REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0312.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Cyber Security; Internet of Things
Online: 21 October 2021 (14:01:19 CEST)
Nowadays, people live amidst the smart home domain, business opportunities in the industrial smart city and health care, though, along with concerns about security. Security is central for IoT systems to protect sensitive data and infrastructure, whilst security issues become increasingly expensive, in particular in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) domains. Nonetheless, there are some key challenges for dealing with those security issues in IoT domains: Applications operate in distributed environments such as Blockchain, varied smart objects are used, and sensors are limited in what comes to machine resources. In this way, traditional security does not fit in IoT systems. In this vein, the issue of cyber security has become paramount to the Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) in mitigating cyber security risk for organizations and end users. New cyber security technologies / applications present improvements for IoT security management. Nevertheless, there is a gap on the effectiveness of IoT cyber risk solutions. This review article discusses the, trends around opportunities and threats in cyber security for IIoT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0164.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Blockchain, Internet of Things, Security, Privacy, Wireless Communication.
Online: 7 June 2021 (10:50:54 CEST)
In the age of next-generation computer, the role of the cloud, the internet and smart devices will become stronger. These days we all know the word smart well. This word is often used in our daily lives. The Internet of Things (IoT) will generate a variety of information from a variety of resources. It can store big data in the cloud. Fog computing acts as a signal between cloud and IoT. Fog extensions in this framework apply to material under IoT. IoT devices are called Fog nodes, which can be accessed anywhere within the network range. A blockchain is a novel way of recording in a secure sequence. Creating a new framework in the development of Internet of Things is one of the critical problems of wireless communication where solving such a problem can lead to continued growth in the use and popularity of IoT. Proposed research creates a framework for providing a framework for middleware on the internet of smart devices network for the internet of things using blockchains technology. Our great offering connects new research that integrates blockchains into the Internet of Things and provides secure Internet connection for smart devices. Blockchain (BC) Internet of Things (IoT) is a new technology that works with low-level, distributed, public and real-time leaders to maintain transactions between IoT sites. A blockchain is a series of blocks, each block being linked to its previous blocks. All blocks have cryptographic hash code, previous block hash, and its data. Transactions in BC are the basic components used to transfer data between IoT nodes. IoT nodes are a variety of portable but smart devices with embedded sensors, actuators, systems and the ability to communicate with other IoT nodes. The role of BC in IoT is to provide a process for processing secure data records using IoT nodes. BC is a protected technology that can be used publicly and openly. IoT requires this type of technology to allow secure communication between IoT nodes in different environments. Events in BC can be tracked and monitored by anyone who is certified to communicate within IoT.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Brain-Computer Interfaces; Internet of Things; Smart Home
Online: 17 September 2018 (09:47:11 CEST)
A brain-computer interface for controlling elements commonly used at home is presented in this paper. It includes the electroencephalography device needed to acquire signals associated to the brain activity, the algorithms for artefact reduction and event classification, and the communication protocol.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0063.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: 5G wireless, Distributed Cloud, Internet of Things
Online: 5 March 2019 (12:15:16 CET)
This article will provide an overview on internet of things (IoT), 5G communication System and Distributed Clouds. The basic concepts and benefits will be briefly presented, along with current standardization activities. In a nutshell, but the research will focus on relating internet of things, 5G and Distributed Cloud Computing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0461.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber-attacks; honeypots; internet of things; IoT; scada
Online: 28 September 2021 (10:21:26 CEST)
In recent years, due to their frequent use and widespread use, IoT (Internet of Things) devices have become an attractive target for hackers. As a result of their limited network resources and complex operating systems, they are vulnerable to attacks. Using a honeypot can, therefore, be a very effective way of detecting malicious requests and capturing samples of exploits. The purpose of this article is to introduce honeypots, the rise of IoT devices, and how they can be exploited by attackers. Various honeypot ecosystems will be investigated further for capturing and analyzing information from attacks against these IoT devices. As well as how to leverage proactive strategies in terms of IoT security, it will provide insights on the attack vectors present in most IoT systems, along with understanding attack patterns.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: blockchain; Internet of Things (IoT); bryptography; security; communication
Online: 28 May 2019 (17:44:06 CEST)
Blockchain (BC) in the Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel technology that acts with decentralized, distributed, public and real-time ledger to store transactions among IoT nodes. A blockchain is a series of blocks, each block is linked to its previous blocks. Every block has the cryptographic hash code, previous block hash, and its data. The transactions in BC are the basic units that are used to transfer data between IoT nodes. The IoT nodes are different kind of physical but smart devices with embedded sensors, actuators, programs and able to communicate with other IoT nodes. The role of BC in IoT is to provide a procedure to process secured records of data through IoT nodes. BC is a secured technology that can be used publicly and openly. IoT requires this kind of technology to allow secure communication among IoT nodes in heterogeneous environment. The transactions in BC could be traced and explored through anyone who are authenticated to communicate within the IoT. The BC in IoT may help to improve the communication security. In this paper, I explored this approach, its opportunities and challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0177.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Sensor; Smart machine; Internet of Things (IoT); Arrhythmia; Arrhythmic Signs; Biosensor
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:51:22 CET)
It is important to increase the quality of health and medicine. A wearable system for continuous monitoring of the patient is important to overcome this issue. Thus a patient with Arrhythmia due to its low cost and success in saving the life of the patient was the right option for the care partner. In addition, the device will provide a consumer with a smart smartphone application with accurate pulse beat and body temperature data in real time. MAX 30100 and LM35 are primarily used for the detection of human heart and temperature. The performance of these sensors is generated by an arrhythmia algorithm in the esp32 segment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0362.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Poisoning Attacks; Internet of Things; Smart Farming
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:25:02 CEST)
Smart farming, as a branch of the Internet of Things (IoT), combines the recognition of agricultural economic competencies, the progress of data and information collected from connected devices with statistical analysis to characterize the essentials of the assimilated information, allowing farmers to make intelligent conclusions that will maximize the harvest benefit. However, the integration of advanced technologies requires the adoption of high-tech security approaches. In this paper, we present a framework that promises to enhance the security and privacy of smart farms by leveraging the decentralized nature of blockchain technology. The framework stores and manages data acquired from IoT devices installed in smart farms using a distributed ledger architecture, which provides secure and tamper-proof data storage and ensures the integrity and validity of the data. The study uses the AWS cloud, ESP32, the smart farm security monitoring framework, and the Ethereum Rinkeby smart contract mechanism, which enables automated execution of pre-defined rules and regulations. As a result of a proof-of-concept implementation, the system can detect and respond to security threats in real time, and the results illustrate its usefulness in improving the security of smart farms.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0341.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; Sensors; Real-Time; Edge Computing
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:30:54 CET)
Rapid growth of IoT applications and their interference in our daily lives led to many different IoT devices which generates enormous data. The IoT devices’ resources are very limited, so storing and processing IoT data in the devices is very inefficient. Several resources of cloud-computing are efficiently used to handle some IoT resources issues. While using resources in the cloud centers cause some other issues, like latency in the IoT applications, which are time-critical. Thus, the technology of edge cloud has evolved recently. This technology permits storage and data processing at the network edge. This paper studies edge computing in-depth for timeless sensitive devices in IoT. In-depth, cutting-edge IoT computing systems (ECAs-IoT) are evaluated and characterized in this paper according to numerous criteria, such as information placement, improvisation facilities, reliability, and data visualization. Moreover, according to distinctive properties, the paper aims at comparing each structure in detail. The paper also highlights the significant limitations of the new ECAs-IoT and recommends solutions to them. The studies also introduce and propose solutions to some of the most important restrictions of the current ECAs-IoT. Consequently, in the edge computing domain, this survey outlines the IoT implementations. Lastly, with the use of IoT implementations for ECAs-IoT, the paper suggests four distinct scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0359.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Internet of things; healthcare; ethics; data privacy
Online: 30 January 2020 (10:51:54 CET)
Implications of the novel usage adoption of the internet of things in various sectors of works and life are researched and documented at pace. This is related to the overall high rate at which new technologies are adopted in modern society. Healthcare is a vital aspect of everyday activities and as such overlaps with the increasingly important role played by use of the internet and associated technologies. The purpose of this review article is to draw attention to the potential social, ethical, legal and professional limitations to using IoT in the context of healthcare. The social and ethical aspects in particular, focus on IoT usage in care of the elderly with relevant case studies as reference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0417.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: tangible interfaces; Internet of Things tangibles; children with hearing impairment
Online: 31 December 2019 (16:48:04 CET)
A Tangible User Interface (TUI) is a new interaction option that uses nontraditional input and output elements. A tangible interface thus allows the manipulation of physical objects using digital information. The exploration and manipulation of physical objects is a factor to be considered in learning in children, especially those with some kind of disability such as hearing, who maximize the use of other senses such as vision and touch. In a tangible interface, three elements are related - physical, digital and social. The potential of IoT for children is growing. This technology IoT integrated with TUI, can help for that parents or teachers can monitoring activities of the child. Also to identify behavior patterns in the child with hearing impairment. This article shows four case studies, where had been designed different products of Internet of Things Tangible applied a several contexts and with products of low cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0247.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Dataset; Recurrent Neural Networks; Internet of Things; Time Series.
Online: 3 November 2023 (12:38:10 CET)
The emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) has led to the deployment of various types of sensors in many application fields, including environment monitoring, smart cities, health, industries, and others. The increasing number of connected devices has led to the creation of massive quantities of data that need to be analyzed. Typically, this data is ordered by time, as a time series. In this context, this paper presents a time series prediction model based on Recurrent Neural Networks in order to predict one step ahead. Result obtained through five Internet of Things monitoring datasets, showed that the Recurrent Neural Network obtained better performance that the prediction methods, ARIMA and SVM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: precision agriculture, electronic insect traps, internet of things
Online: 29 May 2017 (10:02:26 CEST)
Τhe concept of remote insect surveillance at large spatial scales for a number of serious insect pests of agricultural and medical importance is introduced in a series of our papers. We augment typical, low-cost plastic traps for many insect pests with the necessary optoelectronic sensors to guard the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and –in relevant cases- identify the species of the incoming insect from their wingbeat. For every important crop pest there are monitoring protocols to be followed in order to decide when to initiate a treatment procedure before a serious infestation occurs. Monitoring protocols are mainly based on specifically designed insect traps. Traditional insect monitoring suffers in that the scope of such monitoring: is curtailed by its cost, requires intensive labor, is time consuming, an expert is often needed for sufficient accuracy and can sometimes raise safety issues for humans. These disadvantages reduce the extent to which manual insect monitoring is applied and therefore its accuracy, which finally results in significant crop loss due to damage caused by pests. With the term ‘surveillance’ we intend to push the monitoring idea to unprecedented levels of information extraction regarding the presence, time-stamping detection events, species identification and population density of targeted insect pests. Insect counts as well as environmental parameters that correlate with insect’s population development are wirelessly transmitted to the central monitoring agency in real time, are visualized and streamed to statistical methods to assist enforcement of security control to insect pests. In this work we emphasize on how the traps can be self-organized in networks that collectively report data at local, regional, country, continental, and global scales using the emerging technology of the Internet of Things (IoT). This research is necessarily interdisciplinary and falls at the intersection of entomology, optoelectronic engineering, data-science and crop science and encompasses the design and implementation of low-cost, low-power technology to help reduce the extent of quantitative and qualitative crop losses by many the most significant agricultural pests. We argue that smart traps communicating through IoT to report in real-time the level of the pest population from the field straight to a human controlled agency can, in the very near future, have a profound impact on the decision making process in crop protection and will be disruptive of existing manual practices. In the present study, three cases are investigated : monitoring Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using a) Picusan and b) Lindgren trap, and c) monitoring various stored grain beetle pests using the pitfall trap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0., Internet of Things, case study, cyber security framework
Online: 8 March 2019 (15:27:11 CET)
This research article reports the results of a qualitative case study that correlates academic literature with five Industry 4.0 cyber trends, seven cyber risk frameworks and two cyber risk models. While there is a strong interest in industry and academia to standardise existing cyber risk frameworks, models and methodologies, an attempt to combine these approaches has not been done until present. We apply the grounded theory approach to derive with integration criteria for the reviewed frameworks, models and methodologies. Then, we propose a new architecture for the integration of the reviewed frameworks, models and methodologies. We therefore advance the efforts of integrating standards and governance into Industry 4.0 and offer a better understanding of a holistic economic impact assessment model for IoT cyber risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; Cyber Physical Systems; Digital Economy; Industrial Internet of Things; Industry 4.0; empirical analysis; cyber risk assessment; cyber risk target state
Online: 7 March 2019 (12:25:15 CET)
The world is currently experiencing the fourth industrial revolution driven by the newest wave of digitisation in the manufacturing sector. The term Industry 4.0 (I4.0) represents at the same time: a paradigm shift in industrial production, a generic designation for sets of strategic initiatives to boost national industries, a technical term to relate to new emerging business assets, processes and services, and a brand to mark a very particular historical and social period. I4.0 is also referred to as Industrie 4.0 the New Industrial France, the Industrial Internet, the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the digital economy. These terms are used interchangeably in this text. The aim of this article is to discuss major developments in this space in relation to the integration of new developments of IoT and cyber physical systems in the digital economy, to better understand cyber risks and economic value and risk impact. The objective of the paper is to map the current evolution and its associated cyber risks for the digital economy sector and to discuss the future developments in the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0237.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: internet of things (IoT); security; quality of service; energy; cognitive packet network; SerIoT
Online: 14 August 2018 (03:25:34 CEST)
SerIoT is a Research and Innovation Project funded by the European Commission to demonstrate secure networks for the Internet of Things (IoT). This paper presents an overview of the design for smart and secure network infrastructures for the IoT, based on Software Defined Networks (SDN), named the SerCPN system, whose main component is a smart SDN-Controller with online cognitive security surveillance and reporting, which establishes and dynamically modifies paths that enhance security for IoT devices and end users, and offers a high quality of service (QoS) with required security constraints. This online cognitive surveillance and path management is based on the Cognitive Packet Network (CPN) principle and uses Random Neural Networks (RNN) for decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0112.v1
Online: 22 December 2016 (09:48:05 CET)
