CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0397.v1
Online: 30 May 2022 (11:27:09 CEST)
Tawny nurse shark (Nebrius ferrugineus) is a species of carpet shark distributed across the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Tawny nurse shark is listed as “Vulnerable” on IUCN Redlist and rarely seen, recorded and studied in Indonesia. We recorded this species during SCUBA diving activity in Morotai waters in April 2022. Scientific record of the species is highly important for conservation and habitat management, particularly in Morotai, a region in North Maluku famous for shark-based marine tourism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0279.v1
Online: 13 July 2021 (08:28:03 CEST)
(1) Background: Stunting remains a challenge in Indonesia, where 30.8% of under-five children are stunted and may never reach full potential height and cognitive function. We aimed to investigate the risk factors of stunting in Nangapanda subdistrict, East Nusa Tenggara; (2) Methods: The design was cross-sectional study located in rural area as part of PINTERMIDI UI project. We collected quantitative data on social determinants, weight, height, hemoglobin, ferritin, serum zinc, CRP, worm infection, history of deworming, co-morbidity, food security, and nutrient intake; (3) Results: A total of 196 under-five children included and 74% households were food insecure. The prevalence of stunting was 29.9% in this population (31.8% worm infection, 30.3% iron deficiency, and 28.1% zinc deficiency). Multivariate analysis showed household with 5-8 members (AOR 3.076; 95% CI 1.132 – 8.356) and unsafe drinking water (AOR 1.702; 95% CI 0.825 – 3.512) were significant independent risk factors of stunting after adjusted by child’s gender, father’s occupation, caregiver’s education, monthly expenses, sanitary facilities, and food security status; (4) Conclusions: The number of household members is the only independent risk factor of stunting among children age 24-59 months in rural area of Eastern Indonesia. Development of nutrition sensitive intervention and promotion of family planning are needed in order to increase adequate child’s care and feeding practices in rural area of Eastern Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0646.v1
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:11:24 CEST)
This paper reports data from a study of young Catholic activists. They were concerned about the expansion of Islamist populism in democratic Muslim-majority Indonesia. They actively built inter-faith coalitions with local liberal Muslim youth groups, and with pan-national Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), the largest independent Islamic organization in the world. Islamist populism prioritises religious identity over the national identity of citizenship. In framing their citizenship activism against the current tide of Islamist populism, the informants in our study selectively engaged aspects of Catholic theology. They articulated their religious identity as coterminous with a nationalist identity centred on multi-faith tolerance and harmony. That discourse in itself refutes a key principle of Islamist populism, which argues for primordial entitlement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0407.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: geostatistics; geovisualisation; rshiny; earthquake; Indonesia
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:30:11 CET)
Significant earthquakes frequently occur in Indonesia. Indonesia is situated over three active tectonic plates, resulting in the formation of faults and trenches on the land and ocean floor. For the last 120 years since 1900, there have been more than 1,250 significant earthquake events in Indonesia. In this study, we analyse Indonesia's significant earthquake events using geostatistical and geovisualisation methods to produce an appropriate geospatial analysis platform using the RShiny package to build the WebGIS application. The results show that the earthquake events were spatially distributed from the Sumatera fault in the western part of Indonesia to the southern part of Indonesia, where the Java trench was located and the eastern part of Indonesia. The WebGIS application received a positive evaluation by respondents, with a mean value of 1.617 for pragmatic quality, 1.808 for hedonic quality, and 1.713 for overall quality. This means that the WebGIS application is of good quality based on respondents' impressions. The users also more easily gained insight into information as a result of geostatistical methods. The information gained by the users during the user interaction with the WebGIS platform overlapped with the information that the researcher started with, that is, the spatial cluster of significant earthquakes in Indonesia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0604.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Indonesia, biofuel, land restoration, pongamia
Online: 27 November 2018 (12:20:35 CET)
Indonesia has a large area of degraded land, i.e. 30 million ha, which could potentially be utilized for biofuel plantations. The leguminous tree pongamia (Pongamia pinnata syn. Milettia pinnata) could be utilized to produce biofuel while restoring degraded land. Here, we explore the potential of pongamia as a source of biofuel and for restoring degraded land in Indonesia. Pongamia occurs across Indonesia, in Sumatra, Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. It grows to a height of 15–20 m and can grow in a range of environmental conditions. Its seeds can generate up to 40% crude oil by weight. It can help to restore degraded land and improve soil properties. Pongamia also provides wood, fodder, medicine, fertilizer and biogas. Therefore, as a multipurpose species, pongamia holds great potential to combat Indonesia’s energy crisis and to restore much of the degraded land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0298.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: degraded land; biodiesel; biomass; energy; Indonesia
Online: 13 November 2018 (05:17:34 CET)
