ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Railway crossing; obstacle detection; renewable energy; hybrid system; sustainable development.
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:36:46 CET)
Bangladesh's railway system mostly uses typical manual railway crossing technique or boom gates through its 2,955.53 km rail route all over the country. The accidents are frequently happening in the railway crossings due to not having obstacle detectable and quickly operating gate systems, and also for fewer safety measures in the railway crossing. Currently, there are very few automatic railway crossing systems (without obstacle detectors) available, however, all of them are dependent on the national power grid without a backup plan for any emergency cases. Bangladesh is still running a bit behind in the power generation of its consumption, hence it is not possible to have a continuous power supply at all times all over the countryside. We aim to design and develop a smart railway crossing system with an obstacle detector to prevent common types of accidents in the railway crossing points. We design to use two infrared (IR) sensors to operate the railway crossing systems which will be controlled by the Arduino Uno. This newly designed level crossing system will be run with the help of sustainable renewable energy which is cost-effective, eco-friendly, and apply under the national green energy policy towards achieving sustainable development in Bangladesh as a part of the global sustainable goal to face climate change challenges. We have summarized the simulated results of several renewable energy sources including a hybrid system and optimized the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE), and the payback periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0539.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: BER; outage probability; cooperative; EH; hybrid and NOMA
Online: 28 December 2022 (11:23:56 CET)
Cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (CNOMA) has been recently adapted with energy harvesting (EH) to increase energy efficiency and extend the lifetime of energy-constrained wireless networks. In EH, two protocols are usually used for CNOMA, namely, power splitting (PS) and time switching (TS). In order to improve the existing EH protocols, this paper investigates a hybrid EH protocol-assisted CNOMA, which is a combination of the two aforementioned main existing EH protocols. The end-to-end bit error rate (BER) and outage probability (OP) expressions of users in our scheme are derived over Nakagami-m fading channels. For the sake of comparison and to highlight the achievable gains, the performance of the hybrid EH (HEH) protocol is compared with the benchmark schemes (i.e., existing EH protocols and no-EH). Based on extensive simulations, it is shown that the analytical results match perfectly with simulations which demonstrates the correctness of the derivations. Numerical results clearly indicate the superiority of the proposed scheme over all the considered benchmarks. In addition, we discuss the optimum value of EH factors to minimize the error and outage in the proposed scheme and show that an optimum value can be obtained according to channel parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Hybrid renewable energy; Electrolyze; Hydrogen; Methane; Power to Gas Concept
Online: 3 September 2018 (11:01:12 CEST)
This paper deals with the techno-economic study of the hybrid renewable energy system based on energy storage aspect under the form of hydrogen and methane. Indeed, with the intermittency of the renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic and wind energy, several problems of produced energy injection to the power system network can be encountered due to the shortage or the excess of these sources. This situation appeals the use of systems that ensure the stability of network based on the storage of energy surplus into gas using electrolyzer systems, which will be used afterward to cover the eventual shortage. In the present paper, the study of performance of each pathway of methane and hydrogen storage has been performed by the treatment of multiple scenarios via different architecture case studies in an Algerian location. Whereas, the energy produced by the photovoltaic system, the wind energy and the gas micro turbine sources are considered similar in each case. The modeling and simulation of the studied system operation under optimization criteria has been performed in this work, where the main aim is to define the appropriate configuration taking into account the different with low costs of investment, maintenance operation and immediate reactivity with a big storage capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Converter-driven stability; hybrid renewable energy source (HRES) system; modal resonance; full converter-based wind power generation (FCWG); full converter-based photovoltaic generation (FCPV)
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:14:24 CEST)
