REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0531.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Biosensors; COVID-19; Artificial Intelligence; Computer-aided Detection (CAD) Internet of Medical Things (IoMT).
Online: 29 November 2022 (03:44:17 CET)
Despite the fact that COVID-19 is no longer a global pandemic due to development and integration of different technologies for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Technological advancement in the field of molecular biology, electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, nanotechnology etc. has led to the development of molecular approaches and computer aided diagnosis for the detection of COVID-19. This study provides a holistic approach on COVID-19 detection based on (1) molecular diagnosis which include RT-PCR, antigen-antibody and CRISPR-based biosensors and (2) computer aided detection based on AI-driven models which include Deep Learning and Transfer learning approach. The review also provide comparison between these 2 emerging technologies and open research issues for the development of smart-IoMT-enable platform for the detection of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Healthcare; Internet of Things; IoT; Medical Assistance; Medical Kiosk; Rural people
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:29:46 CET)
After conducting a detailed survey among the villagers of Pallissery and Karukutty, it was observed that in most of the villages the native people have to travel long distances for their basic health needs. Also most of the villagers lack knowledge regarding live health updates. At times, these problems have even resulted in death of many people including pregnant women and children. The objective of our research is to propose an integrated and easy to use Medical Kiosk that can be installed at various locations in rural areas. The Kiosk will provide an integrated environment for all medical related activities and would perform numerous functions like sending notifications regarding medical camps, mobile medical help, important dates for vaccinations, child care, insurance policies and provide other live medical updates to the villagers. It would also support the basic facilities for measurement of body parameters like height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, and heartbeat and also facilitate live consultation facilities with specialized doctors through video and voice chats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0163.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Service Computing; Internet of Things; Situation Response; Services in Internet of Things
Online: 6 August 2021 (13:12:33 CEST)
A large number of smart devices (things) are being deployed with the swift development of Inter- net of Things (IOT). These devices, owned by different organizations, have a wide variety of services to offer over the web. During a natural disaster or emergency (i.e., a situation), for example, relevant IOT services can be found and put to use. However, appropriate service matching methods are required to find the relevant services. Organizations that manage situation responses and organizations that provide IOT services are likely to be independent of each other, and therefore it is difficult for them to adopt a common ontological model to facilitate the service matching. Moreover, there exists a large conceptual gap between the domain of discourse for situations and the domain of discourse for services, which cannot be adequately bridged by existing techniques. In this paper, we address these issues and propose a new method, WikiServe, to identify IOT services that are functionally relevant to a given situation. Using concepts (terms) from situation and service descriptions, WikiServe employs Wikipedia as a knowledge source to bridge the conceptual gap between situation and service descriptions and match functionally relevant IOT services for a situation. It uses situation terms to retrieve situation related articles from Wikipedia. Then it creates a ranked list of services for the situation using the weighted occurrences of service terms in weighted situation articles. WikiServe performs better than a commonly used baseline method in terms of Precision, Recall and F measure for service matching.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0312.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Cyber Security; Internet of Things
Online: 21 October 2021 (14:01:19 CEST)
Nowadays, people live amidst the smart home domain, business opportunities in the industrial smart city and health care, though, along with concerns about security. Security is central for IoT systems to protect sensitive data and infrastructure, whilst security issues become increasingly expensive, in particular in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) domains. Nonetheless, there are some key challenges for dealing with those security issues in IoT domains: Applications operate in distributed environments such as Blockchain, varied smart objects are used, and sensors are limited in what comes to machine resources. In this way, traditional security does not fit in IoT systems. In this vein, the issue of cyber security has become paramount to the Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) in mitigating cyber security risk for organizations and end users. New cyber security technologies / applications present improvements for IoT security management. Nevertheless, there is a gap on the effectiveness of IoT cyber risk solutions. This review article discusses the, trends around opportunities and threats in cyber security for IIoT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0219.v1
Online: 18 December 2018 (10:42:48 CET)
A Smart Home is characterized by the presence of a huge number of small, low power devices, along with more classical devices. According to the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm, all of them are expected to be always connected to the Internet in order to provide enhanced services. In this scenario, an attacker can undermine both the network security and the user’s security/privacy. Traditional security measures are not sufficient, because they are too difficult to setup and are either too weak to effectively protect the user or too limiting for the new services effectiveness. The paper suggests to dynamically adapt the security level of the smart home network according to the user perceived risk level what we have called network sentiment analysis. The security level is not fixed, established by a central system (usually by the Internet Service Provider) but can be changed with the users cooperation. The security of the smart home network is improved by a distributed firewalling and Intrusion Detection Systems both to the smart home side as to the Internet Service Provider side. These two parts must cooperate and integrate their actions for reacting dynamically to new and ongoing threats. Moreover, the level of network sentiment detected can be propagate to nearby home networks (e.g. the smart home networks of the apartments inside a building) to increase/decrease their level of security, thus creating a true in-line Intrusion Prevention System (IPS). The paper also presents a test bed for Smart Home to detect and counteract to different attacks against the IoT devices,,Wi-Fi and Ethernet connections .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0462.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: diabetes disease; feature selection; E-Healthcare; decision tree; performance; machine learning; internet of things; medical data
Online: 29 February 2020 (10:16:37 CET)
A significant attention has been made to the accurate detection of diabetes which is a big challenge for the research community to develop a diagnosis system to detect diabetes in a successful way in the IoT e-healthcare environment. Internet of Things (IOT) has emerging role in healthcare services which delivers a system to analyze the medical data for diagnosis of diseases applied data mining methods. The existing diagnosis systems have some drawbacks, such as high computation time, and low prediction accuracy. To handle these issues, we have proposed a IOT based diagnosis system using machine learning methods, such as preprocessing of data, feature selection, and classification for the detection of diabetes disease in e- healthcare environment. Model validation and performance evaluation metrics have been used to check the validity of the proposed system. We have proposed a filter method based on the Decision Tree (Iterative Dichotomiser 3) algorithm for highly important feature selection. Two ensemble learning Decision Tree algorithms, such as Ada Boost and Random Forest are also used for feature selection and compared the classifier performance with wrapper based feature selection algorithms also. Machine learning classifier Decision Tree has been used for the classification of healthy and diabetic subjects. The experimental results show that the Decision Tree algorithm based on selected features improves the classification performance of the predictive model and achieved optimal accuracy. Additionally, the proposed system performance is high as compared to the previous state-of-the-art methods. High performance of the proposed method is due to the different combinations of selected features set and GL, DPF, and BMI are more significantly important features in the dataset for prediction of diabetes disease. Furthermore, the experimental results statistical analysis demonstrated that the proposed method would be effectively detected diabetes disease and can easily be deployed in IOT wireless sensor technologies based e-healthcare environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0359.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Internet of things; healthcare; ethics; data privacy
Online: 30 January 2020 (10:51:54 CET)
Implications of the novel usage adoption of the internet of things in various sectors of works and life are researched and documented at pace. This is related to the overall high rate at which new technologies are adopted in modern society. Healthcare is a vital aspect of everyday activities and as such overlaps with the increasingly important role played by use of the internet and associated technologies. The purpose of this review article is to draw attention to the potential social, ethical, legal and professional limitations to using IoT in the context of healthcare. The social and ethical aspects in particular, focus on IoT usage in care of the elderly with relevant case studies as reference.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0063.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: 5G wireless, Distributed Cloud, Internet of Things
Online: 5 March 2019 (12:15:16 CET)
This article will provide an overview on internet of things (IoT), 5G communication System and Distributed Clouds. The basic concepts and benefits will be briefly presented, along with current standardization activities. In a nutshell, but the research will focus on relating internet of things, 5G and Distributed Cloud Computing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; greement; Intelligent Transportation Systems
Online: 22 January 2018 (13:53:58 CET)
The era of Internet of Things (IoT) has begun to evolve and with this the devices around us are getting more and more connected. Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) is one of the applications of IoT. VANET allow vehicles within these networks to communicate effectively with each another. VANETs can provide an extensive range of applications that support and enhance passenger safety and comfort. It is important that VANETs are applied within a safe and reliable network topology; however, the challenging nature of reaching reliable and trustworthy agreement in such distributed systems is one of the most important issues in designing a fault-tolerant system. Therefore, protocols are required so that systems can still be correctly executed, reaching agreement on the same values in a distributed system, even if certain components in the system fail. In this study, the agreement problem is revisited in a VANET with multiple damages. The proposed protocol allows all fault-free nodes (vehicles) to reach agreement with minimal rounds of message exchanges, and tolerates the maximal number of allowable faulty components in the VANET.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0188.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things; security protocol; authentication; authorization; networks
Online: 10 August 2022 (04:11:00 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) has become one of the most attractive domains nowadays. It works by creating a special network between physical devices such as vehicles, home equipment, and other items. In recent days, the common technologies of communication such as Wi-Fi and 2G/3G/4G cellular are insufficient for the IoT networks because they are designed to serve appliances with immense processing capabilities such as laptops and PCs. Moreover, most of these technologies are centralized and use an existing infrastructure. Currently, the new communication technologies such as Z-Wave, 6LowPAN, and Thread are dedicated to the IoT and have been developed to meet its requirements. These technologies can handle many factors such as range, data requirements, security, power demands, and battery life. Nevertheless, the security issues in IoT systems have major concerns and matters because vulnerabilities in such systems may result in fatal catastrophes. In this paper, an enhanced IoT security framework for authentication and authorization is proposed and implemented to protect the IoT protocols from different types of attacks such as man-in-the-middle attack, reply attack, and brute force attack. The proposed framework combines an enhanced token authentication that has identity verification capabilities and a new sender verification mechanism on the IoT device side based on time stamp, which in turn can mitigate the need for local identity verification methods in IoT devices. The proposed IoT security framework is tested using security analysis with different types of attacks compared with previous related frameworks. The analysis shows the high capability of the proposed framework to protect IoT networks against many types of attacks compared with current available security frameworks. Finally, the proposed framework is developed using Windows application to simulate the framework phases, check its validity through the real network, and calculate the payload time is adds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Dew computing; Internet of Things; Blockchain; Hotspot Network
Online: 5 August 2022 (03:46:27 CEST)
Building a widely distributed hotspot network is a very tedious task due to its complexity. Providing security, fully distributed network services, and cost-conscious impact are the major challenges behind this goal. To overcome these issues, we have presented a novel distributed hotspot network architecture with five layers that can provide large-scale hotspot coverage as an assimilated result. Our contributions to this new architecture highlight important aspects. First, scalability can be increased by including many Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices with sensors and Wi-Fi and/or LoraWAN connectivity modules. Second, hotspot owners can rent out their hotspots to create a distributed hotspot network in which the hotspots can act as an ordinary data gateway, a full-fledged hotspot miner, and a lightweight hotspot miner to earn crypto tokens as rewards for certain activities. Third, the advantages of Wi-Fi and LoraWAN can be seamlessly leveraged to achieve optimal coverage, higher network security, and suitable data transmission rate for transferring sensor data from IoT devices to remote application servers and users. Fourth, blockchain is used to enhance the decentralized behavior of the architecture presented here by providing immutability and independence from a centralized regulator and making the network architecture more reliable and transparent. The main feature of our paper is the use of the tau-computing paradigm along with hotspots to improve availability, Internet backhaul-agnostic network coverage, and synchronous update capability, and tau-aware leasing to strengthen and improve coverage. We also discuss the key challenges and future roadmap that require further investment and deployment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0341.v1
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:30:54 CET)
Rapid growth of IoT applications and their interference in our daily lives led to many different IoT devices which generates enormous data. The IoT devices’ resources are very limited, so storing and processing IoT data in the devices is very inefficient. Several resources of cloud-computing are efficiently used to handle some IoT resources issues. While using resources in the cloud centers cause some other issues, like latency in the IoT applications, which are time-critical. Thus, the technology of edge cloud has evolved recently. This technology permits storage and data processing at the network edge. This paper studies edge computing in-depth for timeless sensitive devices in IoT. In-depth, cutting-edge IoT computing systems (ECAs-IoT) are evaluated and characterized in this paper according to numerous criteria, such as information placement, improvisation facilities, reliability, and data visualization. Moreover, according to distinctive properties, the paper aims at comparing each structure in detail. The paper also highlights the significant limitations of the new ECAs-IoT and recommends solutions to them. The studies also introduce and propose solutions to some of the most important restrictions of the current ECAs-IoT. Consequently, in the edge computing domain, this survey outlines the IoT implementations. Lastly, with the use of IoT implementations for ECAs-IoT, the paper suggests four distinct scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0461.v1
Online: 28 September 2021 (10:21:26 CEST)
In recent years, due to their frequent use and widespread use, IoT (Internet of Things) devices have become an attractive target for hackers. As a result of their limited network resources and complex operating systems, they are vulnerable to attacks. Using a honeypot can, therefore, be a very effective way of detecting malicious requests and capturing samples of exploits. The purpose of this article is to introduce honeypots, the rise of IoT devices, and how they can be exploited by attackers. Various honeypot ecosystems will be investigated further for capturing and analyzing information from attacks against these IoT devices. As well as how to leverage proactive strategies in terms of IoT security, it will provide insights on the attack vectors present in most IoT systems, along with understanding attack patterns.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: smartphones; balloons, internet of things; cyber-physical systems
Online: 8 September 2021 (12:34:09 CEST)
A smartphone plummeted from a stratospheric height of 36 km (~119,000 feet), providing a complete record of its rapid descent and abrupt deceleration when it hit the ground. The smartphone was configured to collect internal sensor data at high rates. We discuss the state-of-the-art of smartphone environmental and sensing capabilities at the closing of year 2020 and present a flexible mobile sensor data model. The associated open-source application programing interface (API) and python software development kit (SDK) used in this work is transportable to any hardware platform and operating system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0164.v1
Subject: Keywords: Blockchain, Internet of Things, Security, Privacy, Wireless Communication.
