ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Participation; Wildlife; Community–Based Conservation; India; Interaction; Northeast India
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:42:21 CEST)
Participation by local communities in wildlife conservation projects have long been advocated since it is socially just and is effective to reach conservation and development goals. Socio–economic variables that drive participation and impact of participation have been studied, but the contextual process that stir up local community participation remains understudied. In this paper, we studied factors facilitating community participation in three wildlife conservation projects in Northeast India. Through ethnographic fieldwork at these sites we identified conservation actors and examined interactions between them.We found common modes of participation at these sites and these were related to gaining material incentives, providing labour, attending consultative workshops. Levels of interaction and coercion were found to be different in three sites. Three critical factors that drive participation were: (1) trigger, (2) negotiation and (3) sustenance. Trigger factors kickstart participation through establishment of a crisis narrative and facilitation by external actors. Negotiation factors emerge from day–to–day interaction between local community and external actors and involve effective entry stage activities, income opportunity, mediating voices within the community and intra–community dynamics. Sustenance factors affect the long term participation by community in the conservation project and involve tangible/intangible results, capability development of locals, funding and availability to critical information. In our paper we argue that investment of time and fund to understand the stakeholders and their concept of participation, periodic feedback sessions, capacity development of locals for self–mobilization, innovative information dissemination and securing long term funding are necessary for effective local community participation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0276.v1
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:16:48 CEST)
Introduction: Governance, the least studied health system component, comprises a system of rules and processes, and is a key determinant for effective decision making for health care planning. This study aims to identify institutional, legal and policy factors which are either barriers or facilitators for the implementation of integrated mental health in primary care in the India. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 key informants at the district and national levels with policy makers, state level health care planners and district planners and managers in India. The data were analysed using thematic analysis using the qualitative software NViVO 10. Findings: Participants stated that a conducive environment for mental health service delivery is necessary at the legislative, policy and planning levels, to facilitate integration of mental health into primary care. Amongst other factors, the need for active involvement of civil society and service user organisations, strengthening mental health information systems, and building the non-technical skills of the mental health workforce, were identified as particularly necessary to deliver adequate mental health services.Conclusion: Amidst the favourable policy context supporting collaborative and integrated care in India, this study identified low resourcing, weak collaborations and inadequate information to be crucial for integrated mental health in India at present.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0617.v1
Online: 25 May 2021 (15:06:40 CEST)
The harrowing second wave of COVID-19 in India has led to much discussion over the quality and timeliness of reporting of deaths attributed to the pandemic. In this brief report, we aim to present the existing evidence, as well as the broader complexities surrounding the mortality burden of COVID-19 in India. This article sheds light on the following epidemiological issues: (1) general and India-specific challenges to COVID-19 death reporting, (2) latest COVID-19 mortality estimates in India as of May 16, 2021, (3) the apparent scale of uncaptured COVID-19 deaths, and (4) the role of disaggregated historic mortality trends in quantification of excess deaths attributed to COVID-19. We conclude with a set of high-level policy recommendations for improving the vital surveillance system and tracking of causes of death in India. We encourage direct efforts to integrate health data and indirect strategies for cross-validation of registered deaths. Such system-wide advances would drastically aid epidemiological research efforts and strengthen India’s position to overcome future public health crises.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0436.v1
Online: 29 March 2020 (11:31:15 CEST)
Novel Coronavirus infection mediated pandemic started in China in December 2019 and is still killing 1000s of people throughout the world. The second most populous country, India too is fighting against this infectious disease. The country is taking effective measures to curb the pandemic by exerting extensive campaigning on sanitation and strict social distancing measures to quell the explosion of the infection rate. The future of the COVID-19 infections in India still remain unpredictable, so precautionary methods need to be continued until the growth rate of new cases drop below one.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0071.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Practices; traditional knowledge; agriculture; farmers; India
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:41:19 CEST)
The traditional Agriculture Knowledge is epic information, was created by the forefathers in the past civilizations. The forefathers practiced traditional agriculture information during Harappa civilizations, Vedic and Iron Age civilizations. The present Small and Marginal farmer utilizes traditional information in the crop production & management, crop protection, farm machinery & tools, soil & water management, medicinal & aromatic plants for diseases diagnosis, animal husbandry, stored grain pests’ management, weed management and value added food product and transfers in the youth. The utilizing traditional informations in the agriculture practices are collected from the different geographical states of India. The informations are practiced in the specific activities by the farmers. The farmer utilizes compositions of natural resource in the geographical states for the crop husbandry and farm linked activities. The traditional information is more practiced by the Southern and North-Eastern Geographical zone. The farmer applies specific informations in the crop production & management, crop protection, farm machinery & tools, soil & water management, medicinal & aromatic plants for diseases diagnosis, animal husbandry, stored grain pests’ management, weed management and value added food product. The farmer preserves and transfers the information in the rural community. The farmer transmits information in the present generation for creating mobilization. The traditional agriculture information transforms agriculture resources, maintains biodiversity ethics and enlightens historical and practical approaches to the present generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0226.v1
Online: 9 July 2021 (13:55:49 CEST)
Public Transport has been seen since ages as the most environmentally sustainable mode of transport. The users of public transport are diverse and have different socio-economic character. Hence the public transport which is not only supposed to be environmentally sustainable but also envisaged to ensure equity amongst various stakeholders of society like the females, elderly and other vulnerable groups through its service. Gender in binary terms of being differentiated based on men and women is a social construct. Public transport systems in developing countries like India witness socio-cultural factors that shape the experience of women in public spaces by social norms extant in society. Along with this, gender-based issues related to public transport are social and behavioural shortcomings as a consequence of a lack of gender sensitivity. On similar lines, elderly have a negative experience involving safety threats, physical and psychological discomfort while accessing public transport systems. The literature published regarding such issues on the gender and elderly question in public transport systems have been studied and has been brought forth under a stand- alone narrative literature review. A literature review is a prerequisite to conducting either stand-alone reviews or as a preliminary study to be supported with quantitative or qualitative analysis. Here, a stand-alone literature review concerning issues in the public transport system in India has been performed. A narrative type of review is conducted to provide an overview of pre- existing published literature. Narrative overviews are useful educational articles as they help present a broad perspective on a topic and often define the development of a problem and/or ways to manage it. The semi-systematic or narrative-review approach is designed for topics that have been theorized differently and studied within diverse disciplines making it unfavourable to study under a full systematic-review process which majorly caters to reviewing quantitative researches. As narrative-styled literature reviews prefer a semi- systematic data collection method, utmost care has been taken to include perspectives from diverse disciplines. The scope of this review is restricted to summarizing the Indian policies, schemes of public transport in light of socio-equity consideration while narrowing the inherent discrepancies within the socio-cultural ethos of the Indian society which influences socio-equity consideration in public spaces in general and the modes of public transport in particular. Research articles from electronic databases were selected based on relevance to understand the issues this viewpoint, their essential findings and possible recommendations are formulated to provide a comprehensive summary of previous researches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0494.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Landmass expansion; India Coast; Landsat Images
