CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0504.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: Income diversification; idiosyncratic risk; emerging economies; Ridge/Lasso/ Elastics net regression
Online: 20 November 2018 (15:29:13 CET)
Modern portfolio theory claims that diversification into non-correlated or negatively correlated activities reduces the overall risk of a portfolio. Considering the total income of a bank as a portfolio of interest income and non-interest income, this paper investigates how the variability of interest income and non- interest income, and covariance between interest income and non-interest income influence the various risk factors of banks. We set out a study in the Indian context. We have extracted data for the period 2005-2017 and employed an extended version of Ridge, Lasso and Elastics Net regression to take care of multi-collinearly in our data. We have considered 10-fold cross-validation techniques to get optimal values of tuning parameters for Ridge, Lasso, and Elastics Net regression (which is a convex combination of ridge and the LASSO). We have compared different regression techniques by comparing RMSE and R2. We observe that non-interest income is positively correlated with interest income in the Indian context, but it does stabilize variance, idiosyncratic risk & market risk (Beta) of Indian Banks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Rural land right; farmers’ income; farm income; non-farm income; land transfer
Online: 26 August 2022 (09:44:58 CEST)
Based on data from the Yunnan Province farm household survey, we examine the effect of rural land rights policy on farmers’ income. The regression results show that right significantly raises the total income of farmers, with farm income serving as the primary source of total income. After performing numerous robustness tests, using instrumental variables to handle endogeneity and arriving at the same conclusion, the result is still valid. According to the heterogeneity analysis, in the sample of households with long-term migrant workers, the confirmation of rural land rights significantly increases total and nonfarm income while decreasing farm income. Furthermore, total income includes nonfarm income, which reflects the effect of different farmers' optimal labor allocation based on the external market environment. According to the impact mechanism anal-ysis, right can increase farmers' total income by promoting land transfer, and farmers in less developed areas are more willing to increase their income by land transfer out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: sustainable assets; sustainable strategies; income of forestry household; forestry income; non-forestry income
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:25:08 CEST)
This study aims to identify the factors determining the income of forestry household in South Korea. We examine an empirical analysis using 3-year panel data conducted by the Korea Forest Service charged with maintaining South Korea's forest lands. The hypothesized factors determining the income of forestry household are classified into four types of assets and three types of livelihood strategies. We divided the income of forestry household (IFH) into three elements: forestry income (FI), non-forestry income (NFI), and transfer income (TI). We assessed the influences of household assets and livelihood strategies on each income. A random effect model was used as a statistical analysis with valid 979 of forestry household for three years. We found that household head's age, labor hours, savings, business category, cultivated land size, and region are significantly associated with IFH. Also, FI is influenced by labor capacity, cultivated size, business category, forestry business portfolio, and region while NFI is determined by household head's age, household head's gender, forestry business portfolio, and savings. TI is affected by household head's age, household head's education level, forestry business portfolios, savings, and region. The effect sizes and directions vary across different types of income (IFH, FI, NFI, and TI). The findings show that forestry in South Korea is highly dependent on sustainable assets and strategies. It is therefore expected that the effectiveness of forest policies to increase the income of forestry household would be differed by the source of each income. The results of this study draw attention to the need for an income support policy that should consider the characteristics of household assets and livelihood strategies in order to enhance IFH in South Korea.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: chronic pediatric pain; low income country; middle income country; low and middle income country; pediatric palliative care.
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:45:24 CEST)
Chronic pain is a serious health concern and potentially debilitating condition, leading to anxiety, depression, reduced productivity and functionality, and poor quality of life. This condition can be even more detrimental and incapacitating in the pediatric patient population. In low and middle income countries (LMICs), pain services are inadequate or unavailable, leaving most of the world's pediatric population with chronic pain untreated. Many of these children in LMICs are suffering without treatment, and often die in pain. Awareness and advocacy for this population must be prioritized. We reviewed the available literature on the chronic pediatric pain burden in LMICs, barriers to treatments, and current efforts to treat these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0171.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: additional income; commercialization; cooperatives; smallholder farmer; ICTs; variables
Online: 10 March 2020 (14:06:29 CET)
The study examined key socio-economic characteristics of smallholder farmers identified for their contribution to market participation. These variables include gender, age, marital status, level of education, household size, additional income, membership of cooperative, herd size and use of ICTs. Using a structured questionnaire, primary data was collected from a total of 129 respondents which was analysed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and presented using cross-tabulations, percentages and count data. The result indicates that age, additional income, cooperative membership and use of ICTs were important variables which contributed to market participation among respondents. The study also made applicable recommendations as the findings may have relevance for future research, policy and practice for commercializing smallholder farmers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0399.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: consumer perception; environment; health; income level; organic farming
Online: 25 June 2018 (16:40:48 CEST)
In the field of agricultural food production, the transition between organic and inorganic farming methods has been an issue of much debate. The debate, on one hand, stresses the urgency for the transition in order to preserve environment and health; and, on the other hand, emphasizes the pressure of maintaining food production for a large growing population. Thus, the dilemma is how to find an agricultural system that would balance between obtaining food security and ensuring a safe sustainably environment-friendly food production system. This article focuses on the debate, in the context of Bangladesh, and questions whether it is the proper time, and stage in the development process, to attempt the transition from inorganic conventional food production methods to organic food production methods. This article contemplates why the organic rice market is not expanding in Bangladesh, and attempts to explain the slow growth of the market through the two main factors of income constraint and lack of awareness among people about the environmental and health detriments of inorganic farming methods. The study is exploratory in nature, and finds that it is not mainly the lack of awareness but the income constraint that can be principally attributed to the slow expansion of the organic rice market in Bangladesh. Through exploring consumers’ awareness about organic farming methods and their demand for organic products, this study shows how income as the major constraint, besides price, affects consumers demand for organic and inorganic rice in Bangladesh. Income being identified as the major barrier reveals the potential of the organic rice market to grow in the future, as Bangladesh continues its journey towards becoming a middle-income country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0571.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Sustainability; Sport Performance; Sport Management; Value Added Reporting; Value Added Income Statement; Listed Football Clubs; Communities development; Fair Income Distribution.