Various renewable energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaic (PV) have been increasingly integrated into the power system through power electronic converters in recent years. However, power electronic converter-driven stability issues under specific circumstances, for instance, modal resonances might deteriorate the dynamic performance of the power systems or even threaten the overall stability. In this paper, the integration impact of a hybrid renewable energy source (HRES) system on modal interaction and converter-driven stability is investigated in an IEEE 16-machine 68-bus power system. Firstly, an HRES system is introduced, which consists of full converter-based wind power generation (FCWG) and full converter-based photovoltaic generation (FCPV). The equivalent dynamic models of FCWG and FCPV are then established, followed by the linearized state-space modeling. On this basis, converter-driven stability analyses are performed to reveal the modal resonance mechanisms of the interconnected power systems and the modal interaction phenomenon. Additionally, time-domain simulations are conducted to verify effectiveness of dynamic models and support the converter-driven stability analysis results. To avoid detrimental modal resonances, an optimization strategy is further proposed by retuning the controller parameters of the HRES system. The overall results demonstrate the modal interaction effect between external AC power system and the HRES system and its various impacts on converter-driven stability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0512.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: nanotechnology; diatom; biosilica; drug delivery; hybrid devices
Online: 22 October 2018 (16:15:47 CEST)
Diatom microalgae are the most outstanding natural source of porous silica. Diatom cell is enclosed in 3-D ordered nanopatterned silica cell wall, called frustule. The unique properties of diatoms frustule, including high specific surface area, thermal stability, biocompatibility, tailorable surface chemistry, make them really promising for biomedical applications. Moreover, diatoms are easy to cultivate in artificial environment and there is a huge availability of diatom frustules as fossil material (diatomite) in several areas of the world. For all these reasons, diatoms are an intriguing alternative to synthetic materials for the development of low-cost drug delivery systems. This review article focuses on the possible use of diatoms derived silica as drug carrier systems. The functionalization strategies of diatom micro-/nanoparticles for improving their biophysical properties, such as cellular internalization and drug loading/release kinetics, are described. In addition, the realization of hybrid diatom-based devices with advanced properties for theranostics and targeted or augmented drug delivery applications, are also discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0166.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: carbon clathrates; hybrid carbon-silicon clathrates; hybrid carbon-nitrogen clathrates; electrode materials; hydrogen storage materials; energy storage materials; hard materials
Online: 18 January 2018 (05:08:03 CET)
Hybrid carbon-silicon, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-boron clathrates are new classes of Type I carbon-based clathrates that have been identified by first-principles computational methods by substituting atoms on the carbon clathrate framework with Si, N, and/or B atoms. The hybrid framework is further stabilized by embedding appropriate guest atoms within the cavities of the cage structure. Series of hybrid carbon-silicon, carbon-boron, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-silicon-nitrogen clathrates have been shown to exhibit small positive values of the energy of formation, indicating that they may be metastable compounds and amenable to fabrication. In this overview article, the energy of formation, elastic properties, and electronic properties of selected hybrid carbon-based clathrates are summarized. Theoretical calculations that explore the potential applications of hybrid carbon-based clathrates as energy storage materials, electronic materials, or hard materials are presented. The computational results identify compositions of hybrid carbon-silicon and carbon-nitrogen clathrates that may be considered candidate materials for use as either electrode materials for Li-ion batteries or as hydrogen storage materials. Prior processing routes for fabricating selected hybrid carbon-based clathrates are highlighted and difficulties encountered are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010003.v1
Subject: Keywords: hybrid energy storage; energy efficiency; frequency domain analysis; hybrid electric vehicles
Online: 1 November 2018 (00:00:00 CET)
In Electrified Vehicles, the cost, efficiency, and durability of electrified vehicles are dependent on the energy storage system (ESS) components, configuration and its performance. This paper, pursuing a minimal size tactic, describes a methodology for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating the impacts of a full bandwidth load on the ESS in the HEV. However, the methodology can be extended to other electrified vehicles. The full bandwidth load, up to the operating frequency of the electric motor drive (20 kHz), is empirically measured which includes a frequency range beyond the usually covered frequency range by published standard drive cycles (up to 0.5 Hz). The higher frequency band is shown to be more efficiently covered by a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) which in this paper is defined as combination of a high energy density battery, an Ultra-Capacitor (UC), an electrolytic capacitor, and a film capacitor. In this paper, the harmonic and dc currents and voltages are measured through two precision methods and then the results are used to discuss about overall HEV efficiency and durability. More importantly, the impact of the addition of high-band energy storage devices in reduction of power loss during transient events is disclosed through precision measurement based methodology.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: computational molecular biology, biochemistry, quantum computing, hybrid quantum-classical algorithms