This paper advances privacy theory through examination of online shaming, focusing in particular on persecution by internet mobs. While shaming is nothing new, the technology used for modern shaming is new and evolving, making it a revealing lens through which to analyze points of analytical friction within and between traditional conceptions of privacy. To that end, this paper first explores the narrative and structure of online shaming, identifying broad categories of shaming of vigilantism, bullying, bigotry and gossiping, which are then used throughout the paper to evaluate different angles to the privacy problems raised. Second, this paper examines shaming through three dominant debates concerning privacy - privacy’s link with dignity, the right to privacy in public places and the social dimension of privacy. Certain themes emerged from this analysis. A common feature of online shaming is public humiliation. A challenge is to differentiate between a humbling (rightly knocking someone down a peg for a social transgression) and a humiliation that is an affront to dignity (wrongly knocking someone down a peg). In addition, the privacy concern of shamed individuals is not necessarily about intrusion on seclusion or revelation of embarrassing information, but rather about the disruption in their ability to continue to participate in online spaces free from attack. The privacy interest therefore becomes more about enabling participation in social spaces, enabling connections and relationships to form, and about enabling identity-making. Public humiliation through shaming can disrupt all of these inviting closer scrutiny concerning how law can be used as an enabling rather than secluding tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0031.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: SensorThings API; INSPIRE; download services; spatio-temporal data interoperability; Internet of Things
Online: 2 May 2018 (12:06:28 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0134.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: data aggregation methods; learning automata; RPL; routing; internet of thing (IoT)
Online: 15 May 2019 (12:28:23 CEST)
As a novel concept in technology and communication world, “Internet of Things (IoT)” has been emerged. In such modern technology, the capability to transmit data through data communication networks (such as Internet or Intranet) is provided for each organism (e.g. human being, animals, things, and so forth). Due to the limited hardware and communication operational capability as well as small dimensions, IoT undergoes quite a few challenges. Such inherent challenges not only cause fundamental restrictions in the efficiency of aggregation, transmission, and communication between nodes; but they also degrade routing performance. To cope with the reduced availability time and unstable communications among nodes, data aggregation and transmission approaches in such networks are designed more intelligently. In this paper, a distributed method is proposed to set child balance among nodes. In this method, the height of the network graph is increased through restricting the degree; and network congestion is reduced as a result. Besides, a dynamic data aggregation approach -named as LA-RPL- is proposed for RPL networks. More specifically, each node is equipped with learning automata in order to perform data aggregation and transmissions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms previously suggested based approaches in terms of energy consumption, network control overhead, and packet loss rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Indoor Air Quality (IAQ); Energy efficiency; Smart buildings; Learning factory
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:35:52 CEST)
Advances towards smart ecosystems showcases Internet of Things (IoT) as a transversal strategy to improve energy efficiency in buildings, to enhance their comfort and environmental conditions, and to grow knowledge about building behavior, its relationships with the users and the interconnections among themselves and with the environmental and ecological context. EU estimates that 75% of the building stock is inefficient and aged with +40 years old. Although many buildings have some kind of system for regulating their indoor temperature, only a small subset provides integrated Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems; within that subset, only a low percentage includes smart sensors, and only a minimum of that percentage integrates those sensors into IoT ecosystems. This work proposes several contributions. On the one hand, to understand the built environment as a set of interconnected systems that constitute a complex framework where IoT ecosystems are key enabling technologies to improve energy efficiency and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by filling the gap between theoretical simulations and real measurements. On the other hand, to understand IoT ecosystems as cost-effective solutions where: acquire data through connected sensors, analyze information in real-time, and build knowledge to make data-driven decisions. Furthermore, data set is public for third-party use to contribute scientific community to their research studies. Thus, this paper also contributes with a detailed functional scheme of IoT ecosystem deployed in 3 buildings of University of Zaragoza (Spain) with +200 geolocated wireless sensors with +100 representative spaces. The obtained results, through real installations with IoT as learning factory, show several learned lessons (about building complexity; energy consumption, costs and savings; and IAQ and health improvement) and contribute, as a proof-of-concept, with a proposal of prediction of building performance based on both correlations (between CO2 and occupancy) and neural networks (applied to CO2 and temperature). In summary, in a real context of economic restrictions, complexity, higher energy costs, social vulnerability and climate change, IoT-based strategies, as proposed in this work, highlight as an open, modular and interoperable approach to move towards smart communities (buildings, cities, regions, etc.) by improving energy efficiency and environmental quality (indoor and outdoor) with low cost, quick implementation, and low impact on users within great challenges for growth, interconnection, climate change and sustainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0771.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: internet of things; fog computing; edge computing; industrial internet of things; industry 4.0; cyber-physical systems; cybersecurity
Online: 12 July 2023 (08:14:51 CEST)
The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) paradigm is a key research area derived from the Internet of Things (IoT). The emergence of IIoT has enabled a revolution in manufacturing and production, through the employment of various embedded sensing devices connected with each other by an IoT network, along with a collection of enabling technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and edge/fog computing. One of the unrivaled characteristics of IIoT is the inter-connectivity provided to industries; however, this characteristic might open the door for cyber-criminals to launch various attacks. In fact, one of the major challenges hindering the prevalent adoption of the IIoT paradigm is IoT security. Inevitably, an increasing number of research proposals have been introduced over the last decade to overcome these security concerns. To obtain an overview of this research area, conducting a literature survey of the published research is necessary, eliciting the various security requirements and their considerations. This paper provides a literature survey of IIoT security, focused on the period from 2017 to 2023. We identify IIoT security threats and classify them into three categories, based on the IIoT layer they exploit to launch these attacks. Additionally, we characterize the security requirements that these attacks violate. Finally, we highlight how emerging technologies, such as AI and edge/fog computing, can be adopted to address security concerns and enhance IIoT security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0115.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Dew computing; Internet of Things; Blockchain; Hotspot Network
Online: 5 August 2022 (03:46:27 CEST)
Building a widely distributed hotspot network is a very tedious task due to its complexity. Providing security, fully distributed network services, and cost-conscious impact are the major challenges behind this goal. To overcome these issues, we have presented a novel distributed hotspot network architecture with five layers that can provide large-scale hotspot coverage as an assimilated result. Our contributions to this new architecture highlight important aspects. First, scalability can be increased by including many Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices with sensors and Wi-Fi and/or LoraWAN connectivity modules. Second, hotspot owners can rent out their hotspots to create a distributed hotspot network in which the hotspots can act as an ordinary data gateway, a full-fledged hotspot miner, and a lightweight hotspot miner to earn crypto tokens as rewards for certain activities. Third, the advantages of Wi-Fi and LoraWAN can be seamlessly leveraged to achieve optimal coverage, higher network security, and suitable data transmission rate for transferring sensor data from IoT devices to remote application servers and users. Fourth, blockchain is used to enhance the decentralized behavior of the architecture presented here by providing immutability and independence from a centralized regulator and making the network architecture more reliable and transparent. The main feature of our paper is the use of the tau-computing paradigm along with hotspots to improve availability, Internet backhaul-agnostic network coverage, and synchronous update capability, and tau-aware leasing to strengthen and improve coverage. We also discuss the key challenges and future roadmap that require further investment and deployment.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Industrial Internet of Things; Cyber Physical Systems; Internet of Everything; Industry 4.0; Digital Industry; Digital Economy
Online: 14 September 2020 (05:47:48 CEST)
This article conducts a literature review of current and future challenges in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in cyber physical systems. The literature review is focused on identifying a conceptual framework for increasing resilience with AI through automation supporting both, a technical and human level. The methodology applied resembled a literature review and taxonomic analysis of complex internet of things (IoT) interconnected and coupled cyber physical systems. There is an increased attention on propositions on models, infrastructures and frameworks of IoT in both academic and technical papers. These reports and publications frequently represent a juxtaposition of other related systems and technologies (e.g. Industrial Internet of Things, Cyber Physical Systems, Industry 4.0 etc.). We review academic and industry papers published between 2010 and 2020. The results determine a new hierarchical cascading conceptual framework for analysing the evolution of AI decision-making in cyber physical systems. We argue that such evolution is inevitable and autonomous because of the increased integration of connected devices (IoT) in cyber physical systems. To support this argument, taxonomic methodol- ogy is adapted and applied for transparency and justifications of concepts selection decisions through building summary maps that are applied for designing the hierarchical cascading conceptual framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0263.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: IEEE 802.11ax; multiple NAVs; Internet-of-Things (IoT); beamforming
Online: 15 August 2018 (04:33:59 CEST)
The increased deployment of IoT devices in specific areas results in an interference among them and the quality of communications can be severely degraded. To deal with this interference issue, the IEEE 802.11ax standard has been established in hyper-densely wireless networking systems. The 802.11ax adopts a new candidate technology that is called multiple network allocation vector in order to mitigate the interference problem. In this paper, we point out potential problem in multiple network allocation vector which can cause delays to the communication among IoT devices in hyper-dense wireless networks. Furthermore, this paper introduces an adaptive beam alignment algorithm for interference issue resolution. In addition, we analyze potential delays of communications among IoT devices under interference conditions. Lastly, we simulate our proposed algorithm in densely deployed environment and show that the interference issue can be mitigated and the IEEE 802.11ax-based IoT devices can utilize the air interface more fairly compared to conventional IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Internet of things; Artificial Intelligence; Smart University; Microcontroller; Smart buildings
Online: 5 February 2021 (21:52:06 CET)
In this paper we designed system for smart university building based on artificial intelligence (AI) and internet of things (IOT). Our idea can be summarized in smart security system that has different sensors to detect the surrounding environment of the class room in campus which keep everyone and everything on campus safer. By using (IOT), (AI) technologies and applications and by using microcontroller programming we can make the university building safer, secure and more energy saves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: autonomous electrical vehicles; the Internet of Things; supply chain strategy
Online: 11 April 2019 (12:59:18 CEST)
This paper outlines a new methodology for developing strategy for supply chain integration of Autonomous Electrical Vehicles (AEV) to the Internet of Things (IoT). The methodology consists of external architecture and internal design that anticipates the business strategy in the development process. The methodology is designed to anticipate the impact of developments in new road transport technologies, such as Tesla Truck or Tesla Pickup. Since the methodology is designed to anticipate the impact of non-existing technologies, it represents green-field analysis. Green-field is defined as a new and non-existent operation. Green-field strategy architecture in this paper is presented as a process of accepting the world and acting upon that version of the world. The results of the analysis are presented as pathways and outcomes, emerging from the interrelated relationship between AEV and IoT. The emerging methodology is applied through two case studies to evaluate the impact to environment, performance and operationalisation. The methodology proposes architecture and design for integrating AEV and IoT in the supply chain strategy, and a set of new evaluation criteria that promote acceptance of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the design process. The main contribution to knowledge is a new methodology for integrating AEV and the IoT to the supply chains. The paper applies interplay between inductive and deductive case study and grounded theory approach to build upon the concept of supply chain architecture and contribute to knowledge to the topic of formulating green-field integrated AEV- IoT supply chain strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0443.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: group decision makers; multicriteria analysis; performance evaluation; internet of things; intuitionistic environment
Online: 19 October 2018 (08:08:19 CEST)
The performance evaluation of the Internet of Things (IoT) based supply chain is challenging due to the involvement of multiple decision makers, the multi-dimensional nature of the evaluation process, and the existence of uncertainty and imprecision in the decision making process. To ensure effective decisions are made, this paper presents a fuzzy multicriteria analysis model for evaluating the performance of IoT based supply chain. The inherent uncertainty and imprecision of the performance evaluation process is adequately handled by using intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A new algorithm is developed for determining the overall performance index for each alternative across all criteria. The development of the fuzzy multicriteria group decision making model provides organizations with the ability to effectively evaluate the performance of their IoT based supply chains for improving their competitiveness. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the model for dealing with real world IoT-based performance evaluation problems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0083.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning; COVID-19; Internet of Things (IoT); Deep Learning; Big Data
Online: 19 April 2022 (08:21:00 CEST)
Early diagnosis, prioritization, screening, clustering and tracking of COVID-19 patients, and production of drugs and vaccines are some of the applications that have made it necessary to use a new style of technology to involve, to manage and deal with this epidemic. Strategies backed by artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) have been undeniable to understand how the virus works and try to prevent it from spreading. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey article is to highlight the methods of ML, IoT and the integration of IoT and ML-based techniques in the applications related to COVID-19 from the diagnosis of the disease to the prediction of its outbreak. According to the main findings, IoT provided a prompt and efficient approach of following the disease spread. Most of the studies developed by ML-based techniques for handling COVID-19 based dataset provided performance criteria. The most popular performance criteria, is related to accuracy factor. It can be employed for comparing the ML-based methods with different datasets. According to the results, CNN with SVM classifier, Genetic CNN and pre-trained CNN followed by ResNet, provided highest accuracy values. On the other hand, the lowest accuracy was related to single CNN followed by XGboost and KNN methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0303.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); physical layer attack; routing security; Average Packet Transmission
Online: 26 January 2020 (03:57:09 CET)
Through the Internet of Things (IoT) the internet scope is established by the aid of physical objects integration to classify themselves to mutual things. A physical object can be created by this inventive perception to signify itself in the digital world. Regarding the physical objects that are related to the internet, it is worth to mention that considering numerous theories and upcoming predictions, they mostly require protected structures, moreover, they are at risk of several attacks. IoTs are endangered by particular routing disobedience called physical layer attack owing to their distributed features. The physical layer attack as a security warning makes possible for the invader to abuse the resources and bandwidth of the network through overloading the network via unimportant packets. This protocol is called LSFA-IoT consisting of two key sections of the physical layer detection system and misbehavior detection system. The first section is utilized in stabilizing the status of the network. The second section is in charge of discovering the misbehavior sources within the IoT network through , the Average Packet Transmission RREQ. By detecting a malicious node, the status of the node is checked by LSFA-IoT prior to sending a data packet and in case detecting the node as malicious, no packet is sent to that node and that node is added to the detention list. Here, the technique is assessed through wide simulations performed within the NS-3 environment. Based on the results of the simulation, it is indicated that the IoT network behaviour metrics are enhanced based on the detection rate, false-negative rate, false-positive rate, and packet delivery rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0529.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Internet of Things; Performance; Raspberry Pi; Security; Devices; OpenSSL; Hash functions; Tests.