Online: 19 March 2021 (08:56:01 CET)
This study explores the changes in the landmass bounded by the coast of India during 1975-2005 by using on-screen visual interpretation technique (with 100m resolution and 1:50,000 scale) from NASA Landsat Imagery in three different time periods viz. 1975, 1990, and 2005. The result indicated an overall expansion of 130 sq. km area of the landmass that surrounded by the Indian coast during 1975-2005 (74 sq. km during 1975-1990 and 56 sq. km during 1991-2005). These estimations are based on the preliminary analysis and may be estimated more accurately by reducing the scale and using further higher resolution images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: screen view time; children; risk factors; India
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:57:14 CEST)
Screen viewing time is the total time spent by a child on any digital/electronic device. The objective of the present study was to determine the incidence and predictors of excessive screen viewing time in children in Ujjain, India. This cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted through house-to-house survey by using the three-stage cluster sampling method in 36 urban wards and 36 villages of Ujjain district, India. Excessive screen viewing time was defined as screen viewing for > 2 h/day. The prevalence of excessive screen viewing time was 17.83%. Risk factors identified using the multivariate logistic regression model were: age (OR: 1.5, P < 0.001); mobile phone use before bedtime (OR: 3.17, P = 0.008); parents’ perception about the child habituated to screen (OR: 14.03, P < 0.001); television in bedroom (OR: 48.69, P < 0.001); morning mobile screen viewing time (OR: 9.27, P < 0.001); not reading books other than textbooks (OR: 9.71, P < 0.001); and lack of outdoor play for >2 h (OR: 4.20, P < 0.001). Presence of eye pain was a protective factor for excessive screen viewing time (OR: 0.12, P = 0.011). The study identified multiple modifiable risk factors for excessive screen viewing time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0540.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Smokeless tobacco; India; Ageing; Occupation; Tobacco consumption
Online: 30 August 2021 (11:49:45 CEST)
More than two-thirds of death in developing countries are due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and tobacco is a leading risk factor. Among different socio-demographic factors, occupation and its corelates have impact on use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) and the evidence in India is limited. The objectives of this study are to find out the overall preva-lence of SLT use and its pattern of association with various occupation and associated variables. Methods: This study used data from Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI) wave 1. Current and ever users of SLT are taken into consideration as target population. For the data analysis, survey-weighted tools have been applied for descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic re-gression model. The weighted data analysis has been done using R. Results and Discussion: From the sample size of 65561, 38% have ever used either smoking or SLT, of them, 40 % use to-bacco in smoke form, 51 % use SLT and 9 % take both. At the population level, 22.8% and 20.4% are ever and current users of SLT respectively. Type, place, and workload in the occupation found to be significantly associated with SLT use. Workplace tobacco-cessation-policy for infor-mal-workers is required to manage this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0199.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Water Security, Groundwater assessment, Groundwater quality, India
Online: 31 May 2018 (16:47:27 CEST)
Achieving water security and availability for all is among the principle agenda of the UN-Sustainable Development Goals. To achieve the goal of water security, particularly in rapidly expanding cities, identification of safe and sustainable water resources is an absolute necessity. The paper conducts an exploratory investigation in the hydro geochemical characteristics of groundwater and thereby, assess the suitability of groundwater as an alternative and reliable resource for public water supply in the Indian city of Surat. A total of 33-groundwater samples, selected on the basis of aquifer depth, land use signatures, were collected from open, bore, dug wells and hand pumps. After the hydrogeochemical analysis, the study evaluated the present state of the groundwater quality and determined the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as hardness, electrical conductivity, Cl −, pH, SO42-, and NO3 − concentrations. An interpolation technique, known as ordinary kriging, was used to acquire the spatial distribution of parameters of groundwater quality parameters. Based on the permeability index, result showed that 80% of the sampled groundwater quality falls under excellent class i.e. category I with PI value ranging from 1-24%, whereas the rest 20% of the samples has fallen under good class i.e. category II with PI value ranging from 25 to 75% on the suitability of water for irrigation. The results of this study outlines the unsustainability of groundwater for direct consumption, especially without any improved onsite water treatment, but it is appropriate for the irrigation purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0082.v1
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:20:54 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the pandemic is an unprecedented health emergency never seen in the recorded history of humankind due to its sheer scale, rapid spread, and subsequent shock to the global economy. The past respiratory viral pandemics of the 21st century (SARS-CoV-2 in 2003, Influenza AH1N1 in 2009) have revealed seasonality in environmental factors to play a role in the dynamics of their spread. Here, we report the observed state-level relationship between environmental factors such as temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), specific humidity (SH), and solar radiation (SR) on the COVID-19 spread over the Indian region. The results show that T and RH have a significant impact on the disease growth rate and doubling time. Every degree rise in temperature corresponds to a 0.99 % decrease in the number of cases and an increase in doubling time by ~ 1.13 days implying a slowing down of spread. A similar analysis for RH reveals that more moisture leads to a higher growth rate and reduced doubling time. Lower SH and higher surface-reaching SR are found to reduce the spread and increase the doubling time similar to that of temperature. The range of average state-level T (RH) encountered during this period was between 24 and 35oC (30 and 87%) which implies that environmental impact is still effective at all these T (RH) and is not limited to specific T (RH) ranges. The progression of the season towards monsoon, post-monsoon, and thereafter winter with a continuous reduction in temperature will prove a major challenge for health workers and policymakers attempting to enforce mitigation and control measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0238.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Corona Virus; Covid-19; India; Pandemic; Mathematical modeling
Online: 19 June 2020 (10:31:02 CEST)
In the present time, the biggest problem of the world is the outbreak of novel coronavirus. Novel coronavirus (COVID-19), this one name has become a part of our daily lives over the past few months. Beyond the boundaries of medical science, coronavirus is now the main subject of research in all fields like Applied Mathematics, Economy, Philosophy, Sociology, Politics upto living room. The epidemic has brought unimaginable changes in our traditional habits and daily routines. Thousands of people in our country are fighting with the rest of the world to survive in various new situations. There are different kinds of coronavirus appeared in different times. In this time, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). This virus was first identified towards the end of 2019 in the city of Wuhan in the province of Hubei in China. Within very short duration of time and very fast, it has spread throughout a large part of the world. In this study, the main aim is to investigate the spreading rate, death rate, recovery rate due to corona virus infection and to study the future of the coronavirus in India by using mathematical modeling based on the previous data. Mathematical models, in this situation, are the important tools in recruiting effective strategies to fight this epidemic. India is at high risk of spreading the disease and is facing many losses in socio-economic aspects. With current infection rates and existing levels of personal alertness, the number of infected people in India will increase at least in the next three months. Proper social awareness, maintain of social distance, large rate of testing and separation may break the chain of the Coronavirus-2.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: COVID-19; recovery rate; case load rate; India
Online: 4 May 2020 (02:17:29 CEST)
