ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0086.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Caffeine, Uncertainty calculation; ISO 17025, Guatemala coffee grains; GC-FID
Online: 28 July 2017 (13:05:43 CEST)
A simple method for the determination of caffeine in coffee grains by GC-FID is presented in the current work. The method was fully validated according to ISO 17025 requirements and European Commission regulation. The accuracy, as provided by recovery experiments was higher than 93%, and the precision, as provided by the (%)Relative standard deviation under reproducibility conditions, was lower than 5%. All independent parameters that lead in the increase of methods uncertainty were investigated. In the present work all special precautions were taken into account in order to avoid the use of an internal standard. The method was applied in real samples and possible health claims were investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: ISO; social responsibility; image; profitability; SMEs
Online: 2 November 2018 (06:53:35 CET)
At present, business strategies in SMEs (Small and medium enterprises) are crucial for consolidation in highly competitive markets, in achieving a better image and in business profitability. One of the strategies that have the most success and business success are sustainable practices and social responsibility such as: ISO 14001 and ISO 26001. The literature related to sustainable business is based mainly on the theory of resources and capabilities, and in theory based on Stakeholders. These currents state that companies should focus on profitable strategies to ensure significant and long-term results, in order to achieve organizational and financial results for stakeholders. In this work, the sample consists of 215 companies from the commerce, services and industry sectors, located in the southern region of the State of Sonora in Mexico. The objective of the work is to analyze the influence of ISO 14001 and 26001 standards on the image and profitability of SMEs. The statistical analysis of the data has been carried out through the linear regression technique by OLS (Ordinary Least Squares). The findings prove that the ISO 14001 standard is the one that most influences the improvement of the business image and the level of profitability of the SME. In addition, we discovered that ISO 26001 has a partial influence on the image and profitability of the SME.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0274.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Metadata; Geo-referencing; CSW; ISO standards; hydrology
Online: 29 January 2018 (17:12:28 CET)
1) Background: We analyzed the corpus of three geoscientific journals to investigate if there are enough locational references in research articles to apply a geographical search method, on the example of New Zealand. 2) Methods: Based on all available abstracts and all freely available papers of the New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, the New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, and the Journal of Hydrology, New Zealand, we searched title, abstracts and full texts for place name occurrences that match records from the official Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) gazetteer. We generated ISO standard compliant metadata records for each article including the spatial references and make them available in a public catalogue service. This catalogue can be queried for articles based on authors, titles, keywords, topics as well as by spatial reference. We visualize the results in a map to show which area the research articles are about. 3) Results: We outline the methodology and technical framework for the geo-referencing of the journal articles and the platform design for this knowledge inventory. The results indicate that the use of well-crafted abstracts for journal articles with carefully chosen place names of relevance for the article provides a guideline for geographically referencing unstructured information like journal articles and reports in order to make such resources discoverable through geographical queries. 4) Conclusion: This approach can actively support integrated holistic assessment of water resources and support decision making.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0041.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: uncertainty management; risk management; safety; ISO 31000:2009; ISO 31010:2009; risk management framework; risk-sentience; safety culture; risk culture; enterprise risk management
Online: 19 June 2018 (12:58:28 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a new auxiliary enterprise risk management framework and process to serve as an enabler to the global ISO 31000 risk framework and ISO 31010 processes. This framework has been designed particularly for use within high-risk environments and those characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA). This paper proposes a methodology for optimization of structured sharing and grass-roots management of all available risk-sentience information with the assessed potential to develop into an identifiable risk in the future. The author introduces new risk terminology including risk-sentience, risk-sentience information, and risk-sentience management. The process involved the development of the Theory of Risk-Sentience (ToRS), Risk-Sentience Auxiliary Framework (RSAF) and a risk-sentience management process referred to as LUOMEAR (Learning from Uncertainties, Others Mistakes, Experiences and Anecdotal Reporting). Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF), SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, and a newly developed Risk-Sentience Fertility Checklist were used to conduct pre and post-trial evaluations. The findings include positive adjustments in safety culture, components of commitment to quality, communication and team-working around safety issues, access to evolving risk-information, and efficient sharing and management of recorded risk-information. Recommendations are made for more extensive application of both the proposed auxiliary risk framework and process within high-risk sectors to further explore its effectiveness and scope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0721.v1
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:52:15 CEST)