Online: 7 June 2023 (09:37:29 CEST)
Data security is a fundamental aspect to be considered in Internet of Things (IoT) information gathering systems, as IoT is a network of interconnected devices that collect and share real-time data, becoming increasingly prevalent in our lives. However, data security in IoT systems presents unique challenges due to the large number of devices and access points involved. This study aims to conduct a literature review on IoT security to analyze the performance of security mechanisms on current development platforms, specifically on a Raspberry Pi 3. Some functions from the OpenSSL library were used, including popular hash functions and cipher algorithms. Additionally, a bash code was developed to obtain the time spent in seconds and the memory consumption in kilobytes. In addition to time and memory calculations, statistical values such as variance and standard deviation were also obtained and compared with results obtained on a personal computer. The tests conducted in this study demonstrated that it is possible to implement these algorithms on platforms with more limited resources, with AES and RSA algorithms being the most suitable for IoT scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1239.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network; Internet of Things (IoT); IoT Deployment; Localization; Sensing Coverage; Reliable Services; Intra-triangle Coverage; Delaunay Triangulation
Online: 16 June 2023 (12:08:21 CEST)
The proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) has revolutionized traditional services, giving rise to emerging smart infrastructures by connecting the physical and digital worlds. Sensory data is essential in IoT-based systems for providing context-aware and location-based services. Hence, the accurate localization of IoT devices is paramount. Anchor misplacement can significantly affect location information and coverage services in IoT. We study the effect of anchor misplacement in typical IoT settings where sensors are randomly deployed, can be mobile and may belong to multiple providers. We identify sensing coverage holes formed by anchor misplacement and analyze their presence and impact. To mitigate the impact of anchor misplacement on network reliability, we propose a framework to identify the affected sensor nodes and then identify and remove misplaced anchor nodes. The validity of our approach is verified, and its effectiveness is demonstrated by several experiments with different network topologies and parameters. Our results are promising and can be utilized in multiple coverage applications, such as smart agriculture systems and habitat monitoring, regardless of the sensors or deployment types. It also sheds light on best practices and methods for a reliable design of IoT-based systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1162.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: modern agriculture; smart farming; cloud computing; internet of things; survey
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:51:22 CEST)
Development of agriculture in Russia and Belarus is based on the practical implementation of "smart" systems in agriculture based on the use of modern wireless, intelligent technologies and Internet of Things. This review presents research articles (mainly, in Russian) published in the period of 2013 – 2022 on the use of cloud technologies and Internet of Things for the development of agriculture in Russia and Belarus. An analysis of the use of cloud technologies and Internet of Things in the modern world is given on the basis of research articles and reviews published in English in the period of 2017 – 2022. The main directions of digitalization of modern agriculture are listed. The uses of cloud technologies and Internet of Things in agriculture are described along with promising directions for further research and applications.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: FMIS; Internet of Things; Precision Agriculture; PoC; UML
Online: 17 March 2021 (19:45:27 CET)
The rising world population has made it imperative to get rid of time-consuming and non-economical agricultural practices. Thus, advances in Internet of Things (IoT) technology have recently propelled significant advancements in agriculture, similar to several other sectors. Through the combination of IoT and Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS), field data can be automatically collected, stored, analysed and accessed by farmers in real-time. In this paper, we present Proof-of-Concept (PoC) IoT circuit and FMIS web app for precision agriculture. The IoT circuit incorporates sensors, microcontroller and Wi-Fi module, which acquire and transfer field data to the FMIS web app. We designed and simulated the IoT circuit using Proteus, Arduino Uno, and Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The FMIS PoC web app was modelled with relevant Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams and Django (a Python framework) was employed to implement the app. Our simulation result illustrates how essentila field parameters can be monitored remotely and seamlessly by agriculture practitioners. It further provides a blueprint for real-time precision agriculture at scale and could serve as a learning aid for students in engineering and agricultural science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2172.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: IoT cyber risk management; Cyber risk assessment; Cyber risk control; Security controls; Internet of Things; Survey; IoT
Online: 30 June 2023 (07:59:54 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) continues to grow at a rapid pace, becoming integrated into the daily operations of individuals and organisations. IoT systems automate crucial services within daily life that users may rely on, which makes the assurance of security towards entities such as devices and information even more significant. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of papers that model cyber risk management processes within the context of IoT, and provide recommendations for further work. Using 39 collected papers, we studied IoT cyber risk management frameworks against four research questions that delve into cyber risk management concepts and human-orientated vulnerabilities. The importance of this work being human-driven is to better understand how individuals can affect risk and the ways that humans can be impacted by attacks within different IoT domains. Through the analysis, we identified open areas for future research and ideas that researchers should consider.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0489.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Fault Tolerance; Blockchain; Internet of Things; Edge Computing; Peer to Peer; Decentralized; Sensor Networks; Verifiable Delay Functions
Online: 10 August 2022 (15:41:43 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is experiencing widespread adoption across industry sectors ranging from supply chain management to smart cities, buildings, and health monitoring. However, most software architectures for IoT deployment rely on centralized cloud computing infrastructures to provide storage and computing power, as cloud providers have high economic incentives to organize their infrastructure into clusters. Despite these incentives, there has been a recent shift from centralized to decentralized architecture that harnesses the potential of edge devices, reduces network latency, and lowers infrastructure cost to support IoT applications. This shift has resulted in new edge computing architectures, but many still rely on centralized solutions for managing applications. A truly decentralized approach would offer interesting properties required for IoT use cases. To address these concerns, we introduce a decentralized architecture tailored for large scale deployments of peer-to-peer IoT sensor networks and capable of run-time application migration. The solution combines a blockchain consensus algorithm and verifiable random functions to ensure scalability, fault tolerance, transparency, and no single point of failure. We build on our previously presented theoretical simulations with many protocol improvements and an implementation tested in a use case related to monitoring a Slovenian cultural heritage building located in Bled, Slovenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0624.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Internet of Things; Load aware; Energy-efficient; Gray System Theory; Multipath protocol
Online: 24 November 2020 (16:23:43 CET)
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of smart things. This indicates the ability of these physical things to transfer information with other physical things. The characteristics of these networks, such as topology dynamicity and energy constraint, challenges the routing problem in these networks. Previous routing methods could not achieve the required performance in this type of network. Therefore, developers of this network designed and developed specific methods in order to satisfy the requirements of these networks. One of the routing methods is utilization of multipath protocols which send data to its destination using routes with separate links. One of such protocols is RPL routing protocol. In this paper, this method is improved using composite metrics which chooses the best paths used for separate routes to send packets. We propose Energy and Load aware RPL (ELaM-IoT) protocol, which is an enhancement of RPL protocol. It uses a composite metric, calculated based on remaining energy, hop count, Link Expiration Time (LET), load and battery depletion index (BDI) for the route selection. In order to evaluate and report the results, the proposed ELaM-IoT method is compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches with regard to average remaining energy, and network lifetime. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed ELaM-IoT compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0058.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Internet of Things; Incremental Machine Learning; Intrusion Detection System; Online Machine Learning; Cyber-Security; Ensemble Learning
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:47:23 CEST)
Computers have evolved over the years and as the evolution continues, we have been ushered into an era where high-speed internet has made it possible for devices in our homes, hospital, energy and industry to communicate with each other. This era is what is known as the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT has several benefits in the health, energy, transportation and agriculture sectors of a country’s economy. These enormous benefits coupled with the computational constraint of IoT devices which makes it difficult to deploy enhanced security protocols on them make IoT devices a target of cyber-attacks. One approach that has been used in traditional computing over the years to fight cyber-attacks is Intrusion Detection System (IDS). However, it is practically impossible to deploy IDS meant for traditional computers in IoT environments because of the computational constraint of these devices. In this regard, this study proposes a lightweight IDS for IoT devices using an incremental ensemble learning technique. We used Gaussian Naive Bayes and Hoeffding tree to build our incremental ensemble model. The model was then evaluated on the TON IoT dataset. Our proposed model was compared with other state-of-the-art methods proposed and evaluated using the same dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed model achieved an average accuracy of 99.98\%. We also evaluated the memory consumption of our model which showed that our model achieved a lightweight model status of 650.11KB as the highest memory consumption and 122.38KB as the lowest memory consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: internet of things; smart grids; protocol communication; interoperability; CoAP; OSGP
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:41:25 CET)
The evolution and miniaturization of the technologies for processing, storage, and communication have enabled computer systems to process a high volume of information and make decisions without human intervention. Within this context, several systems architectures and models have gained prominences, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Grids (SGs). SGs use communication protocols to exchange information, among which the Open Smart Grid Protocol (OSGP) stands out. In contrast, this protocol does not have integration support with IoT systems that use some already consolidated communication protocols, such as the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). Thus, this work develops the integration of the protocols OSGP and CoAP to allow the communication between conventional IoT systems and systems dedicated to SGs. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of this integration, with the minimum impact on the flow of commands and data, making possible the use of the developed CoAP-OSGP Interface for Internet of Things (COIIoT).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Authentication and Key Agreement; Internet of Things; Physical Layer Authentication, Universal Software Radio Peripheral
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:11:46 CEST)
In this paper, we propose a lightweight physical layer aided authentication and key agreement (PL-AKA) protocol in the internet of things (IoT). Conventional evolved packet system AKA (EPS-AKA) used in long-term evolution (LTE) systems may suffer from congestions in core networks by the large signaling overhead as the number of IoT devices increases. Thus, in order to alleviate the overhead, we consider a cross-layer authentication by integrating physical layer approaches to cryptography-based schemes. To demonstrate the feasibility of the PL-AKA, universal software radio peripheral (USRP) based tests are conducted as well as numerical simulations. The proposed scheme shows a significant reduction in signaling overhead compared to the conventional EPS-AKA in both simulation and experiment. Therefore, the proposed lightweight PL-AKA has the potential for practical and efficient implementation of large-scale IoT networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0390.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Ovarian Cancer; Features Classification; Self-Organizing Map; Optimal Neural Networks; Adaptive Harmony Search Optimization; Internet of Things
Online: 19 September 2018 (16:15:56 CEST)
Ovarian Cancer (OC) is a type of cancer that affects ovaries in women, and is difficult to detect at initial stage due to which it remains as one of the leading causes of cancer death. The ovarian cancer data generated from the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) was used and a novel approach was proposed for distinguishing the ovarian cancer by utilizing Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and Optimal Recurrent Neural Networks (ORNN). SOM algorithm was utilized for better feature subset selection and was also utilized for separating profitable, understood and intriguing data from huge measures of medical data. In supervised learning techniques, the SOM-based feature selection seems to be a tougher challenge because of the absence of class labels that would guide the search for relevant information to the classifier model. The classification approach can identify ovarian cancer data as benign/malignant. The ovarian cancer detection process can be improved by optimizing the weights of RNN structure using Adaptive Harmony Search Optimization (AHSO). The proposed model in this study can be used to detect cancer at early stages with high accuracy and low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0163.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; pulsoximeter; Internet of Things; maker culture; medically underserved area
Online: 9 May 2020 (10:55:48 CEST)
Family doctors can have an active role in identifying significant population needs and solutions. During COVID-19 epidemic, patient home monitoring with pulse oximetry has been a key aspect of care of patients. However, pandemics bring shortage medical equipment such as pulse oximetry. Through the local maker community in a matter of days four “smart” pulsoximeters were created and built. Following Internet of Things principles, the pulsoximeters were programmed to transmit recorded data through Wi-Fi, in real time, directly to the doctors. Each protype pulsoximeter served a family doctor during the pandemic. Building instructions were shared in maker-oriented websites, potentially leading to additional small-scale productions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0650.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Internet of Thing (IoT); Hierarchical Routing; Overlap clustering; Fog computing; Cloud computing
Online: 25 November 2020 (15:16:33 CET)
Considering the great growth of IoT networks and the need for highly reliable networks and also considering the manufacturing divides of IoT equipment which are highly limited by their memory, processing power and battery; we need a highly efficient routing for guaranteeing our network's high life span. So, this paper has suggested an efficient energy routing method based on the overlapping clustering method which is inspired from the Grey theory. The Overlap clustering method means that some Things collect data that must be sent to two or more Fog nodes for processing. In the suggested method the best node is selected as the cluster head based on factors such as remaining energy, distance, link expiration time, signal power for receiving data from things by the Fog nodes. In the next step the Fog node's data are sent in a hierarchical method using a symmetrical tree of processed data to the server. Thus, the main issue here is making using a proper routing method for data sending to the Cloud that doesn't just focus on energy, but also considers other factors such as delay and network life span. The simulation results show that the HR-IoT reduces the average end to end delay more than 17.2% and 23.1%, decreases the response time more than 20.1% and 25.78% and increase packet delivery rate more than 23.1% and 28.78% and lifetime more than 25.1% and 28.78% compared to EECRP and ERGID approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Mine Internet of Things (MIoT); post-disaster reconstruction; opportunistic routing (OR); data transmission; energy efficient; routing void
Online: 2 August 2023 (04:44:01 CEST)
The Mine Internet of Things (MIoT), as a key technology for reconstructing post-disaster communication networks, enables to realize the safety monitoring and controlling of the affected roadway. However, due to the challenging underground mine environment, the MIoT suffers from severe signal attenuation, vulnerable nodes, and limited energy, which result in low network reliability of the post-disaster MIoT. To improve the transmission reliability as well as to reduce energy consumption, a directional-area-forwarding-based energy-efficient opportunistic routing (DEOR) for the post-disaster MIoT is proposed. DEOR defines a forwarding zone (FZ) for each node to route packets toward the sink. The candidate forwarding set (CFS) is constructed by the nodes within the FZ that satisfy the energy constraint and the neighboring node degree constraint. The nodes in CFS are prioritized based on the routing quality evaluation by taking the local attributes of nodes into consideration, such as the directional angle, transmission distance, and residual energy. DEOR adopts a recovery mechanism to address the issue of void nodes. The simulation results validate that the proposed DEOR outperforms ORR, OBRN and ECSOR in terms of energy consumption, average hop count, packet delivery rate, and network lifetime.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: functional dependency; network-based linear dependency modelling; internet of things; micro mort model; goal-oriented approach; transformation roadmap; cyber risk regulations; empirical analysis; cyber risk self-assessment; cyber risk target state.