Background: World Health Organization (WHO) declared that COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. There is sudden need of statistical modeling due to onset of COVID-19 pandemic across the world. But health planning and policy requirements the estimates of disease problem form clinical data. Objective: To predict recovery rate, cases load rate on the basis of cumulative confirmed Novel Corona virus (NCV) cases, recovered cases and deaths form COVID-19 in India. Methods: The reported COVID-19 cases in the country were obtained from website (https://datahub.io/core/covid-19#resource-covid-19_zip/). The cumulative NCV confirmed cases; recovery cases and deaths were used for estimating recovery rate, cases load rate and death rate till date 24 April 2020. Results: A total of 24530 NCV confirmed cases were reported nationwide in India on 24 April 2020. It is found that the recovery rate increased 22% and case load rate decreased 74%. Death rate is found to be very low 3%. The difference of cases load rate and recovery rate (delta) coincide at 50 % then NCV cases expected would be declined. Conclusion: The epidemic in the country was mainly caused by the importation of India. Lockdown as restricting the migration of population and decided to quarantine of population may greatly reduce the risk of continued spread of the epidemic in India. This study predicts that by 20 May 2020, the cases load rate lesser than recovery rate there after COVID-19 patients would be started to reducing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0648.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Dharma; Duties; Hinduism; Human Rights; India; Dharmaśāstras; Vedic literature
Online: 26 August 2021 (07:58:56 CEST)
This manuscript aims to provide a nuanced study of the idea of rights and duties prevalent in ancient Vedic society through Vedic literature and Dharmaśāstras . This manuscript delves into the exegesis of the Védas and Dharmaśāstras to accomplish this. The archaic Vedic literature and Dharmaśāstra texts are the origin and backbone of Sanskrit literature. They have a plethora of ideas that, if accepted, could be quite useful for the protection of any person's human rights. In Védas and Dharmaśāstras, rights and duties complement each other, and rights are integrated by duties. According to these texts, rights and duties are correlated and the relationship between rights and duties leads to the core concept of dharma (constitutional laws). Dharma is a systematic Sanskrit concept that includes traditions, obligation, morals, laws, order, and justice. It was a unique concept of dharma that kept checks and balances on sovereign officials and prevented them from becoming autocratic and anarchist. It also provided the common man with a protective shield against the dictatorship of sovereign officials. Ordinary citizens had more privileges and fewer responsibilities relative to the state's highest officials. The greater the authority, the less his privileges were, and the more extensive his responsibilities became. This research is an exegetical analysis of ancient Indian Vedic and later Vedic literature and is primarily aimed at deciphering some of the essential ideas of the rights found in these texts, which are akin to contemporary human rights. It endeavours to discern and explain the tenets of human rights obnubilated in the pristine mantras of Antediluvian Vedic and Smṛti texts of India. The essay further attempts to add a much needed non-western perspective to the historiography of human rights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0491.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: COVID-19; India; prediction models; statistics; data; Indian states
Online: 28 April 2020 (08:57:57 CEST)
The very first case of corona-virus illness was recorded on 30 January 2020, in India and the number of infected cases, including the death toll, continues to rise. In this paper, we present short-term forecasts of COVID-19 for 28 Indian states and five union territories using real-time data from 30 January to 20May 2020. Applying Holt’s second-order exponential smoothing method and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, we generated 10-day ahead forecasts of the likely number of infected cases and deaths in India until 29 May2020. Our results show that the number of cumulative cases in India will rise to169109 [PI 95% (14426, 19455)], concurrently the number of deaths may increase to 4863 [PI 95% (4221, 5551)] by 29 May 2020.Further, we have marked the states (e.g. Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu) where outburst is expected by considering the cases above three standard deviations. Under the worst-case scenario, Maharashtra is likely to be the most affected state with around 62628 [PI 95% (52840, 73555)] cumulative cases by 29 May 2020. However, Kerala and Karnataka are likely to remain in the lesser affected region. The presented results mark the states where lockdown by 1 June2020, can be loosened.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0173.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: wetlands; methanotrophs; India; tropical; novel species; Type Ib; Methylotetracoccus
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:51:52 CET)
We enriched and isolated a novel gammproteobacterial methanotroph; strain FWC3, from tropical freshwater wetland, near Nagaon beach, Alibag, India. FWC3 is a coccoid, flesh pink/peach pigmented, non-motile methanotroph and the cells are present in pairs and as tetracocci. The culture can grow on methane (20%) as well as on a wide range of methanol from concentrations (0.02%-5%). Based on the comparison of genome data, FAME analysis, morphological characters and biochemical characters, FWC3 belongs to the tentatively and newly but not validly described genus ‘Methylotetracoccus’ of which only a single species strain was described, Methylotetracoccus oryzae C50C1. The ANI index between FWC3 and C50C1 strains is 94%, and the DDH value is 55.7%, less than the cut-off values 96% and 70%, respectively. The genome size of FWC3 is smaller (3.4 Mbp) compared to that of C50C1 (4.8 Mbp). Additionally, the FAME profile of FWC3 shows differences in cell wall fatty acid profiles compared to Methylotetracoccus oryzae C50C1. Also, there are other differences on the morphological, physiological and genomic levels. We propose FWC3 to be a member of a novel species of the genus Methylotetracoccus, for which the name Methylotetracoccus aquaticus is proposed. Also, an amended description of the genus Methylotetracoccus gen. nov. is given here. FWC3 is available in two international culture collections with the accession numbers: MCC 4198 (Microbial Culture collection, India) and JCM 33786 (Japan Collection of Microorganisms, Japan).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0205.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: diarrhoea; severity; severe dehydration; children; risk factors; Ujjain; India
Online: 16 January 2020 (03:21:03 CET)
Diarrhoea contributes significantly in the under-five childhood morality and mortality worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Ujjain, India from July 2015 to June 2016. Consecutive children aged 1 month to 12 years having “some dehydration” and “dehydration” according to World Health Organization classification were eligible to be included in the study. Other signs and symptoms used to assess severe dehydration were capillary refill time, urine output, and abnormal respiratory pattern. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for severe dehydration, which was the primary outcome. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to detect independent risk factors for severe dehydration. The study included 332 children, with mean ± standard deviation age of 25.62 ± 31.85 months; out of which, 70%(95% confidence interval [CI] 65 to 75) were diagnosed to have severe dehydration. The independent risk factors for severe dehydration were: child not exclusive breast fed in the first six months of life (AOR 5.67, 95%CI 2.51 to 12.78; p<0.001), history of not receiving oral rehydration solution before hospitalization (AOR 1.34, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.78; p=0.038), history of not receiving oral zinc before hospitalization (AOR 2.66, 95%CI 1.68 to 4.21; p<0.001) and living in overcrowded conditions (AOR 5.52, 95%CI 2.19 to 13.93; p<0.001). The study identified many risk factors associated with severe childhood dehydration; many of them are modifiable though known and effective public health interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0380.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: speleothem; oxygen isotopes; monsoon; paleoclimate; India; SISAL; ISM; ASM
Online: 19 September 2018 (10:18:28 CEST)
As one of the most prominent seasonally recurring atmospheric circulation patterns, the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) plays a vital role for the life and livelihood of about a third of the global population. Changes in the strength and seasonality of the ASM significantly affect the region, yet the drivers of change and the varied regional responses of the ASM are not well understood. In the last two decades, there have been a number of studies reconstructing the ASM using stalagmite-based proxies such as oxygen isotopes (18O). Such reconstructions allow examination of the drivers and responses, increasing monsoon predictability. In this review paper, we focus on stalagmite 18O records from India at the proximal end of the ASM region. Indian stalagmite 18O records show well dated, high amplitude changes in response to the dominant drivers of the ASM on orbital to multi-centennial timescales and indicate the magnitude of monsoon variability in response to these drivers. We examine Indian stalagmite records collated in SISAL_v1 (version 1) database (http://researchdata.reading.ac.uk/139/) and support the database with a summary of record quality and regional climatic interpretations of the 18O record during different climate states. We highlight current debates and suggest the most useful time periods (climatic events) and locations for further work using tools such as data-model comparisons, spectral analysis methods, multi-proxy investigations and monitoring work
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: India; active commuting; public transit; physical activity; built environment
Online: 30 June 2018 (14:55:26 CEST)