This study spatially estimates degraded lands in Indonesia that have limited functions for food production, carbon storage, and conservation of biodiversity and native vegetation, and examines their suitability to grow biodiesel species (Calophyllum inophyllum, Pongamia pinnata and Reutealis trisperma) and biomass species (Calliandra calothyrsus and Gliricidia sepium). Results showed that Indonesia has ∼3.5 million ha of degraded lands potentially suitable for these species. With the all-five-species scenario, these lands had the potential to produce 1105 PJ yr−1 of biomass and 3 PJ yr−1 of biodiesel. With the biodiesel-only-species scenario, these lands showed the potential to produce 10 PJ yr−1 of biodiesel. Despite this energy potential, however, the land sizes were too small to support economies of scale for biofuel production. The study findings contribute to identifying lands with limited functions, modeling biofuel-species growth on regional lands and estimating carbon stocks of restored degraded lands in Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pharmacy graduates; preparedness; patient care; Indonesia
Online: 30 December 2016 (06:12:04 CET)
Pharmacists’ roles in providing patient care remain limited in Indonesia, hence this study aimed to determine the preparedness of pharmacy graduates from one university in Indonesia to deliver patient care. Pharmacy graduates (both registered pharmacists  and recent graduates eligible for registration ) were sent a validated self-administered survey. The survey sought their perceptions about whether they had acquired 16 patient care related attributes. Further, it sought their opinion on the desirability of having those attributes. Data were analysed using SPSS version 22.0. Sixteen of 104 (15.4%) registered pharmacists and 40 of 45 (88.9%) recent pharmacy graduates participated in the study. More than 50% of participants in both groups were female and most participants were aged in their 20s. Of the recent pharmacy graduates the majority perceived they had at least partially acquired four of 16 list attributes. Male and female recent graduates had significantly different beliefs about their leadership ability (p=0.004). In comparison, most registered pharmacists perceived they had 10 out of the 16 listed attributes. The findings of this study suggested that pharmacy graduates should be better prepared to deliver patient care, and that curriculum redesign with expansion of experiential learning is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Lymphatic Filariasis; Indonesia; National Surveillance; Registry; BELKAGA
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:41:18 CEST)
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector-borne disease caused by parasitic helminths and constitutes a serious public health issue in tropical regions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infected cases in Southeast Asia constitute 50% of the estimated 120 million infections globally. In Indonesia, LF is caused by all filarial species, and in 2018, 236 districts from a total of 514 districts in the entire country were declared as endemic areas. The global program to eliminate filariasis has been running for the last 19 years and has been conducted as a full national initiative for the last 8 years in Indonesia. The study describes the surveillance of LF cases and prevalence in Indonesia for the past 17 years (2001-2017) – during the global and national LF elimination programs-, using national registry-based data. The data demonstrates that the national program has been largely effective in the areas it has been active the longest, while there are provinces lagging behind in the successful suppression of LF. The high geographical fragmentation of the country with the associated ecological parameters relating to LF incidence, likely play an important role in maintaining the highly varied incidence rate across Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0325.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Community disaster resilience; Lembang Fault; Indonesia; Japan
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:43:52 CET)
Having experienced large-scale disasters between 2004 and 2006, the fatalities due to large-scale disasters in 2018 were still high. In contrast, disaster risk management (DRM) and CDR in Japan have been continuously improved. Thus, there is a need to develop CDR for supporting DRM in Indonesia by learning from the Japanese experience, particularly in a disaster-prone area without large-scale disaster experience. This research was a pilot project on the development of CDR in Indonesia. The case study was a geological hazard-prone Lembang Fault area. People’s perception was collected using structured interviews, while demographic and local economic data was acquired from official statistical publications. Satellite imageries were utilized to acquire natural and built environment and land use/land cover and their changes between 2019 and 2021. Although the degrees of social capital, risk knowledge including indigenous knowledge and past disaster experience were high, government interventions on DRM and land administration are required to develop CDR in Lembang Fault area. Organized community development is expected rather than to solely involve NGOs. Moreover, strategies to develop economic resilience are needed to allow the community to bounce back from future disaster. Finally, a detail baseline data should be collected to develop DRM strategy and CDR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0708.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Islamic fundamentalism; Salafism; Malaysia; terrorism; Indonesia; ISIL
Online: 31 May 2021 (08:09:39 CEST)