Online: 28 October 2020 (08:48:28 CET)
Sports are framed within the context of the Olympic spirit and are, therefore, within the vision and mission of the Olympic Committee, aimed at “building a better world”. This is identified as a fundamental value and sustainability is therefore explicitly considered to be a “working principle” of this. In this research an analysis of the performance of professional European football teams publicly listed on stock markets, restating the income statements according to the Value-Added perspective is carried out. This takes into account the effective sustainable contribution in the distribution of added value with reference to the human, structural, debt, infrastructural, and risk capitals of these organisations. The Value-Added Statement is considered as a part of the broader CSR Reporting and can be traced back to the late 1970s. However, it is in widespread contemporary use and is regarded as being both a credible and a tested measure. In this paper, the authors apply a slightly modified and simplified version of this tool to these publicly listed European football clubs as a proxy for wider professional sport. This research demonstrates that, although professional sports clubs are profit-oriented, the distribution of wealth generated by the added value is unbalanced. In most cases, at least in financial terms, shareholders are the most disadvantaged and athletes are the most rewarded.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0276.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; anxiety; depression; family income; physical activity
Online: 16 August 2022 (03:59:08 CEST)
Background: Young adults, particularly university students might be at greater risk of developing psychological distress, and exhibiting symptoms of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to explore and compare the determinants and predictors of mental health (anxiety and depression) during and after COVID-19 lockdown among university students. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a sample size of 417 students. An online survey utilizing International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form (IPAQ-SF), General Anxiety Disorder–7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was distributed to Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman students via Google forms. Results: During lockdown, family income [χ2 (1, n=124) = 5.155, p=0.023], and physical activity [χ2 (1, n=134) = 6.366, p=0.012] were associated with anxiety, while depression was associated with gender [χ2 (1, n=75) = 4.655, p=0.031]. After lockdown, family income was found to be associated with both anxiety [χ2 (1, n=111) = 8.089, p=0.004], and depression [χ2 (1, n=115) =9.305, p=0.002]. During lockdown, family income (OR=1.60, p=0.018), and physical activity (OR=0.59, p=0.011) were predictors for anxiety, and gender (OR=0.65, p=0.046) being the only predictor for depression. After lockdown, family income was a predictor for both anxiety (OR=1.67, p=0.011), and depression (OR=1.70, p=0.009). Conclusion: Significant negative effects attributed to the COVID-19 lockdown, and certain factors predisposed to the worsening of mental health status in university students. Family income, physical activity level, and gender were some of the major determinants that influenced the anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Internet use; social capital; income gap between farmers; mechanism
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:26:17 CEST)
Based on 2010, 2013 and 2015 CGSS data, the impact of Internet use and social capital on the income gap among farmers in the past five years is assessed at three time points using the OLS method and a quantile regression method. The study finds that (1) the income gap among farmers increases continuously in the five-year period, while Internet use plays a positive impact on farmers’ income growth in all five quartiles; the coefficient differences are all significantly negative, indicating that Internet use plays a positive role in alleviating the income gap between high-income and low-income farmer subgroups, and (2) social capital plays a positive role in moderating the income gap among farmers and that Internet use by farmers expands the boundary of social capital, which in turn increases the income level of and alleviates the income gap among farmers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0375.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Firewood; Forest dependence; Gender; Household income; Livelihoods; Wealth status
Online: 23 May 2020 (10:56:38 CEST)
Rural households across developing countries rely on diversified sources of income and forest resource play important role in this regard. This study is designed with the objectives of assessing the contribution of forests to annual income of rural households and identifying its determinants with the case of Essera woreda forest in western Ethiopia. It also examined the gender dimensions of forest income and how this income varies with the wealth status of households key informants interview focus group discussion and household based questionnaire survey were used to collect data. On average income from crop production accounted for (40.7%) of the total annual household income. Forest income is second in importance contributing (32.6%), income from livestock off and non-farm activities and woodlots accounted for (13.6%), (11.4%) and (1.7%) of the total household income respectively. Firewood is the most used forest product and constituted the largest proportion (79%) of the total forest income. Forest income is more important for poor households (47.3%) than for medium (30.5%) or rich (20.2%) households. It is also more important for female headed households (58.2%) than for male headed households (29%). The gender dimension of forest income is also important within the household. Female members generated about four times more forest income (77% of the household forest income) than male members (23%). Policy to promote new forest management arrangement such as participatory forest management (PFM) needs to take in to account the major forest users and the types of products they depend on and be accompanied with other poverty reduction measures so that improved forest conservation outcome will not have negative consequences on local livelihoods particularly on poor and women who depend most on the forest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: bio-digesters; household income levels; renewable energy; socio-economic
Online: 25 May 2018 (10:55:58 CEST)
1) Background: The environmental, financial and social questions in Africa remain unanswered up-to-date, with the rapid increase in human population and the demand for fuel energy, trigger the need to generate data on the socio-economic factors influencing the knowledge of use and adoption of family-sized bio-digesters. The increasing prices of fossil fuels and taxes on energy sources require finding the alternative, clean and economical sources of energy for households in developing countries. Moreover, in Africa, the consumption of firewood and charcoal continues to increase, with wood fuel consumption predicted to increase by 2030 to over 140%. The study objectives were 1) to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the people in Ngoma district, 2) to assess socio-economic factors influencing people to use and adopt family-sized bio-digesters. 2) Methods: Quantitative data collected with semi-structured questionnaires and interviews were analyzed using descriptive statistics. 3) Results: The results show that many households had not realized the potential benefits of biogas use and adoption in Rwanda. The study further found that a number of factors such as household income levels, socio-economic, technological, and institutional influence the household use and adoption of biogas energy. 4) Conclusions: At the end, the study suggests the need for all players such as Government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) and local communities to work together to provide incentives and favorable environment that can attract individual households to invest in biogas energy production and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: income distribution; cost distribution; vulnerable region; adaptation measures; Bangladesh
Online: 22 May 2018 (12:54:33 CEST)
Widespread poverty is the most serious threat and social problem that Bangladesh faces. Regional vulnerability to climate change threatens to escalate the magnitude of this poverty. It is essential that projections of poverty be made while bearing in mind the effects of climate change. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the agrarian sub-national regional analysis of climate change vulnerability in Bangladesh under various climate change scenarios and its potential impact on poverty. This study is relevant to socio-economic research on climate change vulnerability and agriculture risk management and has the potential to contribute new insights to the complex interactions in household income and climate change risks to agricultural communities in Bangladesh and South Asia. The current study uses analysis of variance, cluster analysis, decomposition of variance and log-normal distribution to estimate the parameters of income variability that ascertain vulnerability levels and help us to understand the poverty levels that climate change could potentially incur. It is found that the income share in income sources revealed that income category shares across the various regions of Bangladesh are far from uniform. The variance decomposition of income showed that agricultural income in Mymensingh and Rangpur is the main cause of income difference. Moreover, large variance of agricultural income in the regions is induced by gross income from rice production. Additionally, constant reduction of rice yield due to climate change in Bangladesh is not such a severe problem for farmers, however, the extreme events like flood, flash flood, drought, sea level rise, and greenhouse gas emission based on RCPs could increase the poverty rates in Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Barisal, and Khulna regions that would be highly affected by unexpected yield loss due to extreme climatic events. Therefore, research and development of adaptation measures to climate change for regions where farmers are largely dependent on agricultural income is important.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Sexuality; Mental Health; Adolescents; Experiences; Low and middle-income countries
Online: 18 January 2022 (10:47:22 CET)
During puberty and emerging sexuality, adolescents experience important physical, mental, and social transformations. In the process of dealing with these changes, adolescents can become potentially vulnerable to mental health problems.The aim was to identify and synthesize published research evidence on sexuality-related mental health stressors among adolescent girls and boys, identify gaps (if any) in current knowledge, and contribute to knowledge about the experiences of emerging sexuality and health among adolescents, to further inform research, practice, and policy initiatives in sexual health.A scoping literature review of peer-reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2018. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global health, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched for research studies that reported experiences of sexuality related mental health issues and symptomatology of adolescents. We targeted studies conducted with adolescent populations between ages 11-24 years living in LMICs.Data from 12 published research papers, including 8 qualitative studies, 3 quantitative studies, and 1 mixed method study, were systematically analyzed. Four major themes and 4 sub themes were identified regarding sexual health and mental health of adolescents: 1) Relationship of sexuality and mental health; 2) Social and cultural influences; 3) Challenges in seeking sexuality information and services among adolescents; and 4) Educational needs among adolescents related to sexuality; and 4) Educational needs among adolescents related to sexuality. Lack of social support, Unmet needs for accessible adolescent friendly sexual health services, counseling, and age-appropriate information may be associated with several mental health stressors and symptoms, such as sadness, depressive and anxiety symptomatology, regret, fear, embarrassment, low self-esteem, guilt, shame, and anger. Therefore, tackling sexuality-related stressors could play an important role in addressing the overall wellbeing of young people. Future studies need to generate a deeper understanding of the concept of sexual health and its relation to mental health in diverse contexts. Health care professionals need to be aware of sexuality-related experiences of adolescent girls and boys by offering effective youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health education to support overall mental health and improve the experiences of emerging sexuality in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0350.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Peer-to-peer economy; Income distribution; Unemployment compensation; Technological change
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:06:46 CEST)
We show that an exponential income distribution will emerge spontaneously in a peer-to-peer economic network that shares the publicly available technology. Based on this finding, we identify the exponential income distribution as the benchmark structure of the well-functioning market economy. However, a real market economy may deviate from the well-functioning market economy. We show that the deviation is partly reflected as the invalidity of exponential distribution in describing the super-low income class that involves unemployment. In this regard, we find, theoretically, that the lower-bound u of exponential income distribution has a linear relationship with (per capita) unemployment compensation. In this paper, we test this relationship for the United Kingdom from 2001 to 2015. Our empirical investigation confirms that the income structure of low and middle classes (about 90% of populations) in the United Kingdom exactly obeys exponential distribution, in which the lower-bound u is exactly in line with the evolution of unemployment compensation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0094.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: economic sustainability; environment conservation; food security; income diversity; indigenous fruit.