Online: 7 June 2021 (10:50:54 CEST)
In the age of next-generation computer, the role of the cloud, the internet and smart devices will become stronger. These days we all know the word smart well. This word is often used in our daily lives. The Internet of Things (IoT) will generate a variety of information from a variety of resources. It can store big data in the cloud. Fog computing acts as a signal between cloud and IoT. Fog extensions in this framework apply to material under IoT. IoT devices are called Fog nodes, which can be accessed anywhere within the network range. A blockchain is a novel way of recording in a secure sequence. Creating a new framework in the development of Internet of Things is one of the critical problems of wireless communication where solving such a problem can lead to continued growth in the use and popularity of IoT. Proposed research creates a framework for providing a framework for middleware on the internet of smart devices network for the internet of things using blockchains technology. Our great offering connects new research that integrates blockchains into the Internet of Things and provides secure Internet connection for smart devices. Blockchain (BC) Internet of Things (IoT) is a new technology that works with low-level, distributed, public and real-time leaders to maintain transactions between IoT sites. A blockchain is a series of blocks, each block being linked to its previous blocks. All blocks have cryptographic hash code, previous block hash, and its data. Transactions in BC are the basic components used to transfer data between IoT nodes. IoT nodes are a variety of portable but smart devices with embedded sensors, actuators, systems and the ability to communicate with other IoT nodes. The role of BC in IoT is to provide a process for processing secure data records using IoT nodes. BC is a protected technology that can be used publicly and openly. IoT requires this type of technology to allow secure communication between IoT nodes in different environments. Events in BC can be tracked and monitored by anyone who is certified to communicate within IoT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Wireless Sensor network (WSN); Internet of Things (I.o.T)
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:13:26 CEST)
Surveillance along the Kenya-Somalia border has been a big challenge that has continuously puzzled the security personnel, due to insurgency of armed militia Al-Shabaab from Somalia , the Kenyan government proposed construction of a barrier wall. This project developed a low cost wireless sensor network surveillance system to be deployed along the Kenya-Somalia border. The research study utilized two PIR sensor for detecting human intrusion, one motion is detected the sensor transmit the data via an Xbee module. Arduino microcontroller was used to process the data collected by the sensor before transmission. The system developed has two units, the Transmitter unit and a User Graphic interface running on Tuna Term software that displays the received data. During testing, the prototype system detected human intrusion, using the Arduino serial monitor the results were displayed before being package for transmission.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: FMIS; Internet of Things; Precision Agriculture; PoC; UML
Online: 17 March 2021 (19:45:27 CET)
The rising world population has made it imperative to get rid of time-consuming and non-economical agricultural practices. Thus, advances in Internet of Things (IoT) technology have recently propelled significant advancements in agriculture, similar to several other sectors. Through the combination of IoT and Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS), field data can be automatically collected, stored, analysed and accessed by farmers in real-time. In this paper, we present Proof-of-Concept (PoC) IoT circuit and FMIS web app for precision agriculture. The IoT circuit incorporates sensors, microcontroller and Wi-Fi module, which acquire and transfer field data to the FMIS web app. We designed and simulated the IoT circuit using Proteus, Arduino Uno, and Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The FMIS PoC web app was modelled with relevant Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams and Django (a Python framework) was employed to implement the app. Our simulation result illustrates how essentila field parameters can be monitored remotely and seamlessly by agriculture practitioners. It further provides a blueprint for real-time precision agriculture at scale and could serve as a learning aid for students in engineering and agricultural science.
Online: 28 May 2019 (17:44:06 CEST)
Blockchain (BC) in the Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel technology that acts with decentralized, distributed, public and real-time ledger to store transactions among IoT nodes. A blockchain is a series of blocks, each block is linked to its previous blocks. Every block has the cryptographic hash code, previous block hash, and its data. The transactions in BC are the basic units that are used to transfer data between IoT nodes. The IoT nodes are different kind of physical but smart devices with embedded sensors, actuators, programs and able to communicate with other IoT nodes. The role of BC in IoT is to provide a procedure to process secured records of data through IoT nodes. BC is a secured technology that can be used publicly and openly. IoT requires this kind of technology to allow secure communication among IoT nodes in heterogeneous environment. The transactions in BC could be traced and explored through anyone who are authenticated to communicate within the IoT. The BC in IoT may help to improve the communication security. In this paper, I explored this approach, its opportunities and challenges.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Brain-Computer Interfaces; Internet of Things; Smart Home
Online: 17 September 2018 (09:47:11 CEST)
A brain-computer interface for controlling elements commonly used at home is presented in this paper. It includes the electroencephalography device needed to acquire signals associated to the brain activity, the algorithms for artefact reduction and event classification, and the communication protocol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: monitoring; SfM-MVS; photogrammetry; internet of things; M3C2
Online: 4 April 2018 (04:53:34 CEST)
Multi-view stereo (MVS) employs multi-point photography for image point positioning and three-dimensional reconstruction technology. Recently, this technology has been introduced into the monitoring of road slopes due to advances in photography and computing technology. In general, the various phases of post-image processing procedures are applied to various photographic data. In this study a novel, automated image-monitoring system is proposed to improve the ability of automatic processing. First, an Internet of things (IoT)-based digital photography system architecture was constructed to provide automatic control of camera photography and real-time transmission of image data. In addition, a visual SfM-MVS 3D reconstruction technique was used to develop related software and hardware interfaces based on the built-in Python computing framework of Photoscan Pro. The software integrates fully automatic photography, image transmission, monitoring of data processing and product release programs. The experimental results show that the system architecture can be applied to fully automatic three-dimensional monitoring of road slopes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: precision agriculture, electronic insect traps, internet of things
Online: 29 May 2017 (10:02:26 CEST)
Τhe concept of remote insect surveillance at large spatial scales for a number of serious insect pests of agricultural and medical importance is introduced in a series of our papers. We augment typical, low-cost plastic traps for many insect pests with the necessary optoelectronic sensors to guard the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and –in relevant cases- identify the species of the incoming insect from their wingbeat. For every important crop pest there are monitoring protocols to be followed in order to decide when to initiate a treatment procedure before a serious infestation occurs. Monitoring protocols are mainly based on specifically designed insect traps. Traditional insect monitoring suffers in that the scope of such monitoring: is curtailed by its cost, requires intensive labor, is time consuming, an expert is often needed for sufficient accuracy and can sometimes raise safety issues for humans. These disadvantages reduce the extent to which manual insect monitoring is applied and therefore its accuracy, which finally results in significant crop loss due to damage caused by pests. With the term ‘surveillance’ we intend to push the monitoring idea to unprecedented levels of information extraction regarding the presence, time-stamping detection events, species identification and population density of targeted insect pests. Insect counts as well as environmental parameters that correlate with insect’s population development are wirelessly transmitted to the central monitoring agency in real time, are visualized and streamed to statistical methods to assist enforcement of security control to insect pests. In this work we emphasize on how the traps can be self-organized in networks that collectively report data at local, regional, country, continental, and global scales using the emerging technology of the Internet of Things (IoT). This research is necessarily interdisciplinary and falls at the intersection of entomology, optoelectronic engineering, data-science and crop science and encompasses the design and implementation of low-cost, low-power technology to help reduce the extent of quantitative and qualitative crop losses by many the most significant agricultural pests. We argue that smart traps communicating through IoT to report in real-time the level of the pest population from the field straight to a human controlled agency can, in the very near future, have a profound impact on the decision making process in crop protection and will be disruptive of existing manual practices. In the present study, three cases are investigated : monitoring Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using a) Picusan and b) Lindgren trap, and c) monitoring various stored grain beetle pests using the pitfall trap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0202.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: machine learning; artificial intelligence; computer vision; cybersecurity; privacy, security; gerontology; social gerontology; internet of medical things; best practices
Online: 15 March 2022 (10:40:36 CET)
Fall prediction using machine learning has become one of the most fruitful and socially relevant applications of computer vision in gerontological research. Since its inception in the early 2000s, this subfield has proliferated into a robust body of research underpinned by various machine learning algorithms (including neural networks, support vector machines, and decision trees) as well as statistical modeling approaches (Markov chains, Gaussian mixture models, and hidden Markov models). Furthermore, some advancements have been translated into commercial and clinical practice, with companies in various stages of development capitalizing on the aging population to develop new commercially available products. Yet despite the marvel of modern machine learning-enabled fall prediction, little research has been conducted to shed light on the security and privacy concerns that such systems pose for older adults. The present study employs an interdisciplinary lens in examining privacy issues associated with machine learning fall prediction and exploring the implications of these models in elderly care and the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT). Ultimately, a justice-informed set of best practices rooted in social geroscience is suggested to help fall prediction researchers and companies continue to advance the field while preserving elderly privacy and autonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0116.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: big data； body area network；body sensor network；edge computing；Fog Computing； Medical Cyberphysical Systems； medical internet-of-things；telecare； tele-treatment；wearable devices
Online: 26 June 2017 (06:24:07 CEST)
In the era when the market segment of Internet of Things (IoT) tops the chart in various business reports, it is apparently envisioned that the field of medicine expects to gain a large benefit from the explosion of wearables and internet-connected sensors that surround us to acquire and communicate unprecedented data on symptoms, medication, food intake, and daily-life activities impacting one’s health and wellness. However, IoT-driven healthcare would have to overcome many barriers, such as: 1) There is an increasing demand for data storage on cloud servers where the analysis of the medical big data becomes increasingly complex; 2) The data, when communicated, are vulnerable to security and privacy issues; 3) The communication of the continuously collected data is not only costly but also energy hungry; 4) Operating and maintaining the sensors directly from the cloud servers are non-trial tasks.This book chapter defined Fog Computing in the context of medical IoT. Conceptually, Fog Computing is a serviceoriented intermediate layer in IoT, providing the interfaces between the sensors and cloud servers for facilitating connectivity, data transfer, and queryable local database. The centerpiece of Fog computing is a low-power, intelligent, wireless, embedded computing node that carries out signal conditioning and data analytics on raw data collected from wearables or other medical sensors and offers efficient means to serve telehealth interventions. We implemented and tested an fog computing system using the Intel Edison and Raspberry Pi that allows acquisition, computing, storage and communication of the various medical data such as pathological speech data of individuals with speech disorders, Phonocardiogram (PCG) signal for heart rate estimation, and Electrocardiogram (ECG)-based Q, R, S detection. The book chapter ends with experiments and results showing how fog computing could lessen the obstacles of existing cloud-driven medical IoT solutions and enhance the overall performance of the system in terms of computing intelligence, transmission, storage, configurable, and security. The case studies on various types of physiological data shows that the proposed Fog architecture could be used for signal enhancement, processing and analysis of various types of bio-signals.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: smart cities; artificial intelligence; internet of things; air pollution
Online: 22 April 2021 (14:18:12 CEST)
Air pollution contributes to a critical environmental problem in various towns and cities. With the emergence of the smart cities concept, appropriate methods to curb associated with exposure to pollutants must have been a portion of appropriate urban development policy. This study presents a technologically driven air quality solution in smart cities to advertise energy-efficient and cleaner sequestration in these areas. It aims to address the issue of how to integrate the data-based strategies and artificial intelligence into efficient public sector pollution management in smart cities as a core part of the smart city definition. Exploratory research has been used in 152 smart cities, and environmental experts contributed to this study. It further addresses the technical criteria for implementing such a framework that the public administration uses to prepare the renovation of public buildings, minimize energy use and costs, and link these smart police stations to monitor air pollution as a part of integrated cities. Such a digital transition in resource management will increase public governance's energy performance, a higher standard of operation, and a healthier environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0263.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: IEEE 802.11ax; multiple NAVs; Internet-of-Things (IoT); beamforming
Online: 15 August 2018 (04:33:59 CEST)
The increased deployment of IoT devices in specific areas results in an interference among them and the quality of communications can be severely degraded. To deal with this interference issue, the IEEE 802.11ax standard has been established in hyper-densely wireless networking systems. The 802.11ax adopts a new candidate technology that is called multiple network allocation vector in order to mitigate the interference problem. In this paper, we point out potential problem in multiple network allocation vector which can cause delays to the communication among IoT devices in hyper-dense wireless networks. Furthermore, this paper introduces an adaptive beam alignment algorithm for interference issue resolution. In addition, we analyze potential delays of communications among IoT devices under interference conditions. Lastly, we simulate our proposed algorithm in densely deployed environment and show that the interference issue can be mitigated and the IEEE 802.11ax-based IoT devices can utilize the air interface more fairly compared to conventional IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Industrial Internet of Things; Cyber Physical Systems; Internet of Everything; Industry 4.0; Digital Industry; Digital Economy
Online: 14 September 2020 (05:47:48 CEST)
