing a significant reduction in CAUTI events (P<0.01, risk ratio novel vs. gravity bladder catheter 0.071, 95% confidence interval: 0.017-0.294). CONCLUSIONS CAUTIs were reduced in the period following the implementation of a novel urinary catheter system with an integrated active drain line and urine clearance in burn patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0505.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: affect; pregnancy; food intake; body mass index; ecological momentary assessment
Online: 30 August 2022 (04:33:53 CEST)
Background: Affective states play a role in dietary behaviors. Yet, little research has studied within-subjects associations between affect and diet during pregnancy. We examined the acute bidirectional relationships between affect and food intake and moderation by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in low-income, Hispanic pregnant women using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Methods: Women (N=57) completed four days of EMA during their first trimester. Women responded to five random prompts per day about their current affect and past two-hour food intake. Results: Higher positive affect (PA) or lower negative affect (NA) predicted greater likelihood of fruit/vegetable consumption in the next two hours in women with lower pre-pregnancy BMI and lower likelihood in women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Higher PA predicted less likelihood of fast food consumption in the next two hours in women with lower pre-pregnancy BMI and slightly higher likelihood in women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Women with lower pre-pregnancy BMI had higher PA when they reported consuming chips/fries in the past two hours, and women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI had lower PA when they reported consumption of chips/fries in the past two hours. Conclusions: Results showed differential relationships between affect and food intake as a function of pre-pregnancy BMI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0237.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: religious fasting; daytime dry fasting; energy expenditure; body composition; microdialysis
Online: 14 December 2021 (13:06:26 CET)
Each year in March, adherents of the Bahá’í faith abstain from eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset for 19 days. Thus, Bahá’í fasting (BF) can be considered as a form of daytime dry fasting. We tested if BF decreases energy expenditure after a meal and improves anthropometric measures, and systemic and tissue-level metabolic parameters. This was a self-controlled cohort study with 11 healthy men. We measured anthropometric parameters, metabolic markers in venous blood, and pre- and postprandial energy metabolism at systemic (indirect calorimetry) and tissue (adipose tissue and skeletal muscle microdialysis) level, both before and during BF. During BF, we found reduced body weight, body mass index, body fat and blood glucose. Postprandial increase in energy expenditure was lower, diet-induced thermogenesis tended to be lower. In adipose tissue, perfusion, glucose supply and lipolysis were increased. In skeletal muscle, tissue perfusion did not change. Glucose supply and lipolysis were decreased. Glucose oxidation was increased, indicating an improved insulin sensitivity. BF may be a promising approach to losing weight and improving metabolism and health. However, outside the context of religiously-motivated fasting, skipping a meal rather in the evening (dinner cancelling) might be recommended, as metabolism appears to be reduced in the evening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0352.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: skeletal abnormalities; vertebral column; quality index; body shape; finfish aquaculture
Online: 19 November 2021 (12:43:54 CET)
The lordosis of the haemal part of the vertebral column is a frequent abnormality in reared fish. Haemal lordosis develops during the late larval and early juvenile period, mainly due to the high swimming activity of the fish in the rearing tanks. In the present study we examined whether haemal lordosis recovers during the growth of European sea bass. Furthermore, we aimed to develop simple morphometric indices (PrAn1 and PrAn2) that could link the severity of lordosis at the juvenile stage with fish morphological quality at harvesting. At 111 days post-hatching (dph, 53±4 mm standard length, SL), 600 seabass juveniles with lordotic (L, 200 fish) or normal (N, 400 fish) external morphology were selected and introduced in a common tank. At 150 dph (75±7 mm SL), 350 fish were randomly selected, pit-tagged and transferred in a sea cage for on-growing up to 502 dph (234±16 mm SL). The morphological examination of the fish at 150 and 502 dph revealed that the 60% (46 out of 77) of L juveniles turned into normal phenotype by the end of on-growing period. Interestingly, 56% of the fish with recovered external morphology (N-Rec) presented either a completely normal vertebral column (31%) or minor abnormalities of individual vertebrae (25%). Following the results of geometric morphometric analysis, the differences in the body shape between N-Rec and N fish were not significant (p>0.05, canonical variate analysis). The examined morphometric indices were effective in discriminating the normal fish from the 58% (PrAn1) to 65% (PrAn2) of lordotic juveniles. Results are discussed with respect to the mechanism of lordosis recovery, as well as to their application for the quality control and cull out of the abnormal fish in the commercial hatcheries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0417.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: healthy diet; fruits and vegetables; body image; happiness; excessive weight