Online: 25 December 2020 (11:35:48 CET)
The Internet-of-Things (IoT) triggers new types of cyber risks. Therefore, the integration of new IoT devices and services requires a self-assessment of IoT cyber security posture. By security posture this article refers to the cybersecurity strength of an organisation to predict, prevent and respond to cyberthreats. At present, there is a gap in the state-of-the-art, because there are no self-assessment methods for quantifying IoT cyber risk posture. To address this gap, an empirical analysis is performed of 12 cyber risk assessment approaches. The results and the main findings from the analysis is presented as the current and a target risk state for IoT systems, followed by conclusions and recommendations on a transformation roadmap, describing how IoT systems can achieve the target state with a new goal-oriented dependency model. By target state, we refer to the cyber security target that matches the generic security requirements of an organisation. The research paper studies and adapts four alternatives for IoT risk assessment and identifies the goal-oriented dependency modelling as a dominant approach among the risk assessment models studied. The new goal-oriented dependency model in this article enables the assessment of uncontrollable risk states in complex IoT systems and can be used for a quantitative self-assessment of IoT cyber risk posture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0032.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: internet of thing; IoT; cognitive sensor networks; forwarding; spectrum-availability; retransmission
Online: 10 October 2016 (12:17:22 CEST)
The widespread proliferation of sensor nodes in the era of Internet of Things (IoT) coupled with increasing usage of wireless spectrums especially the ISM band makes it difficult to deploy real-life IoT. Currently, the cognitive radio technology enables sensor nodes communicate with each other through the licensed spectrum bands as well as the free ISM bands. Cognitive radio networks (CRSNs) are considered as a promising solution to the problem of spectrum under utilization and artificial radio spectrum scarcity. The paradigm of dynamic spectrum access allows secondary users (SUs) to utilize wireless spectrum resources which belong to primary users (PUs) with minimal interference to PUs. Due to the dynamic spectrum availability and quality, routing for SUs in multi-hop CRSNs is a challenge. In this paper, we introduce novel routing metrics that estimate both the future spectrum availability and the average transmission time with the consideration of both the global statistical spectrum usage and local instant spectrum resources. In our novel routing metrics, one retransmission is allowed and considered to reduce the probability of rerouting upon PU's arrival. Then, we propose two routing algorithms for multi-hop CRSNs. Finally, we conduct simulations, whose results show that our proposed algorithms lead to a significant performance improvement over the reference algorithm.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0531.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Biosensors; COVID-19; Artificial Intelligence; Computer-aided Detection (CAD) Internet of Medical Things (IoMT).
Online: 29 November 2022 (03:44:17 CET)
Despite the fact that COVID-19 is no longer a global pandemic due to development and integration of different technologies for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Technological advancement in the field of molecular biology, electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, nanotechnology etc. has led to the development of molecular approaches and computer aided diagnosis for the detection of COVID-19. This study provides a holistic approach on COVID-19 detection based on (1) molecular diagnosis which include RT-PCR, antigen-antibody and CRISPR-based biosensors and (2) computer aided detection based on AI-driven models which include Deep Learning and Transfer learning approach. The review also provide comparison between these 2 emerging technologies and open research issues for the development of smart-IoMT-enable platform for the detection of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0304.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Gray System Theory; Multi-Path Routing; GSTMPR-IoT
Online: 26 January 2020 (04:00:20 CET)
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of smart things. This indicates the ability of these physical things to transfer information with other physical things. IoT has introduced various services and daily human life depends on its reliable and accessible operation. The characteristics of these networks, such as topology dynamicity and energy constraint, challenges the routing problem in these networks. Previous routing methods could not achieve the required performance in this type of network. Therefore, developers of this network designed and developed specific methods in order to satisfy the requirements of these networks. One of the routing methods is utilization of multi-path protocols which send data to its destination using routs with separate links. One of such protocols is AOMDV routing protocol. AOMDV protocol is a multi-path protocol which uses multiple different paths for sending information in order to maintain the network traffic balance, manage and control node energy, decrease latency, etc. In this paper, this method is improved using gray system theory which chooses the best paths used for separate routes to send packets. To do this, AOMDV packet format is altered and some fields are added to it so that energy criteria, link expiration time, and signal to noise ratio can also be considered while selecting the best route. The proposed method named GSTMPR-IoT is introduced which chooses the routs with highest rank for concurrent transmission of data, using a specific routine based on the gray system theory. In order to evaluate and report the results, the proposed GSTMPR-IoT method is compared to the EECRP and AOMDV approaches with regard to throughput, packet delivery rate, end to end delay, average residual energy, and network lifetime. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed GSTMPR-IoT compared to the EECRP and AOMDV approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0865.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things; Machine learning; Intrusion detection system; Ensemble classifier; Principal Component Analysis
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:31:56 CEST)
The Internet of Things technology opens the horizon for a broader scope of intelligent applications in smart cities. However, the massive amount of traffic exchanged among devices may cause security risks, significantly when devices are compromised or vulnerable to cyber-attack. An intrusion detection system is the most powerful tool to detect unauthorized attempts to access smart systems. It identifies malicious and benign traffic by analyzing network traffic. In most cases, only a fraction of network traffic can be considered malicious. As a result, it is difficult for an intrusion detection system to detect attacks at high detection rates while maintaining a low false alarm rate. This work proposes an integrated framework to detect suspicious traffic to address secure data communication in smart cities. This paper presents an approach to developing an intrusion detection system to detect various attack types. It can be done by implementing a Principal Component Analysis method that eliminates redundancy and reduces system dimensionality. Furthermore, the proposed model shows how to improve intrusion detection system performance by implementing an ensemble model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: inverse problem; electrical impedance tomography; machine learning; flood embankment; internet of things
Online: 20 August 2018 (06:29:09 CEST)
The article presents a non-destructive test system based on electrical impedance tomography for monitoring flood embankments. The technology of cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things with the use of electrical impedance tomography enables real-time monitoring of flood embankments. This solution provides a visual analysis of damage and leaks, which allows for quick and effective intervention and possible prevention of danger. A dedicated solution based on the IT structure, dedicated laboratory models and a dedicated measurement system with various types of sensors and machine learning algorithms for image reconstruction has been developed. The system includes specialized intelligent devices for tomographic measurements. The application contains the analysis of anomalies occurring in the structure of the object as a result of damage or danger and breaking the shaft during the flood. The presented solution enables ongoing monitoring of objects by collecting measurement results, forecasts and simulations. The main advantage of the proposed system is the spatial ability to analyse shafts, high accuracy of imaging and high speed of data processing. The use of tomographic techniques in conjunction with image reconstruction algorithms allow for non-invasive and very accurate spatial assessment of humidity and damages of flood embankments. The presented results show the effectiveness of the presented research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0011.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things; data mining algorithms; GPU cluster; performance; energy consumption; reliability
Online: 6 July 2017 (12:40:22 CEST)
This paper aims to develop a low-cost, high-performance and high-reliability computing system to process large-scale data using common data mining algorithms in the Internet of Things computing. Considering the characteristics of IoT data processing, similar to mainstream high performance computing, we use a GPU cluster to achieve better IoT services. Firstly, we present an energy consumption calculation method (ECCM) based on WSN. Then, using the CUDA Programming model, we propose a Two-level Parallel Optimization Model (TLPOM) which exploits reasonable resource planning and common compiler optimization techniques to obtain the best blocks and threads configuration considering the resource constraints of each node. The key to this part is dynamic coupling Thread-Level Parallelism (TLP) and Instruction-Level Parallelism (ILP) to improve the performance of the algorithms without additional energy consumption. Finally, combining the ECCM and the TLPOM, we use the Reliable GPU Cluster Architecture (RGCA) to obtain a high-reliability computing system considering the nodes’ diversity, algorithm characteristics, etc. The results show that the performance of the algorithms significantly increased by 34.1%, 33.96% and 24.07% for Fermi, Kepler and Maxwell on average with TLPOM and the RGCA ensures that our IoT computing system provides low-cost and high-reliability services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0445.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: data mining; predictive analytics; Internet of Things; peasant farming; smart farming system; crop production prediction
Online: 31 January 2022 (10:58:30 CET)
Internet of Things (IoT) technologies can greatly benefit from machine learning techniques and Artificial Neural Networks for data mining and vice versa. In the agricultural field, this convergence could result in the development of smart farming systems suitable for use as decision support systems by peasant farmers. This work presents the design of a smart farming system for crop production, which is based on low-cost IoT sensors and popular data storage services and data analytics services on the Cloud. Moreover, a new data mining method exploiting climate data along with crop production data is proposed for the prediction of production volume from heterogeneous data sources. This method was initially validated using traditional machine learning techniques and open historical data of the northeast region of the state of Puebla, Mexico, which were collected from data sources from the National Water Commission and the Agri-food Information Service of the Mexican Government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0116.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: big data； body area network；body sensor network；edge computing；Fog Computing； Medical Cyberphysical Systems； medical internet-of-things；telecare； tele-treatment；wearable devices
Online: 26 June 2017 (06:24:07 CEST)
In the era when the market segment of Internet of Things (IoT) tops the chart in various business reports, it is apparently envisioned that the field of medicine expects to gain a large benefit from the explosion of wearables and internet-connected sensors that surround us to acquire and communicate unprecedented data on symptoms, medication, food intake, and daily-life activities impacting one’s health and wellness. However, IoT-driven healthcare would have to overcome many barriers, such as: 1) There is an increasing demand for data storage on cloud servers where the analysis of the medical big data becomes increasingly complex; 2) The data, when communicated, are vulnerable to security and privacy issues; 3) The communication of the continuously collected data is not only costly but also energy hungry; 4) Operating and maintaining the sensors directly from the cloud servers are non-trial tasks.This book chapter defined Fog Computing in the context of medical IoT. Conceptually, Fog Computing is a serviceoriented intermediate layer in IoT, providing the interfaces between the sensors and cloud servers for facilitating connectivity, data transfer, and queryable local database. The centerpiece of Fog computing is a low-power, intelligent, wireless, embedded computing node that carries out signal conditioning and data analytics on raw data collected from wearables or other medical sensors and offers efficient means to serve telehealth interventions. We implemented and tested an fog computing system using the Intel Edison and Raspberry Pi that allows acquisition, computing, storage and communication of the various medical data such as pathological speech data of individuals with speech disorders, Phonocardiogram (PCG) signal for heart rate estimation, and Electrocardiogram (ECG)-based Q, R, S detection. The book chapter ends with experiments and results showing how fog computing could lessen the obstacles of existing cloud-driven medical IoT solutions and enhance the overall performance of the system in terms of computing intelligence, transmission, storage, configurable, and security. The case studies on various types of physiological data shows that the proposed Fog architecture could be used for signal enhancement, processing and analysis of various types of bio-signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: C2; command and control; Identity; Internet of Things; IoT; MQTT; NFC; security; QR Code
Online: 22 July 2020 (10:17:33 CEST)
This paper examines dynamic identity, as it pertains to the IoT; and explores the practical implementation of a mitigation to some of the key weaknesses of a conventional dynamic identity model. This paper explores human-centric and machine-based observer approaches for confirming device identity, permitting automated identity confirmation for deployed systems. It also assesses the advantages of dynamic identity in the context of identity revocation permitting secure change of ownership for IoT devices. The paper explores use-cases for human and machine-based observation for authentication of device identity when devices join a C2 network, and considers the relative merits for these two approaches for different types of system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0192.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: LiDAR sensors reliability; Internet of Things, self-turning parametrization; k-nearest neighbors, driven-assistance simulator
Online: 28 February 2018 (11:26:12 CET)
Nowadays, the research and development of on-chip LiDAR sensors for vehicle collision avoidance is growing very fast. Therefore, the assessment of the reliability in obstacle detection using the information provided by LiDAR sensors has become a key issue to be explored by the scientific community. This paper presents the design and implementation of a self-tuning method in order to maximize the reliability of an Internet-of-Things sensors network and to minimize the number of sensors to localize with the required accuracy obstacles by a detection threshold. In order to achieve this goal, models that predict accuracy (i.e., prediction error) for object localization using data collected by LIDAR sensors are designed and implemented in Webots Automobile 3D simulation tool. The approach is based on combining different techniques. Firstly, point-cloud clustering technique and an error prediction model library composed by a multilayer perceptron neural network with backpropagation, k-nearest neighbors and linear regression are explored. Secondly the above-mentioned techniques for modeling are also combined with a supervised and reinforcement machine learning technique, Q-learning in order to minimize the detection threshold. In addition, a IoT driving assistance simulated scenario with a LiDAR sensor network is designed in order to validate the prediction model and the optimal configuration of the sensor network to guarantee reliability in obstacle localization. The results demonstrate that the self-tuning method is appropriate to increase the reliability of the sensor network whereas minimizing the detection threshold
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0087.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Internet of Things; cyber-attacks; anomalies; machine learning; deep learning; IoT data analytics; intelligent decision-making; security intelligence
