ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: respirable agglomerates; inhaled corticosteroids; ciclesonide; particle engineering; dry powder inhaler; extrafine; total lung dose; Alberta Idealized Throat; Idealized Child Throat
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:52:57 CEST)
Current dry powder formulations for inhalation deposit a large fraction of their emitted dose in the upper respiratory tract where they contribute to off-target adverse effects and variability in lung delivery. The purpose of current study is to design a new formulation concept that more effectively targets inhaled dry powders to the large and small airways. The formulations are based on adhesive mixtures of drug nanoparticles and nanoleucine carrier particles prepared by spray drying of a co-suspension of leucine and drug particles from a nonsolvent. The physicochemical and aerosol properties of the resulting formulations are presented. The formulations achieve 93% lung delivery in the Alberta Idealized Throat model that is independent of inspiratory flow rate and relative humidity. Largely eliminating URT deposition with a particle size larger than solution pMDIs is expected to improve delivery to the large and small airways, while minimizing alveolar deposition and particle exhalation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0601.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: deep structure and surface structure; Idealized Cognitive Model (ICM); Transformational Generative Grammar (TGG); counterintuitive compound words; usage frequency
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:42:16 CEST)
This study attempts to classify compound words on the basis of Cognitive Linguistics and compares their usage trends using Computational Linguistics. Using Noam Chomsky’s concept of deep and surface structures of a sentence, Lees treated compound words, not as separate units but as a kind of embedded sentences and hinted for possible presence of deep and surface structures in compound words, which this study tries to investigate. Then on the basis of the Idealized Cognitive Model proposed by Lakoff and Fauconnier, compound words have been classified into transparent, opaque and counterintuitive compound words. Using Google Books Corpus, this study also compares their usage trends. This is done using usage frequency, defined in this work, which is analogous to productivity for affixed words calculated by G.E.Booij. Each class of compound word formed on the basis of ICM is found to have different usage frequency. The possible reasons for this are discussed.