Islamic fundamentalism as a stream of Extremist claim a return to the true Islam and no compromise with the modern world has transformed the scene inside the country and in international relations as a threat and a serious contender in today's society. In fact, after September 11, 2001, expanded a serious debate about Islamic fundamentalism around the world. But it can be difficult to provide an overview of the history of political violence in which the phenomenon of Islamic fundamentalism as its starting point after September 11, is not mentioned. However, before the date mentioned in international studies, there are also traces of fundamentalism, But what is known today as the new form of Islamic fundamentalism, since 2011 and after the rise of the Middle East, was raised around the world and to create the challenges of Political sovereignty and security for the world's most strategic regions such as Europe and then Southeast Asia (especially Indonesia and Malaysia). Therefore, this research tries to answer this question: what is the most important factor in challenging the political sovereignty of states in Southeast Asia (especially Indonesia and Malaysia). The hypothesis is Islamic fundamentalism is a rival and threat against the sovereignty and national security of Indonesia and the Philippines. The result of this study explains and demonstrates the presence and role of Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia and Malaysia as a serious challenge in the security-political reality of these countries. Therefore, this study seeks to recognize and address the challenges and threats that are faced by these two-country with the growth of Islamic fundamentalism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0239.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Sustainability; Chinese culture; Moslem society; Malaysia; Indonesia
Online: 23 January 2019 (10:25:28 CET)
Abstract Sustainability of ethnic culture in Southeast Asia has made the dramatically growth of ethnic identity. The ethnic revivals already made the increasing of cultural events in public spaces. This research paper sought the cultural sustainability of Chinese in Moslem society of Southaest Asia. A multisited ethnography was conducted in Medan Municipal of North Sumatra and Georgetown Penang, Malaysia to observe the sustained Chinese culture as the symbol of ethnification of Chinese in Moslems society in Southeast Asia region. It found that after 2003 Indonesia already saw the attractive cultural performances of Chinese in public spaces as the continuation of sustainability. In our ethnographic investigation from 2014 -2017, the reshaping of the Chinese identity through sustainability of Chinese culture in Medan Municipality of North Sumatra, and Penang of Malaysia has the high public visibility. Research report showed the continuation of the Chinese rituals and festivals which were accompanied by music instruments of Chinese and theatrical performances. Those have been transformed from self commemorations to be more public; attractions already were moved to public places, not solely in temples or ethnic group surroundings as what commonly found in the past period. It concluded that the sustainability of Chinese culture in public spaces made the Southeast Asia connection among the Chinese groups solidify their identity in this region tightened.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0074.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Islamic Education; Pesantren; Indonesia; madrasah; moderate Islam
Online: 4 July 2018 (14:36:35 CEST)
Muslim school is an important element of education in Indonesia. The school has been in place long time before Indonesia’s independence in 1945. The school educates Indonesian Muslim children to understand and practice religion, and simultaneously, promotes the sense of nationalism. Thanks to Muslim schools, Indonesian Muslims are recognized as being moderate (Hefner, 2000). In the last few years, however, the moderate nature of Indonesian Islam is challenged by the spirit of conservative Islam (Van Bruinessen, 2013). Issues such as Islam and democracy, Islam and modern state, Muslim and non-Muslim relation, and rights of citizen that have been resolved and agreed upon are being reinstated. As Hefner (2007) argues that there is a relationship between politics and education, especially religious education, it is important to see the relationship between schools and the changing society. The question is how the current conservative trend in Indonesian Islam is occurring at schools. This paper explores how the curriculum of (Islamic) religious education potentially contribute toward the development of Indonesian conservative Islam, and how religious education teachers view sensitive issues concerning conservative Islam. To answer the questions, analysis of religious education’s curricula and interviewing experts serve as the primary method of data collection. Four religious education teachers from different provinces of Indonesia were interviewed to reveal their opinions on various religion-related issues. This paper discusses how Islamic education in Indonesia has been designed to present moderate Islam, but at the same time faces a number of challenges that try to turn religious education into a conservative one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0408.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: hesitancy; covid-19; post-covid; medical doctors; indonesia
Online: 13 September 2022 (05:13:14 CEST)
This study is a cross-sectional survey involving physicians around Indonesia aimed to explore physician hesitancy to treat COVID-19 patients after experiencing COVID-19 infection coupled with associated occupational risk factors. The questionnaire was distributed via contact information from the Indonesian Physician Association database. Out of 383 participants, 25.6% suffered from moderate symptoms of COVID-19 and 2.9% were admitted for critical care. Hesitancy to treat suspected, probable, or confirmed COVID-19 patients was found in 20.3% of physicians. A higher hesitancy rate was found in older physicians and those with less experience in treating COVID-19 patients. Specialist trainees and those who work in public hospitals were physicians with the lowest hesitancy in treating COVID-19 patients. There is a significant hesitancy in treating COVID-19 patients among physicians who have suffered from COVID-19 which calls for further action by management and policy makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0268.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: dredging; sedimentation; PB Soedirman Hydroelectric reservoir; Banjarnegara; Indonesia
Online: 15 August 2022 (15:40:58 CEST)