This article conducts a literature review of current and future challenges in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in cyber physical systems. The literature review is focused on identifying a conceptual framework for increasing resilience with AI through automation supporting both, a technical and human level. The methodology applied resembled a literature review and taxonomic analysis of complex internet of things (IoT) interconnected and coupled cyber physical systems. There is an increased attention on propositions on models, infrastructures and frameworks of IoT in both academic and technical papers. These reports and publications frequently represent a juxtaposition of other related systems and technologies (e.g. Industrial Internet of Things, Cyber Physical Systems, Industry 4.0 etc.). We review academic and industry papers published between 2010 and 2020. The results determine a new hierarchical cascading conceptual framework for analysing the evolution of AI decision-making in cyber physical systems. We argue that such evolution is inevitable and autonomous because of the increased integration of connected devices (IoT) in cyber physical systems. To support this argument, taxonomic methodol- ogy is adapted and applied for transparency and justifications of concepts selection decisions through building summary maps that are applied for designing the hierarchical cascading conceptual framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; Cyber Physical Systems; Digital Economy; Industrial Internet of Things; Industry 4.0; empirical analysis; cyber risk assessment; cyber risk target state
Online: 7 March 2019 (12:25:15 CET)
The world is currently experiencing the fourth industrial revolution driven by the newest wave of digitisation in the manufacturing sector. The term Industry 4.0 (I4.0) represents at the same time: a paradigm shift in industrial production, a generic designation for sets of strategic initiatives to boost national industries, a technical term to relate to new emerging business assets, processes and services, and a brand to mark a very particular historical and social period. I4.0 is also referred to as Industrie 4.0 the New Industrial France, the Industrial Internet, the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the digital economy. These terms are used interchangeably in this text. The aim of this article is to discuss major developments in this space in relation to the integration of new developments of IoT and cyber physical systems in the digital economy, to better understand cyber risks and economic value and risk impact. The objective of the paper is to map the current evolution and its associated cyber risks for the digital economy sector and to discuss the future developments in the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: LoRa; LoRaWAN; Trial; Waste Management; Smart City; Internet of Things
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:32:05 CET)
The city of Lisbon, has any other capital of a European country, has a large number of issues while managing the waste and recycling containers spread throughout the city. This document presents the results of a study promoted by the Lisbon City Council for trialing LPWAN technology on the waste management vertical under the Lisbon Smart City initiative. Current waste management is done using GSM sensors, and the aim is to use LPWAN to reduce the costs, improve range and reduce provisioning times when changing the communications provider. After an initial study, LoRa was selected as the LPWAN of choice for the trials. The study is composed of multiple use cases at different distances, types of recycling waste containers, placements (underground and surface) and different kinds of waste level measurement LoRa sensors, deployed in order to assess the impact of the different use cases on the LoRa sensor usage. The results shown that the underground waste containers present the most difficult challenge, where the container itself imposes attenuation levels of 26dB on the link budget. The results promoted the deployment of a city wide LoRa network available to all departments inside the Lisbon City Council, and considering the network capacity the network, the network is also available to citizens to be used freely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Internet of things; Artificial Intelligence; Smart University; Microcontroller; Smart buildings
Online: 5 February 2021 (21:52:06 CET)
In this paper we designed system for smart university building based on artificial intelligence (AI) and internet of things (IOT). Our idea can be summarized in smart security system that has different sensors to detect the surrounding environment of the class room in campus which keep everyone and everything on campus safer. By using (IOT), (AI) technologies and applications and by using microcontroller programming we can make the university building safer, secure and more energy saves.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; IEEE 802.15.4g; Smart Utility Networks; Retransmission Shaping
Online: 19 January 2021 (13:58:34 CET)
In this paper, we propose and evaluate two mechanisms aimed at improving the communication reliability of IEEE 802.15g SUN (Smart Utility Networks) in industrial scenarios: RTS (Re-Transmission Shaping), which uses acknowledgements to track channel conditions and dynamically adapt the number of re-transmissions per packet, and AMS (Adaptive Modulation Selection), which makes use of reinforcement learning based on MAB (Multi-Armed Bandits) to choose the modulation that provides the best reliability for each packet re-transmission. The evaluation of both mechanisms is performed through computer simulations using a dataset obtained from a real-world deployment and two widely used metrics, the PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio) and the RNP (Required Number of Packet transmissions). The PDR measures the ratio between received and transmitted packets, whereas the RNP is the number of packet repetitions before a successful transmission. The results show that both mechanisms allow to increase the communication reliability while not jeopardizing the battery life-time constraints of end devices. For example, when three re-transmissions per packet are allowed, the PDR reaches 98/96\% with a RNP of 2.03/1.32 using RTS and AMS, respectively. Additionally, the combination of both proposed mechanisms allows to reach a 99% PDR with a RNP of 1.7, making IEEE 802.15.4g SUN compliant with the stringent data delivery requirements of industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0461.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; IEEE 802.15.4g; Smart Utility Networks; Retransmission Shaping
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:04:23 CEST)
Packet re-transmissions are a common technique to improve link reliability in low-power wireless networks. However, since packet re-transmissions increase the end-device energy consumption and the network load, a maximum number of re-transmissions per packet is typically set, also considering the duty-cycle limitations imposed by radio-frequency regulations. Moreover, the number of re-transmissions per packet is typically set to a constant value, meaning that all packet re-transmissions are treated the same regardless of actual channel conditions (i.e., multi-path propagation or internal/external interference effects). Taking that into account, in this paper we propose and evaluate the concept of re-transmission shaping, a mechanism that manages packet re-transmissions to maximize link reliability, while minimizing energy consumption and meeting radio-frequency regulation constraints. The proposed re-transmission shaping mechanism operates by keeping track of unused packet re-transmissions and allocating additional retransmission when the instantaneous link quality decreases due to channel impairments. To evaluate the re-transmission shaping mechanism we use trace-based simulations using a IEEE 802.15.4g SUN data-set and two widely used metrics, the PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio) and the RNP (Required Number of Packets). The obtained results show that re-transmission shaping is a useful mechanism to improve link reliability of low-power wireless communications, as it can increase PDR from 77.9% to 99.2% while sustaining a RNP of 2.35 re-transmissions per packet, when compared to using a single re-transmission per packet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: internet of things; smart grids; protocol communication; interoperability; CoAP; OSGP
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:41:25 CET)
The evolution and miniaturization of the technologies for processing, storage, and communication have enabled computer systems to process a high volume of information and make decisions without human intervention. Within this context, several systems architectures and models have gained prominences, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Grids (SGs). SGs use communication protocols to exchange information, among which the Open Smart Grid Protocol (OSGP) stands out. In contrast, this protocol does not have integration support with IoT systems that use some already consolidated communication protocols, such as the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). Thus, this work develops the integration of the protocols OSGP and CoAP to allow the communication between conventional IoT systems and systems dedicated to SGs. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of this integration, with the minimum impact on the flow of commands and data, making possible the use of the developed CoAP-OSGP Interface for Internet of Things (COIIoT).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0417.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: tangible interfaces; Internet of Things tangibles; children with hearing impairment
Online: 31 December 2019 (16:48:04 CET)
A Tangible User Interface (TUI) is a new interaction option that uses nontraditional input and output elements. A tangible interface thus allows the manipulation of physical objects using digital information. The exploration and manipulation of physical objects is a factor to be considered in learning in children, especially those with some kind of disability such as hearing, who maximize the use of other senses such as vision and touch. In a tangible interface, three elements are related - physical, digital and social. The potential of IoT for children is growing. This technology IoT integrated with TUI, can help for that parents or teachers can monitoring activities of the child. Also to identify behavior patterns in the child with hearing impairment. This article shows four case studies, where had been designed different products of Internet of Things Tangible applied a several contexts and with products of low cost.
Subject: Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Quality Assurance; Testing; Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Online: 9 December 2019 (07:39:47 CET)
IoT is a fast growing technology that has Promising potential for shaping our future. In this fast growing world of IoT, IoT systems are released without proper testing which effect its quality and does not guarantee user satisfaction. Different testing methodologies are carried out to ensure Quality assurance of IoT before releasing it to the market. In this paper we have reviewed different testing techniques using AI and different tools to ensure Quality of IoT. In this paper we have also reviewed different IoT challenges related to its quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: autonomous electrical vehicles; the Internet of Things; supply chain strategy
Online: 11 April 2019 (12:59:18 CEST)
This paper outlines a new methodology for developing strategy for supply chain integration of Autonomous Electrical Vehicles (AEV) to the Internet of Things (IoT). The methodology consists of external architecture and internal design that anticipates the business strategy in the development process. The methodology is designed to anticipate the impact of developments in new road transport technologies, such as Tesla Truck or Tesla Pickup. Since the methodology is designed to anticipate the impact of non-existing technologies, it represents green-field analysis. Green-field is defined as a new and non-existent operation. Green-field strategy architecture in this paper is presented as a process of accepting the world and acting upon that version of the world. The results of the analysis are presented as pathways and outcomes, emerging from the interrelated relationship between AEV and IoT. The emerging methodology is applied through two case studies to evaluate the impact to environment, performance and operationalisation. The methodology proposes architecture and design for integrating AEV and IoT in the supply chain strategy, and a set of new evaluation criteria that promote acceptance of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the design process. The main contribution to knowledge is a new methodology for integrating AEV and the IoT to the supply chains. The paper applies interplay between inductive and deductive case study and grounded theory approach to build upon the concept of supply chain architecture and contribute to knowledge to the topic of formulating green-field integrated AEV- IoT supply chain strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0., Internet of Things, case study, cyber security framework
Online: 8 March 2019 (15:27:11 CET)
This research article reports the results of a qualitative case study that correlates academic literature with five Industry 4.0 cyber trends, seven cyber risk frameworks and two cyber risk models. While there is a strong interest in industry and academia to standardise existing cyber risk frameworks, models and methodologies, an attempt to combine these approaches has not been done until present. We apply the grounded theory approach to derive with integration criteria for the reviewed frameworks, models and methodologies. Then, we propose a new architecture for the integration of the reviewed frameworks, models and methodologies. We therefore advance the efforts of integrating standards and governance into Industry 4.0 and offer a better understanding of a holistic economic impact assessment model for IoT cyber risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0076.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: user authentication; multi server; internet of things; formal verification; security
Online: 9 May 2017 (04:38:37 CEST)
In recent years, the internet of things has been widely utilized in various fields, such as in smart factories or connected cars. As its domain of application has expanded, it has begun to be employed using multi-server architectures for a more efficient use of resources. However, because users wishing to receive IoT services connect to multi-servers over wireless networks, this can expose systems to various attacks and result in serious security risks. To protect systems (and users) from potential security vulnerabilities, a secure authentication technology is necessary. In this paper, we propose a smart card-based authentication protocol, which performs the authentication for each entity by allowing users to go through the authentication process using a smart card transmitted from an authentication server, and to login to a server connected to the IoT. Furthermore, the security of our proposed authentication protocol is verified by simulating a formal verification scenario using AVISPA, a security protocol-verification tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0009.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Digital Twin; Internet-of-Medical-Things (IoMT); Security; Privacy; Blockchain; Non-fungible Token (NFT); Virtual Healthcare Services; Access Control; Data Sharing
Online: 1 September 2022 (07:21:25 CEST)
Seniors safety is a compelling need, which necessitates 24/7 real-time monitoring and timely dangerous action recognition. Being able to mirror characteristics of physical objects (PO) to corresponding logical objects (LO) and seamlessly monitor their footprints thus detect anomaly parameters, Digital Twins (DT) has been considered a practical way to provide virtual health services for seniors safety. Meanwhile, widely adopted Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) consisting of wearable sensors and non-contact optical cameras for self and remote health data monitoring also raises concerns on information security and privacy violation. Therefore, security of POs, LOs and reliable data sharing among healthcare professionals are challenging as constructing trust and privacy-preserving virtual health services. Thanks to characteristics of decentralization, traceability and unalterability, Blockchain is promising to enhance security and privacy properties in many areas like data analysis, finance and healthcare. This paper envisions a lightweight authentication framework (LAF) to enable secure and privacy-preserving virtual healthcare services. Leveraging Non-Fungible Token (NFT) technology to tokenize LOs and data streams on blockchain, anyone can certify the authenticity of a digital LO along with its synchronized data between PO without relying on a third-party agency. In addition, the NFT-based tokenization not only allows owners fully control their IoMT devices and data, but it also enables verifiable ownership and traceable transferability during data sharing process. Moreover, NFT only contains references to encrypted raw data that are saved on off-chain storage like local files or distributed databases, such a hybrid storage strategy ensures privacy-preservation for sensitive information. A proof-of-concept prototype is implemented and tests are conducted on a case study of seniors safety. The experimental evaluation shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed LAF solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0237.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: internet of things (IoT); security; quality of service; energy; cognitive packet network; SerIoT
Online: 14 August 2018 (03:25:34 CEST)
SerIoT is a Research and Innovation Project funded by the European Commission to demonstrate secure networks for the Internet of Things (IoT). This paper presents an overview of the design for smart and secure network infrastructures for the IoT, based on Software Defined Networks (SDN), named the SerCPN system, whose main component is a smart SDN-Controller with online cognitive security surveillance and reporting, which establishes and dynamically modifies paths that enhance security for IoT devices and end users, and offers a high quality of service (QoS) with required security constraints. This online cognitive surveillance and path management is based on the Cognitive Packet Network (CPN) principle and uses Random Neural Networks (RNN) for decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0431.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Supervised machine learning; intrusion detection; data engineering; cybersecurity; Internet of Things.