Online: 16 March 2021 (11:57:13 CET)
Recent evidence suggests that among behavioral-lifestyle factors, adherence to a healthy dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is linked not only to better psychological health and mental positive status but also to increased subjective well-being (SWB). Nevertheless, this association has been unexplored among individuals with excessive weight. This study explored whether adherence to the MedDiet and the intake of healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables (FV) are associated with increased happiness and life satisfaction among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity when weight, body image, and body satisfaction are also considered. A convenience sample of adult individuals with excessive weight completed self-reports on the study variables, and weight and BMI were measured by bioimpedance. No evidence of a relationship with SWB indicators was obtained for MedDiet global indicators, probably due to the low adherence to a healthy diet by these individuals. In contrast, FV intake, as a powerful indicator of healthy eating, was associated with life satisfaction when BMI and body image dimensions were considered, among which body satisfaction also had a key role. Moreover, life satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between FV consumption and happiness. Our findings are expected to make a relevant contribution to knowledge on the positive correlates or protective factors for overall well-being in obesity, including dietary habits and body appreciation. Our results may inform obesity management actions focused on inclusive, positive aesthetic models and promoting a healthy lifestyle for happiness in obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0653.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: ketone body ester; lipase; kinetic resolution; asymmetric synthesis; configuration inversion.
Online: 25 December 2020 (10:50:32 CET)
The oral administration of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, allows inducing a beneficial level of blood ketone bodies without the adverse effects due to the adhesion to a ketogenic diet. Several studies documented the therapeutic effectiveness of the (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate in treating neurodegenerative diseases as well as its boosting activity of athletic and cognitive performances during prolonged physical exercises. Further studies considering this ketone body ester for therapy of other pathologies are also underway. In the present work, we describe the synthesis of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate through the enantioselective transesterification of racemic ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate with (R)-1,3-butanediol catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B). The enantiopure (R)-1,3-butanediol was in turn obtained from the kinetic resolution of the racemate by CAL-B catalyzed acetylation with vinyl acetate. The economy of the synthetic procedure has been improved by recycling the unreacted (S) enantiomers of the ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate and 1,3-buatnediol after stereochemical inversion achieved by tosylation and SN2 with ammonium acetate. The overall procedure allows to incorporate up to 70% of the starting racemic reagents into the final product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0004.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: quantum state routing; many-body dynamics; quantum information, fermionic network
Online: 1 December 2020 (08:42:16 CET)
Routing quantum information among different nodes in a network is a fundamental prerequisite for a quantum internet. While single-qubit routing has been largely addressed, many-qubit routing protocols have not been intensively investigated so far. Building on the many-excitation transfer protocol in Ref. , we apply the perturbative transfer scheme to a two-excitation routing protocol on a network where multiple two-receivers block are coupled to a linear chain. We address both the case of switchable and permanent couplings between the receivers and the chain. We find that the protocol allows for efficient two-excitation routing on a fermionic network, although for a spin-12 network only a limited region of the network is suitable for high-quality routing.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: body composition; inflammatory bowel disease; J pouch; physical activity levels
Online: 4 September 2020 (11:02:04 CEST)
