ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1906.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Iberian pig; litter size; inbreeding depression
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:36:29 CEST)
Inbreeding depression is expected to be more pronounced in fitness-related traits, such as pig litter size. Recent studies have suggested that the genetic determinism of inbreeding depression may be heterogeneous across the genome. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a genomic scan across the pig autosomal genome to detect the genomic regions that control inbreeding depression for litter size in two varieties of Iberian pigs (Entrepelado and Retinto). The datasets consist of 2,069 (338 sows) and 2,028 (327 sows) records for litter size (Total Number Born and Number Born Alive) for the Entrepelado and Retinto varieties. All sows were genotyped using the Geneseek GGP PorcineHD 70 K. We employed the Unfavorable Haplotype Finder software to extract runs of homozygosity (ROHs) and conducted a mixed model analysis to identify highly significant differences between homozygous and heterozygous sows for each specific ROH. A total of 8 genomic regions located on SSC2, SSC5, SSC7, SSC8, and SSC13, were significantly associated with inbreeding depression, housing some relevant genes such as FSHR, LHCGR, CORIN, AQP6, and CEP120.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0781.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: NAO; EA; temperature-precipitation covariability; Iberian Peninsula
Online: 31 March 2021 (15:55:23 CEST)
The combined influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic (EA) patterns on the covariability of temperatures and precipitation in 35 stations of the Iberian Peninsula during the period 1950-2019 is analysed in this work. Four EA-NAO composites were defined from teleconnection patterns positive and negative phases: EA+NAO+, EA+NAO-, EA-NAO+, and EA-NAO-. Daily data of maximum and minimum temperature were used to obtain seasonal means (TX, and TN, respectively), and the covariability of these variables with accumulated seasonal rainfall (R) was studied comparing results obtained for different NAO and EA composites. Main results indicate slight differences in the spatial coverage of correlation coefficients between R and temperature variables, except in spring when the generalized negative relationship between R and TX under EA+NAO+ and EA-NAO- disappears under EA-NAO+ and EA+NAO- composites. This result may be useful to interpret and discuss historical reconstructions of Iberian climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0252.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: waterlogged preservation; arboriculture; crop expansion; urban area; Iberian Peninsula
Online: 28 April 2022 (09:47:33 CEST)
The Roman economy of the Iberian Peninsula has habitually been characterised in terms of prestige goods and economic activities such as trade, mining and metallurgy. The analysis of plant-based foods –less prestigious but more essential in everyday life– has commonly been marginalised in state-of-the-art reviews. The O Areal saltworks is exceptional in terms of the large number of organic materials it preserves, and the excellent state of that preservation. After its abandonment (end of the 3rd/4th century AD), the saltworks was briefly used as a dumping ground for the surrounding area. The site's archaeobotanical remains, preserved under anoxic, waterlogged conditions, consist of the building materials used at the saltworks, tools and other artefacts, organic objects employed in activities such as fishing, and refuse. The assemblage suggests a wide diversity of species to have been introduced into northwestern Iberia during the Roman Period, including the mulberry, peach, fig, plum, grapevine, and melon. The notable presence of other edible fruit species that normally grew wild during this period, such as chestnut, walnut, stone pine, and cherry trees, might be related to the start of their cultivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0577.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: WASP-Index; Climate change; Projections; Extreme precipitation; Iberian Peninsula
Online: 21 April 2021 (12:17:36 CEST)
The WASP-Index is computed over Iberia for three monthly timescales in 1961-2020, based on an observational gridded precipitation dataset (E-OBS), and in 2021-2070, based on bias-corrected precipitation generated by a six-member climate model ensemble from EURO-CORDEX, under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The WASP performance in identifying extremely dry or wet events, reported by the EM-DAT disaster database, is assessed for 1961–2020. An overall good agreement between the WASP spatial patterns and the EM-DAT records is found. The areolar mean values revealed an upward trend in the frequency of occurrence of intermediate-to-severe dry events over Iberia, which will be strengthened in the future, particularly for the 12m-WASP intermediate dry events under RCP8.5. Besides, the number of 3m-WASP intermediate-to-severe wet events is projected to increase, mostly the severest events under RCP4.5, but no evidence was found for an increase in the number of more persistent (12m-WASP) wet events under both RCPs. Despite important spatial heterogeneities, an increase(decrease) of the intensity, duration, and frequency of occurrence of the 12m-WASP intermediate-to-severe dry(wet) events is found under both scenarios, mainly in the southernmost regions of Iberia, thus becoming more exposed to prolonged and severe droughts in the future, corroborating the results from previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2131.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Canis lupus signatus; domestic ungulates; wild ungulates; Iberian wolf; recolonization