Online: 7 December 2018 (17:15:43 CET)
Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra L) is an indigenous fruit tree of southern Africa. It is currently found in the dry, wooded grassland and forest edges of the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Existing literature have mainly focused on the medicinal and nutritional as well as phytochemical characterization of Kei-apple. Thus, this review highlights beneficial economic prospects of Dovyalis caffra and its contribution to the economic prosperity. It is a drought tolerant plant with diverse uses such as income from the sale of the fruit, cultivated as a fence or to form an impenetrable hedge while the leaves are used for nutrient leaching prevention, fodder and compost making. The trunk of Dovyalis caffra serves as a good source of hard wood for fuel, house building and furniture making. It is also a good apicultural fruit tree and an excellent habitat and fertilizer derivation agent for farming activities. Considering the multidimensional effect of poverty and the food insecurity on many rural communities globally, there is a need to explore the potentials by encouraging the cultivation of Dovyalis caffra to assist with reducing unemployment, food insecurity and income-poverty problems in the arid and semi-arid areas of the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: residential electricity consumption; income; piecewise linear model; China; robust tests
Online: 14 October 2016 (09:53:13 CEST)
There are many uncertainties and risks in residential electricity consumption during the economic development. Knowledge of the relationship between residential electricity consumption and its key determinant—income—are important to the sustainable development of electric power industry. Using panel data from 30 provinces for the 1995-2012 period, this study investigates how residential electricity consumption changes as incomes increase in China. Previous studies typically used linear or quadratic double-logarithmic models imposing ex ante restrictions on the indistinct relationship between residential electricity consumption and income. Contrary to those models, we employed a reduced piecewise linear model that is self-adaptive and highly flexible and circumvents the problem of “prior restrictions.” Robust tests of different segment specifications and regression methods are performed to ensure the conservatism of the research. The results provide strong evidence that the income elasticity was approximately one, and it remained stable throughout the estimation period. The income threshold at which residential electricity consumption automatically remains stable or slows has not been reached. To ensure the sustainable development of the electric power industry, introducing higher energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances and improving income levels are vital. And government should emphasize electricity conservation in industrial sector rather than in residential sector.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: checkout; policy; product placement; obesity; nutrition; retail; marketing; disparities; race; income.
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:32:49 CET)
Background: As the only place in a store where all customers must pass through and wait, the checkout lane may be particularly influential over consumer purchases. Because most foods and beverages sold at checkout are unhealthy (e.g., candy/sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and salty snacks), policymakers and advocates have expressed growing interest in healthy checkout policies. To understand the extent to which such policies could improve nutrition equity, we as-sessed the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of purchasing items from checkout. Methods: We assessed self-reported checkout purchasing and sociodemographic characteristics in a national convenience sample of adults (n=10,348) completing an online survey in 2021. Re-sults: Over one-third (36%) of participants reported purchasing foods or drinks from checkout during their last grocery shopping trip. Purchasing items from checkout was more common among men; adults <55 years of age; low-income consumers; Hispanic, non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native, and non-Hispanic Black consumers; those with at least a bachelor’s degree; parents; and consumers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes (p-values<0.05). Conclusions: Purchasing foods or beverages from store checkouts is common and more prevalent among low-income and racial and ethnic minority groups. These results suggest that healthy checkout policies have the potential to improve nutrition equity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: informal caregiving; unpaid family caregivers; labour force participation; income; labour supply
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:58:39 CET)
Unpaid family caregivers might suffer losses in income as a result of care provision. Here we used data from the baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study to assess the relationship between hours of weekly caregiving provided to grandchildren/parents/parents-in-law and individual’s monthly employment income. Our study sample comprised 3,718 middle-aged Chinese adults who were of working age (45-60 years). For women and men separately, we used a likelihood-based method to determine a caregiving threshold in a two-stage Heckman selection procedure. Instrumental variables were used to rule out the endogeneity of caregiving hours. Our analysis revealed a negative association between caregiving and income for women that depended on a caregiving threshold of 63-hours per week. There was an absence of caregiving-income relationship among men. These results offer new insights into the opportunity costs of unpaid caregiving and support tailored policies to protect the financial well-being of female caregivers.
Subject: Keywords: Smallholder farmer; Vocational training; Income; Endogenous transformation regression model; Moderating effect
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:20:07 CEST)
This article explores the impact of farmers’ vocational training on their income. Survey data concerning agricultural product quality and agricultural product sales were collected by the research team in Yantai City, China. An endogenous transformation regression model (ESR) was then used to analyze the impact of training on farmers’ family income, and the income mechanism was further tested. The results from the empirical analysis suggest that (1) Participating in training can significantly increase farmers’ income; (2) Farmers who pay more attention to the quality of their agricultural products during the production process are more likely to see their incomes increase after participating in the training.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: diet quality; socioeconomic status; inequalities; education, income; obesity; 24h dietary recall
Online: 21 June 2019 (09:56:57 CEST)
Socioeconomically disadvantaged people are disproportionally more likely to develop obesity and obesity-related diseases. However, it remains unclear to what extent diet quality contributes to socioeconomic inequalities in obesity. We aimed to assess the role of diet quality in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity. Data originated from the national nutrition survey, a cross-sectional sample of the adult Swiss population (N=1860). We used education and income as proxies for SES; calculated the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) as measure of diet quality; and used body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as obesity markers. We applied counterfactual mediation modelling to generate odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and the proportion mediated by diet quality. Individuals with less than a tertiary education were two to three times more likely to be obese, regardless of the marker (OR; 95% CI: 3.36 (2.01, 5.66) using BMI; 2.44 (1.58, 3.75) using WC; 2.48 (1.63, 3.78) using WHR; and 2.04 (1.43, 2.96) using WHtR). The proportion of the association between educational level and obesity that was mediated by diet quality was 22.1% using BMI, 26.6% using WC, 31.4% using WHtR, and 35.8% using WHR. Similar findings were observed for income. Our findings suggest that diet quality substantially contributes to socioeconomic inequalities in obesity while it does not fully explain them. Focusing efforts on improving the diet quality of disadvantaged groups could help reduce social inequalities in obesity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: qualitative research; infant feeding; complementary feeding; breast feeding; low income country
Online: 8 August 2017 (12:00:26 CEST)
Continued high rates of both under- and over-nutrition in low- and low-middle-income countries highlight the importance of understanding dietary practices such as early and exclusive breastfeeding, and dietary patterns such as timely, appropriate complementary feeding—these behaviors that are rooted in complex cultural ecologies. A systematic review and synthesis of available qualitative research related to infant and young child dietary patterns and practices from the perspective of parents and families in low income settings is presented, with a focus on barriers and facilitators to achieving international recommendations. Data from both published and grey literature from 2006-2016 was included in the review. Quality assessment consisted of two phases (CASP guidelines and assessment using GRADE-CERQual), followed by synthesis of the studies identified, and subsequent thematic analysis and interpretation. The findings indicated several categories of both barriers and facilitators, spanning individual and system level factors. The review informs efforts aimed at improving child health and nutrition, and represents the first such comprehensive review of the qualitative literature, uniquely suited to understanding complex behaviors leading to infant and young child dietary patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0432.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Consumption; Health care expenditure; Luxury good hypothesis; Permanent income hypothesis; Panel cointegration