The PB Sudirman hydroelectric power plant, built in 1988, has fewer than 50 years of operational life. In contrast, the planned operating life for this dam is 50 years. This dam is experiencing intensive sedimentation, which results in siltation. Dredging efforts and catchment area management are conducted to extend the operational life of the dam. Therefore, technical and economic analysis of dredging activities and the potential benefits of dredged sediment is needed to determine the solution's effectiveness. We use the site survey method to conduct an environmental impact analysis and interviews with dam managers. The identification of the extent and distribution of erosion-sedimentation was carried out as part of the technical assessment. In the economic study, we calculate the dredging costs and profits from selling dredged sediments, mainly sand. The analysis results show that the dredging of deposits in the foreset slope area is not profitable. There are 17 areas of bank spoil that have economic benefits. This study concludes that the need for dredging costs on foreset slopes is higher than the profit from selling dredging sediments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: tobacco control; tobacco farming; FCTC; Indonesia; public health
Online: 6 July 2022 (09:00:28 CEST)
The Indonesia’s Tobacco Excise Sharing Fund (DBHCHT) policy mandates that part of the fund should be allocated for tobacco crop diversification – reducing the farmers’ reliance on tobacco industry as well as implementing Article 17 of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, very little is known on practical implication of this fund on tobacco farmers livelihood. We collected primary data from key stakeholders in four main tobacco producing municipalities. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with NVivo 12. Numbers of challenges on DBHCHT utilization remained at sub-national levels. The sub-optimal use of DBHCHT could partly be explained by: (i) constantly changing central government regulation; (ii) farmers’ unawareness of DBHCHT regulation; (iii) the delay in DBHCHT allocation; and (iv) supply and demand mismatch. Although Indonesia has not been a part of the FCTC ratification, the DBHCHT mandate is in line with the FCTC article 17, i.e., promoting economically viable alternatives for tobacco farmers. This study concluded that DBHCHT utilization needs to go a long way to void this mandate given the challenges at sub-national level. Therefore, this study recommends more technical and practical regulations involving multisectoral stakeholders and the use of DBHCHT to facilitate financial needs of crop diversification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0438.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: forest fires; forest fires policy; social media; Indonesia
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:17:01 CEST)
Early detection that results in early warning of forest fires occurrences in Indonesia, which are strongly related to land management practices (including peatlands), is necessary to mitigate land and forest fires in Indonesia. Riau has been chosen in this study because of its vulnerability to forest fires. The remoteness of this region is one reason for developing alternative warning tools using meteorological and social media information. This study identified tweets related to fires using carefully selected keywords, geoparsed to select messages relevant to fire occurrences, and binned within several Indonesian sub-regions in Riau Province. Content analysis was performed for 31 related online local newspapers. Assessment to study the correlation between meteorological and Twitter information with the forest fires was conducted. Existing approaches that the BMKG and other Indonesian agencies use to detect fire activities are reviewed, and a novel approach based on crowdsourcing of tweets is proposed. The results show a correlation between meteorological information and Twitter activity with satellites derived hotspot information. The policy implications of these results suggest that information should be included in the fire management system in Indonesia to support fire early detection as part of fire disaster mitigation efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: stroke awareness; hypertensive patients; community health center; Indonesia
Online: 16 June 2021 (09:35:30 CEST)
The global burden of stroke is still high, particularly in developing countries, with hypertension serves as the main risk factor. Knowledge related to stroke is essential to establish better prevention strategies. This study aimed to identify factors associated with stroke awareness among hypertensive patients in Indonesia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five Community Health Centers in Indonesia. We used a standardized questionnaire to asses stroke awareness and the influencing factors. The knowledge on hypertension was assessed using Hypertension Knowledge Level Scale (HK-LS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to measure factors associated with stroke awareness. A total of 457 hypertensive patients were included. Majority of patients (77.46%) had low stroke awareness. Having higher knowledge on hypertension, higher income, and a history of previous stroke were associated with higher level of stroke awareness (odds ratio [OR] 1.878, 95%CI 1.176-2.999, p 0.008; OR 1.887, 95%CI 1.170-3.045, p 0.009; OR 5.276, 95%CI 2.210-12.594, p<0.001, respectively). This study suggests that knowledge on hypertension, income, and history of previous stroke are factors which may influence the level of stroke awareness. This emphasizes the need to provide better campaign and education program to raise stroke awareness in a community setting.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0563.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: emergency remote teaching; student-centered; COVID-19; Indonesia
Online: 23 March 2021 (11:14:16 CET)