Online: 27 October 2022 (10:57:09 CEST)
Nowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and applications have rapidly expanded worldwide due to their benefits in improving the business environment, industrial environment, and people's daily lives. However, the IoT devices are not immune to malicious network traffic, which causes potential negative consequences and sabotages IoT operating devices. Therefore, developing a method for screening network traffic is necessary to detect and classify malicious activity to mitigate its negative impacts. Therefore, this research proposes a predictive machine learning model to detect and classify network activity in an IoT system. Specifically, our model distinguishes between normal and anomaly network activity. Furthermore, it classifies network traffic into five categories, normal, Mirai attack, denial of service (DoS) attack, Scan attack, and man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack. Five supervised learning models were implemented to characterize their performance in detecting and classifying network activities for IoT systems. This includes models shallow neural networks (SNN), decision trees (DT), bagging trees (BT), support vector machine (SVM), and k-nearest neighbor (kNN). The learning models were evaluated on a new and broad dataset for IoT attacks, the IoTID20 dataset. Besides, a deep feature engineering process was applied to the dataset to improve the accuracy of the learning models. Our experimental evaluation exhibited an accuracy of 100% recorded for the detection using all implemented models and an accuracy of 99.4%-99.9% recorded for the classification process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0018.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; Internet of Things; Context; Prediction; Context Histories; Alzheimer’s Disease
Online: 4 May 2021 (13:47:01 CEST)
The new Internet of Things (IoT) applications are enabling the development of projects that help monitoring people with different diseases in their daily lives. Alzheimer’s is a disease that affects neurological functions and needs support to maintain maximum independence and security of patients during this stage of life, as the cure and reversal of symptoms have not yet been discovered. The IoT-based monitoring system provides the caregivers’ support in monitoring people with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). This paper presents an ontology-based computational model which receives physiological data from external IoT applications, allowing to identify of potentially dangerous behaviors for patients with AD. The main scientific contribution of this work is the specification of a model focusing on Alzheimer’s disease using the analysis of Context Histories and Context Prediction, which considering the state of the art, it is the only one that uses analysis of Context Histories to perform predictions. The research also proposes a simulator to generate activities of the daily life of patients allowing the creation of datasets. These datasets were used to evaluate the contributions of the model and were generated according to the standardization of the ontology. The simulator generated 1025 scenarios applied to guide the predictions, which achieved average accurary of 97.44%. The experiments also allowed the learning of 20 relevant lessons on technological, medical and methodological aspects of DCARE that are recorded in this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0177.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Sensor; Smart machine; Internet of Things (IoT); Arrhythmia; Arrhythmic Signs; Biosensor
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:51:22 CET)
It is important to increase the quality of health and medicine. A wearable system for continuous monitoring of the patient is important to overcome this issue. Thus a patient with Arrhythmia due to its low cost and success in saving the life of the patient was the right option for the care partner. In addition, the device will provide a consumer with a smart smartphone application with accurate pulse beat and body temperature data in real time. MAX 30100 and LM35 are primarily used for the detection of human heart and temperature. The performance of these sensors is generated by an arrhythmia algorithm in the esp32 segment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; pulsoximeter; Internet of Things; maker culture; medically underserved area
Online: 9 May 2020 (10:55:48 CEST)
Family doctors can have an active role in identifying significant population needs and solutions. During COVID-19 epidemic, patient home monitoring with pulse oximetry has been a key aspect of care of patients. However, pandemics bring shortage medical equipment such as pulse oximetry. Through the local maker community in a matter of days four “smart” pulsoximeters were created and built. Following Internet of Things principles, the pulsoximeters were programmed to transmit recorded data through Wi-Fi, in real time, directly to the doctors. Each protype pulsoximeter served a family doctor during the pandemic. Building instructions were shared in maker-oriented websites, potentially leading to additional small-scale productions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0097.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: IoT (Internet of Things); bot; botnet; propagation; nodes; sensor; infectious; mitigation
Online: 7 December 2019 (17:03:34 CET)
Nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized particularly by their limited power and memory capabilities. Limited memory is an important parameter as it defines the size of the operating system and the processing code. As established previously, energy and memory efficiency is the most important evaluation factors of WSNs as they are directly related to data loss and network lifetime. However, based on our simulation results, memory efficiency determines the selection or abandon of nodes by the botmaster for the propagation of bots in an IoT infrastructure. Consequently, the node’s memory efficiency determined the spread of bots in the network and provides defense actors with an insight of the botmaster behavior for mitigation of the attack. Conventional botnet propagation and mitigation models did not consider the impact of node’s memory efficiency in the IoT platform. To address this gap, we build IoT-SIEF, a novel propagation model with forensic capability that will analyze command and control propagation behavior based on the perspective of the node’s memory efficiency. IoT-SIEF model used to explore the dynamics of propagation using numerical simulation with more than 50% outperform other models in mitigating the number of secondary bots. Consequently, it can serve as a basis for assisting the planning, design, and defense of such networks from the investigator's point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0180.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Zenneck waves; wireless power transfer; power; internet of things; electromagnetic shielding
Online: 7 May 2019 (10:06:47 CEST)
A decade ago, non-radiative wireless power transmission reemerged a promising alternative to deliver electrical power to devices where a physical wiring proved to be unfeasible. However, conventional coupling-based approaches are neither scalable nor efficient when multiple devices are involved, as they are restricted by factors like coupling and external environments. Zenneck waves are excited at interfaces, like surface plasmons and have the potential to deliver electrical power to devices placed on a conducting surface. Here, we demonstrate, efficient and long range delivery of electrical power by exciting non-radiative waves over metal surfaces to multiple loads.Our modeling and simulation using Maxwells equation with proper boundary conditions shows Zenneck type behavior for the excited waves and are in excellent agreement with experimental results. In conclusion, we physically realize a radically different power transfer system, based on a wave, whose existence has been fiercely debated for over a century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0305.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Internet of Things; fog computing; security; blockchain; traffic; latency; SDN; OpenFlow
Online: 30 January 2019 (07:17:57 CET)
IoT is a new communication paradigm that gains a very high importance in the past few years. This communication paradigm supports various heterogeneous applications in many fields and with the dramatic increase of the number of sensor devices, it becomes a demand. Designing IoT networks faces many challenges that include security, massive traffic, high availability, high reliability and energy constraints. Thus, new communication technologies and paradigms should be deployed for IoT networks to overcome these challenges and achieve high system performance. Distributed computing techniques (e.g. fog and MEC), software defined networking (SDN), network virtualization and blockchain are common recent paradigms that should be deployed for IoT networks, either combined or individually, to achieve the main requirements of the IoT networks at a high system performance. Fog computing is a form of edge computing that has been developed to provide the computing capabilities (e.g. storage and processing) at the edge of the access network. Employing Fog computing in IoT networks, as an intermediate layer between IoT devices and the remote cloud, becomes a demand to make use of the edge computing benefits. In this work, we provide a framework for the IoT system structure that employs an edge computing layer of Fog nodes controlled and managed by SDN network with the blockchain technology to achieve a high level of security for latency sensitive IoT applications. The proposed system employs SDN network with distributed controllers and distributed OpenFlow switches; these switches are enabled with limited computing and processing capabilities. Furthermore, a data offloading algorithm is developed to allocate different processing and computing tasks to the distributed OpenFlow switches with available resources. Moreover, a traffic model is proposed to model and analyze the traffic among different parts of the network. The proposed work achieves various benefits to the IoT network, such as the latency reduction, security improvement and high efficiency of resources utilization. The proposed algorithm is simulated and also the proposed system is experimentally tested over a developed testbed to validate the proposed structure. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves higher efficiency in terms of latency, security and resource utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0407.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: participatory sensing; smart city; Internet of Things; distributed event-based systems
Online: 16 November 2018 (11:23:30 CET)
Since smart cities aim at becoming self-monitoring and self-response systems, their deployment relies on close resource monitoring through large-scale urban sensing. The subsequent gathering of massive amounts of data makes essential the development of event filtering mechanisms that enable the selection of what is relevant and trustworthy. Due to the rise of mobile event producers, location information has become a valuable filtering criterion as it not only offers extra information on the event described but also enhances trust on the producer. Implementing mechanisms that validate the quality of location information becomes then imperative. The lack of such strategies in cloud architectures compels the adoption of new communication schemes for IoT-based urban services. To serve the demand for location verification in urban event-based systems (DEBS), we have designed three different fog architectures that combine proximity and cloud communication. Moreover, we have successfully assessed their performance using network simulations with realistic urban traces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0223.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: biometrics; ECG; Internet of Things; machine learning; Personalised Healthcare; PPG; Smart Aging
Online: 15 June 2022 (10:31:04 CEST)
With the advent of modern technologies, the healthcare industry is moving towards a more Personalised smart care model. The enablers of such care models are the Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence. These technologies collect and analyse data from persons in care to alert relevant parties if any anomaly is detected in a patient’s regular pattern. However, such reliance on IoT devices to capture continuous data extends the attack surfaces and demands high-security measures. Both patients and devices need to be authenticated to mitigate a large number of attack vectors. The biometric authentication method has been seen as a promising technique in these scenarios. To this end, this paper proposes an AI-based multimodal biometric authentication model for single and group-based users’ device-level authentication that increases protection against the traditional single modal approach. To test the efficacy of the proposed model, a series of AI models are trained and tested using physiological biometric features such as ECG (Electrocardiogram) and PPG (Photoplethysmography) signals from five publicly available datasets from Physionet and Mendeley data repositories. The multimodal fusion authentication model shows promising results with 99.8% accuracy and an Equal Error Rate (EER) of 0.16.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0083.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Machine Learning; COVID-19; Internet of Things (IoT); Deep Learning; Big Data
Online: 19 April 2022 (08:21:00 CEST)
Early diagnosis, prioritization, screening, clustering and tracking of COVID-19 patients, and production of drugs and vaccines are some of the applications that have made it necessary to use a new style of technology to involve, to manage and deal with this epidemic. Strategies backed by artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) have been undeniable to understand how the virus works and try to prevent it from spreading. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey article is to highlight the methods of ML, IoT and the integration of IoT and ML-based techniques in the applications related to COVID-19 from the diagnosis of the disease to the prediction of its outbreak. According to the main findings, IoT provided a prompt and efficient approach of following the disease spread. Most of the studies developed by ML-based techniques for handling COVID-19 based dataset provided performance criteria. The most popular performance criteria, is related to accuracy factor. It can be employed for comparing the ML-based methods with different datasets. According to the results, CNN with SVM classifier, Genetic CNN and pre-trained CNN followed by ResNet, provided highest accuracy values. On the other hand, the lowest accuracy was related to single CNN followed by XGboost and KNN methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0624.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Internet of Things; Load aware; Energy-efficient; Gray System Theory; Multipath protocol
Online: 24 November 2020 (16:23:43 CET)
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of smart things. This indicates the ability of these physical things to transfer information with other physical things. The characteristics of these networks, such as topology dynamicity and energy constraint, challenges the routing problem in these networks. Previous routing methods could not achieve the required performance in this type of network. Therefore, developers of this network designed and developed specific methods in order to satisfy the requirements of these networks. One of the routing methods is utilization of multipath protocols which send data to its destination using routes with separate links. One of such protocols is RPL routing protocol. In this paper, this method is improved using composite metrics which chooses the best paths used for separate routes to send packets. We propose Energy and Load aware RPL (ELaM-IoT) protocol, which is an enhancement of RPL protocol. It uses a composite metric, calculated based on remaining energy, hop count, Link Expiration Time (LET), load and battery depletion index (BDI) for the route selection. In order to evaluate and report the results, the proposed ELaM-IoT method is compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches with regard to average remaining energy, and network lifetime. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed ELaM-IoT compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0180.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: mHealth; Blockchain; Internet of Things; Smart devices; Communication; Smart Devices; Emerging Technologies
Online: 14 June 2020 (15:07:26 CEST)
The mHealth is a term that is used for mobile health supported by smart devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and wearable smart devices, etc. The smart devices strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of interaction with patients, physicians, and specialists. Patients nowadays would like to be intimately involved in their diagnosis as well as to make more informed decisions concerning their care. It has begun to measure the success of the quality of treatment. This was a reason that patients trust mHealth to provide them with consistency in their communications with the physicians. Most wireless strategies do not measure up to this standard so that patient engagement ultimately ended up decreasing. The blockchain can boost mHealth through storing and sharing electronic data securely and transparently. It can enhance the accessibility of patient information in real-time. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides a unique identification number to every connected device such as mobile devices, medical devices, and wearable devices. This framework uses the blockchain and IoT technologies together to provide quick help to the patients, monitor remotely, reduce the cost and unnecessarily hospitalization physically and find the real diagnosis. In order to increase patient involvement, mHealth framework with blockchain and IoT technologies has built with the key objective of providing patients with full information on their treatment and diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: bitmap indexing; processing in memory; memory wall; Big Data; Internet Of Things
Online: 20 February 2020 (08:24:48 CET)