Online: 7 March 2022 (02:39:58 CET)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the most widely used technologies today, and it has a significant effect on our lives in a variety of ways, including social, commercial, and economic aspects. In terms of automation, productivity, and comfort for consumers across a wide range of application areas, from education to smart cities, the present and future IoT technologies hold great promise for improving the overall quality of human life. However, cyber-attacks and threats greatly affect smart applications in the environment of IoT. The traditional IoT security techniques are insufficient with the recent security challenges considering the advanced booming of different kinds of attacks and threats. Utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) expertise, especially machine and deep learning solutions, is the key to delivering a dynamically enhanced and up-to-date security system for the next-generation IoT system. Throughout this article, we present a comprehensive picture on IoT security intelligence, which is built on machine and deep learning technologies that extract insights from raw data to intelligently protect IoT devices against a variety of cyber-attacks. Finally, based on our study, we highlight the associated research issues and future directions within the scope of our study. Overall, this article aspires to serve as a reference point and guide, particularly from a technical standpoint, for cybersecurity experts and researchers working in the context of IoT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0311.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cyber-Physical Systems; reliability assessment; Internet-of-Things; LiDAR sensor; driving assistance; obstacle recognition; reinforcement learning; Artificial Intelligence-based modelling
Online: 28 July 2019 (12:38:28 CEST)
Currently, the most important challenge in any assessment of state-of-the-art sensor technology and its reliability is to achieve road traffic safety targets. The research reported in this paper is focused on the design of a procedure for evaluating the reliability of Internet-of-Things (IoT) sensors and the use of a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) for the implementation of that evaluation procedure to gauge reliability. An important requirement for the generation of real critical situations under safety conditions is the capability of managing a co-simulation environment, in which both real and virtual data sensory information can be processed. An IoT case study that consists of a LiDAR-based collaborative map is then proposed, in which both real and virtual computing nodes with their corresponding sensors exchange information. Specifically, the sensor chosen for this study is a Ibeo Lux 4-layer LiDAR sensor with IoT added capabilities. Implementation is through an artificial-intelligence-based modeling library for sensor data-prediction error, at a local level, and a self-learning-based decision-making model supported on a Q-learning method, at a global level. Its aim is to determine the best model behavior and to trigger the updating procedure, if required. Finally, an experimental evaluation of this framework is also performed using simulated and real data
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0328.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Internet of Things; multi-path routing; Gray System Theory; network stability; RMPGST-IoT
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:46:42 CET)
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of smart things. This indicates the ability of these physical things to transfer information with other physical things. The characteristics of these networks, such as topology dynamicity and energy constraint, challenges the routing problem in these networks. Previous routing methods could not achieve the required performance in this type of network. Therefore, developers of this network designed and developed specific methods in order to satisfy the requirements of these networks. One of the routing methods is utilization of multi-path protocols which send data to its destination using routes with separate links. One of such protocols is AOMDV routing protocol. In this paper, this method is improved using gray system theory which chooses the best paths used for separate routes to send packets. To do this, AOMDV packet format is altered and some fields are added to it so that energy criteria, link expiration time, and signal to noise ratio can also be considered while selecting the best route. The proposed method named RMPGST-IoT is introduced which chooses the routes with highest rank for concurrent transmission of data, using a specific routine based on the gray system theory. In order to evaluate and report the results, the proposed RMPGST-IoT method is compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches with regard to throughput, packet receiving rate, packet loss rate, average remaining energy, and network lifetime. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed RMPGST-IoT compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: encryption space ratio; entropy coding; H.264/AVC; internet of multimedia things; lightweight cipher; selective encryption
Online: 30 January 2019 (10:09:35 CET)
Within an Internet of Multimedia Things, the risk of disclosing streamed video content, such as arising from video surveillance, is of heightened concern. This leads to the encryption of that content. To reduce the overhead and lack of flexibility arising from full encryption of the content, a good number of selective-encryption algorithms have been proposed in the last decade. Some of them have limitations, in terms of significant delay due to computational cost, or excess memory utilization, or, despite being energy efficient, do not provide a satisfactory level of confidentiality, due to their simplicity. To address such issues, this paper presents a lightweight selective encryption scheme, in which encoder syntax elements are encrypted with the innovative EXPer (EXtended Permutation with exclusive OR). The selected syntax elements are taken from the final stage of video encoding that is during entropy coding. As a diagnostic tool, the Encryption Space Ratio measures encoding complexity of the video relative to the level of encryption so as to judge the success of the encryption process, according to entropy coder. A detailed comparative analysis of EXPer with state-of-the-art algorithms confirms that the EXPer provides significant confidentiality with a small computational cost and negligible encryption bitrate overhead. Thus, the results demonstrate that the proposed security scheme is a suitable choice for constrained devices in an Internet of Multimedia Things environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0194.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; IoT; Wireless Sensor Networks; ContikiMAC; Energy Efficiency; Duty-Cycles; Clear Channel Assessments; Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI)
Online: 17 January 2020 (12:49:13 CET)
The radio operation in wireless sensor networks (WSN) in the Internet of Things (IoT) applications are the most common source for power consumption. However, recognizing and controlling the factors affecting radio operation can be valuable for managing the node power consumption. ContikiMAC is a low-power Radio Duty-Cycle protocol in Contiki OS used in WakeUp mode, which is a clear channel assessment (CCA) to check radio status periodically. The time spent to check the radio is of utmost importance for monitoring power consumption. It can lead to false WakeUp or idle listening in Radio Duty-Cycles and ContikiMAC. This paper presents a detailed analysis of radio WakeUp time factors of ContikiMAC. Then, we propose lightweight CCA (LW-CCA) as an extension to ContikiMAC to reduce the percentage of Radio Duty-Cycles in false WakeUps and idle listenings by using dynamic received signal strength indicators (RSSI) status check time. The simulation results in the Cooja simulator show that LW-CCA reduces about 8% energy consumption in nodes while maintaining up to 99% of the packet delivery rate (PDR).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0316.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); wireless sensor network (WSN); data integrity; watermark; data injection attack
Online: 13 November 2018 (13:14:25 CET)
Using Internet of Things (IoT) applications has been a growing trend in the last few years. They have been deployed in several areas of life including secure and sensitive sectors like military and health. In these sectors, sensory data is the main factor in any decision-making process. This introduces the need to ensure the integrity of data. Secure techniques are needed to detect any data injection attempt before catastrophic effects happen. Sensors have limited computational and power resources. This limitation creates a challenge to design a security mechanism that is both secure and energy-efficient. This work presents a Randomized Watermarking Filtering Scheme (RWFS) for IoT applications that provides en-route filtering to get rid of any injected data at an early stage of the communication. Filtering injected data is based on a watermark that is generated from the original data and embedded directly in random places throughout the packet's payload. The scheme uses homomorphic encryption techniques to conceal the report's measurement from any adversary. The advantage of homomorphic encryption is that it allows the data to be aggregated and, thus, decreases the packet's size. The results of our proposed scheme proved that it improves the security and energy consumption of the system as it mitigates some of the limitations in the existing works.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Specific Emitter Identification, Radio Frequency Fingerprinting, Physical Layer Authentication, Physical Layer Security, Internet of Things
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:37:34 CEST)
Initially introduced almost thirty years ago for the express purpose of providing electronic warfare systems the capabilities to detect, characterize, and identify radar emitters, Specific Emitter Identification (SEI) has recently received a lot of attention within the research community as a physical layer technique for securing Internet of Things (IoT) deployments. This attention is due in large part to SEI’s demonstrated success in passively and uniquely identifying wireless emitters using traditional machine learning and the success of Deep Learning (DL) within the natural language processing and computer vision areas. SEI exploits distinct and unintentional features present within an emitter’s transmitted signals. The existence of these distinctive and unintentional features is attributed to slight manufacturing and assembly variations that exist within and between the components, sub-systems, and systems that comprise an emitter’s Radio Frequency (RF) front end. Although sufficient to facilitate SEI, these features do not hinder normal operations such as detection, channel estimation, timing, and demodulation. However, despite the plethora of SEI publications, it has remained largely a focus of academic endeavors that primarily focus on proof-of-concept demonstration and little to no use in operational networks for various reasons. The focus of this survey is a review of SEI publications from the perspective of its use as a practical, effective, and usable IoT security mechanism, thus we use IoT requirements and constraints (e.g., wireless standard, nature of their deployment) as a lens through which each reviewed paper is analyzed. Previous surveys have not taken such an approach and have only used IoT as motivation, a setting, or a context. In this survey, we consider operating conditions, SEI threats, SEI at scale, publicly available data sets, and SEI considerations that are dictated by the fact that it is to be employed by IoT devices or IoT infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0202.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; artificial intelligence; computer vision; cybersecurity; privacy, security; gerontology; social gerontology; internet of medical things; best practices
Online: 15 March 2022 (10:40:36 CET)
Fall prediction using machine learning has become one of the most fruitful and socially relevant applications of computer vision in gerontological research. Since its inception in the early 2000s, this subfield has proliferated into a robust body of research underpinned by various machine learning algorithms (including neural networks, support vector machines, and decision trees) as well as statistical modeling approaches (Markov chains, Gaussian mixture models, and hidden Markov models). Furthermore, some advancements have been translated into commercial and clinical practice, with companies in various stages of development capitalizing on the aging population to develop new commercially available products. Yet despite the marvel of modern machine learning-enabled fall prediction, little research has been conducted to shed light on the security and privacy concerns that such systems pose for older adults. The present study employs an interdisciplinary lens in examining privacy issues associated with machine learning fall prediction and exploring the implications of these models in elderly care and the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT). Ultimately, a justice-informed set of best practices rooted in social geroscience is suggested to help fall prediction researchers and companies continue to advance the field while preserving elderly privacy and autonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0226.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; electric drive; electric motor control; frequency converter; Industrial Internet of Things; edge computing; Big Data; Key Performance Indicators; KPI; dashboard
Online: 8 September 2021 (13:15:18 CEST)
The article presents a method of generating Key Performance Indicators related to electric motor energy efficiency on the basis of Big Data gathered and processed in frequency converter. The authors proved that using the proposed solution it is possible to specify the relation between the control mode of an electric drive and the control quality-energy consumption ratio in the start-up phase as well as in the steady operation with various mechanical loads. The tests were carried out on a stand equipped with two electric motors (one driving, the other used to apply the load by adjusting the parameters of the built-in brake). The measurements were made in two load cases, for motor control modes available in industrially applied frequency converters (scalar V/f, vector Voltage Flux Control without encoder, vector Voltage Flux Control with encoder, vector Current Flux Control and Vector Current Flux Control with torque control). During the experiments values of current intensities (active and output), the actual frequency value, IxT utilization factor, relative torque and the current rotational speed were measured and processed. Based on the data the level of the energy efficiency was determined for various control modes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; Micro Mart model; Goal-Oriented Approach; transformation roadmap; Cyber risk regulations; empirical analysis; cyber risk self-assessment; cyber risk target state
Online: 6 March 2019 (11:47:04 CET)
The Internet-of-Things (IoT) enables enterprises to obtain profits from data but triggers data protection questions and new types of cyber risk. Cyber risk regulations for the IoT however do not exist. The IoT risk is not included in the cyber security assessment standards, hence, often not visible to cyber security experts. This is concerning, because companies integrating IoT devices and services need to perform a self-assessment of its IoT cyber security posture. The outcome of such self-assessment needs to define a current and target state, prior to creating a transformation roadmap outlining tasks to achieve the stated target state. In this article, a comparative empirical analysis is performed of multiple cyber risk assessment approaches, to define a high-level potential target state for company integrating IoT devices and/or services. Defining a high-level potential target state represent is followed by a high-level transformation roadmap, describing how company can achieve their target state, based on their current state. The transformation roadmap is used to adapt IoT risk impact assessment with a Goal-Oriented Approach and the Internet of Things Micro Mart model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0270.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; Internet addiction; problematic Internet use; game addiction; social media addiction; Russia
Online: 20 May 2022 (08:26:04 CEST)
We aimed to assess the prevalence, content structure and psychological comorbidity of PIU in Russian adolescents. In addition, the design of our research provided an opportunity to compare demographic and psychological patterns of different forms of PIU: generalised (PIUgen) and specific – problematic video game use (PUgame) as well as problematic social media use (PUsocial). Methods: This is a one-stage cross-sectional observational study of school sampling in three major Siberian cities. A total of 4514 schoolchildren aged 12-18 (mean age 14.52±1.52 years) were surveyed. Chen Internet Addiction Scale, Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents”, and The Social Media Disorder Scale were used to identify PIU and its types. Results: The prevalence of PIUgen among adolescents in Central Siberia was 7.2%; the prevalence of PUgame was 10.4%; the prevalence of PUsocial was 8.0%. The results of structural equation modelling, as well as the correlation analysis data, suggest two possible patterns of psychosocial problems with PIU – the first one characteristic of both PIUgen and PUsocial, the second one, significantly different, – of PUgame. Conclusions: Urban adolescents in Central Siberia do not differ significantly from their Asian and European peers. Our findings support the concept of rejecting the term “generalised PIU” as a single psychological construct.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0312.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Internet; television; academic performance; utilization.