Considering the challenges of sustainable education in emergency remote teaching (ERT) during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, this study provides basic principles for future ERT implementation based on the experience of higher education in Indonesia. Seven local expert distance educators reviewed the ERT principles, participating in the early stages to check the relevance, content validity, and readability of the five principles proposed in the context of Indonesian education. After an extensive expert review, the ERT principles were evaluated using quantitative data through an online survey (82 students and 45 faculty members). In addition, open-ended questionnaire responses, experiences, and challenges encountered by 21 respondents (College Dean, Associate Dean of Academics, and faculty quality assurance of seven universities/colleges in three provinces in Indonesia) in ERT were used and analyzed. This study suggests that ERT should be designed based on the principles of simplicity, accessibility, affordability, flexibility, and empathy in all learning activities in unfavorable situations. This study complements previous work and can thus be used for generalized principles for teaching activities in similar emergencies, especially in developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0266.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: trust fund; sustainable finance; climate finance; sustainability; Papua; Indonesia
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:27:03 CEST)
At the global level, trust funds (TF) have emerged from a portfolio of options as an alternative financing mechanism to help countries finance their sustainability agendas. Indonesia recently enacted wide-ranging legal arrangements on TF, including a law that encourages all sub-national governments to implement their own TF endowment model and a government regulation pertaining to special autonomy for sub-national jurisdictions in Papua for the implementation of TF – both of which enable TF to finance intended sustainability outcomes. Sustainability is of high-priority concern as the provinces of Papua and West Papua are responsible for stewardship of one of the world’s largest remaining rainforests, which is especially rich in biodiversity. These provinces operate under special autonomy, with special funds allocated from the central government and a decentralized arrangement that differs substantially to the unitary state arrangement applied nationwide; this poses challenges to implementing TF for sustainability in Indonesian Papua. In this paper, we examine TF challenges related to legality, finance, and capacity; moreover, in the context of these challenges, we assess three focus areas related to sources of funding, management, and distribution of earnings. We also discuss the implications these challenges have for operationalizing TF in Papua. This paper contributes to discussions on TF for sustainability by interlinking legal, financial, and capacity-related issues, demonstrated by a context-specific and globally relevant case study in Papua.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: thematic analysis; Indonesia; physics education research; natural language processing
Online: 10 August 2022 (09:42:09 CEST)
Emergent physics education research (PER) literatures have been disseminated through academic publications within the community. The growing body of literatures over years challenge Indonesian PER scholars to understand how the research community has been progressed and what possible future work that should be emphasized. Nevertheless, previous traditional method of thematic analysis performed serious limitation when the number of PER literatures exponentially increased. Dealing with this large volume of publications, one of the machine learning studies namely natural language processing (NLP) was employed in this study to automate our thematic analysis among Indonesian PER literatures that are still limited to be explored. One of the well-known NLP algorithm, latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), has been performed to extract Indonesian PER topics and their associated development between 2014 and 2021. A total of 852 papers (~ 4 to 8 pages each) were collectively downloaded from five international conference proceedings organized by Indonesian PER researchers. Before their topics were modeled through LDA algorithm, our data corpus should be previously preprocessed through several common procedures of established NLP studies. Findings revealed that LDA has thematically quantified Indonesian PER topics and described their distinct development over certain period. The identified topics from this study demonstrated that Indonesian PER community has established robust development in eight distinctive topics to the present. They begin with initial interest in focusing research on physics laboratory and following the research based instruction in the late 2015. Indonesian PER scholars sustained to study continuous topic on 21st century skill until 2019 which gave way to a focus on developing relevant educational technology to address several forms of students’ performance including scientific literacy and problem solving. There is still lack of Indonesian PER literatures that have been attempted to address qualitative aspects of physics teaching and learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0408.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Indonesia; islands cluster; multiple logistic regression; obesity; risk factor
Online: 27 January 2022 (06:53:58 CET)
Obesity has become a rising global health problem affecting adults’ quality of life. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity in Indonesian adults based on the cluster of islands. The study was also aimed to identify the risk factors of obesity in each island cluster. This study analysed secondary data of Indonesian Basic Health Research 2018. Our data for analysis comprised 688,638 adults (>=15 years) randomly selected using proportionate to population size throughout Indonesia. We included 20 variables for sociodemographic and obesity-related risk factors for analysis. Obese status was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI) >= 27.5 kg/m2. Our current study defined seven major islands cluster as the unit analysis consisting of 34 provinces in Indonesia. Descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the characteristics of the population and to calculate the prevalence of obesity within provinces in each of the island’s clusters. Multivariate logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratios (ORs) was performed using R version 3.6.3. The study results showed that all island clusters had at least one province with an obesity prevalence of more than 20%. Six out of twenty variables, comprising four diet factors (consumption of sweet food, high-salt food, meat food, and carbonated drinks) and two other factors (mental health disorders and smoking behaviour), varied across the island clusters. In conclusion, there was a variation of obesity prevalence of the provinces within and between island clusters. Variation of risk factors raised in each cluster island suggested the government rethink and reframe the intervention to address obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0633.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: collaborative governance; power; facilitation; peatland fire; West Kalimantan; Indonesia