To live in the information society means to be surrounded by billions of electronic devices full of sensors that constantly acquire data. This enormous amount of data must be processed and classified. A solution commonly adopted is to send these data to server farms to be remotely elaborated. The drawback is a huge battery drain due to high amount of information that must be exchanged. To compensate this problem data must be processed locally, near the sensor itself. But this solution requires huge computational capabilities. While microprocessors, even mobile ones, nowadays have enough computational power, their performance are severely limited by the Memory Wall problem. Memories are too slow, so microprocessors cannot fetch enough data from them, greatly limiting their performance. A solution is the Processing-In-Memory (PIM) approach. New memories are designed that are able to elaborate data inside them eliminating the Memory Wall problem. In this work we present an example of such system, using as a case of study the Bitmap Indexing algorithm. Such algorithm is used to classify data coming from many sources in parallel. We propose an hardware accelerator designed around the Processing-In-Memory approach, that is capable of implementing this algorithm and that can also be reconfigured to do other tasks or to work as standard memory. The architecture has been synthesized using CMOS technology. The results that we have obtained highlights that, not only it is possible to process and classify huge amount of data locally, but also that it is possible to obtain this result with a very low power consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0304.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Gray System Theory; Multi-Path Routing; GSTMPR-IoT
Online: 26 January 2020 (04:00:20 CET)
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of smart things. This indicates the ability of these physical things to transfer information with other physical things. IoT has introduced various services and daily human life depends on its reliable and accessible operation. The characteristics of these networks, such as topology dynamicity and energy constraint, challenges the routing problem in these networks. Previous routing methods could not achieve the required performance in this type of network. Therefore, developers of this network designed and developed specific methods in order to satisfy the requirements of these networks. One of the routing methods is utilization of multi-path protocols which send data to its destination using routs with separate links. One of such protocols is AOMDV routing protocol. AOMDV protocol is a multi-path protocol which uses multiple different paths for sending information in order to maintain the network traffic balance, manage and control node energy, decrease latency, etc. In this paper, this method is improved using gray system theory which chooses the best paths used for separate routes to send packets. To do this, AOMDV packet format is altered and some fields are added to it so that energy criteria, link expiration time, and signal to noise ratio can also be considered while selecting the best route. The proposed method named GSTMPR-IoT is introduced which chooses the routs with highest rank for concurrent transmission of data, using a specific routine based on the gray system theory. In order to evaluate and report the results, the proposed GSTMPR-IoT method is compared to the EECRP and AOMDV approaches with regard to throughput, packet delivery rate, end to end delay, average residual energy, and network lifetime. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed GSTMPR-IoT compared to the EECRP and AOMDV approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0303.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); physical layer attack; routing security; Average Packet Transmission
Online: 26 January 2020 (03:57:09 CET)
Through the Internet of Things (IoT) the internet scope is established by the aid of physical objects integration to classify themselves to mutual things. A physical object can be created by this inventive perception to signify itself in the digital world. Regarding the physical objects that are related to the internet, it is worth to mention that considering numerous theories and upcoming predictions, they mostly require protected structures, moreover, they are at risk of several attacks. IoTs are endangered by particular routing disobedience called physical layer attack owing to their distributed features. The physical layer attack as a security warning makes possible for the invader to abuse the resources and bandwidth of the network through overloading the network via unimportant packets. This protocol is called LSFA-IoT consisting of two key sections of the physical layer detection system and misbehavior detection system. The first section is utilized in stabilizing the status of the network. The second section is in charge of discovering the misbehavior sources within the IoT network through , the Average Packet Transmission RREQ. By detecting a malicious node, the status of the node is checked by LSFA-IoT prior to sending a data packet and in case detecting the node as malicious, no packet is sent to that node and that node is added to the detention list. Here, the technique is assessed through wide simulations performed within the NS-3 environment. Based on the results of the simulation, it is indicated that the IoT network behaviour metrics are enhanced based on the detection rate, false-negative rate, false-positive rate, and packet delivery rate.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Internet of Things(IoTs); Challenges; Test Strategies; Quality Assurance; Suggestion; Interoperability; Security
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:15:13 CET)
Immense challenges arise in the Quality Assurance area due to contemporary development in Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Current issues are mainly related to test coverage, test diversity, IoT Stability, Use of Cellular Networks in IoTs, IoT Devices updates, Security, Data Integration, and interoperability. In this paper, we present all those issues with suggestions for tackling those issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0145.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Fog Computing, Cloud Computing, Security and Privacy, Edge Computing, Internet of Things
Online: 13 March 2019 (11:07:19 CET)
The development of the Internet of Things (IoT) has triggered a virtual wave of interconnection and intercommunication among an enormous number of universal things. This has caused an exceptional surge of colossal heterogeneous information, known as an information explosion. Until now, cloud computing has filled in as a proficient method to process and store these data. Still, it came to light that by utilizing just cloud computing, pesky issues like, the expanding requests of actual-time or speed-sensitive applications and the restrictions on system transfer speed could not be solved. Consequently, another computing platform, called fog computing has been advanced as a supplement to the cloud arrangement. Fog computing spreads the cloud administrations and services to the edge of the system, and brings processing, communications and reserving and storage capacity closer to edge gadgets and end-clients and, in the process, aims at enhancing versatility, low latency, transfer speed and safety and protection. This paper takes an extensive and wide-ranging view of fog computing, covering several aspects. At the outset is outlined the many-layered structural design of fog computing and its attributes. After that, chief advances like communication and inter-exchange, computing, reserving and storage, asset administration, naming, safety and safeguarding of privacy are delineated while showing how this backup and facilitate the installations and various applications. Then, numerous applications like augmented reality (AR), healthcare, gaming and brain-machine interface, vehicular computing, smart scenarios etc. are highlighted to explain the fog computing application milieu. Following that, it is shown that how, despite fog computing being a features-rich platform, it is dogged by its susceptibility to several security, privacy and safety concerns, which stem from the nature of its widely distributed and open architecture. Finally, some suggestions are advanced to address some of the safety challenges discussed so as to propel the further growth of fog computing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0443.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: group decision makers; multicriteria analysis; performance evaluation; internet of things; intuitionistic environment
Online: 19 October 2018 (08:08:19 CEST)
The performance evaluation of the Internet of Things (IoT) based supply chain is challenging due to the involvement of multiple decision makers, the multi-dimensional nature of the evaluation process, and the existence of uncertainty and imprecision in the decision making process. To ensure effective decisions are made, this paper presents a fuzzy multicriteria analysis model for evaluating the performance of IoT based supply chain. The inherent uncertainty and imprecision of the performance evaluation process is adequately handled by using intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A new algorithm is developed for determining the overall performance index for each alternative across all criteria. The development of the fuzzy multicriteria group decision making model provides organizations with the ability to effectively evaluate the performance of their IoT based supply chains for improving their competitiveness. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the model for dealing with real world IoT-based performance evaluation problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0326.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: amphibious UAV; hovercraft; FEA; CFD; prototype; water quality; sensors; Internet of Things
Online: 18 September 2018 (05:30:13 CEST)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have gained significant attention in recent times due to their suitability to a wide variety of civil, military and societal missions. Development of an unmanned amphibious vehicle integrating the features of a multi-rotor UAV and a hovercraft is focus of the present study. Components and subsystems of the amphibious vehicle are developed with due consideration on aerodynamic, structural and environmental aspects. Finite element analysis (FEA) on static thrust conditions and skirt pressure are performed to evaluate the strength of structure. For diverse wind conditions and angles of attack (AOA), computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is carried out to assess the effect of drag and suitable design modification is suggested. A prototype is built with a 7 kg payload capacity and successfully tested for stable operations in flight and water-borne modes. Internet of Things (IoT) based water quality measurement is performed in a typical lake and water quality is measured using pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors. The developed vehicle is expected to meet functional requirements of disaster missions catering to the water quality monitoring of large water bodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: inverse problem; electrical impedance tomography; machine learning; flood embankment; internet of things
Online: 20 August 2018 (06:29:09 CEST)
The article presents a non-destructive test system based on electrical impedance tomography for monitoring flood embankments. The technology of cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things with the use of electrical impedance tomography enables real-time monitoring of flood embankments. This solution provides a visual analysis of damage and leaks, which allows for quick and effective intervention and possible prevention of danger. A dedicated solution based on the IT structure, dedicated laboratory models and a dedicated measurement system with various types of sensors and machine learning algorithms for image reconstruction has been developed. The system includes specialized intelligent devices for tomographic measurements. The application contains the analysis of anomalies occurring in the structure of the object as a result of damage or danger and breaking the shaft during the flood. The presented solution enables ongoing monitoring of objects by collecting measurement results, forecasts and simulations. The main advantage of the proposed system is the spatial ability to analyse shafts, high accuracy of imaging and high speed of data processing. The use of tomographic techniques in conjunction with image reconstruction algorithms allow for non-invasive and very accurate spatial assessment of humidity and damages of flood embankments. The presented results show the effectiveness of the presented research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0539.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Ontology Model, Context Mashup, Context Type, Context Awareness, Internet of Things (IoT)
Online: 27 July 2018 (12:57:06 CEST)
In an open and dynamic IoT (the Internet of Things) environment, a common context information model is essential for active things to share common knowledge, reason their situations, and support adaptive interoperability with each other. There have been many studies on the IoT context information models based on semantic technology, but most of them have assumed a static situation based on a service-oriented information model suitable for specific applications of the IoT. In the case of applying their models to an open and dynamic IoT environment, two issues have been observed: Most of the models ignore (a) the mashup of the open-world semantics of context information generated by multiple context sources and (b) the reconciliation of the semantic relationships between multiple context entities under dynamic situation changes. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a context information model that is flexible enough to express complex and diverse semantic relationships between context information generated from a variety of context information sources in the IoT. The main background of this proposal is to propose an adaptive context model that can effectively mash up various context classes that use ontology in open and dynamic IoT environments. In this paper, we also show the effectiveness of the proposed model through an adequate verification model and a practical example.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0031.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: SensorThings API; INSPIRE; download services; spatio-temporal data interoperability; Internet of Things
Online: 2 May 2018 (12:06:28 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0011.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things; data mining algorithms; GPU cluster; performance; energy consumption; reliability
Online: 6 July 2017 (12:40:22 CEST)
This paper aims to develop a low-cost, high-performance and high-reliability computing system to process large-scale data using common data mining algorithms in the Internet of Things computing. Considering the characteristics of IoT data processing, similar to mainstream high performance computing, we use a GPU cluster to achieve better IoT services. Firstly, we present an energy consumption calculation method (ECCM) based on WSN. Then, using the CUDA Programming model, we propose a Two-level Parallel Optimization Model (TLPOM) which exploits reasonable resource planning and common compiler optimization techniques to obtain the best blocks and threads configuration considering the resource constraints of each node. The key to this part is dynamic coupling Thread-Level Parallelism (TLP) and Instruction-Level Parallelism (ILP) to improve the performance of the algorithms without additional energy consumption. Finally, combining the ECCM and the TLPOM, we use the Reliable GPU Cluster Architecture (RGCA) to obtain a high-reliability computing system considering the nodes’ diversity, algorithm characteristics, etc. The results show that the performance of the algorithms significantly increased by 34.1%, 33.96% and 24.07% for Fermi, Kepler and Maxwell on average with TLPOM and the RGCA ensures that our IoT computing system provides low-cost and high-reliability services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0243.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things; Security; Sybil attack; Quality of Service; multi-hop flows; ad hoc networks
Online: 23 August 2019 (09:56:55 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology that aims to enable the interconnection of a large number of smart devices and heterogeneous networks. Ad hoc networks play an important role in the designing of IoT-enabled platforms due to their efficient, flexible, low-cost, and dynamic infrastructures. These networks utilize the available resources efficiently to maintain the Quality of Service (QoS) in a multi-hop communication. However, in a multi-hop communication, the relay nodes can be malicious, thus requiring a secured and reliable data transmission. In this paper, we propose a QoS-aware secured communication scheme for IoT-based networks (QoS-IoT). In QoS-IoT, a Sybil attack detection mechanism is used for the identification of Sybil nodes and their forged identities in multi-hop communication. %by high-power and mobile nodes. After Sybil nodes detection, an optimal contention window (CW) is selected for QoS provisioning, i.e., to achieve per-flow fairness and efficient utilization of the available bandwidth. In a multi-hop communication, the MAC layer protocols do not perform well in terms of fairness and throughput, especially when the nodes generate a large amount of data. It is because the MAC layer has no capability of providing QoS to prioritized or forwarding flows. We evaluate the performance of QoS-IoT in terms of Sybil attack detection, fairness, throughput, and buffer utilization. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing schemes and significantly enhances the performance of the network with a large volume of data. Moreover, the proposed scheme is resilient against Sybil attack.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0280.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: software defined radio; radio link; ground plane antenna; wireless communication; internet of things
Online: 16 August 2022 (05:38:06 CEST)
