CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0311.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: virtual reality; biological evolution; immersive reality
Online: 19 January 2021 (10:54:11 CET)
Technological advances made Virtual and Mixed Reality (VMR) accessible at our fingertips. However, only recently VMR has been explored for the teaching of biology. Here, we highlight how VMR applications can be useful in biology education, discuss about caveats related to VMR use that can interfere with learning, and look into the future of VMR applications in the field. We then propose that the combination of VMR with Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence can provide unprecedented ways to visualise how species evolve in self-sustained immersive virtual worlds, thereby transforming VMR from an educational tool to the centre of biological interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Virtual reality; health professionals; anxiety; immersive therapy
Online: 5 July 2022 (16:01:27 CEST)
Background: Immersive therapy through virtual reality represents a novel strategy used in psychological interventions, but there is still a need to strengthen the evidence on its effects on health professionals’ mental health. Objective: To analyze the results of immersive therapy through virtual reality in the levels of anxiety and secondly, well-being of the health professionals working in a regional hospital in Olot (Spain). Methods: Pilot quasi-experimental study including a group of 35 women (mean age=45.7, SD=8.43) health professionals who undertook immersive therapy for 8 weeks. The intervention was implemented through virtual reality, and its effect on anxiety levels and well-being was evaluated through the Hamilton and Eudemon scales, respectively. Data on age, gender, active pharmacological or psychological treatment, mental health disorders and number of sessions were also collected. Results: Statistically significant (p<0.001) improvement in anxiety and well-being was found, with large and moderate effect sizes (0.90 and 0.63 respectively). In addition, these changes were clinically significant. No significant associations were found between the improvements and the different variables, but a greater trend was identified among the group of professionals with untreated or unidentified levels of anxiety. Conclusion: This group of health professionals showed statistically and clinically significant improvement in anxiety and well-being after the application of immersive therapy using virtual reality. Further studies with a control group are necessary to further analyze this novel intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0130.v1
Online: 9 July 2019 (05:39:44 CEST)
The rising popularity of virtual reality has seen a recent push in applications, such as, social media, educational tools, medical simulations, entertainment and training systems. With virtual realitythe ability to engage users for specific purposes, provides opportunities to entertain, develop cognitive abilities and technical skills outside of the standard mediums (e.g., the television or theclassroom) thereby optimizing exposure with realistic (live) opportunities. However, before these applications of virtual reality become more widespread, there are a number of open questions andissues that must be addressed including limitations, challenges, relationships between fidelity, multi-modal cue interaction, immersion, and knowledge transfer and retention. In this article, we begin with a brief overview of virtual reality methods, followed by a discussion of virtual reality and its applications (both historically, currently and in the future). We review virtual reality trends both from the early artistic days through to current day state of the art technological advancements. We explore emerging and futuristic breakthroughs - and their applications in virtual reality - showing how virtual reality will go way beyond anything we could envision. Infact, after reading this article, we hope the reader will agree, that virtual reality, is possibly one of the most powerful mediums of our time. While the earliest mechanistic virtual reality prototypes (e.g., Sensorama) allowed us to view stereoscopic 3D images accompanied by stereosound, smells, as well as wind effect - set the foundation and direction for future pioneers - there have been spearheaded developments which have continually pushed the concept of virtual reality to new domains. As virtual reality evolves, many new and yet-to-be-imagined applications will arise, but we must have understanding and patience as we wait for science, research andtechnology to mature and improve. The article ends with a short overview of future directions based upon recent breakthroughs in research and what this will mean for virtual reality in the coming years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: virtual reality; automotive industry; marketing research; immersive car clinic
Online: 9 November 2021 (11:01:16 CET)
Virtual reality (VR) can play a key role in automotive marketing research, lowering costs and shortening the time it takes to bring a new product to market. However, there are still few VR applications that support automotive customers' experiences during the early stages of product development. Through a systematic review of literature and patents, this study aims to identify the challenges and opportunities for the application of virtual reality in car clinics, and to categorize them into attributes. We searched through the knowledge databases of PatentScout, ScienceDirect, Springer, and IEEEXplore. We found 72 patents with a high concentration in a few inventors. The United States of America presented the greatest number of records and the most common applications related to the apparatus for automatically reading respondents' reactions in a virtual environment. In terms of articles, we found 19 research papers that discussed sixteen categories identified as challenges and opportunities for automotive marketing research: 1) cost, 2) location to customers, 3) flexibility in interactions, 4) model transportation, 5) depth perception, 6) haptic perception, 7) motion, 8) movement perception/ physical collision, 9) color and texture, 10) sound feedback, 11) product interaction/manipulation, 12) visual-spatial, 13) graphic quality, 14) intuitiveness, 15) cybersecurity and 16) cybersickness. We conclude that the automotive industry can employ virtual reality for marketing research, but relevant elements such as hardware and software definition, stimulus quality, and research objectives, among others, must be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0621.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Accessibility; Guiding Methods; Immersive Media; Subtitling; Virtual Reality; 360º video