Online: 27 December 2021 (14:09:29 CET)
A wide range of research has been developed in the empirical literature regarding income and price elasticities of health care expenditure (HCE). The results are mixed, as researchers employ different methodologies and data sources. The benefits of the panel data method, such as greater data variation, less collinearity, and more degrees of freedom, made it attractive among economists. However, the pooled mean group (PMG) method provides robust estimates compared to conventional methods, such as the mean group estimator and dynamic fixed-effects estimator. As such, this paper applies the PMG method to scrutinize the effect of income and price on U.S. health care consumption using a panel of 46 states. The income and price elasticities were found to be 0.85 and -0.48, respectively, which partially describes the recessionary decline in health care consumption following the Great Recession. In addition, the model reveals that the short-run income elasticity is smaller than the long-run. This confirms that U.S. health care consumption follows the permanent income hypothesis. Consequently, the short-run efficacy of public policies targeting HCE remains limited. The results of this paper suggest reconsidering and adjusting health care policies during a recession so as to avoid probable long-run adverse effects on HCE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0472.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Online misinformation; COVID-19 vaccination; fully vaccinated; Intelligence Quotient; per capita income
Online: 20 September 2021 (12:12:19 CEST)
The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with lower COVID-19 vaccination rates in the United States. The study evaluated the effect of red-blue political affiliation and the effect of the US state's average educational aptitude score and per capita income on states' vaccination rates. The study found that states with concomitantly lower income along with lower educational aptitude scores are less vaccinated while the states with higher income have higher vaccination rates even among those with lower educational aptitude scores. These findings stayed significant after adjusting for red-blue political affiliation where states with red political affiliation have lower vaccination rates. Further study is needed to evaluate how to stop online misinformation among states with low income and low educational aptitude scores; and whether such an effort will increase overall vaccination rates in the United States.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0499.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Generalized Pareto distribution; Exponential income distribution; Technology factor; Information stock; Decentralized decisions
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:20:38 CEST)
This paper provides attempts to formalize Hayek’s theory of knowledge. It has been theoretically shown that exponential income distribution is a spontaneous order of the well-functioning market economy. We show that this theoretical result is supported by the empirical evidence from the United Kingdom and China. In particular, we empirically show how the income structure of China evolved towards an exponential distribution after the market-oriented economic reformation. Furthermore, we strictly prove that, if the income structure of an economy obeys an exponential distribution, the income summation over all households leads to an aggregate production function with Hicks-neutral-like technical progress, in which the technology factor is exactly equal to society’s information stock that is a result of combining all of decentralized decisions.
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: universal basic income (UBI); labour supply; inequality; poverty; sustainability of social policies
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:33:41 CEST)
The objective of this article is to determine as conclusively as possible if the implementation of a UBI (universal basic income) would lead to a significant reduction in the working age population labour supply. If this were true, implementation of a UBI would be unsustainable. To do this, we will compile empirical evidence from studies over the last few decades on the effects of implementation of a UBI on employment. We apply the PRISMA methodology to better judge their validity, which ensures maximum reliability of the results by avoiding biases and making the work reproducible. Given that the methodologies used in these studies are diverse, they are reviewed to contextualize the results taking into account the possible limitations detected in these methodologies. While many authors have been writing about this issue citing experiences or experiments, the added value of this article is that it performs a systematic review following a widely tested scientific methodology. Over 1,200 documents that discuss the UBI/employment relationship have been reviewed. We found a total of 50 empirical cases, of which 18 were selected, and 38 studies with contrasted empirical evidence on this relationship. The results speak for themselves: despite a detailed search, we have not found any evidence of a significant reduction in labour supply; instead we found evidence that labour supply increases globally among adults, men and women, young and old; and the existence of some insignificant and functional reductions to the system such as a decrease in workers from the following categories: children, the elderly, the sick, those with disabilities, women with young children to look after, or young people who continued studying. These reductions do not reduce overall supply because it is largely offset by increased supply from other members of the community.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0234.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; comorbidity; race and ethnicity; health disparities; income; inequality; influenza
Online: 15 April 2020 (09:25:47 CEST)
Recent clinical SARS-CoV-2 studies link diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension to increased disease severity. In the US, racial and ethnic minorities and low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals are more likely to have increased rates of these comorbidities, lower baseline health, limited access to care, increased perceived discrimination, and limited resources, all of which increase their vulnerability to severe disease and poor health outcomes from SARS-CoV-2. Previous studies demonstrated the disproportionate impact of pandemic and seasonal influenza on these populations, due to these risk factors. This paper reviews increased health risks and documented health disparities of racial and ethnic minorities and low SES individuals in the US. Pandemic response must prioritize these marginalized communities to minimize the negative, disproportionate impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on them and manage spread throughout the entire population. This paper concludes with recommendations applicable to healthcare facilities and public officials at various government levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0388.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: planned economy; distribution; market economy; convergence; Mises; Hayek; universal basic income; guaranteed job
Online: 22 November 2021 (12:04:21 CET)
Arguments of Mises and Hayek, who opposed the planned economy (PE), are used in the paper as a starting point for establishing the objective area of effective application of the PE. The abstract model of PE, based on the definitions of Mises and Hayek, leads to the conclusion that for the effective use of PE, it must be a part of mixed economy and it must produce a limited amount of essential goods of irreducible demand. These goods must be distributed among all members of society free of charge, evenly, without competition. Examples of a mixed economy are given that meet this requirement. Calculations of the personal benefit in the transition to a mixed model of the economy have been carried out. The positive and negative qualities of the planned and market methods of organization are considered. Mixed economy model combines these qualities in optimal construction. An analytical framework has been introduced for the construction of product characterization curves. Such curves provide criteria for determining the efficiency of manufacturing of this product in a planned economy. The general economic prerequisites for the usability of the PE are clarified. The applicability and advantages of the PE for the organization of the universal basic income (UBI) system are demonstrated. The possibility of using PE to solve the problem of guaranteed employment is mentioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0283.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Emotional intelligence; intelligence quotient; national income; wealth code; human capital; corruption perception index
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:20:02 CET)