Online: 1 October 2023 (10:12:05 CEST)
The Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) is recolonizing historical distribution areas after decades of absence. As in other human-dominated landscapes, finding a balance to protect this species by favoring recolonization and mitigating human-wildlife conflicts is a challenge. Since wolves are often generalist opportunistic predators, we studied their diet composition in the Central Spain to evaluate the consumption of domestic ungulates and provide reliable data that help local authorities to deal with the current wolf-cattle ranchers conflict and coexistence. Diet composition (% prey occurrence, % prey ingested biomass) was analyzed through the identification of prey hairs present in 671 scats collected between 2017 and 2021. Wolves fed more on wild ungulates (82% occurrence) than domestic ones (18%). Wild boar (Sus scrofa, 44% occurrence) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, 35%) were the most consumed prey. Wolves positively selected these two species. The wolf's diet varied between seasons, years, and forest regions, but a diet based on wild ungulates predominated over domestic ones. Food niche breadth and showed variations depending on seasons and years. Preserving the availability and diversity of wild ungulates may favor reducing livestock attacks and would be an achievable goal that help to conserve this species and reduce conservation conflicts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Free-range; backfat layers; intramuscular fat; Iberian pig; subcutaneous fat.
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:11:09 CEST)
Twenty-four extensively-reared Iberian pigs were used to study the influence of fattening period length (30, 60 or 90 days) on the fatty acid profiles of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat and the relationships between both profiles. Regarding fatty acid (FA) percentage, PUFA was greater in backfat and MUFA was greater in intramuscular fat (IMF), regardless fattening period length. The longer fattening period increased MUFA content in backfat (which had a more marked change in oleic acid) and decreased PUFA content in backfat and IMF, but it did not affect SFA content. Within the 3-layers subcutaneous backfat, SFA content was greater in the inner layer, MUFA was greater in the outer layer and PUFA was greater in both of these layers. The few differences in FA composition between both adipose tissues suggest that the changes due to the feeding regime are slow and, therefore, although the length of the fattening phase was increased, the fatty acid profile did not change substantially. The strong relationship between the FA profiles of IMF and backfat might be used to predict one profile from the other one when this latter was more readily available for sampling or analytical reasons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0284.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: urban; rural; millet; garden; orchard; Iberian Peninsula; High/Late Middle Ages
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:09:03 CET)
Towns emerged as dynamic economic and political centers during the Middle Ages, giving rise to the emergence of new social classes. As a result of these functions, a new relationship began to be forged with the rural world, which supplied towns with foodstuffs that satisfied new social demands. Archaeobotanical analysis (carpology) allows us to understand the flow of cash crops by tracing seeds and fruits produced in the countryside that were consumed in and redistributed from the towns. The study of waterlogged contexts from medieval archaeological sites in the Kingdom of Galicia (Santiago de Compostela, Padrón, and Pontevedra) has provided a set of species that played a crucial role in the economy of the urban dwellers and that possibly were related to differential access or food preferences. Evidence for fruits (grapes, chestnuts, figs, apples, and cherries, among others), garden crops (melon), and cereals (foxtail millet, rye, naked wheat, and oat) has been documented. Broomcorn millet is particularly abundant, demonstrating that it was important for subsistence. Some of the species found (medlar and turnip/grelo) are novel in the archaeobotanical literature of the medieval period in the Iberian Peninsula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0585.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Relative Sea Level; Steric contribution; liner regression; Western Mediterranean; Iberian Peninsula; Canary Islands
Online: 9 May 2023 (07:35:12 CEST)