The success of a software product depends on several factors. Given that different organizations and institutions use software products, the need to have a quality and desirable software according to the goals and needs of the organization makes measuring the quality of software products an important issue for most organizations and institutions. To be sure of having the right software. It is necessary to use a standard quality model to examine the features and sub-features for a detailed and principled study in the quality discussion. In this study, the quality of Word software was measured. Considering the importance of software quality and to have a good and usable software in terms of quality and measuring the quality of software during the study, experts and skilled in this field were used and the impact of each factor and quality characteristics. It was applied at different levels according to their opinion to make the result of measuring the quality of Word software more accurate and closer to reality. In this research, the quality of the software product is measured based on the fuzzy inference system in ISO standard. According to the results obtained in this study, it is understood that quality is a continuous and hierarchical concept and the quality of each part of the software at any stage of production can lead to high quality products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0009.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: van Aubel’s theorem; iso Ortho Diagonal Quadrilateral; equilateral triangle
Online: 1 November 2016 (10:08:03 CET)
In this short paper we study some properties of the lines associated with van Aubel’s theorem in the special case when squares are replaced with equilateral triangles constructed on the sides of an arbitrary quadrilateral.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0155.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Bone tissue engineering, magnesium implants, ISO norms, in vitro, PEO
Online: 12 December 2018 (15:43:04 CET)
Magnesium (Mg)-based biomaterials are promising candidates for bone and tissue regeneration. Alloying and surface modifications provide effective strategies for optimizing and tailoring their degradation kinetics. Nethertheless, biocompatibility analyses of Mg-based materials are challenging due to its special degradation mechanism with continous hydrogen release. In this context, the hydrogen release and the related (micro-) milieu conditions pretend to strictly follow in vitro standards based on ISO 10993-5/-12. Thus, special adaptions for the testing of Mg materials are necessary, which have been described in a previous study from our group. Based on these adaptions, further developments of a test procedure allowing rapid and effective in vitro cytocompatibility analyses of Mg-based materials based on ISO 10993-5/-12 are necessary. The following study introduces a new two-step test scheme for rapid and effective testing of Mg. Specimens with different surface characteristcis were produced by means of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) using silicate-based and phosphate-based electrolytes. The test samples were evaluated for corrosion behavior, cytocompatibility and their mechanical and ostogenic properties. Thereby, two PEO ceramics could be identified for further in vivo evaluations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: software quality, Adaptive Neural Fuzzy, ISO standard, quality model, Inference system
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:31:56 CEST)
Computer systems are involved in many critical human applications today, so that a small error can lead to serious and dangerous problems. These errors can be from an error in the incorrect design of the user interface to an error in the program code. The success of a software product depends on several factors. Given that different organizations and institutions use software products, the need to have a quality and desirable Software according to the goals and needs of the organization makes measuring the quality of software products. an important issue for most organizations and institutions, To be sure of having the right software. It is necessary to use a standard quality model to examine the features and sub-features for a detailed and principled study in the quality discussion. In this study, the quality of Word software was measured by Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System. In recent years, powerful systems called fuzzy inference systems on The basis of adaptive neural network (ANFIS) has been used in various sciences. Using the power of neural network training and the linguistic advantage of fuzzy systems, these types of systems have been able to realize the advantages of the two in terms of analyzing very powerful complex processes. Considering the importance of software quality and to have a good and usable software in terms of quality and measuring the quality of software during the study. It was applied at different levels to make the result of measuring the quality of Word software more accurate and closer to reality. In this research, the quality of the software product is measured based on the adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system in ISO standard. According to the results obtained in this study, it is understood that quality is a continuous and hierarchical concept and the quality of each part of the software at any stage of production can lead to high quality products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Business excellence; information technology; implementation challenge; ISO 20000; big data management.
Online: 18 June 2019 (10:56:19 CEST)
This study contributes to the literature by exploring challenges to implementing ISO 20000-1 in an emerging economy context, and suggests ways to overcome these challenges. A survey-based methodology was adopted. The data were analyzed using principal component analysis. The results indicated that senior management support was the most significant challenge for the successful implementation of IT Service Management (ITSM) systems. Other significant challenges were the justification of significant investment, premium customer support, co-operation and co-ordination among IT support teams, proper documentation, and effective process design The findings help managers introduce IT service management system (ISO 20000-1:2011) as well as improving IT service delivery system in IT support organizations for managing big data in an emerging economy. In the future, cross-firm and cross-country studies on challenges to ISO 20000 can be conducted. Also, interpretive structural model (ISM) can be formulated to examine the interrelationships among the identified challenges to ISO 20000.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0012.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Shannon entropy; pentagonal tiling; Marjorie Rice tiling; Voronoi tessellation; iso-symmetrical transitions
Online: 1 December 2022 (06:42:44 CET)