Background: Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a measure of intellectual ability of performing, comprehension, and learning. Previous studies reported that intelligence measures predict various measures of job performance and income. Emotional awareness (EA) is the measure of emotional capacity to recognize and make sense of one’s emotions, as well as those of others. A high level of emotional awareness (EA) indicates one can learn from expressed emotions quickly. Both IQ and EA are important for personal and professional success.Objective: This study tests the hypothesis that the average national income rank is best predicted by the combined effect of the population's average intelligence quotient (one's ability to perform and learn) and emotional awareness (ability to recognize and make sense of emotions).Method: The population’s average intelligence quotient (IQ), emotional awareness (EA), and indices of good governance, which include corruption perception index and educational expenses for each country, were obtained from public data sources. The outcome variable was per capita gross national income. All the variables that are statistically significant in univariate analysis were included in the multivariate regression analyses but excluded from the final model if not statistically significant.Result: The total number of countries included in the final analysis was 81 because of missing values in different variables. Intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional awareness (EA) were found to be highly correlated, at 0.77 and 0.32 respectively, with the per capita gross national income. The independent effects of intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional awareness (EA) were found significant in the multivariate model after adjusting for measures of good governance. The R square value for the final multivariate model was 0.82. The corruption perception index (CPI) and educational expenses were strongly correlated with other measures of good governance such as democracy index, functioning of government, electoral process and pluralism, political participation, and civil liberty, but these variables were found not significant in the multivariate model. Conclusion: The study concludes the effect of intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional awareness (EA) are complementary to each other but intelligence quotient (IQ) is a stronger predictor than emotional awareness (EA) for gross national income or wealth. We also find that indicators of good governance, including corruption perception index and educational expenses, have important associations with per capita gross national income. This study implies a nation may build more wealth if the educational system focuses on developing emotional awareness in addition to intelligence. The study concludes the effect of intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional awareness (EA) are complementary to each other but intelligence quotient (IQ) is a stronger predictor than emotional awareness (EA) for gross national income or wealth. We also find that indicators of good governance, including corruption perception index and educational expenses, have important associations with per capita gross national income. This study implies a nation may build more wealth if the educational system focuses on developing emotional awareness in addition to intelligence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Multimorbidity; Non-communicable diseases; Lifestyle prevention; Public health; Low and Middle Income Countries
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:04:04 CEST)
Objectives: Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) are experiencing a fast-paced epidemiological rise in clusters of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, forming an imminent rise in multimorbidity (MMD). However, preventing MMD has received little attention in LMICs, especially in Sub-Saharan African Countries. Design: Narrative review which scoped the most recent evidence in LMICs about MMD determinants and appropriated them for potential MMD prevention strategies. Methods: MMD in LMICs is affected by several determinants including increased age, female gender, environment, lower socio-economic status, obesity, and lifestyle behavious, especially poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Results: MMD public health interventions in LMICs, especially Sub-Saharan are currently impeded by local and regional economic disparity, underdeveloped healthcare systems, and concurrent prevalence of communicable diseases. However, lifestyle interventions that are targeted towards preventing highly prevalent MMD clusters, especially hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, can provide an early prevention of MMD, especially within Sub-Saharan African countries with emerging economies and socio-economic disparity. Conclusion: Future public health initiatives should consider targeted lifestyle interventions and appropriate policies and guidelines in preventing MMD in LMICs.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: entropy; wealth; income distribution; options; potentiality; principle of maximum entropy; Second Law; stochastics
Online: 18 August 2021 (08:14:33 CEST)
While entropy was introduced in the second half of the 19th century in the international vocabulary as a scientific term, in the 20th century it became common in colloquial use. Popular imagination has loaded “entropy” with almost every negative quality in the universe, in life and in society, with a dominant meaning of disorder and disorganization. Exploring the history of the term and many different approaches on it, we show that entropy has a universal stochastic definition which is not disorder. The accompanying principle of maximum entropy, which lies behind the Second Law, gives explanatory and inferential power to the concept and promotes entropy as the mother of creativity and evolution. As social sciences are often contaminated by subjectivity and ideological influences, we try to explore whether the maximum entropy, applied to the distribution of wealth quantified by annual income, can give an objective description. Using publicly available income data, we show that the income distribution is consistent with the principle of the maximum entropy. The increase of entropy is associated to increase of society’s wealth yet a standardized form of entropy can be used to quantify inequality. Historically, technology has played a major role in development and increase of the entropy of income. Such findings are contrary to the theories of ecological economics and other theories which use the term entropy in a Malthusian perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0424.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: digital inclusive finance; rural income; Henan Province, China; empirical analysis; countermeasures and suggestions
Online: 29 July 2021 (11:16:10 CEST)
This paper empirically analyzes the relationship between digital inclusive finance and rural income, and demonstrates that digital inclusive finance plays a significant role in promoting rural income, based on the 2012-2018 panel data of 17 cities in Henan Province of China. Further dimensional research unveils that all of its breadth of coverage, depth of use and degree of digitization present significant positive correlation with rural income, and a robustness test was conducted through the sub-sample method. In addition, according to regression analysis on the influencing factors of digital inclusive finance through the Tobit model, the level of economic development, the Internet popularity rate and the urbanization rate have a positive effect on the development of digital inclusive finance in Henan, while the income gap between urban and rural areas and the degree of opening up have a negative effect. Finally, predicated on the analysis of the restrictive factors of Henan’s digital inclusive finance in increasing rural income, the paper puts forward specific policy proposals based on the native state quo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0602.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Economic complexity; Poverty headcount; Economic Growth; Economic growth volatility; Income inequality; External shocks.
Online: 29 January 2021 (06:06:47 CET)
This paper has examined the effect of economic complexity on poverty in developing countries. The analysis has used a sample of 84 countries over the period 1980-2017. Results indicate that greater economic complexity results in lower poverty headcount rates. This is particularly the case for countries that enjoy higher economic growth rates, lower levels of income inequality and lower degrees of economic growth volatility, including due to lower sizes of export demand and financial flows shocks. These findings have important policy implications for developing countries that are exploring ways and means to recover from the current COVID-19 pandemic crisis, and prepare for future crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0695.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Tourism livelihood income; prevent COVID-19; protective intention; merged model; local tourism practitioners
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:37:04 CEST)
(1) Background: This study examines the intention to behave actively prevent COVID-19 among local tourism practitioners by adopting an empirically validated norm activation model (NAM) of Schwartz and merging it with the Expectancy theory of Vroom; (2) Methods: The study aims to develops a theoretical framework for understanding the formation and predicting the change of personal protective intention to prevent COVID-19. Based on 514 valid responses from the field surveys; (3) Results: The author develops the refined model including 7 constructs and 26 observational items, and the results showed that the refined model has enjoys a better predictive accuracy of protective intention than the original NAM; and (4) Conclusions: The intention of preventing COVID-19 should needs wider public support and advocacy, and recognizing the change rule of improving behavioral intentions of preventing COVID-19 to maintain the safe tourism image of tourist attractions in Zhangjiajie is also beneﬁts for local tourism practitioners.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0268.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: HPV self-sampling; cervical cancer; women living with HIV; low- and middle-income coutries
Online: 20 May 2022 (03:40:58 CEST)