Online: 26 November 2019 (10:51:18 CET)
An investigation was carried out to study the effects of television and internet on academic performance of senior secondary schools students in Rigachukun Inspectorate of Kaduna state. A well structured and designed questionnaire was adopted in eliciting information from the respondents. The respondents were sampled from schools within Kaduna state. The information obtained showed that the percentage of senior secondary school students who made use of internet for academic purpose was as much as those who could not operate a computer or even browse the internet. Good number of students applied internet mostly through phones and computer with internet access in solving their assignment. A larger percentage of students devoted their time to watching non-educative programs on television, even though it was discovered that some of them also watch educative programs. Positive impacts of television and internet are however obscuring and not glaring. Investigation carried out revealed that students in senior secondary schools need to be sensitized and oriented on how they can derive the best from internet and television. Schools should be encouraged in using television and internet as an instrument of learning and teaching.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0211.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: suicidal ideation; adolescent; internet addiction; loneliness
Online: 9 July 2021 (09:59:03 CEST)
The Internet has become an essential tool for adolescents. It is part of their social integration within peers and supports their identity construction. The Internet can also become a source of addiction; especially when used as a coping strategy towards unpleasant life situations. The feeling of loneliness is an emotion present during the adolescence. However, when in excess, it can lead to suicidal ideations. We questioned ourselves on the impact of an excessive use of the Internet by adolescents, with their feeling of loneliness and the risks of suicidal ideations. We attempted to find an answer to this question by performing a literature review. We found one result matching our search criteria’s, which is itself a literature review. We noted the absence of studies with regards to the interaction between the feeling of loneliness, the addiction to the Internet, and the risk of suicidal ideations amongst adolescents. We established a theoretical model which could be used as a lead for future research. We insist on the importance that studies are made in this domain, in order to enable us to establish efficient preventive measure on the risks of suicidal ideations amongst adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0163.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Service Computing; Internet of Things; Situation Response; Services in Internet of Things
Online: 6 August 2021 (13:12:33 CEST)
A large number of smart devices (things) are being deployed with the swift development of Inter- net of Things (IOT). These devices, owned by different organizations, have a wide variety of services to offer over the web. During a natural disaster or emergency (i.e., a situation), for example, relevant IOT services can be found and put to use. However, appropriate service matching methods are required to find the relevant services. Organizations that manage situation responses and organizations that provide IOT services are likely to be independent of each other, and therefore it is difficult for them to adopt a common ontological model to facilitate the service matching. Moreover, there exists a large conceptual gap between the domain of discourse for situations and the domain of discourse for services, which cannot be adequately bridged by existing techniques. In this paper, we address these issues and propose a new method, WikiServe, to identify IOT services that are functionally relevant to a given situation. Using concepts (terms) from situation and service descriptions, WikiServe employs Wikipedia as a knowledge source to bridge the conceptual gap between situation and service descriptions and match functionally relevant IOT services for a situation. It uses situation terms to retrieve situation related articles from Wikipedia. Then it creates a ranked list of services for the situation using the weighted occurrences of service terms in weighted situation articles. WikiServe performs better than a commonly used baseline method in terms of Precision, Recall and F measure for service matching.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0821.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; distress; internet addiction; depression
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:18:41 CEST)
The new coronavirus SARS Cov2 disease from 2019. (COVID-19), started as a cluster of unexplained pneumonia cases in Wuhan in December 2019, has spread globally and caused a serious public health threat. People were scared due to the COVID-19 cases that were rapidly increasing all over the world and the quick changes in how people lived. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various aspects of life, one of which is the increased use of the internet, especially social media platforms. Past research has clearly linked a pandemic with signs of stress, depression, anxiety, and suicide thoughts, as well as with excessive internet use. The findings of research conducted around the world indicate that the higher the level of stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in an individual, the greater the tendency to develop an addiction to the internet. The aim of this paper was to provide a brief overview of the available scientific findings on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and internet addiction. Methods: A sweep through available literature was performed using the database Medline via the PubMed interface for articles written in English, using keywords and MeSH terms "Internet addiction", "mental health" and "COVID-19". Results: With insight into the scientific literature on COVID-19, mental health, and internet addiction, we have concluded that during the COVID-19 pandemic, time spent on the internet increased. Conclusion: Additionally, due to reduced social activities, above mentioned consequently led to internet addiction and thus to psychological distress, increased loneliness and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0358.v1
Online: 25 May 2018 (10:25:29 CEST)
Using data from the China Family Panel Studies, this study examines the socioeconomic characteristics of Internet users, as well as the relationships between the dynamics of different forms of online activities and the subjective well-being of urbanites and rural migrants in urban China. The study finds that online behaviour may clearly reflect differences in individuals’ personal traits and socioeconomic positions. Patterns of the association between online activities and subjective well-being tend to differ among rural migrants and urbanites, especially in terms of depression. A difference-in-differences model is employed to estimate the impact of intensified engagement in online activities on depression and life satisfaction from 2010 to 2016. The results show that increased frequency of online entertainment exhibits a comparatively positive effect on depression and life satisfaction. Spending more time on online social networking has a similar impact on rural migrants, but not on urbanites. These findings suggest that the rapid development of urban China’s online community has important implications for residents’ subjective well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0143.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: e-mail; scientific productivity; internet; digital era
Online: 8 October 2019 (11:40:06 CEST)
From professors overwhelmed by anxiety-driven e-mails from students, through faculty and administrative staff wasting valued time on e-mail minutia, misuse of electronic mail in the academy has become ubiquitous. After a brief overview of the unique features of e-mail communication, this study provides insight and guidelines to plan new educational activities on healthy and productive utilization of e-mail in the academy of the digital era. The overall aim is to prioritize scholarly deep work by focusing on teaching and research work, freeing working time wasted on unproductive use of e-mail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0542.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: famous people; personal brand; Internet users; social media
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:29:28 CEST)
The article is of a research nature. The aim of the article is to identify the role of social media in shaping personal brand. To this end, the first part discusses the concept of personal brand, components of brand capital in case of famous people, including consumer-based capital. Attention was also paid to the great importance of social media and the growing role of their users in the process of shaping personal brand. Based on the analysis of the source literature, a research gap was identified, related to the lack of empirical verification of the relationship between users’ online activity and the brand capital of famous people, also known as celebrities, associated with artistic and cultural activities. The article uses the results of direct research carried out in the years 2019-2020. The second (empirical) part of the article presents research hypotheses, methodology, as well as results and conclusions from the research. Based on 26 in-depth individual interviews that were conducted with people famous in Poland (mainly engaged in artistic and cultural activities) and surveys on a group of 324 social media users, it was shown, among others, that online activity of Internet users stimulates the brand capital of famous people. Statistically significant relationships were observed for such components of the personal brand as awareness / associations with the personal brand and for the relationship regarding the perception of the quality of activities carried out by a famous person.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Internet Addiction Test; Reduced Version; Factorial Analysis; Youth
Online: 17 October 2023 (09:27:19 CEST)
This study adapted and assessed a shortened version of the IAT (Internet Addiction Test) scale completed by young people aged 12 years and older regarding their online behaviors and risk of online addiction. The psychometric qualities of the reduced version - Screening IAT - youth are presented in order to validate its use in the early detection of online addiction. The total sample is composed of 3021 participants being 55.9% female and 44.1% male, with a mean age of x ̅=15 years (σ=3.028), attending junior high school (56.2%), high school (37.8%) and college (5.9%). The procedure included a factorial analysis, in which the total sample was randomly divided into three samples. An exploratory factor analysis was performed with one part of the sample, and a confirmatory factor analysis was performed with the others parts, assessing internal consistency, construct reliability, and discriminant validity. The results indicate that this reduced version of the IAT for young people has good psychometric qualities and can be applied in research and clinical settings. With this version and the parent-teacher version there is a direct contribution to a tripartite assessment of internet addiction risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital transformation; Education; Educational sciences; Internet of things
Online: 2 March 2023 (10:49:37 CET)
First came the digital banks without offices, and then the “fintech” companies that combined technology and finance to achieve greater efficiency and new business models. Later was the turn of transport and logistics, understood as the sector whose economic activities derived from the transport of people and goods, while on the one hand, it has had a new spring thanks to factors such as online sales. Then, perhaps catalyzed by the pandemic scenario, the turn has reached education, where years ago was only a complement of traditional education, now is a central part with multiple modern methodologies. Numerous studies exist about using or implementing these e-learning procedures, but technical analysis is barely found in references. This work aims to analyze the digital transformation of the main sectors of our society, including finances, transport, and education, together with several examples of how technology was helping to fight the pandemic scenario.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0663.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Big Data, Internet Data Sources (IDS), Internet of Things (IoT), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Big data Technologies, Big data Challenges
Online: 27 May 2021 (10:31:03 CEST)
It is strongly believed that technology can reap the best only when it can be tamed by all stakeholders. Big data technology has no exception for this and even after a decade of emergence, the technology is still a herculean task and is in nascent stage with respect to applicability for many people. Having understood the gaps in the technology adoption for big data in the contemporary world, the present exploratory research work intended to highlight the possible prospects of big data technologies. It is also advocated as to how the challenges of various fields can be converted as opportunities with the shift in the perspective towards this evolving concept. Examples of apex organizations like (IMF and ITU) and their initiatives of big data technologies with respect to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are also cited for a broader outlook. The intervention of the responsible organizations along with the respective governments is also much sought for encouraging the technology adoption across all the sections of the market players.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0494.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: internet; Society 5.0; sustainable development; automated content analysis
Online: 22 August 2020 (09:57:13 CEST)
(1) Background: The importance of this article is to analyze the technological developments in the field of the Internet and Internet technologies and to determine their significance for the sustainable development which will result in the emergence of the Society 5.0; (2) The authors used automated content analysis for the analysis of 552 articles published in 306 scientific journals indexed by SCII and/or SCI - EXPANDED (Web of Science (WOS) platform) between the years 1996 and 4/2020. The goal of the research was to present the relationship between the internet and sustainable development. (3) Results: The results of the analysis show that the top four most important themes in the selected journals were “development”, “information”, “data”, and “business and services”. (4) Conclusions: Our research approach emphasizes the importance of the culmination of scientific innovation with the conceptual, technological and contextual frameworks of the internet and internet technology usage and its impact on sustainable development and emergence of the Society 5.0
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0219.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; Security; Dynamic Protection
Online: 18 December 2018 (10:42:48 CET)