We used the complete set of convex pentagons enabling filing the plane without any overlaps or gaps (including the Marjorie Rice tiles) as generators of Voronoi tessellations. Shannon entropy of the tessellations was calculated. Some of the basic mosaics are flexible and give rise to a diversity of Voronoi tessellations. The Shannon entropy of these tessellations varied in a broad range. Voronoi tessellation, emerging from the basic pentagonal tiling built from hexagons only, was revealed (the Shannon entropy of this tiling is zero). Decagons and hendecagon did not appear in the studied Voronoi diagrams. The most abundant Voronoi tessellations are built from three different kinds of polygons. The most widespread is the combination of pentagons, hexagons and heptagons. The most abundant polygons are pentagons and hexagons. No Voronoi tiling built only of pentagons was registered. Flexible basic pentagonal mosaics give rise to a diversity of Voronoi tessellations, which are characterized by the same symmetry group; however, the coordination number of the vertices is variable. These Voronoi tessellations may be useful for the interpretation of the iso-symmetrical phase transitions.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0366.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: ontology; semantics; safety; security; risk; performance; definitions; concepts; safety science; ISO 31000
Online: 31 October 2019 (09:36:29 CET)
When discussing the concepts of risk, safety, and security, people have an intuitive understanding of what these concepts mean, and, to a certain level, this understanding is universal. However, when delving into the real meaning of these concepts, one is likely to fall into semantic debates and ontological discussions. In industrial parks, it is important that (risk) managers from dierent companies, belonging to one and the same park, have the same understanding of the concepts of risk, safety, and security. It is even important that all companies in all industrial parks share a common understanding regarding these issues. As such, this paper explores the similarities and dierences behind the perceptions of these concepts, to come to a fundamental understanding of risk, safety, and security, proposing a semantic and ontological ground for safety and security science, based on an etymological and etiological study of the concepts of risk and safety. The foundation has been induced by the semantics used in the ISO 31000 risk management guidance standard. Hence, this article proposes a coherent, standardized set of concepts and definitions with a focus on the notion “objectives” that can be used as an ontological foundation for safety and security science, linking “objectives” with the concepts of safety, security, risk, performance and also failure and success, theoretically allowing for an increasingly more precise understanding and measurement of (un)safety across the whole range of individuals, sectors and organizations, or even society as a whole.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive development; Secure SDLC; Evidence-based standard; ISO/SAE 21434; UNECE cybersecurity regulation
Online: 9 December 2020 (10:59:57 CET)
Although traditional automotive development has mainly focused on functional safety, as the number of automotive hacking cases has increased due to the growing Internet connectivity of automotive control systems, security is also becoming more important. Accordingly, various international organizations are preparing cybersecurity regulations or standards to ensure security in automotive development by emphasizing the concept of security-by-design(i.e. security engineering) which emphasizes trustworthiness from the beginning of development. The problem, however, is that no specific methodology has been suggested. In this paper, we propose a specific security-by-design methodology for automotive development based on Secure System Development Life Cycle (secure SDLC) standards and evidence-based standards. Our methodology could be easily used in the actual field as it is more general and detailed than existing secure SDLC standards and research. Also, since it satisfies all requirements of United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulation, automobile manufacturers could respond to the upcoming cybersecurity regulation with our methodology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Backhousia citriodora; lemon myrtle; lemon oils; citral; geranial; neral; iso-citrals; citronellal; flavour; fragrance; biological activity
Online: 1 June 2021 (12:23:28 CEST)
Lemon oils are amongst the highest volume and most frequently traded of the flavour and fragrance essential oils. Citronellal and citral are considered the key components responsible for the lemon note with citral (neral + geranial) preferred. Of the myriad of sources of citral, the Australian myrtaceous tree, Backhousia citriodora, is considered superior. This review examines the history, natural occurrence, the cultivation, the taxonomy, the chemistry, the biological activity, the toxicology, standardisation and the commercialisation of Backhousia citriodora especially in relation to its essential oil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: ECMO; ECLS; ECCO2R; ARDS; respiratory failure, LTx, DIN EN ISO 7199; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, animal model
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:16:25 CET)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an established rescue therapy for patients with chronic respiratory failure waiting for lung transplantation (LTx). The therapy inherent immobilization may result in fatigue, consecutive deteriorated prognosis and even lost eligibility for transplantation. We conducted a feasibility study on a novel system designed for the deployment of a mobile ECMO device, enabling physical exercise of awake patients prior to LTx. The system comprises a novel mobile oxygenator with a directly connected blood pump, a double lumen cannula, gas blender and supply, as well as control, and energy management. In-vitro experiments included tests regarding performance, efficiency, and blood damage. A reduced system was tested in vivo for feasibility using a novel large animal model. Six anesthetized pigs were first positioned in supine position, followed by a 45° angle, simulating an upright position of the patients. We monitored performance and vital parameters. All in-vitro experiments showed good performance for the respective subsystems and the integrated system. The acute invivo trials of 8h duration confirmed the results. The novel mobile ECMO-system enables adequate oxygenation and decarboxylation sufficient for, e.g., physical exercise of designated LTx-recipients. These results are promising and suggest further preclinical studies on safety and efficacy to facilitate translation into clinical application.