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:37:44 CEST)
Chemistry has been viewed as one of the most fruitful near-term applications to science of quantum computing. Recent work in transitioning classical algorithms to a quantum computer has led to great strides in improving quantum algorithms and illustrating their quantum advantage. Much less effort has been placed on how one finishes these calculations by using the results from the quantum computer (on the active region of the molecule) and embeds them back into the remainder of the molecule in order to determine the properties of the entire molecule. Such strategies are critical if one wants to expand the focus to biochemical molecules that contain active regions that cannot be properly explained with classical algorithms on classical computers. While we do not solve this problem here, we provide an overview of where the field is going to enable such problems to be tackled in the future.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0486.v1
Online: 20 May 2021 (11:27:52 CEST)
This research project focuses on the optimization of the hybrid energy system together with the assistance of thin-film coatings aiming to achieve self-sustainable food and crop storage facilities which will run effectively with its own generated energy. An infrastructure will be designed and constructed that will comprise a hybrid power generation system accompanied by thin-film coated semitransparent and non-transparent construction materials for energy saving. Thin-film low emissivity (Low-E) type coatings will assist the transparent or semitransparent construction materials to reflect most of the infrared (IR-mostly heat) and UV spectra of sunlight without interrupting the visible spectrum and will lead to saving energy consumption by reducing the heat and lighting during day time
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generation; demand-side management; hybrid power system; micro grid; renewable energy resources; supply-side management
Online: 15 September 2022 (03:18:48 CEST)
Sources are classified into two depending upon the factor of reviving. These sources, which cannot be revived into their original shape once they are consumed, are considered as nonrenewable energy resources, i.e., (coal, fuel) Moreover, those energy resources which are revivable to the original condition even after being consumed are known as renewable energy resources, i.e., (wind, solar, hydel) Renewable energy is a cost-effective way to generate clean and green electrical energy Now a day’s majority of the countries are paying heed to energy generation from RES Pakistan is mostly relying on conventional energy resources which are mostly nonrenewable in nature coal, fuel is one of the major resources, and with the advent of time their prices are increasing on the other hand RES have great potential in the country with the deployment of RES greater reliability and an effective power system can be obtained In this thesis, a similar concept is being used and a hybrid power system is proposed which is composed of intermixing of renewable and nonrenewable sources The Source side is composed of solar, wind, fuel cells which will be used in an optimal manner to serve load The goal is to provide an economical, reliable, uninterruptable power supply. This is achieved by optimal controller (PI, PD, PID, FOPID) Optimization techniques are applied to the controllers to achieve the desired results. Advanced algorithms (Particle swarm optimization, Flower Pollination Algorithm) will be used to extract the desired output from the controller Detailed comparison in the form of tables and results will be provided, which will highlight the efficiency of the proposed system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0360.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Renewable Energy; Resilience; Hybrid Energy Systems; Life Cycle Analysis
Online: 26 May 2022 (10:24:39 CEST)
Energy poverty, defined as a lack of access to reliable electricity and reliance on traditional biomass resources for cooking, affects over a billion people daily. The World Health Organization estimates that household air pollution from inefficient stoves causes more premature deaths than malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS). Increasing demand for energy has led to dramatic increases in carbon emissions. The need for reliable electricity and limiting carbon emissions drives research on Resil-ient Hybrid Energy Systems (RHES) that provide low-carbon energy through combined wind, so-lar, and biomass energy with traditional fossil energy, increasing production efficiency and relia-bility, and reducing generating costs and carbon emissions. Microgrids have been shown as an ef-ficient means of implementing RHES, with some focused mainly on reducing the environmental impact of electric power generation. The technical challenges of designing, implementing and ap-plying microgrids involve conducting a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate these systems' environmental and economic performance under diverse operating conditions to evaluate resiliency. A sample RHES has been developed and used to demonstrate implementation in rural applications. This system can provide reliable electricity for heating, cooling, lighting, and pumping clean water. This paper's primary focus is the challenges of using resilient energy sys-tems in the Middle East.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0391.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: full electric aircraft; hybrid aircraft; energy and mass balance equations; conceptual design; constraints