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:28:27 CEST)
Every (multimedia) service needs to be accessible. Accessibility for multimedia content is typically provided by means of access services, of which subtitling is likely the most widespread one. Up to date, many recommendations and solutions for subtitling classical 2D audiovisual services are available. Likewise, recent efforts have been devoted to devising adequate subtitling solutions for VR360 video content. This paper, for the first time, goes a step beyond, by exploring two key requirements to fulfill remaining challenges towards efficiently subtitling 3D Virtual Reality (VR) content: presentation modes, and guiding methods. By leveraging insights from earlier work on VR360 content, the paper proposes novel presentation modes and guiding methods to not only deal with the freedom to explore the omnidirectional scenes, but also with additional specificities of 3D VR compared to VR360 content: depth, 6 Degrees of Freedom (6DoF), and viewing perspectives. The obtained results prove that always-visible and a novel proposed comic-style presentation mode are far more appropriate than state-of-the-art fixed-positioned subtitles, mainly in terms of immersion, ease and comfort of reading, and identification of speakers, when applied to professional pieces of content with limited displacement of speakers and with limited 6DoF (i.e. users are not expected to largely navigate around the virtual environment). Likewise, even in such limited movement scenarios, the results show that the use of indicators (arrows), as guiding methods, is well received. Overall, the paper provides relevant insights and paves the way toward efficiently subtitling 3D VR content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0134.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: virtual reality (VR); immersive; synesthesia; synesthaesia; artificial synesthesia; pain therapy
Online: 7 August 2018 (05:54:14 CEST)
This paper is an interdisciplinary study of novel applications of techniques and tools of an area of brain science, known as Synesthesia (involving associations and/or confusion between distinct senses), to area of Computer Science known as Immersive Virtual Reality (VR), that makes the subject’s awareness of physical self be diminished by being surrounded in an engrossing artificial environment. Natural Synesthesia has for the last decade been an important emerging area in brain science but is present in only a small proportion of the population. For example a person with Natural Synesthesia, when viewing a grapheme, may perceive a color additionally to be associated to the grapheme. In contrast, Artificial synesthesia (also known as virtual synesthesia or synthetic synesthesia) has been defined as the sensory joining due a cross-modal mapping device, where information of one sense is accompanied by an induced perception in another sense. In particular, we propose use of a multimodal manner of displaying information in VR to increase and concentrate attention. Artificial Synesthesia to synthetically create induced associations between senses, allowing Artificial Synesthesia to be experienced by anyone using a VR system. The paper describes the enhancement of immersive VR by use of Artificial Synesthesia to improve the system’s performance at steering and directing the attention of the user. We describe techniques for an enhanced immersive VR that displays associations between a variety of senses: between colors and characters, also between colors and sounds, and between sounds and the position of tactile sensations. The sense association provided by Artificial Synesthesia allows the system to better capture the user’s attention and better direct that attention. A major application of our work in VR-induced Artificial Synesthesia is to provide an enhanced methodology for controlling the attention of the subject, and to improve the direction of attention of subjects undergoing guided imagery therapies for pain relief. Other potential high-impact applications include improved immersive VR, more programmable human/computer interfaces and other medical therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0693.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Intercultural competence; Cross-cultural experiences; Emotional intelligence; Global citizenship; Immersive pedagogy
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:40:01 CEST)
Over recent years globalisation has occasioned a dramatic rise in cross-cultural interactions – until this was disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic (OECD 2018, Nelson & Luetz 2021). The ability to competently engage in a multicultural world is often considered the “literacy of the future” (UNESCO 2013, OECD 2018). Global interconnectedness has brought studies into intercultural competence to centre stage (UNDP 2004, Bissessar 2018, Nelson et al. 2019). This has increased the demand for cross-cultural education experiences that facilitate such learning. However, there is a dearth of empirical research into the issues and effects surrounding short-term cross-cultural educational experiences for adolescents. This mixed methods study extends previous research by looking specifically into what impact short-term cross-cultural experiences may have on the formation of intercultural competence and emotional intelligence of Australian high school students. This study used two instruments for measuring intercultural competence and emotional intelligence in a pre- and posttest quasi-experimental design (n=14), the GENE Scale and TEQ. Moreover, it conducted in-depth post experience qualitative interviews (n=7) that broadly followed a phenomenological paradigm of inquiry. The findings suggest that fully embodied cross-cultural immersive experiences offer benefits in areas of intercultural competence and emotional intelligence and can offer meaningful application in areas of current affairs. A greater understanding of the linkages between immersive cross-cultural experiences and intercultural competence offers prospects for policy makers, educators, pastoral carers, and other relevant stakeholders who might employ such experiential learning to foster more interculturally and interracially harmonious human relations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: health-oriented physical; immersive virtual reality; virtual reality; intensity of physical activity