We present an attempt to estimate the long-term changes of Relative Sea Level (RSL) and the different factors contributing to such trends on a local and regional scale using a statistical linear model. The time series analysed correspond to 17 tide-gauges grouped in three different areas: the northern and western Atlantic coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, the Canary Islands, and the southern and eastern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The analysis was performed for two periods: 1948-2019, using tide-gauge data, and 1993-2019, using both tide-gauge and altimetry data for comparison. The trends for the period 1948-2019 ranged between 1.09 0.14 (Canary Islands) and 2.05 0.21 mm/yr, for the northern and western Atlantic Iberian Peninsula. Altimetry data during the period 1993-2019 yielded quite homogeneous results for all the locations and regions, ranging between 2.7 0.4 and 3.0 0.3 mm/yr. On the contrary, the results obtained from tide-gauge data for this recent period showed a large dispersion, very likely due to local effects or even levelling or instrumental errors. Nevertheless, when the results were averaged for each area, the observed trends were comparable to the altimetry results, with values of 2.3 0.8, 2.7 0.5 and 2.8 0.8 mm/yr for the three regions of study. A stepwise forward linear regression has been used to relate the observed RSL variability to the atmospheric forcing and the thermosteric and halosteric components of the sea level. Surprisingly, the thermosteric and halosteric contributions were not significantly correlated to the observed RSL in many cases, and consequently the steric, the total addition of mass, the mass of salt, and the freshwater contributions to the observed sea level trends could not be reliably estimated. This result seems to be the consequence of the scarcity of temperature and salinity data. This hypothesis is confirmed by the exception of L’Estartit tide-gauge. This location is close to a well sampled region. In this case, the atmospheric variables and the thermosteric and halosteric terms explained the 80 % of the observed RSL variance and the contributions of these terms could be estimated. The freshwater contribution for this location was between 1.3 and 1.4 mm/yr, consistent with recent estimations of the contributions of glaciers and Greenland and Antarctica Ice Sheets. These results highlight the importance of monitoring programs and routine sampling for the determination of the different factors contributing to the sea level variability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0149.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: Iberian Peninsula; Pyrenees; palynology; last millennia; mosaic forests; metacommunity; deforestation; forest recovery; conservation; resilience
Online: 8 February 2023 (16:00:28 CET)
The long-term resilience of Pyrenean forests in the face of historical anthropogenic clearing remains largely unknown. The palynological study of the varved sediments from a mid-elevation (1027 m) karstic lake provides a high-resolution record of three major century-scale deforestation/recovery (DR) cycles that occurred in the last two millennia, during Roman, Medieval and Modern times. Each DR cycle is characterized considering three different levels: overall forest trends, by forest type and by individual taxa. Overall, the studied forests exhibited high resilience, as they recovered almost completely after each deforestation event (bulk resilience). The critical point of no return (tipping point) beyond which forests would have irreversibly disappeared from the region was never reached, even after deforestation magnitudes above 60%. The different forest types identified (conifer, sclerophyll and deciduous) persisted over time, showing similar heterogeneous patterns with minor spatial reorganizations (mosaic resilience). Individually, the main forest taxa underwent minor variations in their relative abundances, always within the same attraction domains (community resilience). The high levels of resilience documented in these Pyrenean forests are attributed to the action of metapopulation and metacommunity processes and mechanisms in a highly dynamic patchy environment. Conservation actions should be focused on the maintenance of these spatial patterns and the associated ecological dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0792.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Sea level change; Paleo-coastline; Prehistory; Southwestern Iberian Peninsula; Marine resources exploitation; Spatial Database; Geostatistical analysis
Online: 12 October 2023 (14:23:10 CEST)
This paper an approach for analyzing the impact of sea level changes on prehistoric human settlement patterns in the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula. The approach is based on highly qualified and fully georeferenced information sources managed within a spatial database. This allows for a more precise analysis of the distance to the coast and its relation to marine resources from a specific location, areas that may have lost their archaeological potential due to being currently submerged, and the actual distribution of sites as a starting point for territorial analysis. Coastal changes, such as sea level fluctuations over the past 120,000 years, have affected the position of the coastline and influenced human settlement patterns. Through an analysis of the archaeological site locations relative to their paleo-coastlines based on available dating data, this study emphasizes the necessity of adopting a comprehensive approach to comprehend human settlement patterns and their correlation with the dynamic coastal changes. This approach provides valuable insights for formulating strategies for exploiting coastal resources and structuring socio-economic systems in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0265.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Local Productive Systems; Meat Industries for the Transformation of the Iberian Pig; business processes; territorial processes; labour processes.
