ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Acari; Ips sexdentatus; Ips acuminatus; Ips typographus; Pinus nigra; Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; Turkey
Online: 15 January 2021 (12:09:12 CET)
Phoretic mites use bark beetles for transportation to new, suitable habitats. Some phoretic mites act as predators and parasitoids of the bark beetles’ immature stages, especially egg and early larval stages, and are potential agents for the biological control of scolytine forest pests. One of the most numerous and largest mite orders is Mesostigmata which live very frequently in relationships with other invertebrates. Many are found in association with various species of bark beetles. Here, a total of 41 specimens of different bark beetles of the genus Ips (I. acuminatus, I. sexdentatus and I. typographus) were studied for presence, species composition, and abundance of phoretic mites. The beetles were collected on dead wood and parts of tree bark of Pinus nigra, P. slyvestris and Picea abies in the Black Sea Mountains in Kastamonu and Artin Province of Turkey. A total of 9 mite species in 2 genera were found, including Dendrolaelaps quadrisetus, Ereynetes sp., Histiostoma piceae, Paraleius cf. leontonychus, Pleuronectocaeleno barbara., Proctolaelaps hystricoides, Schizostethus simulatrix, Trichouropoda lamellosa and Urobovella ipidis. All species and genera are identified for the first time within Turkish fauna.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0228.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: catastrophe model; multicellular organization; IPS cell
Online: 16 June 2022 (03:51:39 CEST)
Thermodynamic studies consider living entities as dissipative structures. Organisms maintain and develop an orderly structure by exchanging matter, energy, and entropy with the surrounding environment; thus, maintaining life and growth. For a single cell, the temperature, volume, content concentration, and content complexity are four control variables. For warm-blooded animals, both temperature and content concentration are assumed to be constant, and only volume and content complexity, i.e., various proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecular substances in the cell and their interactions, are considered as acting variables. Thus, the potential function of a single cell should conform to the cusp catastrophe model. As the studies on the specific mathematical models of the relationship between the volume and content complexity are not available, we could not propose specific methods for the specific variants of the potential function of this cusp catastrophe model. We could only present our approximate results based on the basic characteristics of the cusp catastrophe model. We speculated that when a single cell is in a stable state, it cannot undergo differentiation, dedifferentiation, and division. These behaviors occur only when the cell enters an unstable state. Based on this speculation, we divided somatic cells of warm-blooded animals into two types, namely stable cells and non-steady cells. If we consider a warm-blooded animal as a whole dissipative structure, its control variables should have steady-state cells, non-steady-state cells, and negative entropy input. If we assume that the negative entropy input is constant, the proportion of non-steady cells and the total number of cells can be used as the control variables of the potential function. For warm-blooded animals, their potential function also conforms to the cusp catastrophe model. Because the studies on the relationship between the proportion of non-steady-state cells and the total cell number are rare, we could not propose specific methods for the variation of the potential function of this cusp catastrophe model. We could only present our approximate results according to the basic characteristics of the cusp catastrophe model. We speculated that as individuals, animals should be in a stable state during development. Once they enter an unstable state, they will fall ill or die. For humans, the proportion of non-steady cells decreases during the growth process from a fertilized egg to old age. From the fertilized egg to adulthood, the total cell number increases; however, in old age, the total cell number begins to decrease gradually. The entire developmental curve will gradually enter an unstable state. We speculated that once the developmental curve of a human enters an unstable state, it is death for the elderly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Career adaptability; Resilience; Mental health service users; IPS model
Online: 18 September 2023 (02:50:50 CEST)
The employment rate of people who face severe mental health issues is extremely low, while the vast majority expresses their willingness to work. There are various obstacles that impede their work re-integration process. Apart from the illness’ symptoms and the employers’ stigma, these barriers are strongly associated with the effects of long-term unemployment and the lack of positive psychosocial resources, such as career adaptability and resilience. The present study aims at investigating career adaptability and resilience of mental health service users who receive career counseling services. The career counseling approach that was used combines elements from the IPS model and the career construction approach that has been developed to address the contemporary world of work challenges. We investigated how mental health service users view themselves in terms of career adaptability and resilience, and which factors contributed to their development or impeded them. We used a qualitative approach, which allows for an in-depth exploration of the participants’ views. Fifteen mental health users who receive career counseling services were interviewed. Results showed that mental health service users believe that they can overcome any difficulties and setbacks, when they have adequate support from their social network and when they receive career counseling services. They highlighted the importance of counseling services to maintain their work and cope with stressful events. Further implications of the results regarding vocational rehabilitation of mental health users as means for social inclusion are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: CRISPR-Cas9; high-content screening (HCS); fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS); Parkinson's disease (PD); patient-derived iPS; single-cell clones; isogenic cell lines; SNCA; alpha-synuclein; A30P
Online: 2 May 2020 (11:20:20 CEST)
The generation of isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines using CRISPR-Cas9 technology is a technically challenging, time-consuming process with variable efficiency. Here we use fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to sort biallelic CRISPR-Cas9 edited single-cell iPS clones into high-throughput 96-well microtiter plates. We used high-content screening (HCS) technology and generated an in-house developed algorithm to select the correctly edited isogenic clones for continued expansion and validation. In our model we have gene-corrected the iPSCs of a Parkinson’s disease (PD) patient carrying the autosomal dominantly inherited heterozygous c.88G>C mutation in the SNCA gene, which leads to the pathogenic p.A30P form of the alpha-synuclein protein. Undertaking a PCR restriction-digest mediated clonal selection strategy prior to sequencing, we were able to post-sort validate each isogenic clone using a quadruple screening strategy. Subsequent transfection with mRNA encoding excision-only transposase allows for the generation of footprint-free isogenic iPSC lines. These monoclonal isogenic iPSC lines retain a normal molecular genotype, express pluripotency markers and have the ability to differentiate into the three germ layers. This combinatory approach of FACS, HCS and post-sorted restriction digestion facilitates the generation of isogenic cell lines for disease modelling to be scaled-up on an automated platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0640.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: European spruce bark beetle, Ips, Dendroctonus, global change, symbiosis, natural enemies, population dynamics, biotic interactions, tree killing, forest pest
Online: 26 October 2018 (16:30:11 CEST)
Tree-killing bark beetles are the most economically important insects in conifer forests worldwide. Yet despite >200 years of research, the drivers of population eruptions or crashes are still not fully understood, precluding reliable predictions of the effects of global change on beetle population dynamics and impacts on ecosystems and humans. We critically analyze potential biotic and abiotic drivers of population dynamics of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) and present a novel ecological framework that integrates the multiple drivers governing this bark beetle system. We call for large-scale collaborative research efforts to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of this important pest; an approach that might serve as a blueprint for other eruptive forest insects.