Introduction. Self-sampling has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening (CCS) among women living with HIV (WLWH) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, our understanding of how HPV self-collection studies have been conducted in WLWH is limited. The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the extent to which the HPV self-sampling has been applied among WLWH in LMICs. Method: We conducted multiple searches in several databases for articles published between 2000 and January 2022. With the combination of keywords relating to HPV self-sampling, LMICs, and WLWH, we retrieved over 9,000 articles. We used pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria to select relevant studies for this review. Once a study met the inclusion criteria, we created a table to extract each study’s characteristics and classified them under common themes. We used a qualitative descriptive approach to summarize the scoping results. Results: A total of 12 articles were included in the final review. Overall, 3,178 women were enrolled in those studies and 2,105 (66%) of them were WLWH. The self-sampling participation rate was 92.6%. The findings of our study show that 43% of the WLWH in 8 of the studies reviewed tested positive for high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) genotypes, indicating 4 out of 10 WLWH in the studies are at risk of cervical cancer. The prevalence of the hr-HPV in WLWH was 18% higher than that of HIV-negative women. Most women in the study found the self-sampling experience acceptable, easy to use, convenient, and comfortable. Self-sampling performance in detecting hr HPV genotypes is comparable to clinician-performed sampling. However, limited access (i.e., affordability, availability, transportation), limited knowledge about self-screening, doubts about the credibility of self-sampling results, and stigma remain barriers to wide acceptance and implementation of self-sampling. In conclusion, the findings of this review highlight that (a) cervical cancer is a threat to every sexually active woman but for WLWH the threat increases, (b) self-sampling laboratory performance is similar to clinician performed sampling, (c) self-sampling is associated with an increase in cervical cancer screening uptake and (d) WLWH reported a positive experience with self-sampling. However, personal, environmental, and structural barriers challenge the application of self-sampling in LMICs, and these need to be addressed. Keywords: keyword 1; keyword 2; keyword 3 (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: research ethics; longitudinal methodology; youth; phone survey; COVID-19; low- and middle-income countries
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:17:06 CEST)
In this paper, we draw on recent experiences from the Young Lives study to discuss some of the ethical and practical challenges facing longitudinal cohort studies in low- and middle-income countries in the time of coronavirus. We argue that COVID-19 has instigated an ‘ethics of disruption’ for social researchers across the world, and for longitudinal cohort studies like Young Lives, this requires navigating three core considerations: first, managing research relationships and reciprocity within an observational study design; second, maintaining methodological continuity and consistency across time; and third, balancing an immediate short-term response to COVID-19 against the longer-term perspective. We refer to the study’s plan to implement a new COVID-19 phone survey to illustrate how the team are navigating this altered ethical terrain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: climate-smart agriculture; adoption; small-scale irrigation farming; household income; Chinyanja Triangle; Southern Africa
Online: 1 February 2018 (09:33:20 CET)
This article concerns the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle. Chinyanja Triangle is a region that experiences mid-season dry spells and an increase in occurrences of drought due to low and erratic rainfall patterns which is attributed largely to climate variability and change. This poses high agricultural production risks, which aggravate poverty and food insecurity. For this region, adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice is very important. Through a binary logistic and ordinary least squares regression, the article determines factors that influence the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on income among smallholder farmers. The results show that off-farm employment, access to irrigation equipment, access to reliable water sources and awareness of water conservation practices, such as rainwater harvesting have a significant influence on the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming. On the other hand, the farmer’s age, distance travelled to the nearest market and nature of employment negatively influenced the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming decisions. Ordinary least squares regression results showed that the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice has a significant positive influence on agricultural income. We therefore conclude that to empower smallholder farmers to quickly respond to climate variability and change, practices that will enhance adoption of small-scale irrigation farming in the Chinyanja Triangle are critical as this will significantly impact on agricultural income.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0154.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder; Low and Middle-Income Countries; Cross-Cultural; healthcare utilization; treatment barriers; child
Online: 13 September 2022 (03:18:00 CEST)
Delayed diagnosis and a lack of adequate care for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are related to worse outcomes and quality of life. This study aimed to identify the profile of service use, barriers to access care, and factors related to those barriers in Brazilian families with children with ASD. A total of 927 families with ASD children (3-17 years) from five Brazilian regions completed an online version of the Caregivers Needs Survey. Results showed that the most used services were behavioral interventions and pharmacotherapy, while the most used professionals were neurologists, nutritionists, speech therapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and pediatricians. The main barriers included waiting lists, costs, and the absence of services or treatment. Service use varied according to age, the region of residence, the type of health care system used, and the parents/caregivers' education. Access to behavioral interventions was more frequent among users of the private system/health insurance and families whose caregivers had higher education. The absence of specialized services/treatments was less frequent among residents of state capitals and families whose caregivers had higher levels of education. This study highlights how families with children/adolescents with ASD in Brazil face significant barriers to access care related to sociodemographic factors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0452.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: corona; covid-19; crisis management; basic income; environmental politics; globalization; public policy; inequality; sustainable development
Online: 19 May 2021 (14:38:12 CEST)
The rapidly expanding corona pandemic in 2020 brought the world to virtual economic stagna-tion. While the impact on the environment from suspended air traffic, idle industry and economic lockdown has been considerable, so have the economic and social consequences of the crisis. To make matters worse, the resulting state of stagnation is neither economically nor socially sustaina-ble. Nevertheless, we need to ask ourselves what we can learn from the situation in order to ex-plore the benefits of globalization, intercept similar crisis situations more effectively in the future and move towards more sustainable development on an ecological, economic and social level. This paper identifies the areas of expanded externality management needed to further improve environmental quality, digitalization, network expansion and basic income. These central issues need to be addressed both during and after the crisis in order to deal with problems of inequality and climate change mitigation for current and future generations. Concrete concepts will be put forward and discussed in the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0204.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Carbon emissions; infant mortality rate; per capita income; nonrenewable energy; Asia and the Pacific region
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:54:26 CEST)
This study aligns with the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals- 3 which aim to “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”. It contributes to the nascent literature stream on energy-health dynamics by introducing a holistic theoretical model to empirically examine the mediation effect of carbon emissions on the relationship between nonrenewable energy and infant mortality rates. Using an unbalanced panel data on 42 Asia and the Pacific countries from 2005 to 2015 and deploying the structural equation modeling approach, the empirical results are surmised as follows: (i) in regard to the full sample of countries, nonrenewable energy indirectly increases infant mortality rates through increasing carbon emissions. In other words, carbon emissions play a partial mediation role between nonrenewable energy and infant mortality rates; and (ii) for the different income groups, carbon emissions show varying mediation effects. For example, the mediation effects of carbon emissions in lower-middle and upper-middle income countries are found to be similar to those of the full sample of countries. Therefore, based on these findings, we conclude that nonrenewable energy is an essential determinant of infant mortality rates. Policy recommendations are put forward.
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: statistical mechanics; information theory; game theory; subjective utility; entropy; income inequality; distributive justice; monetary policy
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:11:55 CET)
Economics has long sought to bridge the principles of microeconomics into the realm of macroeconomics. This paper presents a formal attempt to do so by using a maximum entropy based approach derived from statistical mechanics coupled with subjective game theory and elements from political philosophy. This approach is then applied to income distributions and to the Cobb-Douglas production function, to create a framework for future applications, and to illustrate where past work had made implicit assumptions regarding the system. The paper then explores the consequences of the approach, illustrating self-contradictions in the political philosophy of distributive justice, formally deriving an equation of state for the transactions on the Bitcoin network, and deriving from this the ideal gas law and polytropic process for an economy proving that expansionary monetary policy is not stimulative.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Optimal income taxation; Tax progressivity; non-linear tax, quality criterion, approximation of a convex function.