A Smart Home is characterized by the presence of a huge number of small, low power devices, along with more classical devices. According to the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm, all of them are expected to be always connected to the Internet in order to provide enhanced services. In this scenario, an attacker can undermine both the network security and the user’s security/privacy. Traditional security measures are not sufficient, because they are too difficult to setup and are either too weak to effectively protect the user or too limiting for the new services effectiveness. The paper suggests to dynamically adapt the security level of the smart home network according to the user perceived risk level what we have called network sentiment analysis. The security level is not fixed, established by a central system (usually by the Internet Service Provider) but can be changed with the users cooperation. The security of the smart home network is improved by a distributed firewalling and Intrusion Detection Systems both to the smart home side as to the Internet Service Provider side. These two parts must cooperate and integrate their actions for reacting dynamically to new and ongoing threats. Moreover, the level of network sentiment detected can be propagate to nearby home networks (e.g. the smart home networks of the apartments inside a building) to increase/decrease their level of security, thus creating a true in-line Intrusion Prevention System (IPS). The paper also presents a test bed for Smart Home to detect and counteract to different attacks against the IoT devices,,Wi-Fi and Ethernet connections .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0541.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Social Internet of Things; Social Internet of Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Infrastructure; Vehicle Ad-hoc Network; Social Networks
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:27:27 CEST)
The number of people owning vehicles has been steadily growing, resulting in increased numbers of vehicles on the roads, making roads more congested, and increasing the risk of accidents. In addition, heavy rain, snow, and fog have increased due to abnormal weather caused by global warming. These bad weather conditions can also affect the safety of vehicles and drivers. The need to disseminate safety messages on the social internet of vehicles due to these problems has been steadily increasing. In this paper, we propose an efficient safety message dissemination scheme that focuses on urban environments with high vehicle density and mobility to address these problems. The proposed scheme reduces packet loss by considering frequent cluster departures and subscriptions through an efficient cluster management technique. In a vehicle-to-vehicle environment, the dissemination of safety messages is divided into an intra-cluster and an inter-cluster emergency as well as general safety message dissemination technique. In a vehicle to infrastructure environment, the proposed scheme reduces the number of processing requests and duplicate messages made to roadside units (RSUs) through a request operation process for each vehicle and an RSU scheduling technique. We conducted several performance evaluations of message packet loss and the number of RSU processing requests to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1127.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: digital twin; cybersecurity; artificial intelligence; Internet of Things
Online: 18 October 2023 (07:12:53 CEST)
The potential of digital twin technology is yet to be fully realised due to its diversity and untapped potential. Digital twins enable systems’ analysis, design, optimisation, and evolution to be performed digitally or in conjunction with a cyber-physical approach to improve speed, accuracy, and efficiency over traditional engineering methods. Industry 4.0, factories of the future, and digital twins continue to benefit from the technology and provide enhanced efficiency within existing systems. Due to the lack of information and security standards associated with the transition to cyber digitisation, cybercriminals have been able to take advantage of the situation. Access to a digital twin of a product or service is equivalent to threatening the entire collection. There is a robust interaction between digital twins and artificial intelligence tools, which leads to strong interaction between these technologies, so it can be used to improve the cybersecurity of these digital platforms based on their integration with these technologies. This study aims to investigate the role of artificial intelligence in providing cybersecurity for digital twin versions of various industries, as well as the risks associated with these versions. In addition, this research serves as a road map for researchers and others interested in cybersecurity and digital security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Wireless Sensor network (WSN); Internet of Things (I.o.T)
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:13:26 CEST)
Surveillance along the Kenya-Somalia border has been a big challenge that has continuously puzzled the security personnel, due to insurgency of armed militia Al-Shabaab from Somalia , the Kenyan government proposed construction of a barrier wall. This project developed a low cost wireless sensor network surveillance system to be deployed along the Kenya-Somalia border. The research study utilized two PIR sensor for detecting human intrusion, one motion is detected the sensor transmit the data via an Xbee module. Arduino microcontroller was used to process the data collected by the sensor before transmission. The system developed has two units, the Transmitter unit and a User Graphic interface running on Tuna Term software that displays the received data. During testing, the prototype system detected human intrusion, using the Arduino serial monitor the results were displayed before being package for transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0107.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: hangover; alcohol; internet; attention; executive function; working memory
Online: 12 February 2019 (17:24:43 CET)
Studies into the cognitive effects of alcohol have been mixed. They also present methodological challenges, often relying on self-report of alcohol consumption leading to hangover. The current study used BAC (obtained via breathalyser) and self-reported drinking behavior during a night out and related these to hangover severity and cognitive function measured over the internet in the same subjects the following morning. Volunteers were breathalysed and interviewed as they left a central entertainment district of an Australian state capital. They were provided with a unique identifier and, the following morning, logged on to a website. This included an online version of the Alcohol Hangover Severity Scale (AHSS), and number and type of drinks consumed the previous night and the eTMT-B - a validated, online analogue of the Trail Making Test B of executive function and working memory. Hangover severity was significantly correlated with one measure only, namely the previous night’s BAC (r = .228, p = .019). Completion time on the eTMT-B was significantly correlated with hangover severity ( r = .245, p = .012), previous night’s BAC (r = .197, p = .041) and time spent dinking (r = .376, p < .001). These findings confirm that alcohol hangover negatively affects cognitive functioning and that poorer working memory and executive performance correlates with hangover severity. The results also support the utility of using online measures in hangover research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: gaming; IGD; adolescents; children; adult; internet; Saudi Arabia
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:45:28 CET)
Abstract: Objective: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is an emerging psychiatric disorder that has received attention over the past decade. Few studies have attempted to describe this disorder in the Saudi population. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of IGD and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted using translated Arabic and a validated questionnaire targeting both genders in Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using a validated questionnaire (IGD-20) and targeting Arabic-speaking children, youth, and transitional age including both genders. A snowball approach was used to sample our population using an electronic survey. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with IGD diagnosis. The study was guided by the STROBE statement. Results: Among 419 individuals who participated in the study, 171 were classified as non-IGD, 167 were at risk for IGD (RIGD), and 72 were IGD. There is no significant association between IGD diagnosis and gender, nationality, residence, and family income. Time playing per week was significantly associated with IGD diagnosis (X2=49.256, p<0.01). There is a significant association between IGD-20 groups and categorical age groups (X2=10.096, p<0.01). Among our sample, the percentages of males (54.2%) and females (45.8%) who met the criteria for IGD were comparable. Conclusion: IGD and RIGD prevalence was significantly high in both age groups. Both males and females were affected similarly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Problematic Internet use, sleep disturbance, sex difference, adolescents
Online: 24 October 2018 (14:15:09 CEST)
The Internet use has become an integral part of daily life, adolescents are especially at a higher risk to develop problematic Internet use (PIU). Although one of the most well-known comorbid conditions of PIU is sleep disturbance, little is known about the sex disparity in this association. This school-based survey in students of grades 7-9 was conducted to estimate the prevalence of PIU and sleep disturbance among Chinese adolescents, to test the association between PIU and sleep disturbance, and to investigate the role of the child’s sex in this association. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit participants, and a two-level logistic regression models were fitted. The mean Internet addiction test scores was 37.2 (SD: 13.2), and 15.5% (736) met the criteria for PIU. After adjusting for control variables, problematic Internet users were at a higher risk of sleep disturbance (adjusted odds ratio=2.41, 95% CI=2.07-3.19). Sex-stratified analyses also demonstrated that association was greater in girls than boys. In this respect, paying more attention to the sleep patterns of adolescents who report excessive Internet use is recommended, and this early identification may be of practical importance for schools, parents, and adolescents themselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0405.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: models of using internet; bonding social capital; social identity
Online: 23 September 2021 (11:58:40 CEST)
In this research, we are attempting to review the relationship between users' models of using internet and bonding social capitals in Iran. The theoretical framework of the research are based on theoretical approaches of Dearnly and Feder, Velleman, Katz in the field of internet and models of using it and views of Putnam, Woolcock regarding social capital. The method used in this research is a qualitative – quantitative mixed method and the sampling method which has been used in the qualitative method is the purposive sampling method (theoretical sampling) and in the quantitative method, a combination of clustering, systematic and stratified sampling method in proportion with age and gender has been used. The statistical population of all persons who are 15 years old and more in Kerman city has been estimated to be 515114 persons in 2019 and the research sample has been estimated to be about 400 persons. Research results indicate that the rate of citizens' usage of internet in Kerman city is very low (less than 5 hours per week). Other results of the research indicate that regarding the model based on information associated with news, mostly filtered and unpermitted news sites such as VOA, BBC and other networks have been used. Research data regarding social identity is indicative of formation of identity evolutions in the contemporary society of Iran. The results of the path model test of the research indicate that news and economic information based models have about (0.11) direct and positive impact and ethnic identity has a direct and positive impact (0.189) and group identity has about (-0.131) impact and entertainment based model has about (0.130) impact on social capital. The results of variables' indirect impacts have also been expressed in the research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0201.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Internet use; social capital; income gap between farmers; mechanism
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:26:17 CEST)
Based on 2010, 2013 and 2015 CGSS data, the impact of Internet use and social capital on the income gap among farmers in the past five years is assessed at three time points using the OLS method and a quantile regression method. The study finds that (1) the income gap among farmers increases continuously in the five-year period, while Internet use plays a positive impact on farmers’ income growth in all five quartiles; the coefficient differences are all significantly negative, indicating that Internet use plays a positive role in alleviating the income gap between high-income and low-income farmer subgroups, and (2) social capital plays a positive role in moderating the income gap among farmers and that Internet use by farmers expands the boundary of social capital, which in turn increases the income level of and alleviates the income gap among farmers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: IoT; Smart Cities; Internet-of-Medical-Things; Sensors; Security
Online: 1 June 2023 (02:27:23 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) technology and devices constitute an exciting field in computer science that is rapidly emerging worldwide. IoT devices function by connecting real-world objects to the internet, resulting in a higher number of interconnected devices than ever witnessed in history. Through internet connectivity, these devices can be utilized in various ways, such as monitoring and tracking. Their prevalence is increasing exponentially, coinciding with advancements in wireless networking technologies. The internet’s enhanced connectivity has played a vital role in fostering the proliferation of IoT devices. Presently, almost any everyday object can be network-connected. The demand for automation and efficiency has also been a contributing factor to the advancements in this technology. This paper aims to review the emergence of IoT devices, analyze their common applications, and explore the future prospects in this promising field of computer science. The examined applications encompass healthcare, agriculture, and smart cities. Although IoT technology exhibits similar deployment trends, this paper will explore different fields to discern the subtle nuances that exist among them. IoT technology can be applied to nearly any domain, and each use case has unique requirements. To comprehend the future of IoT, it is essential to comprehend the driving forces behind its advancements in various industries. By gaining a better understanding of the emergence of IoT devices, readers will develop insights into the factors that have propelled their growth and the conditions that led to technological advancements. Moreover, a comprehensive understanding of the prevalent methodologies will enable readers to distinguish between current practices and future methods. Given the rapid rate at which IoT technology is advancing, this paper aims to provide researchers with an understanding of the factors that have brought us to this point and the ongoing efforts to shape the future of IoT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1781.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Internet of Things; Software Defined Networking; Cybersecurity.