Background: Few studies have assessed built environment correlates of active commuting in low-and-middle-income countries, but the different context could yield distinct findings. This cross-sectional study investigated associations between home neighbourhood environment characteristics and active commuting in Chennai, India. Methods: Adults (N = 370, 47.2% female, mean age = 37.9 years) were recruited from 155 wards in the metropolitan area of Chennai in southern India between January and June 2015. Participants self-reported their usual mode of commute to work, with responses recoded into three categories: (1) multi-modal or active commuting (walking and bicycling); (2) public transit; and (3) private transport. Environmental attributes around participants’ homes were assessed using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-India (NEWS-India). Associations between environmental characteristics and likelihood of active commuting and public transit use were modelled using logistic regression with private transport (driving alone or carpool) as the reference category, adjusting for age, gender, and household car ownership. Results: Consistent with other international studies, participants living in neighbourhoods with a mix of land-uses and a transit stop within a 10-minute walk from home were more likely to use active commuting (both p < 0.01). Land-use mix was significantly associated with the use of public transit compared to private transport (aOR = 5.2, p = 0.002). Contrary to findings in high-income countries, the odds of active commuting were reduced with improved safety from crime (aOR = 0.2, p = 0.003), aesthetics (aOR = 0.2, p = 0.05) and street connectivity (aOR = 0.2, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Different environmental attributes were associated with active commuting, suggesting that these relationships are complex and may distinctly differ from those in high-income countries. Unexpected inverse associations of perceived safety from crime and aesthetics with active commuting emphasize the need for high quality epidemiologic studies with greater context-specificity in the study of physical activity in LMICs. Findings have public health implications for India and suggest that caution should be taken when translating evidence across countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0046.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: women’s empowerment; climate change adaptation; India; transnational advocacy networks
Online: 2 May 2018 (13:27:14 CEST)
1). As on-the-ground projects come into existence and continue to expand to adapt to climate change and empower women, it is important to understand their location within TANs. Using the Bhungroo technology as a case study, we aim to assess the potential of TANs to increase the scope and scale of local projects as well as the ability of similar and emerging projects to create social change at local levels. 2). We do so by analyzing interview and earned media hits data from the UNFCCC Momentum for Change. 3). We find that while TANs may help increase the scale and scope of projects, increasing their ability to effectively reach more people and areas is still up for debate 4). We conclude by considering how women’s political participation may be enhanced by similar projects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0339.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: digital-divide; malnutrition; child psychology; child-labor; COVID-19; India
Online: 25 May 2022 (03:49:43 CEST)
Since the origin of COVID-19, everyone is getting accustomed to the new rules and regulations, travel restrictions and new lifestyle. Constant changes in the government advisories and the COVID-19 guidelines poses a real challenge for children to adapt to causing stress, anxiety and other mental health issues. Therefore, it is imperative to raise awareness about the challenges that Indian children are dealing with to help them better cope with this stressful and frantic time. The focus of this review is on various child-related problems that the Indian government is trying to tackle such as stress, depression, malnutrition, school closures, digital divide, child labor, child trafficking in context of mental health issues caused by them during COVID-19. Highlights:The reader will come to appreciate that: Digital-divide caused by shifting offline learning to online mode. Strategies implemented by Indian government to combat malnutrition Effect of COVID-19 lockdown on children suffering from mental disorders Child labor and trafficking and the strategies that aim to decrease child labor during the pandemic Educating the children appropriately regarding COVID protocols
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Savings Propensity; Household Finance; Development; Tribals; Connectivity; Rural; Culture; India
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:53:39 CET)
Economic sustainability of rural areas is a concern given the increasing trend towards urbanization globally and in India. Self-reliant strategies, including increased savings and investment are more valuable in this regard than external interventions. This paper uses the results of a survey to examine the factors affecting saving in a rural part of Odisha populated primarily by tribals. Our tentative findings are that savings propensity is determined partly by the extent to which individuals feel connected to the broader economy, and partly by cultural factors. One implication of these findings is that connecting rural areas to other, possibly urban, locations could elicit greater saving and this could lead to greater development, employment possibilities, economic betterment and all the consequent social welfare implications. This paper relates savings propensity to new sociological population characteristics, such as perceived connectivity and food consumption patterns, and hence provides hitherto unexplored clues for policy initiatives to increase savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0214.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: COVID-19; Prediction model; Pandemic bell curve; India; Different scenarios
Online: 17 June 2020 (09:40:23 CEST)
This paper is an attempt to present a COVID-19 prediction model for India. Lockdown plays an important role in the arrest of community spread of the disease. This was evident from the study of other countries such as Russia, Belgium and Germany, where peak cases were recorded within a month of the imposition of lockdown, that it showed an immediate positive effect. However, in India, even after 65 days of lockdown, there is no decrease in the number of daily new cases reported. There were many models prepared for India and almost all of them were proven wrong by the increase in the number of cases. The model in this paper is prepared using the COVID-19 trend in other countries, population density and the pandemic bell curve. Based on the available data until 24th May 2020, two scenarios have been presented. In one, the peak shall be obtained when the number of daily new cases per million reaches 190 and in the second when the daily new cases per million reach 724. One model predicts the number of cases to reach 1 million by mid-July 2020. The other model predicts the number of cases to peak by mid-July with the total cases reaching 20 million. The predicted cases were compared with the actual cases recorded for the period 25th May to 11th June 2020. It was observed that the actual values matched quite reasonably with the predicted values.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0131.v1
Online: 11 June 2020 (11:39:49 CEST)
A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) responsible for a severe acute respiratory disorder (SARS-CoV-2) in humans, with its epicentre in Wuhan, China emerged in December 2019. This coronavirus, by far, has hit >200 countries, affecting 7 million worldwide accounting 11% death of the affected population. The transmission is majorly caused by human-to-human contact and, through fomite. In view of the increasing number of COVID-19 cases and the absence of definitive treatment or vaccinations, WHO has deemed the viral infection a pandemic of international concern. In such grave situations, there is a need for expanding the health sector workforce, government and police workforce, sanitation and prevention strategies. The current article describes the virology aspect, control of COVID-19 and revisits the various treatment options available at present this deadly infection. Epidemiology of COVID-19 is also discussed to further understand the pandemic status of India. The article also discusses implicating quarantine or social distancing, and in extreme cases, lockdown or alternative approaches such as herd or indirect immunity, as a measure to control the pandemic. Lockdown or social distancing will give rise to economic, emotional, political and social downfall in the country. It is estimated that a lockdown period will set back the country, possibly, by $240 billion, yet it stands unavoidable in the spread of control of infection. Thus, policymakers should strategize economic revival depending upon the best possible data and critical understanding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0440.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: kidney tissue; renal failure; human genetics; eastern part of India
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:01:55 CET)
Urolithiasis is a painful experience associated with hematuria, damage to kidney tissue and renal failure. It is a multi-factorial disorder while in India, its prevalence is rapidly increasing imposing a large burden for both healthcare and economy globally. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the association between genetic defects in SPP1 gene and urolithiasis from East Indian patients.75 urolithiasis patients were recruited from SSKM Hospital & Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education & Research (IPGME&R), Kolkata, India while 75 healthy controls were recruited from the same community. SNPs based areas of SPP1 gene were analyzed by direct sequencing to identify genetic defects.We identified 3 polymorphisms one synonymous and two 3’UTR variants rs1126616: p.Ala250Ala, rs1126772: 7315 a>g, rs9138: 7471 a>c in SPP1 gene in study individuals. Genotype and allele frequency analysis of these SNPs revealed that, rs9138 SNP was significantly associated with urolithiasis risk in East Indian patients. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting the role of the gene with urolithiasis in the population of West Bengal, India.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0378.v1