This case study examined changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), aerobic capacity, and daily physical activity in a patient who had ulcerative colitis who underwent ileal pouch‒anal anastomosis (IPAA) surgery. Body composition, RMR, and VO2 peak were assessed prior to, 4, 8, and 16 weeks after IPAA surgery. Daily physical activity data was extracted from a wrist-worn activity tracker preoperatively and 16 months postoperatively. At baseline, total body mass was 95.3 kg; body fat, 11.6 %; lean body mass, 81.1 kg; RMR, 2,416 kcal/d; and V̇O2peak, 42.7 mL/kg/min. All values decreased from baseline at 4 weeks postoperatively, body mass was 85.2 kg (-10.5%); body fat, 10.9% (-6.0%); lean body mass, 73.1 kg (-9.9%); RMR 2,210 kcal/d (-8.5%) and V̇O2peak, 25.5 mL/kg/min (-40.3%). At 16 weeks postoperatively, most parameters were near their baseline levels (within 1%-7%); exceptions were V̇O2peak, which was 20.4% below baseline, and RMR, which increased to nearly 20% above baseline. After the patient had an IPAA surgery, his total and lean body masses, RMR, and aerobic capacity were markedly decreased. Daily physical activity decreased postoperatively and likely contributed to the decreased aerobic capacity, which may take longer to recover compared to body composition and RMR parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ahmed Body; vehicle aerodynamics; drag force measurement; Simulation/Numerical investigation
Online: 12 June 2020 (12:20:55 CEST)
Automotive aerodynamics comprises of the study of aerodynamics of road vehicles. Its main goals are reducing drag, minimizing noise emission, improving fuel economy, preventing undesired lift forces and minimizing other causes of aerodynamic instability at high speeds. The Ahmed body has the form of a highly simplified car, consisting of a blunt nose with rounded edges fixed onto a box-like middle section and a rear end that has an upper slanted surface, the angle of which can be varied. It retains vital features of real vehicles in order to study the flow fields around it and the related turbulence models which characterizes the actual flow at elevated Reynolds number. In the present study, the aerodynamic behavior of this body is investigated numerically by the aid of commercial CFD tool: Ansys Fluent. The results of the simulation are validated with available experimental data and results of the simulations from other literatures. The numerical data were obtained for a fixed free stream velocity of 25 m/s at the inlet. The simulations were performed at a fixed slant angle of 25 degree and zero yaw angle. The present study focuses on how local refinement of mesh inside the concerned body and the outside, helps affect the results and for which grid dependency test is the primary objective of this paper. The present study also helps demonstrate how the drag of the body behaves, which is mainly the effect of pressure drag force generated at the rear portion of the body. The study also focuses on important properties like the velocity magnitude at different locations for different meshing cases, and to capture the flow pattern in the front or near the wake region. The study can be further helpful to future researchers in determining resistance, fuel efficiency etc. helping designers to optimize in specialized areas for better efficiency.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: US-China trade conflict; Port Cargo; WTO Appellate Body; NTBs
Online: 27 December 2019 (12:51:44 CET)
Various risks and uncertainties are strengthening the downside of the global economy. This paper aims to estimate the impact of US-China conflict and the WTO Appellate Body's shutdown on global logistics demand and to show the seriousness of the situation. Existing literature studies on protectionism or US-China trade conflict, with a focus on the effects of specific issues or impact on bilateral relations. No research has considered the adverse effects of the WTO Appellate Body's shutdown. This paper considers both US-China conflict and the installation of new NTBs in other countries due to weakened WTO function, and tries to suggest that the combination of tariffs and NTBs can severely reduce international trade and the demand for maritime logistics services, making this paper differs from previous studies. This paper suggests that a catastrophe could occur in global maritime logistics, based on quantitative estimates for the impact of global protectionism. Finally, underlining that the international trade order should not seriously be damaged, this paper proposes that countries around the world should seriously discuss this issue at the 12th WTO Trade Ministers' Meeting in Kazakhstan June 2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: body composition; triathlon; ageing; energy availability; macronutrients; performance; protein; carbohydrate
Online: 5 December 2019 (11:54:46 CET)
The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the benefits that evidence-based nutritional and training recommendations could have on the time course of reconditioning following hip arthroplasty in a competitive master triathlete. Methods: During 38 weeks (from 6 weeks prior to surgery through to the return to competition), the athlete was provided with detailed training and nutritional recommendations based on the latest research evidence. Dietary intake (via the remote food photographic method), body composition (via DXA), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak power output (PPO) and cycling efficiency (GE) were assessed 6 weeks pre- and 8, 12, 18, 21 and 25-weeks post-surgery. Training load was quantified (TRIMP score) daily during the retraining. Results: Total body mass increased by 8.2 kg (attributable