A software defined radio (SDR) is a communication system that makes use of components that can be configured through software, in contrast to traditional systems where these components are variable through hardware, these radio devices are much more versatile, this article describes the factors that must be considered when implementing a communication system based on Software Defined Radios (SDR), in order to reduce the attenuation factors and thus obtain the maximum distance for a transmission of data effectively in the UHF band. The calculations made for the first Fresnel zone and for the design of the Ground Plane type antennas used in the transmission/reception stages of the x40 bladeRF platforms are also presented. The tests were carried out at the facilities of the Huarangal Nuclear Center of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy, obtaining favorable results that allow ratifying the versatility and performance of the SDRs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0449.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: behavioral economics; wearables; consumer sleep technology; Internet of Things; economical survey; expert elicitation
Online: 28 December 2021 (13:58:14 CET)
Global demand for sleep-tracking wearables, or consumer sleep technologies (CSTs), is steadily increasing. CST marketing campaigns often feature a scientific component, but the scientific relevancy and monetary value of CST features within the sleep research community remains unquantified. Sleep medicine experts were recruited through social media and nonprobability sampling techniques to complete a survey identifying sleep metrics and device features that are most desirable to the scientific community. A hypothetical purchase task (HPT) estimated economic valuation for devices with different features by price. Forty-six (N=46) respondents with an average of 10±6 years’ experience conducting research in real-world settings completed the online survey. Total sleep time was ranked as the most important measure of sleep followed by objective sleep quality while sleep architecture/depth and diagnostic information were ranked as least important. Experts preferred wrist-worn devices that could reliably determine sleep episodes as short as 20 minutes. Economic value was greater for hypothetical devices with longer battery life. These data set a precedent to determine how scientific relevance of a product impacts the potential market value of a CST device. This is the first known attempt to establish consensus opinion or economic valuation for scientifically-desirable CST features and metrics using expert elicitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0424.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Internet of things; Raspberry Pi; LiDAR; GNSS; High-throughput plant phenotyping; Precision agriculture
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:15:26 CET)
Phenotypic characterization of crop genotypes is an essential yet challenging aspect of crop management and agriculture research. Digital sensing technologies are rapidly advancing plant phenotyping and speeding-up crop breeding outcomes. However, off-the-shelf sensors might not be fully applicable and suitable for agriculture research due to diversity in crop species and specific needs during plant breeding selections. Customized sensing systems with specialized sensor hardware and software architecture provide a powerful and low-cost solution. This study designed and developed a fully integrated Raspberry Pi-based LiDAR sensor named CropBioMass (CBM), enabled by internet of things to provide a complete end-to-end pipeline. The CBM is a low-cost sensor, provides high-throughput seamless data collection in field, small data footprint, injection of data onto the remote server, and automated data processing. Phenotypic traits of crop fresh biomass, dry biomass, and plant height estimated by CBM data had high correlation with ground truth manual measurements in wheat field trial. The CBM is readily applicable for high-throughput plant phenotyping, crop monitoring, and management for precision agricultural applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0074.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Cloud continuum; fog computing; edge computing; fog-to-cloud; Internet of Things (IoT)
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:38:23 CEST)
The wide adoption of the recently coined fog and edge computing paradigms alongside conventional cloud computing creates a novel scenario, known as the cloud continuum, where services may benefit from the overall set of resources to optimize their execution. To operate successfully, such a cloud continuum scenario demands for novel management strategies, enabling a coordinated and efficient management of the entire set of resources, from the edge up to the cloud, designed in particular to address key edge characteristics, such as mobility, heterogeneity and volatility. The design of such a management framework poses many research challenges and has already promoted many initiatives worldwide at different levels. In this paper we present the results of one of these experiences driven by an EU H2020 project, focusing on the lessons learnt from a real deployment of the proposed management solution in three different industrial scenarios. We think that such a description may help understand the benefits brought in by a holistic cloud continuum management and also may help other initiatives in their design and development processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0285.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Mobile Edge Computing; Internet Of Things; Cost Minimization Model; Energy Consumption; Scheduling Algorithm
Online: 10 March 2021 (13:23:33 CET)
Advances in communication technologies have made the interaction of small devices, such as smartphones, wearables, and sensors, scattered on the Internet, bringing a whole new set of complex applications with ever greater task processing needs. These Internet of Things (IoT) devices run on batteries with strict energy restrictions. They tend to offload task processing to remote servers, usually to Cloud Computing (CC) in datacenters geographically located away from the IoT device. In such a context, this work proposes a dynamic cost model to minimize energy consumption and task processing time for IoT scenarios in Mobile Edge Computing environments. Our approach allows for a detailed cost model, with an algorithm called TEMS that considers energy, time consumed during processing, the cost of data transmission, and energy in idle devices. The task scheduling chooses among Cloud or Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) server or local IoT devices to better execution time with lower cost. The simulated environment evaluation saved up to 51.6% energy consumption and improved task completion time up to 86.6%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0328.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Internet of Things; multi-path routing; Gray System Theory; network stability; RMPGST-IoT
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:46:42 CET)
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of smart things. This indicates the ability of these physical things to transfer information with other physical things. The characteristics of these networks, such as topology dynamicity and energy constraint, challenges the routing problem in these networks. Previous routing methods could not achieve the required performance in this type of network. Therefore, developers of this network designed and developed specific methods in order to satisfy the requirements of these networks. One of the routing methods is utilization of multi-path protocols which send data to its destination using routes with separate links. One of such protocols is AOMDV routing protocol. In this paper, this method is improved using gray system theory which chooses the best paths used for separate routes to send packets. To do this, AOMDV packet format is altered and some fields are added to it so that energy criteria, link expiration time, and signal to noise ratio can also be considered while selecting the best route. The proposed method named RMPGST-IoT is introduced which chooses the routes with highest rank for concurrent transmission of data, using a specific routine based on the gray system theory. In order to evaluate and report the results, the proposed RMPGST-IoT method is compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches with regard to throughput, packet receiving rate, packet loss rate, average remaining energy, and network lifetime. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed RMPGST-IoT compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Public Safety System (SPS); Microservices; Blockchain; Smart Contract; Internet of Things (IoT); Security
Online: 28 July 2020 (05:45:04 CEST)
Thanks to rapid advances in the Internet of Things (IoT) and Edge-Fog-Cloud Computing technologies, Smart Public Safety (SPS) system has become feasible by integrating heterogeneous computing devices and different types of networks to collaboratively provide seamless public safety services. While SPS facilitates convenient exchanges of surveillance data streams among device owners and third-party applications, the existing monolithic service oriented architecture (SOA) architecture is unable to provide scalable and extensible services in a large-scale heterogeneous network environment. Moreover, traditional security solutions rely on centralized trusted third-party authority, which not only can be a performance bottleneck or the single point of failure, but it also incurs privacy concerns on improperly use of private information. Inspired by blockchain and microservices technologies, this paper proposed a BLockchain-ENabled Decentralized Smart Public Safety (BlendSPS) system. Leveraging hybrid blockchain fabrics, a microservices based security mechanism is implemented to enable decentralized security architecture, and it supports immutability, auditability and traceability for secured data sharing and operations among participants of the SPS system. An extensive experimental study verified the feasibility of the proposed Blend-SPS that possesses security and privacy proprieties with limited overhead on IoT based edge networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0537.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: blockchain; fresh produce; supply chain; food safety; traceability; internet of things; smart contract
Online: 22 November 2018 (05:19:37 CET)
Blockchain is a data management innovation that allows the linkage of successive records regarding a digital entity, and to store them into a shared, decentralized, distributed and retroactively unchangeable data structure. Each bit of information related to the recorded events contains the public key of the owner, therefore, the whole record is formed by a chain of transactions with blocks of information identifying where the transaction was generated from and its current destination (Nakamoto, 2008). Blockchain is the technology behind Bitcoin, an online currency that was first introduced in 2009. The technology makes it possible to conduct business between members within the network without relying on third parties as guarantors to prove transaction integrity, thus increasing speed and reducing cost of transaction. Moreover, the transparency posed by the technology makes it possible to trace goods and services through all stages, making the technology a unique tool that can be assimilated by, for example, the Agro-food supply chain systems. Specifically, Blockchain is being tested in a pilot project in the UK meat (Beef) industry by the FSA (Food Standards Agency) and the slaughterhouses, with IBM Blockchain platform to ensure full transparency and compliance with regulations, (Evenstad, 2018). However, the uptake of Blockchain in the fresh produce (fresh and fresh, short-life processed fruit, vegetables, salads) supply chain is lagging, in the United Kingdom, and remains untested and limited to literature, models and specific case studies in the United States of America and France. The study aims at understanding how prepared stakeholders are in adopting Blockchain for their operations. An inductive qualitative method was employed through non-structured interviews with three companies and one consumer focus group. The interviews were guided by seven (7) open-ended questions, which were unstructured. The collected data was analyzed with axial coding through constant comparative methods. Seven (7) themes were identified as factors influencing the adoption of Blockchain in the fresh produce supply chain in the UK. These are, novelty of the technology, complexity of the fresh produce supply chain in UK, level of product transformation, technological compatibility with operations, cost and value, Customer (retailer) push for adoption, and public/consumers opinion. The adaptation of Blockchain by the current fresh produce supply chain in the UK and the EU at large will come about when concerns on Novelty, and complexity of supply chain systems are fully addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0221.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Smart Cities; Internet of things; Bicycle sharing systems; Machine learning; Association rule mining
Online: 10 October 2018 (14:24:32 CEST)
Bike sharing systems are a key element of a smart city as they have the potential for reducing pollutant emissions and traffic congestion thus substantially improving citizens’ quality of life. In these systems, bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a very short-term basis. They are rented in a station and returned in any other station with free docks. However, to achieve a satisfactory user experience, all the stations in the system must be neither overloaded nor empty. The occupancy level of the stations can be constantly monitored through IoT-based services. The goal of this work is to analyze occupancy level data acquired from real systems to discover situations of dock overload in multiple stations which could lead to service disruption. The proposed methodology relies on a pattern mining approach. A new pattern type, called Occupancy Monitoring Pattern (OMPs), is proposed to characterize situations of dock overload in multiple stations. Since stations are geo-referenced and their occupancy levels are periodically monitored, OMPs can be filtered and evaluated by considering also the spatial and temporal correlation of the acquired measurements. The results achieved on real Smart City data highlight the potential of these techniques in supporting domain experts in maintenance activities, such as periodic re-balancing of the occupancy levels of the stations, as well as in improving the user experience, such as suggesting alternative stations in the neighborhood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0034.v1
Subject: Keywords: localization; internet of things; low power wide area networks; Wi-Fi; sigfox; fingerprinting
Online: 14 July 2017 (11:30:28 CEST)
Supply chain management requires regular updates of the location of assets, which can be enabled by low power wide area networks, such as Sigfox. While it is useful to localize a device simply by its communication signals, this is very difficult to do with Sigfox because of wide area and ultra narrowband nature. On the other hand, installing a satellite localization element on the device greatly increases its power consumption. We investigated using information about nearby Wi-Fi access points as a way to localize the asset over the Sigfox network, so without connecting to those Wi-Fi networks. This paper reports the location error that can be achieved by this type of outdoor localization. By using a combination of two databases, we could localize the device on all 36 test locations with a median location error of 39 m. This shows that the localization accuracy of this method is promising enough to warrant further study, most specifically the minimal power consumption.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Electrical Network Frequency (ENF); Proof-of-ENF (PoENF); Consensus; Blockchain; Security; Internet of Video Things (IoVT)
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:42:34 CEST)
The rapid advancement in artificial intelligence (AI) and wide deployment of Internet of Video Things (IoVT) enable situation awareness (SAW). Robustness and security of the IoVT systems are essential to a sustainable urban environment. While blockchain technology has shown great potentials to enable trust-free and decentralized security mechanisms, directly embedding crypto-currency oriented blockchain schemes into resource-constrained Internet of Video Things (IoVT) networks at the edge is not feasible. Leveraging Electrical Network Frequency (ENF) signals extracted from multimedia recordings as region-of-recording proofs, this paper proposes EconLedger, an ENF-based consensus mechanism that enables secure and lightweight distributed ledgers for small scale IoVT edge networks. The proposed consensus mechanism relies on a novel Proof-of-ENF (PoENF) algorithm where a validator is qualified to generate a new block if and only if a proper ENF-containing multimedia signal proof is produced within the current round. Decentralized database (DDB) is adopted to guarantee efficiency and resilience of raw ENF proofs on the off-chain storage. A proof-of-concept prototype is developed and tested in a physical IoVT network environment. The experimental results validated the feasibility of the proposed EconLedger to provide a trust-free and partially decentralized security infrastructure for IoVT edge networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Geographical Area Network (GAN); Structural Health Monitoring (SHM); Utility Computing (UC); Things as a Service (TaaS); Internet of Things (IoT)
Online: 19 November 2018 (03:58:56 CET)
In view of intensified disasters and fatalities caused by natural phenomena and geographical expansion, there is a pressing need for a more effective environment logging for a better management and urban planning. This paper proposes a novel utility computing model (UCM) for structural health monitoring (SHM) that would enable dynamic planning of monitoring systems in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The proposed UCM consists of network-attached data drive that stores data from SHM logger, population count system and Geographic Information System (GIS) enhanced with a Cloud IoT data backup, display, and analysis server. The UCM using this data and data from building information systems applies a simple machine learning algorithm to generate real-time structure health and suggests re-planning of SHM units. The health of structure varies dynamically with disturbances created by higher occupancy and structure density per zone. The proposed SHM-UCM is unique in terms of its capability to manage heterogeneous SHM resources. This was tested in a case study on Qatar University (QU) in Doha Qatar, where it looked at where SHM nodes are distributed along with occupancy density in each building. This information was taken from QU simulated occupation and zone calculation models and then compared to ideal SHM system data. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed model in logging and dynamically planning SHM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0162.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Internet of Things; IoTivity; HEMS; HAN; Cloud; Backend-as-a-Service; RTOS; Contiki-OS