Subject: Keywords: Trace metals; COVID-19; Lagoon ecosystem; Anthropogenic pollution; Water quality; India
Online: 14 June 2021 (15:56:06 CEST)
A complete halt on all anthropogenic activities and human movement due to COVID-19 lockdown has provided a great opportunity to assess the impact of human activities on coastal marine ecosystems. The current study assessed the concentration of the metals in water samples of the largest brackish water lagoon of Asia; the Chilika lagoon in the state of Odisha, India between pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 lockdown scenarios. Monthly water samples (n=30 stations) from 0.3 m depth were collected from three sectors of the lagoon seasonally; pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon. In addition to various physical parameters [pH, salinity, alkalinity, (DO) dissolved oxygen, (TDS) total dissolved solids, and (EC) electrical conductivity] the collected water samples were analysed for 18 trace metals (Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V). Most of the physical parameters showed a significant variation between pre-and post-COVID-19 scenarios, except for pH and DO. The concentration of five metals (Be, Cd, Co, Ni, and Pb) remained below detection limits in all water samples. The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the concentration of the metal in the water samples was noticed along with the three sectors of the lagoon. However, eight metals (Al, As, Cr, Fe, Mn, Th, U, and V) were significantly different between the COVID-19 scenarios and the remaining five metals were not statistically significant. The mean concentration of Al, As, Fe, Th, and V were higher in the pre-COVID-19 scenarios, whereas only Cr and Mn were higher in the post-COVID-19 scenarios. The mean concentration of U was similar among both COVID-19 scenarios, even though there were seasonal and sectoral differences. The seasonal influence of riverine influx was more evident on metal concentration during the monsoon season, whereas the difference between sectors was more prominent during the post-monsoon season. An increased number of correlations between physical parameters and metal concentration were observed in the post-monsoon season and post-COVID-19 scenario. This study provides evidence that the imposition of COVID-19 lockdown reduced metal influx in the water column and improved the water quality of the Chilika lagoon. Our results can be used as baseline for metal concentration in surface waters of the lagoon.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0579.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: stray dogs; Pasteur Institute; vaccination; colonial; British India; Civil Veterinary Department
Online: 24 September 2020 (11:13:30 CEST)
India bears the highest burden of global dog-mediated human rabies deaths. Despite this, rabies is not notifiable in India, and continues to be underprioritized in public health discussions. This review examines the historical treatment of rabies in British India, a disease which has received relatively less attention in the literature on Indian medical history. Human and animal rabies was widespread in British India and treatment of bite victims imposed a major financial burden on the colonial Government of India. It subsequently became a driver of Pasteurism in India and globally and a key component of British colonial scientific enterprise. Efforts to combat rabies led to the establishment of a wide network of research institutes in India and important breakthroughs in development of rabies vaccines. As a result of these efforts, rabies no longer posed a significant threat to the British and it declined in administrative and public health priorities in India towards the end of colonial rule; a decline that has yet to be reversed in modern-day India. The review also highlights features of the administrative, scientific and societal approaches to dealing with this disease in British India which persist to this day.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0449.v2
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Covid-19; pandemic; primer; India; mortality rate; evolution; updated primer; evolving pandemic
Online: 1 June 2020 (11:08:03 CEST)
In this paper we first provide a primer on SARS-CoV-2 and Covid-19 delineating the etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and the natural history of the disease. We then trace the evolution of the Covid-19 pandemic highlighting the characteristics of the epidemic in China where the pandemic originated, select countries of Europe which peaked during April, and Brazil, US and India where the pandemic has taken serious turns recently. We also project some possible trajectories for the mega cities of India based on the demographic characteristics of these cities in comparison to New York city. This is an updated version of the article from mid-April published online.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0189.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; SARS CoV; SARS CoV-2; novel CoV; India
Online: 12 April 2020 (09:17:16 CEST)
COVID-19 disease outbreak was started in the December, 2019 in the Wuhan city of China which is also known as the largest transportation hub of China. During the spring festival of China the situation become epidemic. Soon, the virus is imported to many regions including the low income countries. Till now, 234073 infected reported cases of the COVID-19 in the world with the total of 9840 deaths (March 20, 2020). The common symptoms of the COVID-19 are the cough, high fever, sore throat, fatigue and breathlessness. The disease is found to be mild in most of the people, some of cases reported to the pneumonia also with multi organ dysfunction and acute ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome). It is found that the incubation period for the infection is 2-14 days which is usually 4 days in maximum of cases. India has reported 283 cases of COVID-19 infections till now with 4 deaths. India is still at stage 2 on local transmission as per WHO report 60. WHO reported 60 clearly stated that there is no community transmission occurred in India yet which can be prevented by the avoiding mass gathering and proper screening of the people. Govt. of India has taken many initiatives to minimize the spread of COVID-19 infection in the country. The infection rate of the COVID-19 in India remains low related to population size of the country. It is because of fast government action to quarantine the suspected people and shut down all its borders. There is a great slowdown in the global economy due to COVID-19 attack which is likely to costs around $1 trillion. The spread of COVID-19 infection can be reduced by minimizing the H-H transmissions. Still there is need of Anti-n-CoV drug development which can replace the supporting therapies for the treatment of infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0560.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, stewardship, community, school, students, e-bug, education, pharmacists, India
Online: 23 November 2018 (11:33:55 CET)
Abstract Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a recognised public health threat today globally. Though many active and passive stewardship strategies are employed to counter AMR clinically, educating school going children on AMR could be a futuristic cost-effective measure to minimize AMR development. We hypothesised NICE’s e-bug module to class VII school students on AMR determinants. Methodology: A prospective non-randomized intervention study on 327 students belonging to 9 schools of class VII around Manipal town, Udupi district, Karnataka state, India were included for the study. 10 questions on AMR determinants extracted from NICE’s e-bug program were quizzed in written as pre-test followed by an education intervention on the same questions followed by a post-test to end the session. Descriptive statistics to estimate epidemiological characteristics, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to analyse statistical significance of pre/post-test performance scores for the 10 questions and between schools respectively Results: Students had inadequate knowledge on 7 AMR determinants (antimicrobial indication, its course, hand hygiene, fermentation, spread of infection, microbial multiplication and characteristics of microbe) when analysed for post-test performance (p<0.05). Comparison of post-test performance of 9 participating schools revealed statistical significance (p<0.05) for 3 questions (definition on antimicrobial, cover while cough/sneezing and microbial characteristics) Conclusion: Although students exhibited sub-optimal knowledge on few AMR determinants, they showed keenness to learn exhibited by their performance. Our findings and previous similar studies from Europe are suggestive of early pedagogic interventions on AMR through inclusion of such education modules in the curriculum could be potential tool for AMR prevention for future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0129.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: unintentional childhood injuries; first aid; health seeking, community survey injuries; India
Online: 3 September 2018 (11:41:16 CEST)