Online: 29 January 2021 (15:39:22 CET)
Researchers have focused on collaborative governance as an effective measure to realise sustainable natural resource management through the participation of various stakeholders. However, the literature has indicated that issues such as power imbalances tend to undermine the effectiveness of collaborative governance. Powerful actors represented by the government tend to control collaborative processes and produce benefits for dominant groups, while less empowered local communities are often deprived of opportunities for livelihood improvement. Although numerous researchers have analysed the key factors that influence the processes and outcomes of collaborative governance, few have identified a concrete measure to reduce the risk of failure, particularly when managing power imbalances in developing countries. This study explored a methodology to address the power imbalances in collaborative governance based on a case study of a participatory peatland fire prevention project implemented in West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys conducted with project participants suggested that measures such as establishing a joint team of government officers and villagers, providing a common facilitation training programme, training villagers as facilitators, promoting equal knowledge sharing, and allowing villagers to make their own decisions mitigated the power imbalances between the two groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0083.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Focus group discussion; sustainability; renewable energy development; Indonesia; geothermal
Online: 5 October 2020 (12:17:09 CEST)
The study describes in this paper uses direct evidence from processes applied for the developing economy of Indonesia, as it defines the trajectory for its future energy policy and energy research agenda. The paper makes explicit the process undertaken by key stakeholders in assessing and determining the suitability, feasibility and dynamics of the renewable energy sector. Barriers and enablers that key in selecting the most suitable renewable energy sources for developing economies for the renewable energy development have been identified from extensive analyses of research documents alongside qualitative data from the focus group discussions (FGD). The selected FGD participants encompass the collective views that cut across the political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental aspects of renewable energy development in Indonesia. The information gained from the FGD gives insights to the outlook and challenges that are central to energy transition within the country, alongside the perceptions of renewable energy development from the influential stakeholders contributing to the process. It is notable that the biggest barriers to transition are centred on planning and implementation aspects, as it is also evident that many in the community do not adhere to the same vision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0288.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Indonesia; socioeconomic impacts; unemployment; poverty; coronavirus impacts
Online: 12 August 2020 (16:33:59 CEST)
This study estimates the negative impacts of the COVID-19 on poverty and unemployment in Indonesia. In doing so, this study develops and uses the SD model that reproduced similar patterns in terms of GDP, poverty, and unemployment. Estimated unemployment and estimated poverty under the COVID-19 are calculated for three different economic scenarios: the optimistic, the mid, and the pessimistic scenarios. This study concludes that Indonesia will experience rising unemployment and poverty in ranges (9-10) and (25-26) million people respectively by the end of this year – depending on projected economy growths. This study suggests that existing financial aids are sufficient to support rising unemployment and rising poverty level. However, if the Indonesia government cannot carefully slow the COVID-19 flow, higher financial supports are required to curb the negative impacts of the COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: risk distribution; Mulawarman village; coal mining; environmental justice; Indonesia
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:27:43 CEST)
This study is aimed to explore the environmental risk posed by the unsustainable mining activities in Mulawarman village, East Kalimantan, and articulate the disproportionate impact from the perspective of environmental justice on how mining regulations affect the lives of a vulnerable community. A qualitative comparative analysis based on the legislation and administrative rules on coal mining, and a case study of Mulawarman village were adopted. The information was framed based (participatory) observation, and in-depth interview, and purposively conducted to six selected respondents. The result shows how the laws and regulations disadvantage the community and expose them to unequal treatment. The adverse effects of mining activities change the socio-environmental dynamics in this village. Being the breadbasket in 1997, Mulawarman villagers experience the loss of food self-sufficiency, and turn to the government and mining company for social welfare, and clean water. Also, inconsistent and incomplete regulations pertaining to mining, favor to serve the business interests before the environment and the local community. This results in severe encroachment upon community rights and leads to long-term conflicts between mining companies and local communities, and has weakened the capacity of local authorities to help the affected community to recover their rights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0222.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Funerary Art, Social Identities and Stratification, Torajan Communities, Indonesia.