Online: 9 November 2021 (09:22:51 CET)
In developing countries today, population growth and the penetration of higher standard of living appliances in homes has resulted in a rapidly increasing residential load. In South Africa, the recent rolling blackouts and electricity price increase only highlighted this reality calling for sustainable measures to reduce the overall consumption and peak load. The dawn of the smart grid concept, embedded systems and ICTs have paved the way to novel HEMS design. In this regard, the Internet of Things (IoT), an enabler for smart and efficient energy management systems is seeing increasing attention for optimizing HEMS design and mitigate its deployment cost constraints. In this work, we propose an IoT platform for residential energy management applications focusing on interoperability, low-cost, technology availability and scalability. We focus on the backend complexities of IoT Home Area Networks (HAN) using the OCF IoTivity-Lite middleware. To augment the quality, servicing and reduce cost and complexities, this work leverages open-source Cloud technologies from Back4App as BaaS to provide consumer and Utilities with a data communication platform within an experimental study illustrating time and space agnostic “mind-changing” energy feedback, Demand Response Management (DRM) and appliance operation control via a HEM App via an Android smartphone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Authentication and Key Agreement; Internet of Things; Physical Layer Authentication, Universal Software Radio Peripheral
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:11:46 CEST)
In this paper, we propose a lightweight physical layer aided authentication and key agreement (PL-AKA) protocol in the internet of things (IoT). Conventional evolved packet system AKA (EPS-AKA) used in long-term evolution (LTE) systems may suffer from congestions in core networks by the large signaling overhead as the number of IoT devices increases. Thus, in order to alleviate the overhead, we consider a cross-layer authentication by integrating physical layer approaches to cryptography-based schemes. To demonstrate the feasibility of the PL-AKA, universal software radio peripheral (USRP) based tests are conducted as well as numerical simulations. The proposed scheme shows a significant reduction in signaling overhead compared to the conventional EPS-AKA in both simulation and experiment. Therefore, the proposed lightweight PL-AKA has the potential for practical and efficient implementation of large-scale IoT networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0482.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Smart Scenic; environmental disasters management; organization transformation; system design; Big Data; Internet of Things
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:19:35 CEST)
Abstract: Intensity of natural and man-made disasters is increasing day by day. Disaster is one of the major threats that affects the sustainable development of tourist attractions. Big data and Internet of Things(IoT) will greatly improve the disaster management. Based on the Big Data and IoT, a tourism attraction disaster management system is designed, divided into several stages namely pre-disaster early warning prevention, disaster mitigation, recovery and reconstruction after disaster and updating disaster planning. Then, the system flow is analysed, as well as the system structure is constructed. Additional, system function and its operation flow are introduced, including disaster warning, disaster relief, disaster assessment, real-time monitoring and supporting disaster planning functions. Finally, an application case is introduced. Research intends to improve tourism area disasters management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0002.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: adaptive security; evolutionary game; Internet of Things; Smart grid; advanced metering infrastructure; smart home
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:08:12 CET)
We applied evolutionary game theory to extend a resource constrained security game model for confidentiality attacks in an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), which is a component of IoT-enabled Smart Grids. The AMI is modelled as a tree structure where each node aggregates the information of its children before encrypting it and passing it on to its parent. As a part of the model, we developed a discretization scheme for solving the replicator equations. The aim of this work is to explore the space of possible behaviours of attackers and to develop a framework where the AMI nodes adaptively select the most profitable strategies. Using this model, we simulated the evolution of a population of attackers and defenders on various cases resembling the real life implementation of AMI. We discuss in depth how to enhance security in AMI using evolutionary game theory either by a priori analysis or as a tool to run dynamic and adaptive infrastructure defence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: C2; command and control; Identity; Internet of Things; IoT; MQTT; NFC; security; QR Code
Online: 22 July 2020 (10:17:33 CEST)
This paper examines dynamic identity, as it pertains to the IoT; and explores the practical implementation of a mitigation to some of the key weaknesses of a conventional dynamic identity model. This paper explores human-centric and machine-based observer approaches for confirming device identity, permitting automated identity confirmation for deployed systems. It also assesses the advantages of dynamic identity in the context of identity revocation permitting secure change of ownership for IoT devices. The paper explores use-cases for human and machine-based observation for authentication of device identity when devices join a C2 network, and considers the relative merits for these two approaches for different types of system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0109.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Cyber risk; Internet of Things cyber risk; Digital Economy Risk Assessment; Economic Impact Assessment.
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:26:13 CEST)
We present an updated design process for adapting and integrating existing cyber risk assessment approaches for impact assessment for the risk from IoT to the digital economy. The new design process includes a set of changes to the original standards (e.g. NIST) that are adapted for the IoT cyber risk in this paper. This paper also presents a new framework for impact assessment of IoT cyber risk, specific for the digital economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0531.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Internet of things; sensor node; LPWAN; attacks; vulnerabilities; IoT; analysis; risk; assessment; low power.
Online: 21 November 2018 (15:55:11 CET)
LoRa and its upper layers definition LoRaWAN is one of the most promising LPWAN technologies for implementing the Internet of Things (IoT). Although being a popular technology, several works in the literature have revealed various weaknesses regarding the security of LoRaWAN v1.0 (the official 1st draft). By using all these recommendations from the academia and industry, the LoRa-Alliance has worked on the v1.0 to develop an enhanced version and provide more secure and trustable architecture. The result of these efforts ended-up with LoRaWAN v1.1, which was released on Oct 11, 2017. This manuscript aims at demystifying the security aspects and provide a comprehensive Security Risk Analysis related to latest version of LoRaWAN. Besides, it provides several remedies to the recognized vulnerabilities. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this work is one of its first kind by providing a detailed security analysis related to latest version of LoRaWAN. According to our analysis, end-device physical capture, rogue gateway and replay attacks are found to be threating for safety operation of the network. Eventually, v1.1 of LoRaWAN is found to be less vulnerable to attacks compared to v1.0, yet possesses several security implications that need to be addressed and fixed for the upcoming releases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0316.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); wireless sensor network (WSN); data integrity; watermark; data injection attack
Online: 13 November 2018 (13:14:25 CET)
Using Internet of Things (IoT) applications has been a growing trend in the last few years. They have been deployed in several areas of life including secure and sensitive sectors like military and health. In these sectors, sensory data is the main factor in any decision-making process. This introduces the need to ensure the integrity of data. Secure techniques are needed to detect any data injection attempt before catastrophic effects happen. Sensors have limited computational and power resources. This limitation creates a challenge to design a security mechanism that is both secure and energy-efficient. This work presents a Randomized Watermarking Filtering Scheme (RWFS) for IoT applications that provides en-route filtering to get rid of any injected data at an early stage of the communication. Filtering injected data is based on a watermark that is generated from the original data and embedded directly in random places throughout the packet's payload. The scheme uses homomorphic encryption techniques to conceal the report's measurement from any adversary. The advantage of homomorphic encryption is that it allows the data to be aggregated and, thus, decreases the packet's size. The results of our proposed scheme proved that it improves the security and energy consumption of the system as it mitigates some of the limitations in the existing works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Indoor Positioning Technology; Bluetooth 4.0; Manufacturing Private Cloud; Internet of Things; Indoor Positioning Technology;
Online: 1 June 2018 (08:15:12 CEST)
To enhance industrial competitiveness and increase productivity, every country has strived to create a smart factory by introducing technologies such as Internet of Things, big data and artificial intelligence into production line and build cyber-physical system for the purpose of promoting manufacturing efficiency. For mission assignment, production line management or manufacturing field analysis, the location information of employee, machine and material is very essential. To promote manufacturing efficiency, of course, the location information became more important. A Bluetooth low energy (BLE) positioning system for the manufacturing is developed in this research. A "Tag tracking" mechanism is addressed and adopted, which uses Beacon to catch the location information and a BLE receiver is also used to receive the broadcasting information from Beacon. The position information from the BLE receiver will be compared with the data in the database for calculating the location of the target. The status of the target may also be obtained by using the data from the BLE receiver. Comparing with the mobile device, this method can reduce energy consumption and make the maintenance simple and easy. In the real applications, the target may not be limited to human. The "Regional label positioning technology" is also investigated in this research. Defining a suitable zone location and arranging BLE receiver location, and positioning analysis theory are the key factors included in this developed technology. The developed system will be tested for real industry applications. The test results show that the feasibility of this technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0370.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building information modeling; industry foundation classes; internet of things; smart campus; environmental sensors; Dynamo
Online: 25 May 2018 (12:29:54 CEST)
Building information modeling (BIM) is the digital representation of physical and functional characteristics (such as geometry, spatial relationship, and geographic information) of a facility to support decisions during its life cycle. BIM has been extended beyond 3D geometrical representations in recent years, and now includes time as a fourth dimension and cost as a fifth dimension, as well as such other applications as virtual reality and augmented reality. The Internet of Things (IoT) has been increasingly applied in various products (smart homes, wearables) to enhance work productivity, living comfort, and entertainment. However, research addressing the integration of these two technologies (BIM and IoT) is still very limited, and has focused exclusively on the automatic transmission of sensor information to BIM models. This paper describes an attempt to represent and visualize sensor data in BIM with multiple perspectives in order to support complex decisions requiring interdisciplinary information. The study uses a university campus as an example and includes several scenarios, such as an auditorium with a dispersed audience and energy saving options for rooms with different functions (mechanical/electric equipment, classrooms, and laboratory). This paper also discusses the design of a common platform allowing communication among sensors with different protocols (Arduino, Raspberry Pi), the use of Dynamo to accept sensor data as input and automatically redraw visualized information in BIM, and how visualization may help in making energy-saving management decisions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0663.v1
Subject: Keywords: Big Data, Internet Data Sources (IDS), Internet of Things (IoT), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Big data Technologies, Big data Challenges
Online: 27 May 2021 (10:31:03 CEST)
It is strongly believed that technology can reap the best only when it can be tamed by all stakeholders. Big data technology has no exception for this and even after a decade of emergence, the technology is still a herculean task and is in nascent stage with respect to applicability for many people. Having understood the gaps in the technology adoption for big data in the contemporary world, the present exploratory research work intended to highlight the possible prospects of big data technologies. It is also advocated as to how the challenges of various fields can be converted as opportunities with the shift in the perspective towards this evolving concept. Examples of apex organizations like (IMF and ITU) and their initiatives of big data technologies with respect to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are also cited for a broader outlook. The intervention of the responsible organizations along with the respective governments is also much sought for encouraging the technology adoption across all the sections of the market players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0445.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: data mining; predictive analytics; Internet of Things; peasant farming; smart farming system; crop production prediction
Online: 31 January 2022 (10:58:30 CET)
Internet of Things (IoT) technologies can greatly benefit from machine learning techniques and Artificial Neural Networks for data mining and vice versa. In the agricultural field, this convergence could result in the development of smart farming systems suitable for use as decision support systems by peasant farmers. This work presents the design of a smart farming system for crop production, which is based on low-cost IoT sensors and popular data storage services and data analytics services on the Cloud. Moreover, a new data mining method exploiting climate data along with crop production data is proposed for the prediction of production volume from heterogeneous data sources. This method was initially validated using traditional machine learning techniques and open historical data of the northeast region of the state of Puebla, Mexico, which were collected from data sources from the National Water Commission and the Agri-food Information Service of the Mexican Government.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0357.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: non-destructive; biosensors; real-time detection; circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA); high sensitivity; Internet of Things
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:28:29 CET)
Early diagnosis and treatment have always been highly desired in the fight against cancer, and detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has recently been touted as highly promising for early cancer screening. Consequently, the detection of ctDNA in liquid biopsy gains much attention in the field of tumor diagnosis and treatment, which has also attracted research interest from the industry. However, traditional gene detection technology is difficult to achieve low cost, real-time and portable measurement of ctDNA. Electroanalytical biosensors have many unique advantages such as high sensitivity, high specificity, low cost and good portability. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the latest development of biosensors for minimal-invasive, rapid, and real-time ctDNA detection. Various ctDNA sensors are reviewed with respect to their choices of receptor probes, detection strategies and figures of merit. Aiming at the portable, real-time and non-destructive characteristics of biosensors, we analyze their development in the Internet of Things, point-of-care testing, big data and big health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber risk; Internet of Things; cyber risk impact assessment; cyber risk estimation; cyber risk insurance
Online: 8 March 2019 (08:50:49 CET)
In this paper we present an understanding of cyber risks in the Internet of Things (IoT), we explain why it is important to understand what IoT cyber risks are and how we can use risk assessment and risk management approaches to deal with these challenges. We introduce the most effective ways of doing Risk assessment and Risk Management of IoT risk. As part of our research, we also developed methodologies to assess and manage risk in this emerging environment. This paper will take you through our research and we will explain: what we mean by the IoT; what we mean by risk and risk in the IoT; why risk assessment and risk management are important; the IoT risk management for incident response and recovery; what open questions on IoT risk assessment and risk management remain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0469.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: energy efficiency; big data analytics; QoS-IoT; internet of things; smart city; WSN; green computing