Online: 12 August 2019 (14:02:12 CEST)
The aim of the study is to assess enjoyment and intensity of physical exercise while practicing physical activity (PA) in immersive virtual reality (IVR) using innovative training devices (omni-directional Omni treadmill and Icaros Pro flight simulator). The study also contains the results of subjective research on the usefulness of such a form of PA in the opinion of users. In total, 61 adults (10 women and 50 men) took part in the study. To assess the enjoyment level (EL) Interest/Enjoyment subscale of Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was used. Exercise intensity was assessed during 10-minute sessions of active video games (AVGs) in IVR based on heart rate (HR). The average enjoyment level during physical exercise in IVR on the tested training devices was relatively high (Omni 5.74 points, Icaros 5.60 points). In the opinion of the majority of participants, AVGs on IVR training devices constitute a sufficiently useful form of movement to meet the needs of PA practiced in free time, and they can even replace some of the classic forms of movement. Intensity of PA during games on training devices was at the level recommended for health benefits for 92% (Omni) and 84% (Icaros Pro) of its duration. Based on the conducted research, it can be assumed that AVGs in IVR using a multi-directional treadmill and a flight simulator can be an effective tool for increasing participation in health-oriented PA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0354.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Digital Twin; Unmanned Traffic management; Geographic Information Systems; Immersive Simulator; Unmanned Aerial Systems
Online: 26 May 2022 (02:58:51 CEST)
This paper presents the design of a digital twin that blends aviation, gaming, simulation, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to create a synthetic environment within which strategies, laws and platforms for electric aviation may be tested out. This digital twin has been called Future Urban Synthetic Environment (FUSE). FUSE includes an in-built Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) that can be used to run simulations to test the coordination of all urban traffic. It uses real GIS tagged imagery data and implements it at runtime into the game engine and thus link the optimised imagery loading to the visual performance of the simulation engine. FUSE provides a 3D digital twin of specified areas designed to simulate the effects (in terms of noise, visual impact, privacy) of drones and electric air taxis operating under various operational scenarios (such as number of deliveries allowed per day, maximum payload weight, no-fly areas, position of depots, vertiports, etc.). With so much high-fidelity data it is difficult for any game system to effectively render the environment and do justice to the detail whilst enabling enough of the landscape to be rendered to keep in focus the detail when looking out at the horizon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0252.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object recognition; image data synthesizing; Human-computer interaction; data synthesizing for immersive HCI; generative adversarial nets; BAGAN
Online: 9 November 2018 (16:00:39 CET)
Augment reality (AR) is crucial for immersive human-computer interaction (HCI) and vision of artificial intelligence (AI). Labeled data drove object recognition in AR. However, manual annotating data is expensive and labor-intensive, and furthermore, scanty labeled data limits the application of AR. Aiming at solving the problem of insufficient training data in AR object recognition, an automated vision data synthesis method called BAGAN is proposed in this paper based on the 3D modeling and GAN algorithm. Our approach has been validated to have better performance than other methods through image recognition task on natural image database ObjectNet3D. This study can shorten the algorithm development time of AR and expand the application scope of AR, which is of great significance to immersive interactive systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0065.v1
Subject: Keywords: virtual reality; immersive learning; haptics; chemistry education; organic chemistry; hydrocarbons; middle school science; introductory chemistry; hands-on learning; gamification
Online: 5 April 2018 (05:59:19 CEST)
Human-Computer Interaction, including technology-aided instruction, is beginning to focus on virtual reality (VR) technology due to its ability to support immersive learning, teaching through simulation, and gamification of learning. These systems can deliver high-level multisensory learning experiences that are important in the teaching of many subjects, especially those involving abstract concepts or requiring spatial skills, such as organic chemistry. Haptic experiences with VR, however, remain a challenge. In addition, development have focused on general entertainment/gaming; VR systems in chemistry implement simulations of the chemistry laboratory and other advanced systems whereas those that support safe, game-like, immersive and multisensory learning of organic chemistry with haptics at pre-university education levels are scarce. We developed the VR Multisensory Classroom (VRMC) as an immersive learning environment within a VR head-mounted display, where learners employ hand movements to build hydrocarbon molecules and experience haptic feedback through gloves with built-in sensors and hand-tracking with the Leap Motion system. We report here the evaluation of the first prototype by learners from diverse backgrounds who reported on the ability of the VRMC to support high engagement, motivation, interest and organic chemistry learning as well as diverse learning styles. The VRMC is a novel VR classroom that supports immersive learning in molecular organic chemistry with haptics for multisensory learning.