Background: There is lack of data on types of community first aids use and treatment given post injuries from many low-middle income countries, including India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children up-to 18 years of age, in Ujjain district, India to understand types of first aid given and health seeking post injury. Results: A total of 1087 injuries, in 1049 children were identified in last one year, 729 (67%) received, first aid and 758 (72%) sought some healthcare. Children with burns received most (86%) first aid, while most children (84%) with road traffic accidents (RTA) sought health care. Most children (52%) sought healthcare from a private health set-up; most (65%) being transported within the golden hour; motorbikes being the most preferred (50%) mode of transport. Only 1% injured used ambulance services. Commonly reported first aid included: use of coconut oil on wounds from falls (38%) and burns (44%); antiseptic cream on wounds from RTA (31%), turmeric in falls (16%), and rubbing of metal on a bitten site (47%). Potentially harmful substances applied included lime, toothpaste, clay and mud. Conclusion: In most injuries, appropriate locally available substances, were used by the community. Our findings will help design community interventions to increase appropriate first aid in childhood injuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0438.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: nuclear; detonations; trauma; thermal burn; radiation; fallout; New Delhi; India; Pakistan
Online: 27 June 2018 (10:06:50 CEST)
The human casualties from simulated nuclear detonation scenarios in New Delhi, India are analyzed, with a focus on the distribution of casualties in urban environments and the theoretical application of a nuclear-specific triage system. Model estimates of nuclear war casualties employed ESRI's ArcGIS 9.3, blast and prompt radiation were calculated using the Defense Nuclear Agency's WE program, and fallout radiation was calculated using the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA's) Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) V404SP4, as well as custom GIS and database software applications. ESRI ArcGISTM programs were used to calculate affected populations from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's LandScanTM 2007 Global Population Dataset for areas affected by thermal, blast and radiation data. Trauma, thermal burn, and radiation casualties were thus estimated on a geographic basis for New Delhi, India for single and multiple (six) 25 kiloton (kt) detonations and a single 1 megaton (1000kt) detonation. Major issues related to the emergency management of a nuclear incident are discussed with specific recommendations for improvement. The consequences for health management of thermal burn and radiation patients is the worst, as burn patients require enormous resources to treat, and there will be little to no familiarity with the treatment of radiation victims.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle; solar power; techno-economic analysis; carbon emission mitigation; India
Online: 4 May 2017 (06:22:04 CEST)
The technologies influencing alternative ways of transportation are augmenting in recent years as the need for transportation is increasing rapidly due to urbanization and motorization. In this paper, a solar powered electric auto-rickshaw (SPEA) is designed and developed for Indian conditions. The developed vehicle is comprehensively analyzed techno-economically for its viability in the Indian market. The performance analysis of SPEA results in an optimal charging rate of 2 kWh per day with an average solar irradiance of 325 W/m2. The discharging characteristics are studied based on different loading conditions. The vehicle achieved a maximum speed of 21.69 km/h with battery discharge rate of 296W at 90kg load and also reached a maximum discharge rate of 540W at 390kg loading with a maximum speed of 12.11 km/h. The environmental analysis of SPEA displayed yearly CO2 emissions of 1,777 kg, 1,987 kg and 1,938 kg using Compressed Natural Gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas and gasoline engines respectively can be mitigated using SPEA. The results of financial analysis of SPEA were welcoming as the investor gets 24.44% lesser payback duration compared to gasoline run vehicle. Socio-Economic analysis of SPEA discussed its significant advantages and showed 18.73% and 3.9% increase in yearly income over gasoline driven and battery driven vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0636.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: intertidal mudflats; Nassariidae; new records; Gulf of Kachchh Marine Sanctuary; Gujarat; India
Online: 30 October 2020 (10:23:35 CET)
We report new findings of live specimens of Nassarius persicus (Martens, 1874) and N. tadjallii Moolenbeek, 2007, extending their range to the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, India. The known distribution of both species was limited: N. persicus was distributed in the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman and Karachi, Pakistan; N. tadjallii was reported from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. We also provide comprehensive taxonomic descriptions of both species, along with additional morphological and ecological information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: India; Companies Act 2013; business-society nexus; corporate responsibility; Content Configuration Analysis
Online: 12 August 2019 (13:57:39 CEST)
Developing prosperous and inclusive societies requires a reformulation of the business-society nexus toward sustainability. This means that all economically motivated behaviors of firms need to also consider their social and environmental impact, and all social and environmental policies need to also consider their impact on the economy. With the Companies Act 2013, the Indian government adopted a legislative approach to reconfigure the business-society nexus. Mandating what has been considered discretionary elicited an extensive academic debate. We employ Content Configuration Analysis on 70 local and international English-language book chapters, research articles, reports, reviews, and expert commentaries published between 2013 and 2019 to develop a typology of the advantages and disadvantages associated with the Companies Act 2013. We find that, among the large set of arguments for and against the Act, specific arguments extolling its advantages concurrently appear as disadvantages in other texts. This paradox is indicative of the difficulties of satisfying stakeholder expectations, as well as the complexities corporate responsibility programs face in India. By systematizing the opportunities and challenges associated with the Companies Act 2013, we reveal how, similar to China, context and culture influence India’s socioeconomic development trajectory beyond the conventional market economy canon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0403.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: zoonotic; corona virus; COVID-19; SARS; MERS; global health emergency; India; lockdown strategies
Online: 24 May 2020 (19:34:03 CEST)
Global emerge of zoonotic novel corona virus (COVID-19) became a pandemic and its effect to mankind is talk of the town now a days. This tiny, invisible enemy has affected every country in the world and almost every living directly or indirectly and nationwide complete lockdown has triggered a short-term environmental impact. Since 2003, corona virus came into existence in the form of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and more evolved Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012. This time, at the end of December 2019, outbreak of novel corona virus COVID-19 (also known as SARS-CoV2, nCoV-2019) draw attention as global health emergency. World Health Organization (WHO) report says that the outbreak of this virus is so immense, it has already affected 35,57,235 people and caused death to 2,45,150 people worldwide and 46,433 Indians got affected with 1568 death as on 5th May 2020 (2:00 am) and these numbers are increasing exponentially day by day. Virologist, micro-biologist and science community are hammering their head very hard to find out cure and vaccine against this powerful virus and to prevent mass demise of mankind. In order to curb the spread of COVID-19, Janta curfew on 22.03.2020 and nationwide complete lockdown was implemented in India for 21 days (phase-I, from 25.03.2020 to 14.04.2020) to stop community transmission of third stage, for 19 days (phase-II, 15.04.2020 to 03.05.2020) and 14 days (phase-III, 04.05.2020 to 17.05.2020) complete lockdown to minimize the community transmission effect. During complete lockdown and quarantine period a drastic change in Earth’s atmosphere, including reduction in emission of greenhouse gases, air pollution (~50% fall in air quality index), noise pollution, water pollution and solid waste pollution, have been recorded by government agencies as well as private agencies. In this paper we considered data of Janta curfew, phase-I and phase-II lockdown to link between geological and environmental aspect related to environmental impact due to emerge of COVID-19 and massive reduction in pollution level during complete lockdown in India. We propose future lockdown strategies to minimize the emission of greenhouse gas by ~100 Mt to ~200Mt (3.33% to 6.66%) of GHGtotal per year by 2-4 days per month nationwide lockdown or ~70 Mt to ~140 Mt (2.33% to 4.66%) of GHGtotal per year by 2-4 days per month complete lockdown of energy sectors only.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0440.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Scrub typhus; qRT PCR; Quantitative PCR; real time PCR; IgM ELISA; North-East India
Online: 27 May 2020 (07:51:25 CEST)