Online: 13 June 2018 (16:52:48 CEST)
Since very few empirical endeavors have looked into statue and funerary art that represents social identities, this study aims to fill this gap. The research article aims to portray social status from the funeral arts, traditions and rituals. This longitudinal case study used interviews and a series of observations. The finding reveals that each funerary art represents particular class of noble families. Every funerary art also depicts specific insightful meaning for their noble families. The process of ritual and funeral ceremony is performed according to each status of noble families. This paper also describes the implication of the funerary art in social and cultural interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0123.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: sustainable energy, Indonesia, transformation to sustainability, energy transition, renewable energies
Online: 4 June 2021 (08:12:20 CEST)
Indonesia is an interesting case study for students of sustainable development and sustainable energy due to its ability to connect the multiple “worlds” it has become part of. Indonesia is an important bridge to Muslim countries, the voice of the Global South in the G20 and a main pillar of the 134-country-strong G77. Indonesia’s development trajectory is also key to the achievement of the Paris Climate Agreement as well as of the 2030 Agenda. Students can learn from how Indo-nesia address contradictions that would have been unsurmountable for other countries. Indone-sia’s energy transition offers helpful lessons, because of its aspiration to become a developed country by 2045. This goal is only possible when a country is able to effectively address barriers and caveats to sustainable energy. It is interesting how Indonesia focuses on silver linings and come up with pragmatic solutions to energy-related issues. This is followed by the “teaching guide,” which provides recommendations how the lessons from Indonesia can be embedded into a learning experience. The “learning activation approach” is introduced, which encourages stu-dents to systematically reflect on the complexity of selected contexts and understand this com-plexity by looking at the technical issues and processes that allow decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0499.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: system archetypes; rice production; system dynamics; climate change; Indonesia rice
Online: 28 April 2020 (13:04:04 CEST)
Climate projections show that southern Indonesia such as West Nusa Tenggara is projected to experience a lower precipitation and higher temperatures. To date, research on climate change impact on Indonesian rice production yield is limited. As climate change is projected to decrease rainfall and to increase temperatures, this paper offers a qualitative analysis using system archetypes to understand the impacts of climate change on rice production. Two system archetypes are identified including Limits to Growth and Success to Successful. Both archetypes explain that rice production is hampered by high minimum temperature as photosynthesis output is decreased by increasing respiration. This paper shows that using a simple tool, system archetypes, we can describe the impacts of climate change on rice production. The outputs of this study such as a causal loop diagram and system archetypes can be a basis to develop a simulation model in understanding the impacts of climate change on main crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0477.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Merapi Volcano; Indonesia; Natural Hazards; Disaster Risk and Point-cloud technology
Online: 29 August 2022 (08:34:39 CEST)
Spatial approach based on the deformation measurement of volcanic dome and crater rim is key to evaluate the activity of a volcano, such as Merapi volcano where associated disaster risk is regularly taking lives. Within this framework, this study aime to detect localized deformation and change in the summit area that has occurred concomitantly with the dome growth and explosion reported. The methodology was focused on two sets of data, one LiDAR-based dataset of 2012 and one UAV-dataset of 2014. The results show that during the period 2012-2014, the crater walls are 100 m to 120 m high above the crater floor at its maximum (North to East-South-East sector), while the West and North sector presents a topographic range of 40 to 80 m. During the period 2012 – 2014, the evolution of the crater rim around the dome is generally stable (no large collapse). The opening of a new vent on the surface of the dome has displaced an equivalent volume of 2.04 E+04 m3 corresponding to a maximum -9 m (+/- 0.9 m) vertically. This concludes that during the period 2012 – 2014 when the dome of Merapi experienced phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions, the topography around the dome rose. This rise does not seem to be related to large wall collapses, and it is likely that modification in the subsurface have triggered those changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0308.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Indonesia; biodiversity; novel antibiotics; drug screening; bioactivity; gene cluster networking; GNPS
Online: 13 May 2021 (14:05:00 CEST)
Indonesia is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world and a promising resource for novel natural compound producers. Actinomycetes produce about two-thirds of all clinically used antibiotics. Thus, exploiting Indonesia’s microbial diversity for actinomycetes may lead to the discovery of novel antibiotics. A total of 422 actinomycete strains were isolated from three different unique areas in Indonesia and tested for their antimicrobial activity. Nine potent bioactive strains were prioritized for further drug screening approaches. The nine strains were cultivated in different solid and liquid media and a combination of genome mining analysis and mass spectrometry (MS)-based molecular networking was employed to identify potential novel compounds. By correlating secondary metabolite gene cluster data with MS-based molecular networking results, we identified several gene cluster-encoded biosynthetic products from the nine strains, including naphthyridinomycin, amicetin, echinomycin, tirandamycin, antimycin, and desferrioxamine B. Besides, eight putative ion clusters and numerous gene clusters were detected that could not be associated with any known compound, indicating that the strains can produce novel secondary metabolites. Our results demonstrate that sampling of actinomycetes from unique and biodiversity-rich habitats, such as Indonesia, along with a combination of gene cluster networking and molecular networking approaches, accelerates natural product identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0247.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: artificial neural network; land use land cover; Indonesia; land use prediction
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:43:54 CET)