Online: 22 August 2018 (05:13:14 CEST)
Nowadays, all the stakeholders, policy makers, regulators, aircraft designers, producers, operators, etc.) are intensively working on development of the aircraft with full electric and hybrid propulsion systems. However, the technical, technological constrains (like limit on accumulator energy density) require introducing a new approach to conceptual design of such aircraft. The new methods is based on energy and mass balance evaluation. This paper analyses the identified constrains; integrates the energy and mass balance equations into the preliminary definition and calculations of the aircraft performance. By this way, the technological constrains might be transferred into the limitation on the aircraft energy and mass breakdown, that initiates a new approach to aircraft conceptual design uses the knowledge based multidisciplinary optimization. The paper describes the developed methodology for conceptual design of aircraft. It show results of implementing this new development philosophy to conceptual design of a four-seat small electric/hybrid aircraft and a special hybrid cargo UAV. The discussion of the results including got by using the emerging and enabling new technologies and new methods and solutions (including for example distributed propulsion system, unconventional forms, morphing, biomimics, etc.), demonstrates the possible implementation of the new development philosophy, new approach to aircraft conceptual design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Hybrid Mini-grid, Rural Electrification, Renewable Energy, Rural Development, Energy Access
Online: 6 October 2017 (15:45:54 CEST)
Rural electrification in remote areas of developing countries has several challenges which hinders energy access to the population. For instance the extension of the national grid to provide electricity in these areas is largely not viable. The Kenyan government has put a target to achieve universal energy access by the year 2020. In order to realize this objective, focus is being shifted to establishing off-grid power stations in rural areas.Among rural areas to be electrified, Habaswein is a settlement in Kenya's North Eastern region without connection to the National Power Grid where Kenya Power installed a stand alone hybrid mini-grid.Based on field observations, power generation data analysis, evaluation of the potential energy resource and simulations, this research intends to evaluate the performance of the Habaswein mini-grid and optimize the existing hybrid generation system to enhance its reliability and reduce the operation costs.The result will be a suggestion of how Kenyan rural areas could be sustainably electrified by using renewable energy based off-grid power stations. It will contribute to bridge the research gap currently existing on that area, and it will be a vital tool to researchers, implementers and the policy makers in energy sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0371.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Battery; Supercapacitor; Hybrid power system; Optimal control; DC/DC converter; Energy management strategy
Online: 19 January 2021 (10:56:21 CET)
This paper aims at presenting an energy management strategy (EMS) based upon optimal control theory for a battery-supercapacitor hybrid power system. The hybrid power system consists of a Lithium-ion battery and a supercapacitor with associated bidirectional DC/DC converters. The proposed EMS aims at computing adaptive gains using salp swarm algorithm and load following control technique to assign the power reference for both the supercapacitor and the battery while achieving optimal performance and stable voltage. The DC-DC converter model is derived utilizing the first-principles method and compute the required gains to achieve the desired power. The fact that the developed algorithm takes disturbances into account increases the power ele-ments’ life expectancies and supplies the power system with the required power
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0330.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT); laminated glass; hybrid facade element; thermal performance; energy efficiency; numerical modelling
Online: 23 March 2020 (03:41:03 CET)
Facade elements are known to represent a building component with multiple performance parameters to satisfy. Among others, “advanced facades” take advantage of hybrid solutions, like the assemblage of laminated materials. In addition to enhanced mechanical properties that are typical of optimally composed hybrid structural components, these systems are energy-efficient, durable, and offer lightening comfort and optimal thermal performance. This is the case of the structural solution developed in joint research efforts of the University of Zagreb and the University of Ljubljana, within the Croatian Science Foundation VETROLIGNUM project. The design concept involves the mechanical interaction of timber and glass load-bearing members, without sealing or bonded glass-to-timber surfaces. Laminated glass infilled timber frames are recognized as a new generation of structural members with relevant load-carrying capacity (and especially the enhancement of earthquake resistance of framed systems), but also energy-efficient and cost-effective solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0579.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: hybrid modeling; deep neural networks; deep learning; SBML; systems biology; computational modeling