Online: 13 November 2020 (08:22:10 CET)
In this paper we analyze and propose new method and algorithm of selecting the optimal labor time as a function of skills following our main references Mirrlees (1971), Saez (2001) and Stancheva (2014). The optimal labor time is a situation when the utility function of individual reaches a maximum. One of the main differences with Saez (2001) is our algorithm for creation the skill distribution
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0010.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: urban sanitation; sewerage network; sewerage connection; low-income community; slum; DSIP; affordability; feasibility; Dhaka; Bangladesh
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:36:01 CEST)
Globally, 2.2 billion urban residents are living without safely-managed sanitation, the majority of whom are slum residents. To improve the situation, Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is implementing the Dhaka Sanitation Improvement Project (DSIP), mostly funded by the World Bank. This study assessed the feasibility of connecting low-income communities (LICs) within the proposed sewerage network by 2025. We conducted nine key-informant interviews from DWASA and City Corporation, and 23 focus-group discussions with landlords, tenants and Community Based Organisations (CBOs) from 16 LICs near the proposed catchment area. To achieve connections, LICs would require improved toilet infrastructures and have to be connected to main roads. Construction of large communal septic tanks is also required where individual toilet connections are difficult. To encourage connection in LICs, income-based or area-based subsidies were recommended. For financing maintenance, respondents suggested monthly fee collection for management of the infrastructure by dividing bill equally among sharing households, or by users per household. Participants also suggested the government's cooperation with development-partners/NGOs to ensure sewerage connection construction, operation and maintenance and prerequisite policy changes such as assuring land tenure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0076.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: low-income Hispanics; type 2 diabetes; diet and exercise intervention; older adults; Health Belief Model
Online: 4 August 2020 (04:45:46 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to present the challenges faced when implementing a diet and exercise intervention for low-income older Hispanics with type 2 diabetes with an observational study of recruitment, attendance, and characteristics of Hispanic adults with type 2 diabetes in a community congregate meal site pre and post administration of a diet and exercise intervention. This report evaluates retentions and diabetes self-management beliefs Hispanic adults ≥60 years with type 2 diabetes (n=17) at baseline, and completion of the six-month intervention in terms of the Health Belief Model. There was limited interest in controlling diabetes with diet and exercise. Major barriers included lack of perceived vulnerability to diabetes complications and a belief that medication alone is sufficient to stabilize blood glucose. Environmental barriers included lack of transportation, access to exercise groups, access grocery stores, and limited ability to pay for healthy foods. A lesson learned from this intervention was that the diet and exercise intervention given was insufficient as a cue to action for this population interventions to engage low-income, older Hispanics with diabetes in diet and exercise need to consider strategies to overcome barriers such as health beliefs, transportation issues, lack of access to nutritious food and group exercise classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0369.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: temperature extreme; warm climate; low-and middle-income economies; COVID-19; mortality; mixed effect modelling
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:38:15 CEST)
We performed a global analysis with data from 149 countries to test whether temperature can explain the spatial variability of the spread rate and mortality of COVID-19 at the global scale. We performed partial correlation analysis and linear mixed effect modelling to evaluate the association of the spread rate and motility of COVID-19 with maximum, minimum, average temperatures and temperature extreme (difference between maximum and minimum temperature) and other environmental and socioeconomic parameters. After controlling the effect of the duration after the first positive case, partial correlation analysis revealed that temperature was not related with the spatial variability of the spread rate of COVID-19. Mortality was negatively related with temperature in the countries with high-income economies. In contrast, temperature extreme was significantly and positively correlated with mortality in the low-and middle-income countries. Taking the country heterogeneity into account, mixed effect modelling revealed that inclusion of temperature as a fixed effect in the model significantly improved model skill predicting mortality in the low-and middle-income countries. Our analysis suggest that warm climate may reduce the mortality rate in high-income economies but in low and middle-income countries temperature extreme may increase the mortality risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0336.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: domestic markets; small producers; retailers; informal restaurants; low-income population; minister of health; well-being
Online: 16 October 2018 (07:49:00 CEST)
Taking four of the United Nations Development Goals as reference, this overview describes the need to see from a systemic perspective, the food certifications programs along the food chain in Mexico as today food certifications are voluntary. Using secondary data, the main objectives were: a) there is a fall short in food safety policies and those federal agencies responsible for food safety, to guarantee safe food along the whole domestic food chain, especially in that for low income players; b) the amount of the Mexican Federal Budget Expenses devoted to safety food issues is really low, considering the health, well- being, and food security consequences; and c) due the structural heterogeneity of the Mexican food market, there is a lack of coordination in food regulations along all agents of the food supply chain, bringing to alternate informal markets that put at risk peoples´ health, increasing poverty and inequalities. According to this exercise, only 0.7- 8.7% of producers, 12.5% of supermarkets as well as 42.8% of restaurants would have some type of certifications. Public policies must attend this issue in order to improve food safety and security for the whole population, reducing inequalities, poverty and ensuring them a healthy live.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: India; COVID-19 pandemic; Cancellation of surgeries; Global lockdown; Low- and Middle-income country; Emergency surgeries
Online: 5 October 2020 (13:02:31 CEST)
Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown have adversely affected global health care services to varying extent. Emergency Services were also affected along with elective surgeries, which were deferred to accommodate the added burden of COVID 19 affected patients, on the healthcare systems. We aimed to assess the change in delivery of essential and emergency surgeries due to the pandemic. Methodology: A research consortium led by WHO Collaboration Centre (WHOCC) for Research in Surgical Care Delivery in Low- and Middle-Income countries (LMIC), India, conducted this retrospective cross-sectional study with 12 recruited centers. All surgeries performed during the months of April 2020 were compared with those performed in April 2019. These surgeries were stratified into emergency and elective, and further categorized based on NHS surgery prioritization documents. Results: A total of 4396 surgeries were performed at these centers in April 2019 and 1216 surgeries were performed in same month during 2020, yielding a fall of 72.3% (1216 /4396).We found a 54% reduction in emergency surgeries and a 91% reduction in the elective surgeries. Number of cesarean sections reduced by 29.7% and fracture surgeries declined by 85.3% Laparotomies and surgeries for local soft tissue infections with necrotic tissue reduced by 71.7% and 69.5% respectively. Conclusion: Our study quantifies the effects of COVID 19 pandemic on surgical care delivery in India and documents that the overall surgical volume reduced by three fourths in the pandemic period. Emergency surgeries reduced to half when compared with pre-pandemic period. Cesarean section surgeries were affected the least by pandemic, whereas the fracture surgeries and laparotomies were affected the most.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: anemia; infancy and toddlerhood; low and middle-income countries; demographic and health survey; infant feeding; multilevel regression
Online: 9 July 2018 (11:14:48 CEST)
In Low and Lower-Middle-Income countries, the prevalence of anemia in infancy remains high. In early childhood anemia cause irreversible cognitive deficits and represents a higher risk of child mortality. The consequences of anemia in infancy are a major barrier to overcome poverty traps. The aim of this study was to analyze based on a multi-level approach, different factors associated with anemia in children 6–23 m old based on recent available Standard Demographic Health Surveys (S-DHS). We identified 52 S-DHS that had complete information in all covariates of interest in our analysis between 2005 and 2015. We performed traditional logistic regressions and multilevel logistic regression analyses to study the association between hemoglobin concentrations and household, child, maternal, socio-demographic variables. In our sample, 70 % of the 6–23 m old children were anemic. Child anemia was strongly associated with maternal anemia, household wealth, maternal education and low birth weight. Children fed with fortified foods, potatoes and other tubers had significantly lower rates of anemia. Improving overall household living conditions, increasing maternal education, delaying childbearing and introducing iron rich foods at six months of age may reduce the likelihood of anemia at in toddlerhood.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0192.v1
Subject: Keywords: UK higher education; student; COVID-19; pandemic; academic performance; student evaluations; online learning; loss of income; educational disruptions
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:36:40 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the worst catastrophes that we have faced globally in recent years. It has not only taken its toll on the economic sector but also on the education sector. The social distancing norms that are in place as a direct response to the pandemic have turned conventional classroom teaching into a problematic minefield; as such, students all over the world have been forced into unprecedented situations that have served only to worsen the situation. The current pandemic has given rise to one of the worst crises the 21st Century has ever seen, resulting in a surge of unemployment. Many companies have taken the route of firing employees or making redundancies, as they cannot afford the monthly reimbursement for staff. While this issue primarily concerns full-time workers, it also carries significant consequences for students – a considerable number of students are required to earn their daily living costs, and, without a job, they cannot pay their educational fees, accommodation costs, or living expenses. This comprehensive study briefly discusses the multitude of problems faced by students in the UK regarding higher education, as a direct result of the coronavirus pandemic. It contains six individual sections: a detailed introduction; the methodological procedures employed; educational disruptions, covering issues from hindrances in field research to examinations and student evaluations; personal problems experienced by students, such as accommodation and loss of income; concerns arising from the global pandemic; and finally, a conclusion and summary of the study’s findings.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0531.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: nature of stock rights; state-controlled firm; income smoothing; institutional investor; pressure-resistant institutional investor; pressure-sensitive institutional investor