Scrub typhus is a life-threatening infectious disease and always creating a diagnostic dilemma in terms of rapid turnaround time and accuracy, qRT PCR can become a very good option to achieve the desired result with the molecular level of accuracy and boost up the rapid patient management. This study was performed to evaluate the performance of qRT PCR in comparison to commonly used IgM ELISA and Weil-Felix tests to diagnose scrub typhus, as well as to look for the demographic and clinical profile of the disease in North-East India. It was a hospital-based prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India, over a period of 1 year, in which all the samples from suspected scrub typhus cases were screened by Weil-Felix test as per institute’s diagnostic protocol after which IgM ELISA for Scrub Typhus was performed. All the IgM positive samples and 20 highly suspected but ELISA negative samples were subjected to qRT PCR, targeting 56 kDa type-specific gene of O. tsutsugamushi. Statistical analysis was done by MS-Excel for Windows v2013® and MedCalc® v17.9 for Windows (MedCalc Software, Acacialaan 22, B-8400 Ostend, Belgium). In this study, we have successfully evaluated the performance of qRT PCR kit for diagnosis of scrub typhus. Out of 54 samples tested, 24 IgM ELISA positive samples and 3 IgM ELISA negative samples have shown the presence of bacterial DNA with quantification of DNA copies. It has also been observed that 21 out of 27 PCR positive samples (77.8%) were detected within the 1st 7 days of illness. All the demographic, as well as clinical data, were also analysed. The performance of the commercial qRT PCR kit used in our study is satisfactory, which provides the extra advantage of quantification of DNA copies and increases diagnostic accuracy within the 1st week of fever.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0382.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; India; Indian states; International travels; Local transmission; Community transmission; Delhi religious conference
Online: 24 May 2020 (15:56:44 CEST)
Social network analysis is an essential means to uncover and examine infectious contact relations between individuals. This paper aims to investigate the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from international to the national level and find a few super spreaders which played a central role in the transmission of disease in India. Our network metrics calculated from 30 January to 6 April 2020 revealed that the maximum numbers of connections were established from Dubai (degree-144) and UK (degree-64). These two countries played a crucial role in diffusing the disease in Indian states. The eigenvector centrality of Dubai is found to be the highest, and this marked it the most influential node. However, based on the modularity class, we found that the different clusters were formed across Indian states which demonstrated the forming of a multi-layered social network structure.A significant increase in the confirmed cases was reported during the first lockdown 1.0 (22 March 2020) primarily attributed to a gathering in Delhi Religious Conference (DRC) known as Tabliqui Jamaat. As of 6 April 2020, the overall structure of the network has encompassed local transmission, and it was significantly seen in the states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Karnataka. An important conclusion drawn from the presented social network reveals that the COVID-19 spread till 6 April was mainly due to the local transmission across Indian states. The timely quarantine of infected cases in DRC has not led it to spread at the level of community transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0051.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; Data mining; Infection in India; R package; State- wise analysis; Statistical analysis
Online: 5 May 2020 (02:28:26 CEST)
Background & Objectives: The global pandemic caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has claimed several lives worldwide. With the virus gathering rapid spread, the world has witnessed increasing number of confirmed cases and mortality rate, India is not far behind with approximately 37,000 affected individuals as on May 2, 2020. The ongoing pandemic has raised several questions which need to be answered by analysis of transmission of the infection. The data has been collected on daily basis from WHO and other sites. We have represented the data collated graphically using statistical packages, R and other online softwares. The present study provides a holistic overview of the spread of COVID-19 infection in India. Methods: Real-time data query was done based on daily observations using publicly available data from reference websites for COVID-19 and other government official reports for the period (15th February, 2020 to April 28th, 2020). Statistical analysis was performed to draw important inferences regarding COVID-19 trend in India. Results: A decrease in growth rate of cases due to COVID-19 in India post lockdown and improvement in recovery rate during the month of April was identified. The case fatality rate was estimated to be 3.22% of the total reported cases. State-wise analysis revealed a deteriorating situation in states of Maharashtra and Gujarat among others as cases continued to increase rapidly there. A positive linear correlation between the number of deaths and total cases and exponential relation between population density and number of cases reported per square km was established. Interpretation & Conclusions: Despite early preventive measures taken up by the Government of India, the increasing number of cases in India is a concern. This study compiles state-wise and district-wise data to report the daily conﬁrmed cases, case fatalities and strategies adopted in the form of case studies. Understanding the transmission spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a diverse and populated country like India will be crucial in assessing the effectiveness of control policies towards the spread of COVID-19 infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: India; COVID-19 pandemic; Cancellation of surgeries; Global lockdown; Low- and Middle-income country; Emergency surgeries
Online: 5 October 2020 (13:02:31 CEST)
Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown have adversely affected global health care services to varying extent. Emergency Services were also affected along with elective surgeries, which were deferred to accommodate the added burden of COVID 19 affected patients, on the healthcare systems. We aimed to assess the change in delivery of essential and emergency surgeries due to the pandemic. Methodology: A research consortium led by WHO Collaboration Centre (WHOCC) for Research in Surgical Care Delivery in Low- and Middle-Income countries (LMIC), India, conducted this retrospective cross-sectional study with 12 recruited centers. All surgeries performed during the months of April 2020 were compared with those performed in April 2019. These surgeries were stratified into emergency and elective, and further categorized based on NHS surgery prioritization documents. Results: A total of 4396 surgeries were performed at these centers in April 2019 and 1216 surgeries were performed in same month during 2020, yielding a fall of 72.3% (1216 /4396).We found a 54% reduction in emergency surgeries and a 91% reduction in the elective surgeries. Number of cesarean sections reduced by 29.7% and fracture surgeries declined by 85.3% Laparotomies and surgeries for local soft tissue infections with necrotic tissue reduced by 71.7% and 69.5% respectively. Conclusion: Our study quantifies the effects of COVID 19 pandemic on surgical care delivery in India and documents that the overall surgical volume reduced by three fourths in the pandemic period. Emergency surgeries reduced to half when compared with pre-pandemic period. Cesarean section surgeries were affected the least by pandemic, whereas the fracture surgeries and laparotomies were affected the most.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0511.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: secular changes; sunspot cycles; Indian summer monsoon rainfall; droughts in India; medieval solar maximum; Maunder minima; El Nino
Online: 24 August 2020 (08:04:03 CEST)
We have defined M cycles as modified form of Gleissberg cycles to study the quasi-periodic secular changes in sunspot activity. Using direct and proxy observations for more than 1200 years we have provided evidence for the influence of the above M cyles on the monsoon rainfall variability and occurrences of major droughts in India. The solar cycle averages of All Indian summer monsoon rainfall (AISMR) and probability of observation of below or above normal AISMR is found to show correlated variations with changes in amplitude of sunspot cycles during the years 1901-2018 AD. Major droughts in India show a preference to occur during minima and declining phases of the M cycles during the years 650-2018 AD . We could generally find low probability of occurrence of droughts in India during the medieval solar maximum epoch ( 1100-1250 AD) and during most of the prolonged sunspot minima periods including the Maunder minima. The evolution of mean Indian summer monsoon rainfall during 650-1900 AD is studied using proxy data from multiple sources with maxima during the 12th century and minima during 14th and 19th centuries. The association of Indian droughts with El-Nino and the possibilities of long term prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall variability will be also discussed
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0109.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: child; diarrhea; water sanitation and hygiene; rehydration solution; zinc; case management; antibacterial agents; drug utilization; community participation; India
Online: 14 May 2019 (11:46:53 CEST)
Childhood diarrhea continues to be a major cause of under-five (U-5) mortality globally and in India. In this study, 1571 U-5 children residing in nine rural villages and four urban slums in Ujjain, India were included with the objective to use community participation and drug utilization research to improve diarrheal case management. The mean age was 2.08 years, with 297 (19%), children living in high diarrheal index households. Most mothers (70%) considered stale food, teething (62%), and hot weather (55%) as causes of diarrhea. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related characteristics revealed that most (93%) households had toilets, but only 23% of the children used them. The study identified ineffective household water treatment by filtration through cloth by most (93%) households and dumping of household waste on the streets (89%). The results revealed low community awareness of correct causes of diarrhea (poor hand hygiene, 21%; littering around the household, 15%) and of correct diarrhea treatment (oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc use, 29% and 11%, respectively) and a high antibiotic prescription rate by healthcare providers (83%). Based on the results of the present study, context-specific house-to-house interventions will be designed and implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0029.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: blood stream health care associated infections; neonates; risk factors, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance; neonatal intensive care unit; India