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:32:41 CEST)
Security in IoT systems is extremely important, as an intrusion into an IoT device or network can affect not only our domestic lives, but also industrial assets, with the potential to cause enormous damage. We discuss IoT security issues as defined by the OWASP Foundation, focusing on network related aspects. After a brief description of SDN in general and OpenFlow in particular, we discuss how SDN technologies can greatly help in designing and deploying more secure IoT networks by enhancing the cryptographic capabilities of devices, isolating devices or networks, blocking access to unwanted services, redirecting traffic to deep inspection systems, monitoring packet flows and devices, etc. These capabilities can be implemented using open-source OpenFlow controllers such as Faucet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0380.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Information System; Information Audit; Audit; Internet Banking
Online: 28 June 2022 (07:30:01 CEST)
This report is on online banking and information systems in online banking. It throws some light on the introduction and historical background of online banking. Next, in this term report online banking information is explained in detailed. We collected a few articles, related to internet banking, on which other researchers have worked. Then further we have brief them into a table where we have mentioned their problems and limitations. Next, we discussed them in detail, giving an overview of each article. Lastly, recommendations for the online banking sectors are also mentioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; greement; Intelligent Transportation Systems
Online: 22 January 2018 (13:53:58 CET)
The era of Internet of Things (IoT) has begun to evolve and with this the devices around us are getting more and more connected. Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) is one of the applications of IoT. VANET allow vehicles within these networks to communicate effectively with each another. VANETs can provide an extensive range of applications that support and enhance passenger safety and comfort. It is important that VANETs are applied within a safe and reliable network topology; however, the challenging nature of reaching reliable and trustworthy agreement in such distributed systems is one of the most important issues in designing a fault-tolerant system. Therefore, protocols are required so that systems can still be correctly executed, reaching agreement on the same values in a distributed system, even if certain components in the system fail. In this study, the agreement problem is revisited in a VANET with multiple damages. The proposed protocol allows all fault-free nodes (vehicles) to reach agreement with minimal rounds of message exchanges, and tolerates the maximal number of allowable faulty components in the VANET.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1742.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Security; machine learning; fog computing
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:51:48 CEST)
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) has witnessed rapid and widespread adoption across various domains, including transportation, healthcare, education, agriculture, urban planning, smart homes, and more. Despite its transformative potential, this pervasive deployment of IoT devices has introduced new challenges, particularly concerning security and privacy threats such as unauthorized data access and device breaches. The excessive usage of these technological devices, coupled with the absence of robust security and privacy systems for user data, calls for a comprehensive approach to address these issues. In this study, we propose a novel framework designed to analyze, audit, test, and detect potential vulnerabilities within IoT environments and applications. The central components of the proposed framework include a machine learning algorithm for data classification and attack detection, along with the integration of Blockchain technology to enhance security measures. Specifically, the framework performs an in-depth analysis of user data to identify potential security or privacy vulnerabilities. Additionally, it conducts rigorous testing of smart services and automated data-collecting devices. To evaluate the effectiveness of our classification algorithm, we conducted a comprehensive implementation on a real-world IoT dataset. The results showcased the efficiency and accuracy of our approach in detecting and mitigating potential threats. Furthermore, based on our research findings, we provide valuable recommendations for enhancing security and privacy in IoT ecosystems. We also highlight emerging trends in the security and privacy domains, which can serve as valuable insights for researchers and practitioners. In conclusion, our proposed framework offers a robust and proactive approach to address the security and privacy challenges, such as unauthorized data access and device breaches posed by the widespread adoption of IoT devices. By combining machine learning algorithms and Blockchain technology, we contribute to safeguarding user data and fostering a secure environment for IoT applications. This study lays the groundwork for further advancements in the realm of IoT security and privacy, ensuring a safer and more resilient IoT landscape for the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0685.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: death; grief; Internet; photograph; comparative study; social network sites
Online: 29 March 2021 (11:34:58 CEST)
Abstract: As innovative way to express grief, social media posts about the deceased have become fairly common. However, few studies examined grief photos commonly posted. The purpose of the present study was to examine such pictures, as well as the motivation and reactions of those who posted, among Italians and Americans. Surveys were sent to both Italian and U.S. participants. The U.S. group yielded 262 responses (Mean age = 22 years; 81% female), the Italian yielded 51 (Mean age = 32. Several key issues emerged, such as the need to receive empathic support from other users, the desire to maintain continuing bonds, the wish to remember the deceased, and the desire to share beauty and symbolic pictures. The images were analyzed using content analysis. Both samples posted photos to remember and to enhance their posts. A strong preference for pictures with a positive emotional connotation appeared, depicting the deceased in a conjoint appearance with the participant. Results suggest that imagery used for the expression of grief in social media sites, an “iconography of grief,” is a popular means of expression for grievers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0461.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; IEEE 802.15.4g; Smart Utility Networks; Retransmission Shaping
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:04:23 CEST)
Packet re-transmissions are a common technique to improve link reliability in low-power wireless networks. However, since packet re-transmissions increase the end-device energy consumption and the network load, a maximum number of re-transmissions per packet is typically set, also considering the duty-cycle limitations imposed by radio-frequency regulations. Moreover, the number of re-transmissions per packet is typically set to a constant value, meaning that all packet re-transmissions are treated the same regardless of actual channel conditions (i.e., multi-path propagation or internal/external interference effects). Taking that into account, in this paper we propose and evaluate the concept of re-transmission shaping, a mechanism that manages packet re-transmissions to maximize link reliability, while minimizing energy consumption and meeting radio-frequency regulation constraints. The proposed re-transmission shaping mechanism operates by keeping track of unused packet re-transmissions and allocating additional retransmission when the instantaneous link quality decreases due to channel impairments. To evaluate the re-transmission shaping mechanism we use trace-based simulations using a IEEE 802.15.4g SUN data-set and two widely used metrics, the PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio) and the RNP (Required Number of Packets). The obtained results show that re-transmission shaping is a useful mechanism to improve link reliability of low-power wireless communications, as it can increase PDR from 77.9% to 99.2% while sustaining a RNP of 2.35 re-transmissions per packet, when compared to using a single re-transmission per packet.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0565.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Internet of Things; 5G Networks; threats; vulnerabilities; mitigations
Online: 8 November 2023 (13:56:22 CET)
The 5G technology brings many benefits already known: large connection capacity, great transmission velocities, and low latencies with high reliability. One of its core services, the massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC), theoretically allows up to one million devices connected simultaneously in a square kilometer. As the Internet of Things (IoT) devices often have very restricted resources, hampering the adoption of robust security mechanisms, they can be targets for attackers aiming to explore vulnerabilities and gain access to the 5G infrastructure. Given this concern, it is essential to know existent vulnerabilities and possible threats and solutions related to 5G-IoT, the scenarios considering IoT devices connected to 5G infrastructures. For this reason, we carried out a systematic literature review, extracting and analyzing data from 142 selected papers from conferences and journals. As the main results, we present lists with known vulnerabilities, possible threats and solutions, and some recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1842.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Internet use; digital competences; online safety; basic education
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:47:48 CEST)
The conditions for safe Internet access and the development of skills enabling full participation in online environments are recognized in the Council of Europe’s strategy for child rights, from 2022. The guarantee of this right has implications for experiences inside and outside the school context. Therefore, this article aims to compare the perceptions of students from different educational levels, who participated in a digital storytelling workshop, regarding online safety, searching habits, and digital competences. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey completed by 84 Portuguese students from elementary and secondary schools. A non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance was used to identify differences as children advance across educational stages. The results revealed that secondary students tend to spend more time online, and demonstrated more advanced search skills. Interestingly, the youngest children exhibited higher competences in creating games and practicing safety measures regarding online postings. These findings emphasize the importance of schools, in a joint action with the educational community, including parents, teachers and students, developing a coordinated and vertically integrated approach to digital education that considers the children's current knowledge, attitudes, and skills as a starting point for pedagogical intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0469.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Escapism; addiction; excessive behaviors; internet use; gambling; gaming
Online: 29 August 2022 (07:16:59 CEST)
Excessive online behaviors refer to harmful or disproportionate use of digital network applications. Such behaviors are likely to be associated with escapist motives. Our aim was to analyze whether escapism predicts excessive gambling, excessive gaming, and excessive internet use over time. A longitudinal sample of Finnish residents aged 18–75 years (N = 1,022, 51.27% male) was surveyed at three time points in 6-month intervals: April 2021 (Time 1), October–November 2021 (Time 2), April–May 2022 (Time 3). Of the original Time 1 respondents, 66.80% took part in the surveys at both Time 2 and Time 3. All surveys included measures for excessive gambling (Problem Gambling Severity Index), excessive gaming (Internet Gaming Disorder Test), and excessive internet use (Compulsive Internet Use Scale). Three escapism-specific questions were used to construct a dedicated escapism variable. Socio-demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and psychological distress were used as controls. The study was conducted with multilevel regression analyses using hybrid models. Our research showed that escapism had strong within-person effects on excessive gambling, B = 0.18, p = .003; excessive gaming, B = 0.50, p < .001; and excessive internet use, B = 0.77, p < .001 over time. The between-person effect of escapism was demonstrated on excessive gaming B = 0.91, p <.001; and excessive internet use B = 0.61, p = .036. Adverse societal events and uncertain times can manifest in excessive online behaviors motivated by escapism, highlighting a need to focus prevention efforts on healthy coping methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0188.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things; security protocol; authentication; authorization; networks
Online: 10 August 2022 (04:11:00 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) has become one of the most attractive domains nowadays. It works by creating a special network between physical devices such as vehicles, home equipment, and other items. In recent days, the common technologies of communication such as Wi-Fi and 2G/3G/4G cellular are insufficient for the IoT networks because they are designed to serve appliances with immense processing capabilities such as laptops and PCs. Moreover, most of these technologies are centralized and use an existing infrastructure. Currently, the new communication technologies such as Z-Wave, 6LowPAN, and Thread are dedicated to the IoT and have been developed to meet its requirements. These technologies can handle many factors such as range, data requirements, security, power demands, and battery life. Nevertheless, the security issues in IoT systems have major concerns and matters because vulnerabilities in such systems may result in fatal catastrophes. In this paper, an enhanced IoT security framework for authentication and authorization is proposed and implemented to protect the IoT protocols from different types of attacks such as man-in-the-middle attack, reply attack, and brute force attack. The proposed framework combines an enhanced token authentication that has identity verification capabilities and a new sender verification mechanism on the IoT device side based on time stamp, which in turn can mitigate the need for local identity verification methods in IoT devices. The proposed IoT security framework is tested using security analysis with different types of attacks compared with previous related frameworks. The analysis shows the high capability of the proposed framework to protect IoT networks against many types of attacks compared with current available security frameworks. Finally, the proposed framework is developed using Windows application to simulate the framework phases, check its validity through the real network, and calculate the payload time is adds.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0243.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: data analysis; surveys and questionnaires; internet; social class
Online: 13 April 2022 (06:32:09 CEST)
Automated software bots infiltrate online surveys and corrupt data integrity, not to mention waste researcher time and budgets. Although resources exist to help keep bots out and identify bots when they do evade survey barriers, bot attacks may be a persistent problem for online surveys for a long time to come. Bots are evolving -- even as survey designers try ever more sophisticated methods to fend them off and weed their answers out. Vigilance needs to be high and the bot generators should not be under-estimated. We recount here some bot features we encountered after our own survey was attacked that helped to identify them, and that have not been detailed elsewhere. We also discuss reasons why commonly recommended strategies for how to keep bots out may not be feasible for many scientific researchers.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: smartphones; balloons, internet of things; cyber-physical systems
Online: 8 September 2021 (12:34:09 CEST)
A smartphone plummeted from a stratospheric height of 36 km (~119,000 feet), providing a complete record of its rapid descent and abrupt deceleration when it hit the ground. The smartphone was configured to collect internal sensor data at high rates. We discuss the state-of-the-art of smartphone environmental and sensing capabilities at the closing of year 2020 and present a flexible mobile sensor data model. The associated open-source application programing interface (API) and python software development kit (SDK) used in this work is transportable to any hardware platform and operating system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: monitoring; SfM-MVS; photogrammetry; internet of things; M3C2
Online: 4 April 2018 (04:53:34 CEST)
Multi-view stereo (MVS) employs multi-point photography for image point positioning and three-dimensional reconstruction technology. Recently, this technology has been introduced into the monitoring of road slopes due to advances in photography and computing technology. In general, the various phases of post-image processing procedures are applied to various photographic data. In this study a novel, automated image-monitoring system is proposed to improve the ability of automatic processing. First, an Internet of things (IoT)-based digital photography system architecture was constructed to provide automatic control of camera photography and real-time transmission of image data. In addition, a visual SfM-MVS 3D reconstruction technique was used to develop related software and hardware interfaces based on the built-in Python computing framework of Photoscan Pro. The software integrates fully automatic photography, image transmission, monitoring of data processing and product release programs. The experimental results show that the system architecture can be applied to fully automatic three-dimensional monitoring of road slopes.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: digital competence; teacher education; privacy; cyber security; Internet; teachers; university; initial training; Competencia digital; formación del profesorado; privacidad; seguridad cibernética; Internet; docentes; universidad; formación inicial
Online: 17 October 2019 (12:22:39 CEST)
The use of technologies and the Internet poses problems and risks related to digital security. This article presents the results of a study on the evaluation of the digital competence of future teachers in the DigCompEdu European framework. 317 undergraduate students from Spain and Portugal answered a questionnaire with 59 items, validated by experts, in order to assess the level and predominant competence profile in initial training (including knowledge, uses and interactions and attitudinal patterns). The results show that 47% of the participants belong to the profile of teachers at medium digital risk, evidencing habitual practices that involve risks such as sharing information and digital content inappropriately, not using strong passwords, and ignoring concepts such as identity, digital “footprint” and digital reputation. The average valuations of each item in the seven categories show that future teachers have an average competence in the area of digital security. They have good attitudes toward security but less knowledge and fewer skills and practices related to the safe and responsible use of the Internet. Future lines of work are proposed, aimed at responding to the demand for a better prepared and more digitally competent citizenry. The demand for education in security, privacy and digital identity is becoming increasingly important, and these elements form an essential part of initial training.