to a 3.5 and 4.6 kg increase in fat mass and lean mass, respectively) between week -6 and week 8 despite a reduction in carbohydrate (CHO) intake post-surgery (<3.0g/kg/day). This was accompanied with a decrease in VO2peak, PPO, and GE due to a drop in training load. From week 7, the athlete resumed training and was advised to gradually increase CHO intake according to the demands of training. Conclusions: Eventually the athlete was able to return to competition in week 32 with a higher PPO, improved VO2peak and GE. Throughout retraining, energy availability was maintained around 30 kcal/kg LBM/day, protein intake was high while CHO intake was periodised. Such dietary conditions allowed the athlete to maintain and even increase lean mass, which represents a major challenge with ageing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0567.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: bio-impedance, phase angle, over-hydration, body composition, nutrition, hemodialysis
Online: 23 November 2018 (15:01:18 CET)
Background A body composition monitor (BCM) has a role not only in determining over-hydration (OH) but also as an aid to nutritional assessment. For dialysis patient-specific clinical applications of BCM, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between body composition parameters and OH in healthy Chinese individuals. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 314 healthy individuals with a mean age of 45.7±13.1 years. BCM measurements were performed while the subjects were fasting. Results The mean OH level was 0.379±0.81 L. Lean tissue index (LTI) and Lean tissue mass (LTM) were significantly higher in males (p<0.001), while fat tissue index (FTI) was significantly higher in females (p<0.001). In univariate correlation analysis, FTI, Fat, and ATM had a negative correlation with OH in females and all subjects (p<0.05), while LTM and BCM had a positive correlation in all subjects (p<0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between phase angle (PhA) and OH in males, females, and all subjects (r=-0.634, p<0.001; r=-0.666, p<0.001; r=-0.484, p<0.001, respectively). In multivariate linear regression analysis, PhA (b=-1.266, p<0.001), LTM (b=0.987, p<0.001), age (b=-0.307, p<0.001) were independent predictors of OH. Conclusions This study demonstrated that age, LTM and especially PhA, had important roles in predicting OH in healthy Chinese individuals. In the future, PhA may aid in clinical assessment by helping to titrate dry weight among hemodialysis patients with malnutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: screen time; sleep duration; body mass index (BMI); time use
Online: 31 May 2018 (16:34:38 CEST)
Today, due to recent developments in technology, children devote plenty of time for screen viewing. However, its harmful effects are not yet clear. The purpose of present study was to examine the associations among screen viewing and sleep duration, and body mass index (BMI) in under-five years old children. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 322 under-five healthy children that were selected using multistage stratified cluster sampling method in 2017. The data that were gathered by time-use diary method were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman correlation tests, multiple linear regression analysis, one-way ANCOVA, two-way ANCOVA. There was a negative correlation between screen time and sleep duration (rs = -0.42, p = 0.00), positive correlation between screen time and BMI (rs = 0.38, p = 0.00) and sleep duration negatively correlated with BMI (rs = -0.22, p = 0.00). screen viewing was a predictive factor for both sleep duration (β = -0.26, p = 0.00) and BMI (β = -0.26, p = 0.00). screen viewing had a significant impact on sleep duration (4, 314) = 5.02, P = 0.001) and BMI (F (4, 314) = 1.16, P=0.298). Results of this study indicated that screen viewing is related to sleep duration and BMI in under-five children. furthermore, screen time has an impact on sleep duration and BMI scores of children. findings of our study suggest that sleep duration negatively is associated with BMI in under-five-year-old children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0020.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: rare earths; platinum; SEDEX ore body; rift mega structure; transgression
Online: 2 March 2018 (08:58:08 CET)
This work shows the preliminary description of the origin of a sedimentary - exhalative outcrop of Jurassic Lower Pliensbachian. The location of this deposit was achieved by applying an examination based in the identification of sedimentary transgressions of heterochronies ages and the identification of a Rift – type mega –structure. According with the methodology, it was carried out a study of the discordant relationships between two types of sediments: continental and marine. According the characterization, it was noted the existence of light rare earths, in values that show positive anomalies in comparison with the distribution of elements in upper continental crust according to the Clarke , reflecting so a felsic affinity of the mineral deposit. Also, positive anomalies of platinum and Pd, were determined with marginal contents of Au and Ag; and finally the base metals Zn, Pb and Cu were detected in low contents, which could be due to the presence of altered shale. According to the sedimentary lithology found, which was of siliciclastic type; to the exhalative roots observed during the fieldwork; the presence of quartz minerals such as biotite and muscovite; the presence of minerals of hydrothermal remobilization like chalcopyrite with some base metals, altered shale, as well as sulfur deficiency; this mineral reservoir could be defined as a SEDEX – type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: bluff body; cascade, turbulence; ANSYS; and simulation; offshore energy platform