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:46:19 CET)
Local Productive Systems (hereinafter LPS) based on agro-food industries constitute alternative models of development in peripheral rural areas that are subject to internal and external dynamics and processes. The main objective of the research is to investigate the processes and their consequences on four SPLs based on the Iberian Pig Transformation Industry (hereinafter LPS-IPTI) in SW Spain: Fregenal de la Sierra, Higuera la Real, Cumbres Mayores and Jabugo. Using secondary data, a comparison is made between 2002 and 2020 to establish the changes, causes and consequences on the LPS-IPTI studied. The results obtained indicate (1) business and territorial concentration of LPS-IPTI; (2) productive and territorial specialisation in standardised products and quality products; (3) simplification of industrial processes; (4) loss of employment, especially female; (5) external control of companies in the sector which, accordingly, results in the loss of prominence of local actors in favour of foreign companies, reduced social capital and the progressive loss of ownership of the LPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0453.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Information and Communication Technology (ICT); Nephrology in Iberian Peninsula; Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD); Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT); Healthcare Professional (HCP)
Online: 7 November 2023 (11:53:15 CET)
Background and purpose: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common chronic disease usually associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and premature death and millions of people are at increased risk for CKD. As this disease is extremely complex, multidisciplinary care (MDC) is needed to provide complete and continuous care. Usually, the nephrology units need coopera-tion from several other Healthcare Professionals (HCPs) such as cardiologists, nutritionists, ob-stetricians, and so forth. All modalities of treatments, peritoneal dialysis (PD) and Hemodialysis (HD) require HCPs and patients to develop a variety of skills to effectively deliver and manage dialysis tasks in the center or at home. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in-terventions can offer tools that provide HCPs and patients with tools that facilitate the manage-ment of kidney patients in centers or at home. ICT interventions can allow to automate registra-tions, videoconferencing, minimize the geographic burden and resource cost savings. ICT can be the best way to promote cost saving on health spending and ensure the sustainability of the health system and, the environment as well. In the Iberian Peninsula, kidney patients consume about 3% of the total cost of healthcare. The cost of kidney transplants and dialysis is around 1.8 billion euros annually, and 75 % of this amount goes to dialysis treatment. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate and analyze the opinion of Healthcare Professionals (HCP) in Nephrology units about the Intervention of ICT in nephrology care and the Clinical benefits results from the use of ICT in Nephrology Services and dialysis Units in Portugal and Spain. Thus we collected the opinion of Health care professionals concerning the role of ICT intervention in nephrology. Understanding HCPs' feelings and attitudes is essential to understand if such technologies are correctly adjusted to the workflow and really bring huge benefits for the clinical practice of nephrology and also what features need improvement and what should be implemented in the future. ICT intervention has been implemented to promote better healthcare in nephrology units and improve patient outcomes. In the Survey, we intended to evaluate nephrology HCPs' opinions concerning the ICT interventions, in nephrology, represented by several tools that al-low the HCPs to implement solutions such as Remote Patient Monitoring(RPM); Remote Moni-toring of Treatment (RMT); Tele homecare; Telehealth (Tele-nephrology); Home Dialysis; mHealth; mobile App; Web Portal, Telemedicine, and so forth. Key Points: In many countries particularly in the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) the incidence of CKD is substantially high. The “treatments” for kidney disease have not improved substantially over the past 50 years, leaving too many kidney patients with a poor quality of life and reduced life expectancy. This situation is associated with staggering aggregate annual costs amounting to €140 billion per year in Europe, more than the annual healthcare costs of cancer or diabetes . The increased daily use of information and communication technologies may lead to the need for healthcare professionals to incorporate technology use competencies into practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0554.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Biomass burning; Anthropogenic aerosols; West Africa; United Kingdom Floods; Iberian Drought; European winter temperatures; Last Millennium Ensemble; NASA MERRA-2
Online: 29 December 2021 (13:14:28 CET)
Three significant changes have occurred in the winter climate in Europe recently: increased UK flooding; Iberian drought; and warmer temperatures north of the Alps. The literature links all three to a persistent, significant increase in sea level pressure over Southern Europe, the Mediterranean, Iberia and the Eastern Atlantic (SEMIEA) which changes the atmospheric circulation system: forcing cold fronts to the north away from Iberia; and creating a south westerly flow around the northern perimeter of the high-pressure region bringing warmer, moist air from the subtropical Atlantic to the UK and Europe which increases precipitation in the UK and raises the temperature in Europe. I use the Last Millennium Ensemble, MERRA-2 and Terra-NCEP data to demonstrate that the extreme, anthropogenic, West African aerosol Plume (WAP) which only exists from December to April perturbs the northern, regional Hadley Circulation creating the high pressure in the SEMIEA. I also show that the anthropogenic WAP has only existed in its extreme form in recent decades as the two major sources of the WAP aerosols: biomass burning; and gas flaring have both increased significantly since 1950 due to: a four-fold increase in population; and gas flaring rising from zero to 7.4 billion m3/annum and note that this time span coincides with the changes in the three elements of the winter climate of Europe. I also suggest that it may be possible to eliminate the WAP and return the winter climate of Europe to its natural state after the crucial first step of recognising the cause of the changes is taken.