Online: 30 January 2018 (08:03:04 CET)
Very little is known about laboratory confirmed blood stream infections (LCBIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in resource-limited settings. The aim of this cohort study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of LCBIs in a level-2 NICU in India. The diagnosis of LCBIs was established using the Centre for Disease Control, USA criteria. A predesigned questionnaire containing risk factors associated with LCBIs was filled-in. A total of 150 neonates (43% preterm) were included in the study. The overall incidence of LCBIs was 31%. The independent risk factors for LCBIs were: preterm neonates (relative risk (RR) 2.23), duration of NICU stay more than 14 days (RR 1.75), chorioamnionitis in the mother (RR 3.18), premature rupture of membrane in mothers (RR 2.32), neonate born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (RR 2.32), malpresentation (RR 3.05), endotracheal intubation (RR 3.41), umbilical catheterization (RR 4.18), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR 3.17). The initiation of minimal enteral nutrition was protective from LCBIs (RR 0.22). The predominant causative organisms were gram-negative pathogens (58%). The results of the present study can be used to design antibiotic interventions to reduce LCBIs in resource-limited settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: politics of representation; media; Islam; media representation; Muslims; Islamophobia.; racism; anti-Muslim racism; love jihad; triple talaq; Muslims in India
Online: 7 August 2018 (08:27:03 CEST)
A cursory look at Indian prime time news tells us much about the tone and tenor of the people associated with it. Exaggerations, hyperbole, and tempers run wild and news anchors flail in theatrical rage. News channels and news editors display their ideological affiliations subliminally. These affiliations — a factor of personal political stance, funding bodies, and investors — lead to partisan bias in the framing of news and, in some cases, can easily translate into racial prejudice. In this paper, I examine news coverage related to Muslims in India. I study the coverage of two issues specifically– love jihad and triple talaq –in prime time English news of two channels – Times Now and Republic TV. My analysis of the content, tone, and tenor of their coverage shows that these channels propagate associations between Islam and backwardness, ignorance and violence through consistent employment of the following tropes – ‘Muslim women need to be saved from Muslim men’, ‘Hindu women need to be saved from Muslim men’, and ‘Muslims are not fully Indian – they are anti-national’. I place this study of news media within the current political climate in India and briefly touch on the conversations it guides and provokes. This is also a call for further analysis on this subject to examine and evaluate how discourse manipulates public conversations and policy decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal; power plant; utilization factor; plant load factor; PLF; generation mix; renewable; future; declared capacity; NTPC; energy; peak; deficit; environment; India
Online: 19 August 2020 (11:38:11 CEST)
As on 31.03.2020, 55.4 % (205135 MW) of total installed capacity (370106 MW) in India is through coal and lignite based power plants. These plants, set up by central, state and private utilities with substantial capital investment are facing consistently reducing Plant Utilization Factor (known as Plant Load Factor, PLF, in India). In the year 2019-20 the national average thermal power PLF stood at 55.4%, down from 78.6 % in 2007-08. On the other hand, the electricity demand is consistently rising in the country and there exists a peak and energy shortage at national level. In 2019-20 energy shortage was 0.7 % and peak shortage was 0.5 %. A disturbing paradox therefore exists here. On one hand, the country is power deficit, and on the other hand, a large amount of coal based affordable power, ready to be generated by thermal power generators, remains grossly unused. Looking into the fact that considerable investment has gone into developing these thermal power generation assets in the country, the falling PLF is a matter of concern for all the key stakeholders including the power producers, lenders, regulators and consumers. This paper identifies seven major factors that are affecting PLF of thermal power plants and then makes an attempt to project future scenario of PLF so that critical stakeholders can intervene through appropriate actions. Primary research with responses from power professionals has been used to find out the major factors. Future projection of PLF has been done using Partial Least Square (PLS) regression. Projection shows that in the Business As Usual case (Factors increasing at the current CAGR rate), the thermal power plants will face very low level of PLF (14.76 %) by 2024-25. This will mean that many plants will be shut down and many will run for only few hours in a day that too at very low loads. If the future generation mix is kept as indicated by Central Electricity Authority (CEA), a Govt. of India in its report (Draft report on optimal generation capacity mix for 2029-30- CEA- Govt of India) then the thermal power plant average PLF can sustain above 68 % until 2024-25. If followed, this path can be a breather for the thermal power plants.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0341.v2
Subject: Keywords: Impact of COVID on TB; TB Notification in India; Integrated TB COVID Activity; Threats and Opportunity during COVID; Initiatives to improve TB Surveillance; TB Surveillance during COVID Pandemic
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:05:04 CEST)
Introduction: Due to COVID-19 pandemic, performance of many program has been declined and Tuberculosis (TB) program is not an exception. TB case detection and notification has been recognized as one of worst hit area. The objective of this study was to explore the TB notification status of India during this pandemic and explore options to mitigate the issue. Methods: A secondary data analysis was performed on open source TB notification database of India. Relevant literature review was done to find out remedies based on the different initiative taken by different states of India. Results: In 2020, total TB notification decreased in all the states in comparison to 2019. The percentage of loss in the country was 34%. Private TB notification also decreased in 2020 in all the states except in Jharkhand. The percentage of loss in private TB notification in the country was 35%. Notification started declining in the month of February 2020 and it was lowest in the month of April-2020. The trend of notification began to improve since May 2020 when the States started taking innovative initiatives like Integrated TB Covid Case Search. Conclusion: Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic the notifications of TB cases declined noticeably which has a serious implication in terms of silent spread within household and community. But the picture can be improved with integrated approach for TB-COVID case finding and management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; Artificial intelligence; Big Data; Crafting the Future; Digital Strategy 2025; High-Tech Strategy 2025; ICT policy; Industry 4.0; Initiative; Internet of things; Made in China 2025; Make in India; M-Pesa; Public-private partnership; Society 5.0
Online: 12 April 2020 (09:08:45 CEST)
The war to technology and economic power have been the driver for industrialization in most developed countries. The first industrial revolution (industry 1.0) earned millions for textile mill owners while the second industrial revolution (industry 2.0) opened the way for tycoons and captains of industry like John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan and Henry Ford. The third industrial revolution (industry 3.0) engendered technology giants like Apple and Microsoft, and made magnates of men like Steve Jobs and Bill Gates. Now, the race for the fourth industrial revolution (industry 4.0) is on and there is no option, every country whether developed or developing must participate. Many countries have positively responded to industry 4.0 by developing strategic initiatives to strengthen industry 4.0 implementation. Unlocking the country’s potential to industry 4.0 has been of interest to researchers in the recent past. However, the extent to which industry 4.0 initiatives being launched globally has never been revealed. Therefore, the present study aimed at exploring industry 4.0 initiatives through comprehensive electronic survey of literature to estimate the extend of its launching in different regions. Inferences were drawn from industry 4.0 initiatives in developed nations to be used as the recommendations for East Africa Community. Results of the survey revealed that 117 industry 4.0 initiatives have been launched in 56 countries worldwide consisting of five regions. The country’s percent of industry 4.0 initiatives as per region were: Latin America and the Caribbean (15%), North America (40%), Europe (53%), Asia and Oceania (25%), Middle East and Africa (11%). While the worldwide percent was estimated as 25%. This revealed that the big gap is existing between countries towards the race for industry 4.0.