Online: 28 August 2021 (15:07:13 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the institutional investors which can affect financial performance for corporate sustainability on the income smoothing. Therefore, this study focus on the connection between the nature of stock rights and income smoothing in China. For this study, hypotheses were established on the relationship each state-controlled companies, income smoothing, and information equilibrium of individual investors, and empirical analysis was conducted through related variables. The analysis results are summarized in three categories as follows. First, this research finds that state-controlled firms (CONTs) prefer income smoothing activities compared to non-state-controlled firms for the long-term sustainable development of firms using data from 2011 to 2019. Second, this study found out that Institutional investors support the behavior of CONTs to smooth their earnings because this behavior is seen as an attempt by CONTs to convey valuable private information to other investors. Third, we was able to discover that institutional investors' monitoring effect is predominantly driven by pressure-resistant institutional investors. This research complements the lack of empirical research on income smoothing and enable to give a guideline that the type of stock rights is a critical key determinant of participation in income smoothing activities for stable growth and sustainability in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0275.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: Healthcare Priority-setting; Health Technology Assessment; Essential Health Packages, Low to Middle Income Countries; Equity; Efficiency; Evidence-Informed Decision Making
Online: 12 August 2021 (13:14:51 CEST)
There is a systematic exclusion of gender-based violence, safe abortion, reproductive cancers, infertility services, comprehensive sexuality education, sexuality services, and STI’s other than HIV in essential health packages in LMICs. To accelerate progress on sexual reproductive health (SRH), the Guttmacher–Lancet Commission proposed the adoption of these interventions into an essential health package of SRH services that should be universally available. In this commentary, we use a healthcare priority-setting processes lens to review the importance of these services for universal health coverage. We isolate inherent challenges in social value judgments for terminal, process and content evidence for their healthcare priority-setting. We then advance promising emerging practical examples from low to middle-income countries on evidence-informed decision-making processes. We recommend capacity development through regional support, generating equity and efficiency evidence and strengthening political and publicly acceptable processes to institutionalise and operationalise evidence-informed decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0381.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Alcohol dependence; Depression; Stress; Gender; Income; Differences; Behavioural disorders; Mental disorders; Socio-economic effects; Pandemic; Isolation; COVID-19; Slovak students
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:24:34 CET)
The objective of the study was to examine the effects of perceived stress on depression and subsequently to examine the effects of depression on alcohol use disorders. The data were obtained by an electronic questionnaire survey during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (n=1523 Slovak college students). Descriptive, regression and correlation analysis were used in the analytical processing, while the analyses included students' scores in three diagnostic tools (Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ 9) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)), as well as gender and income characteristics. The PSS identified an increased level of perceived stress in female students, in contrast, the AUDIT showed an increased level of alcohol use disorders in male students. Differences in mental and behavioural disorders between the gender and income categories were significant in most of the analysed cases. In terms of gender-income characteristics, it was possible to confirm a significant positive effect of the PSS score on the PHQ 9 score, as well as a significant positive effect of the PHQ 9 score on the AUDIT score. As a result, efforts to reduce stress will be reflected in a reduction of depressive disorders as well as a reduction of excessive alcohol consumption among students.
Subject: Keywords: Efficiency of mutual funds, a deep crisis in the economy, efficiency forecast, model formation, financial investments, estimated income, mutual funds, CAPM, neural networks
Online: 31 March 2021 (22:04:28 CEST)
. In this article, a search for a calculation method and an analysis of performance indicators of mutual investment funds is carried out. Many factors can influence the return on investments in portfolio investments, which makes the choice of the fund incredibly difficult. However, in addition to the fact that it is difficult to determine which indicators should be given more attention and which should be omitted, it is not so easy to get these data. Some of them are publicly available on the Internet, while others can only be found in trading systems that are not accessible to people outside of this area. The article proves that a well-trained neural network can easily find existing patterns between risk and expected return on investment. It is a well-trained neural network that provides the ability to use the "what-if" function to justify your choice on real factors, as well as the ability to download available data and calculate the estimated income and its changes. This makes it much easier to choose a Fund, especially for inexperienced investors. The article also presents the results of a study of the dependence of estimated income on correlation, standard deviation, and volatility using a trained neural network. According to the theory, higher values of these three factors correspond to a higher amount of income. The obtained graphs of the calculated income dependence on correlation, standard deviation, and volatility confirmed the correctness of the neural network training and compliance with the relations described in the theory. The paper presents graphs of the dependence of the estimated income on the beta and alpha coefficients. The higher the beta and alpha indicators, the higher the expected return on investment. This corresponds to the dependency accepted in the model. When the values of the beta and alpha coefficients increase, the income also increases, which is completely consistent with the theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0774.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Efficiency of mutual funds; a deep crisis in the economy; efficiency forecast; model formation; financial investments; estimated income; mutual funds; CAPM; neural networks
Online: 31 March 2021 (14:54:57 CEST)
In this article, a search for a calculation method and an analysis of performance indicators of mutual investment funds is carried out. Many factors can influence the return on investments in portfolio investments, which makes the choice of the fund incredibly difficult. However, in addition to the fact that it is difficult to determine which indicators should be given more attention and which should be omitted, it is not so easy to get these data. Some of them are publicly available on the Internet, while others can only be found in trading systems that are not accessible to people outside of this area. The article proves that a well-trained neural network can easily find existing patterns between risk and expected return on investment. It is a well-trained neural network that provides the ability to use the "what-if" function to justify your choice on real factors, as well as the ability to download available data and calculate the estimated income and its changes. This makes it much easier to choose a Fund, especially for inexperienced investors. The article also presents the results of a study of the dependence of estimated income on correlation, standard deviation, and volatility using a trained neural network. According to the theory, higher values of these three factors correspond to a higher amount of income. The obtained graphs of the calculated income dependence on correlation, standard deviation, and volatility confirmed the correctness of the neural network training and compliance with the relations described in the theory. The paper presents graphs of the dependence of the estimated income on the beta and alpha coefficients. The higher the beta and alpha indicators, the higher the expected return on investment. This corresponds to the dependency accepted in the model. When the values of the beta and alpha coefficients increase, the income also increases, which is completely consistent with the theory.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: vitamin C status; hypovitaminosis C; vitamin C deficiency; low and middle income countries; LMIC; dietary intake; supplement; non-communicable disease; communicable disease; infection
Online: 24 May 2020 (18:16:25 CEST)
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that must be obtained through the diet in adequate amounts to prevent hypovitaminosis C and the potentially fatal deficiency disease scurvy. Global vitamin C status and prevalence of deficiency has not previously been reported, despite vitamin C’s pleiotropic roles in both non-communicable and communicable disease. This review highlights the global literature on vitamin C status and the prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and deficiency. Related dietary intake is reported if assessed in the studies. We also explore if global vitamin C status has changed over time. Overall, the review illustrates the shortage of high quality epidemiological studies of vitamin C status in many countries, particularly low- and middle-income countries. The available evidence indicates that vitamin C deficiency is common in low- and middle-income countries and not uncommon in high income settings. Further high quality studies are required to confirm these findings, including in the countries not yet represented, and to fully understand associations with a range of disease processes. Our findings suggest a need for interventions to prevent deficiency in a range of at risk groups and regions of the world.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0515.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Public Health Intervention, Health Education and Promotion, Behavior Change Intervention, Intervention Design, Multifaceted Intervention, Repeated Intervention, Mental Model Mapping, Low- and Medium-Income Country (LMIC).
Online: 22 July 2020 (10:58:58 CEST)
Improving the effectiveness of health interventions is a major challenge in public health research and program development. A large body of literature has found low or no impact of health education and promotional interventions. We aim to develop a conceptual framework in support of intervention designs for preventive health behavior improvement programs and outcomes. The proposed approach is based on a narrative review of empirical literature assessing the limitations of less effective or ineffective field experiments regarding preventive health education and promotion interventions. We found three major limitations regarding the mental model’s balance of treatment and comparison groups, treatment groups’ willingness to adopt suggested behaviors, and the type, length, frequency, intensity, and sequence of treatments. To minimize the influence of these concerns, we propose a mental model-based repeated multifaceted (MRM) intervention design framework to provide an intervention design for improving health education and promotional programs.