Online: 25 April 2017 (09:59:58 CEST)
Most of the structures in flowing water are a challenge to their stability and sustainable with different flow conditions. Recent, renewable energy research and development covers ocean and river energy platform in which flow of water drag considered in various conversion devices towards the offshore and onshore establishment. Various energy platforms have been suggested for offshore development. However, the stability of these platforms in water is a serious concern. To study the water interaction over circular and square cross-section cascade system under the water has been carried out. Water flow around the pillars or column of the energy platform are analyzed through simulation software. Very low velocity 0.5 m/s has been considered to analyze the system. Total fifteen numbers of cascade pillars having circular and square cross-section area were considered. K-ε turbulence model is adopted to calculate the flow interaction to the column. A velocity, pressure, and energy fields are found around the column.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0116.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: big data； body area network；body sensor network；edge computing；Fog Computing； Medical Cyberphysical Systems； medical internet-of-things；telecare； tele-treatment；wearable devices
Online: 26 June 2017 (06:24:07 CEST)
In the era when the market segment of Internet of Things (IoT) tops the chart in various business reports, it is apparently envisioned that the field of medicine expects to gain a large benefit from the explosion of wearables and internet-connected sensors that surround us to acquire and communicate unprecedented data on symptoms, medication, food intake, and daily-life activities impacting one’s health and wellness. However, IoT-driven healthcare would have to overcome many barriers, such as: 1) There is an increasing demand for data storage on cloud servers where the analysis of the medical big data becomes increasingly complex; 2) The data, when communicated, are vulnerable to security and privacy issues; 3) The communication of the continuously collected data is not only costly but also energy hungry; 4) Operating and maintaining the sensors directly from the cloud servers are non-trial tasks.This book chapter defined Fog Computing in the context of medical IoT. Conceptually, Fog Computing is a serviceoriented intermediate layer in IoT, providing the interfaces between the sensors and cloud servers for facilitating connectivity, data transfer, and queryable local database. The centerpiece of Fog computing is a low-power, intelligent, wireless, embedded computing node that carries out signal conditioning and data analytics on raw data collected from wearables or other medical sensors and offers efficient means to serve telehealth interventions. We implemented and tested an fog computing system using the Intel Edison and Raspberry Pi that allows acquisition, computing, storage and communication of the various medical data such as pathological speech data of individuals with speech disorders, Phonocardiogram (PCG) signal for heart rate estimation, and Electrocardiogram (ECG)-based Q, R, S detection. The book chapter ends with experiments and results showing how fog computing could lessen the obstacles of existing cloud-driven medical IoT solutions and enhance the overall performance of the system in terms of computing intelligence, transmission, storage, configurable, and security. The case studies on various types of physiological data shows that the proposed Fog architecture could be used for signal enhancement, processing and analysis of various types of bio-signals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0407.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Bayesian nonlinear hierarchical model; Bayesian nonlinear mixed effects models; Inter-individual variation; Intra-individual variation; Markov chain Monte Carlo technique
Online: 27 January 2022 (04:55:25 CET)
Bayesian nonlinear mixed effects models for data in the form of continuous, repeated measurements from a population, also known as Bayesian hierarchical nonlinear models, are a popular platform for analysis when interest focuses on individual specific characteristics and relevant uncertainty quantification. Due to the limitation of computational power, this framework was relatively dormant until the late 1980s, but in recent years, the statistical research community saw vigorous development of new methodological and computational techniques for these models, the emergence of software, and wide application of the models in numerous industrial and academic fields. This article presents an overview of the formulation, interpretation, and implementation of Bayesian nonlinear mixed effects models and surveys recent advances and applications.