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:27:42 CEST)
Various heterogeneous devices or objects shall be integrated for transplant and seamless communication under the umbrella of internet of things (IoT). It would facilitate the open accession of data for the growth of a glut of digital services. To build a general framework of IoT is very complex task because of heterogeneity in devices, technologies, platforms and services, operating in the same system. In this paper, we mainly focus on the framework for big data analytics in smart city applications , which being a broad category specifies the different domains for each application. IoT is intended to support the vision of Smart City, where advance technologies will be used for communication for the quality life of citizens. A novel approach used in this paper, is for enhancing the energy conservation and to reduce the delay in big data gathering at tiny sensor nodes used in IoT framework. To implement the smart city scenario in terms of big data in IoT, an efficient (optimized in quality of service) WSN is required where communication of nodes is energy effcient. That is why, a new protocol QoS-IoT is proposed on the top layer of the architecture which is validated over the traditional protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0227.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: real-time intelligent monitoring; zigbee protocol; Internet of Things (IoT); office security system; security-threats
Online: 13 July 2018 (05:25:50 CEST)
Internet of Things (IoT) opens new horizons by enabling automated procedures without human interaction using IP connectivity. IoT deals with devices, called things which are represented as any item from our daily life that is enhanced with computing or communication facilities. Among various mobile communications, Zigbee communication is broadly used in controlling or monitoring applications due to its low data rate and low power consumption. Securing IoT systems have been the main concern for the research community. In this paper, different security-threats of Zigbee networks in IoT platform have been addressed to predict the potential security threats of Zigbee protocol and a Security Improvement Framework (SIF) has been designed for intelligent monitoring in an office environment. Our proposed SIF can predict and protect various potential malicious attacks in the Zigbee network and respond accordingly through a notification to the system administrator. This framework (SIF) is designed to make automated decisions immediately based on real-time data which are defined by the system administrator. Finally, the designed SIF has been implemented in an office security system as a case study for real-time monitoring. This office security system is evaluated based on the capacity of detecting potential security attacks. The evaluation results show that the proposed SIF is capable of detecting and protecting several potential security attacks efficiently enabling more secure way of intelligent monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0192.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: LiDAR sensors reliability; Internet of Things, self-turning parametrization; k-nearest neighbors, driven-assistance simulator
Online: 28 February 2018 (11:26:12 CET)
Nowadays, the research and development of on-chip LiDAR sensors for vehicle collision avoidance is growing very fast. Therefore, the assessment of the reliability in obstacle detection using the information provided by LiDAR sensors has become a key issue to be explored by the scientific community. This paper presents the design and implementation of a self-tuning method in order to maximize the reliability of an Internet-of-Things sensors network and to minimize the number of sensors to localize with the required accuracy obstacles by a detection threshold. In order to achieve this goal, models that predict accuracy (i.e., prediction error) for object localization using data collected by LIDAR sensors are designed and implemented in Webots Automobile 3D simulation tool. The approach is based on combining different techniques. Firstly, point-cloud clustering technique and an error prediction model library composed by a multilayer perceptron neural network with backpropagation, k-nearest neighbors and linear regression are explored. Secondly the above-mentioned techniques for modeling are also combined with a supervised and reinforcement machine learning technique, Q-learning in order to minimize the detection threshold. In addition, a IoT driving assistance simulated scenario with a LiDAR sensor network is designed in order to validate the prediction model and the optimal configuration of the sensor network to guarantee reliability in obstacle localization. The results demonstrate that the self-tuning method is appropriate to increase the reliability of the sensor network whereas minimizing the detection threshold
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0154.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: deep learning; machine learning; smart cities; urban sustainability; cities of future; internet of things (IoT); data science; big data
Online: 13 August 2019 (10:00:34 CEST)
Deep learning (DL) and machine learning (ML) methods have recently contributed to the advancement of models in the various aspects of prediction, planning, and uncertainty analysis of smart cities and urban development. This paper presents the state of the art of DL and ML methods used in this realm. Through a novel taxonomy, the advances in model development and new application domains in urban sustainability and smart cities are presented. Findings reveal that five DL and ML methods have been most applied to address the different aspects of smart cities. These are artificial neural networks; support vector machines; decision trees; ensembles, Bayesians, hybrids, and neuro-fuzzy; and deep learning. It is also disclosed that energy, health, and urban transport are the main domains of smart cities that DL and ML methods contributed in to address their problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0058.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Internet of Things; Incremental Machine Learning; Intrusion Detection System; Online Machine Learning; Cyber-Security; Ensemble Learning
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:47:23 CEST)
Computers have evolved over the years and as the evolution continues, we have been ushered into an era where high-speed internet has made it possible for devices in our homes, hospital, energy and industry to communicate with each other. This era is what is known as the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT has several benefits in the health, energy, transportation and agriculture sectors of a country’s economy. These enormous benefits coupled with the computational constraint of IoT devices which makes it difficult to deploy enhanced security protocols on them make IoT devices a target of cyber-attacks. One approach that has been used in traditional computing over the years to fight cyber-attacks is Intrusion Detection System (IDS). However, it is practically impossible to deploy IDS meant for traditional computers in IoT environments because of the computational constraint of these devices. In this regard, this study proposes a lightweight IDS for IoT devices using an incremental ensemble learning technique. We used Gaussian Naive Bayes and Hoeffding tree to build our incremental ensemble model. The model was then evaluated on the TON IoT dataset. Our proposed model was compared with other state-of-the-art methods proposed and evaluated using the same dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed model achieved an average accuracy of 99.98\%. We also evaluated the memory consumption of our model which showed that our model achieved a lightweight model status of 650.11KB as the highest memory consumption and 122.38KB as the lowest memory consumption.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0044.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Smart cities; data science; machine learning; Internet of Things; data-driven decision making; intelligent services; cybersecurity
Online: 6 April 2022 (11:35:15 CEST)
Cities are undergoing huge shifts in technology and operations in recent days, and `data science' is driving the change in the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR). Extracting insights or actionable knowledge from city data and building a corresponding data-driven model is the key to making a city system automated and intelligent. Data science is typically the study and analysis of actual happenings with historical data using a variety of scientific methodology, machine learning techniques, processes, and systems. In this paper, we concentrate on and explore ``Smart City Data Science", where city data collected from various sources like sensors and Internet-connected devices, is being mined for insights and hidden correlations to enhance decision-making processes and deliver better and more intelligent services to citizens. To achieve this goal, various machine learning analytical modeling can be employed to provide deeper knowledge about city data, which makes the computing process more actionable and intelligent in various real-world services of today's cities. Finally, we identify and highlight ten open research issues for future development and research in the context of data-driven smart cities. Overall, we aim to provide an insight into smart city data science conceptualization on a broad scale, which can be used as a reference guide for the researchers, professionals, as well as policy-makers of a country, particularly, from the technological point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Smart Grid; Random Forest; Internet of Things; Power management; Machine Learning; Smart Meter; Priority Power Scheduling.
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:01:08 CET)
Presently power control and management play a vigorous role in information technology and power management. Instead of non-renewable power manufacturing, renewable power manufacturing is preferred by every organization for controlling resource consumption, price reduction and efficient power management. Smart grid efficiently satisfies these requirements with the integration of machine learning algorithms. Machine learning algorithms are used in a smart grid for power requirement prediction, power distribution, failure identification etc. The proposed Random Forest-based smart grid system classifies the power grid into different zones like high and low power utilization. The power zones are divided into number of sub-zones and map to random forest branches. The sub-zone and branch mapping process used to identify the quantity of power utilized and the non-utilized in a zone. The non-utilized power quantity and location of power availabilities are identified and distributed the required quantity of power to the requester in a minimal response time and price. The priority power scheduling algorithm collect request from consumer and send the request to producer based on priority. The producer analysed the requester existing power utilization quantity and availability of power for scheduling the power distribution to the requester based on priority. The proposed Random Forest based sustainability and price optimization technique in smart grid experimental results are compared to existing machine learning techniques like SVM, KNN and NB. The proposed random forest-based identification technique identifies the exact location of the power availability, which takes minimal processing time and quick responses to the requestor. Additionally, the smart meter based smart grid technique identifies the faults in short time duration than the conventional energy management technique is also proven in the experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0406.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: cyber security; secure development; prototyping; web security; internet of things; software security; digitalization; socio-technical security
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:24:24 CET)
Secure development is a proactive approach to cyber security. Rather than building a technological solution and then securing it in retrospect, secure development strives to embed good security practices throughout the development process and thereby reduces risk. Unfortunately, evidence suggests secure development is complex, costly, and limited in practice. This article therefore introduces security-focused prototyping as a natural precursor to secure development that embeds security at the beginning of the development process, can be used to discover domain specific security requirements, and can help organisations navigate the complexity of secure development such that the resources and commitment it requires are better understood. Two case studies–one considering the creation of a bespoke web platform and the other considering the application layer of an Internet of Things system–verify the potential of the approach and its ability to discover domain specific security requirements in particular. Future work could build on this work by conducting case studies to further verify the potential of security-focused prototyping and even investigate its capacity to be used as a tool capable of reducing a broader, socio-technical, kind of risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0523.v1
Subject: Keywords: Wireless networks and communication; security issues; HTTP flood attack; SYN flood attack; Internet of Things; blockchain
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:53:30 CEST)
Communication between devices has transitioned from wired to unwired. Wireless networks have been in use widely around the globe since the advent of smartphones, IoT devices and other technologies that are compatible with wireless mode of communication. At the same time security issues have also increased in such communication methods. The aim of this paper is to propose security and privacy issues of the wireless networks and present them through comprehensive surveys. In context of security issues, there are 2 typical DDoS attacks - HTTP flood and SYN flood. Other than DDoS attacks, there are several other threats to wireless networks. One of the most prevalent include security issues in Internet of Things. In terms of privacy issues in a wireless network, location-based applications, individual data, cellular network and V2G (Vehicle to Grid) network are surveyed. The survey is hosted using questionnaire and responses of 70 participants is recorded. It is observed from the survey results that many groups of people lack the knowledge of security and privacy of wireless technologies and networks despite their increased use, however, students are relatively more aware and have strong knowledge of those issues. It is concluded from the results that an effective solution to these problems can be hosting campaigns for spreading the security and privacy laws to help the groups of people who are lagging behind in this domain of knowledge become more aware. A unique solution is also presented to overcome the security issues which include implementation of detection and mitigation techniques, implementing Blockchain in the IoT devices and implementing fog computing solutions. The unique solutions to overcome the privacy issues are proposed in the form of a privacy approach from the LBS server between pairs of users to increase the implementation of DSPM and blockchain as a solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: industrial internet of things; random job arrival time; information entropy theory; self-adaption; real-time scheduling
Online: 6 August 2020 (06:00:12 CEST)
In recent years, the individualized demand of customers brings small batches and diversification of orders towards enterprises. The application of enabling technologies in factory, such as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Cloud Manufacturing (CMfg), enhances the ability of customer requirement automatic elicitation and the manufacturing process control. The job shop scheduling problem with random job arrival time dramatically increases the difficulty in process management. Thus, how to collaboratively schedule the production and logistics resources in the shop floor is very challenging, and it has a fundamental and practical significance of achieving the competitiveness for an enterprise. To address this issue, the real-time model of production and logistics resources is built firstly. Then, the task entropy model is built based on the task information. Finally, the real-time self-adaption collaboration of production and logistics resources is realized. The proposed algorithm is carried out based on a practical case to evaluate its effectiveness. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms three existing algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: encryption space ratio; entropy coding; H.264/AVC; internet of multimedia things; lightweight cipher; selective encryption
Online: 30 January 2019 (10:09:35 CET)
Within an Internet of Multimedia Things, the risk of disclosing streamed video content, such as arising from video surveillance, is of heightened concern. This leads to the encryption of that content. To reduce the overhead and lack of flexibility arising from full encryption of the content, a good number of selective-encryption algorithms have been proposed in the last decade. Some of them have limitations, in terms of significant delay due to computational cost, or excess memory utilization, or, despite being energy efficient, do not provide a satisfactory level of confidentiality, due to their simplicity. To address such issues, this paper presents a lightweight selective encryption scheme, in which encoder syntax elements are encrypted with the innovative EXPer (EXtended Permutation with exclusive OR). The selected syntax elements are taken from the final stage of video encoding that is during entropy coding. As a diagnostic tool, the Encryption Space Ratio measures encoding complexity of the video relative to the level of encryption so as to judge the success of the encryption process, according to entropy coder. A detailed comparative analysis of EXPer with state-of-the-art algorithms confirms that the EXPer provides significant confidentiality with a small computational cost and negligible encryption bitrate overhead. Thus, the results demonstrate that the proposed security scheme is a suitable choice for constrained devices in an Internet of Multimedia Things environment.