Great Malang region is developing rapidly with the population increase and inhabitant`s activity, like migration and urbanization. Other activities like agricultural expansion as well as an uncontrolled residential development need to be monitored to avoid any negative impact in the future. The availability of free and open-source software, spatial high-resolution satellite imagery datasets, and powerful algorithms open the possibilities to map, monitor, and predict the future trend of land use land cover (LULC) changes. However, the accuracy and precision of this model is still in doubt, especially in the Great Malang region. Research is needed to provide a foundational basis and documentation on how the changes occur, where did the changes occur, and the accuracy of the predicted model. This study tries to answer those questions using the high spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 imageries. Combination of the fuzzy algorithm, artificial neural network, and cellular automata was utilized to process the datasets. We analysed four different scenarios of simulation and the result then compared. The different number of hidden layers and iteration was used and evaluated to understand the effect of different parameters in the prediction result. The best scenario was then used to predict future land use changes. This study has successfully produced the future LULC model of Great Malang region with high accuracy level (87%). The study also found that the land use transformation from agriculture to urban built-up area is relatively low, where changes of the built-up area over three periods of analysis are below than 5%. This is due to the physical condition of Great Malang region where mountainous areas are dominated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: ecosystem services; voluntary sustainability certification; state regulation; plural governance arrangements; Indonesia
Online: 16 February 2020 (04:57:20 CET)
The Forest Stewardship Council initiated a pilot Forest Certification for Ecosystem Services (ForCES) project from 2011 to 2017 to improve and promote sustainable forest management addressing a range of ecosystem services. Three sites in Indonesia were studied in the pilot. Whilst the development of the certification standard was largely by a partnership between the certification standard organization, civil society and research organisations, implementation and monitoring of the impact of this voluntary sustainability standard will entail interaction with state regulations. This study sought to understand how certification and state regulations concerning ecosystem services in Indonesia interplay, particularly in the agenda setting and negotiation stage. Using the conceptual lenses of transition theory and state and non-state market-based governance, the interrelationships between ecosystem services certification and regulations were found to be both complementary, supporting and antagonistic. The majority were complementary. Antagonism occurred where regulations do not accommodate land use issues and due to different contradictory state regulations. The voluntary instruments were developed largely in the absence of state involvement and without any substitution with regulatory standards. Given the increasing proliferation of voluntary market-driven initiatives at farm, forest concession and landscape level, stakeholders developing and managing voluntary standards need to collaborate with national and local governments to create synergy to enable their acceptance, adoption and effectiveness to positively enhance the conservation of ecosystem services through incentivizing market-based instruments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Soil-transmitted helminths; health promotion; shadow puppetry; knowledge and behaviours; Indonesia
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:20:40 CET)
Performing arts used as a method of spreading health information dates back to the origins of storytelling. However, interventions in developing, non-Western countries typically utilise Western entertainment forms. This qualitative investigation assesses responses to an intervention designed around traditional Javanese shadow puppetry (wayang kulit). Semi-structured interviews provided in-depth responses from a sample (n=12) of villagers. Responses analysed both cross-case and within-case, focused on perceptions of the music and storyline, responses to the intervention, and perceived appropriateness of wayang kulit for disseminating a health message. Wayang kulit was considered to be interesting and easy to remember, but concerns remained regarding the reliability of information provided through the drama. The fusion of traditional and modern music and story elements were perceived positively. Some participants were inspired to improve their hygiene practices, although the lack of motivation, or belief that they were unable to change was noted. The performance was generally received positively in terms of the nature of the intervention, the fusion of traditional and Western music and story elements, as well as the use of wayang kulit to spread health information. The study provides guidance for modifications to the production, prior to scaling up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 outbreak; lockdown protocols; individual and social activities; mental health challenges; older people; Indonesia
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:51:50 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused detrimental impacts on different population groups throughout the world. This study aimed to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic’s mandatory lockdown protocols on activities and mental health conditions of community-dwelling older people in Jakarta, Indonesia. A qualitative design using one-on-one in-depth interviews was employed to collect data from the participants (n=24) who were recruited using the snowball sampling technique. Data analysis was guided by a qualitative data analysis framework. The findings showed that before the COVID-19 outbreak participants engaged in different kinds of regular individual and social activities. However, the COVID-19 outbreak and its mandatory lockdown protocols significantly influenced both their activities and social life, which led to social disconnection and financial difficulties for them. COVID-19 outbreak, mandatory lockdown protocols, and disruption of individual and social activities of the participants also caused mental health challenges to them, including feelings of loneliness, loss, sadness, stress, and anger. The findings suggest that there is a need for intervention programs addressing the socio-economic and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older populations to help them cope with these challenges. Future studies involving large-scale older populations to comprehensively understand COVID-19 impacts on them are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0175.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: peat; electrical conductivity; magnetic susceptibility; K-means clustering; loss on ignition (LOI); organic soils; mineral soils; Indonesia
Online: 27 February 2018 (05:21:36 CET)
Various type of soils have been identified based on their electrical and magnetic properties, especially with regards to peat soils. Peat soils are commonly considered as partly decomposed vegetation. In this study, electrical and magnetic properties have been used in K-means clustering to identify layers of peat soils. K-means clustering is a partitioning method that treats observations in the data. Data cores were obtained at every centimeter and examined for their electrical conductivity (σ) and magnetic susceptibility (χm) properties. A 291 cm core was obtained at Tegal Arum Village in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The K-means clustering results indicate two different layers at 148 cm, and this is supported by loss on ignition (LOI) measurements. In the first layers, a 87.65% LOI was found associated with peat soils (above 248 cm). Whereas, in the second layers, there was a 26.11% LOI associated with mineral soils (below 248 cm). The results of this study using K-means clustering can be used to delineate soil layers.