REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: tumor microenvironment; extracellular matrix; proteoglycans; tumor-associated fibroblasts; tumor immunity; immune checkpoint inhibitors; tumor stroma; angiogenesis
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:16:16 CEST)
Similarly to our healthy organs, tumor tissue also generates an ecosystem. This implies that stromal cells acquire an altered phenotype in tandem with tumor cells, thereby promoting tumor survival. Cancer cells are fueled by abnormal blood vessels, allowing them to develop and proliferate. Tumor-associated fibroblasts adapt their cytokine and chemokine production to the needs of tumor cells, alter the peritumoral stroma by generating more collagen, thereby stiffening the matrix, all promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor cell invasion. Chronic inflammation and the mobilization of pro-tumorigenic inflammatory cells further facilitate tumor expansion. All of these events can impede the effective administration of tumor treatment, so the successful inhibition of tumorous matrix remodeling could further enhance the success of tumor treatment. Numerous publications describe efforts to inhibit tumor matrix components, but the true breakthrough has yet to be achieved. If, on the other hand, we assume that tumorous blood vessels and inflammatory cells are residents of the tumorous stroma, then two steps forward have occurred.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: skin melanoma, KIT mutation, Sanger sequencing
Online: 6 August 2019 (12:33:31 CEST)
Data on the KIT mutation rate in skin melanoma in the central European region is missing. Accordingly, in a cohort of 79 double wild type (BRAF/NRAS) skin melanoma KIT mutation was assessed by Sanger sequencing of exons 9,11,13,17 and 18. In this skin melanoma cohort KIT mutation frequency was found to be 34/79 (43%) with a significantly higher rate in acrolentiginous melanoma (ALM) as compared to UV-induced common variants (20/34, 58.8% versus 14/45, 31.1%, p=0.014). Exon 11 was the most frequent mutation site (44.7%) followed by exon 9 (21.1%) equally characterizing UV-induced common histotypes and ALM tumors. KIT mutation hotspots were identified in exon 9 (c491/492), in exon 11 (c559,c572, c570), in exon 13 (c642), in exon 17 (c822) and in exon 18 (c853). The relatively high KIT mutation rate in skin melanoma in this central-European cohort justifies regular testing of this molecular target.