Online: 31 January 2023 (08:51:13 CET)
In this paper we propose a computational framework that merges mechanistic modeling with deep neural networks obeying the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) standard. Over the last 20 years, the systems biology community has developed a large number of mechanistic models in SBML that are currently stored in public databases. With the proposed framework, existing SBML mechanistic models may be upgraded to hybrid systems through the incorporation of deep neural networks into the model core, using a freely available python tool. The so-formed hybrid mechanistic/neural network models are trained with a deep learning algorithm based on the adaptive moment estimation method (ADAM), stochastic regularization and semidirect sensitivity equations. The trained hybrid models are encoded in SBML and stored back in model databases, where they can be further analyzed as regular SBML models. The application of this approach is illustrated with three well-known case studies: the threonine synthesis model in Escherichia coli, the P58IPK signal transduction model, and the Yeast glycolytic oscillations model. The proposed framework is expected to greatly facilitate the widespread use of hybrid modeling techniques for systems biology applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: electric weapons; rail gun; electromagnetic ammunition; hybrid technologies; plasma detonator.
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:00:09 CEST)
Although the idea of making electric weapons has emerged since the beginning of the 20th Century, the great number of technological problems made that such technology was not developed. During the Cold War, the US strategic programme Space Defensive Initiative paid a special attention to this category of weapons, but the experiments have demonstrated that the prototypes are too big, very heavy, and involve a very high energy consumption and low reliability. Under these circumstances, the authors have noticed the trend to design new types of electric weapons starting from the hybridization of some technologies: the compressed flux weapons, the plasma electromagnetic cannon, the electromagnetic weapons as the coil-gun and rail-gun.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: energy policy; energy economics; renewable energy; fossil energy; nuclear energy; hybrid energy; teaching
Online: 23 May 2022 (03:33:09 CEST)
Issues related to safe and abundant energy production have been prominent in recent years. This is particularly tr ue when society considers how to increase the quality of life by providing low-cost energy to citizens. A significant concern of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) relates to the environmental effects of energy production and energy use associated with climate change. Efforts to reduce fossil fuel use and increase the use of renewable energy, together with the price volatility of fossil fuels, have seriously impacted the economics of many of the oil-producing countries, particularly the Gulf States, which has led to efforts to make their economies more diverse and less dependent on oil production.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy Efficiency; Emissions; Tribology; Lubrication; Battery Electric Vehicles; Hybrid Electric Vehicles; Life Cycle Analysis; Thermal Cooling Fluids
Online: 17 June 2021 (10:46:41 CEST)
The motivations for the move to electrified vehicles are discussed with reference to their improved energy efficiency, their potential for lower CO2 emissions (if the electricity system is decarbonized), their lower (or zero) NOx/particulate matter (PM) tailpipe emissions, and the lower overall costs for owners. Some of the assumptions made in life-cycle CO2 emissions calculations are discussed and the effect of these assumptions on the CO2 benefits of electric vehicles are made clear. A number of new tribological challenges have emerged, particularly for hybrid vehicles that have both a conventional internal combustion engine and a battery, such as the need to protect against the much greater number of stop-starts that the engine will have during its lifetime. In addition, new lubricants are required for electric vehicle transmissions systems. Although full battery electric vehicles (BEVs) will not require engine oils (as there is no engine) they will require a system to cool the batteries – alternative cooling systems are discussed, and where these are fluid based, the specific fluid requirements are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0477.v1
Subject: Keywords: Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT); laminated glass; hybrid façade element; thermal performance; energy efficiency; numerical modelling
Online: 27 April 2020 (03:59:57 CEST)
Façade elements are a building component that satisfies multiple performance parameters. Among other things, “advanced façades” take advantage of hybrid solutions, such as assembling laminated materials. In addition to the enhanced mechanical properties that are typical of optimally composed hybrid structural components, these systems are energy-efficient, durable, and offer lighting comfort and optimal thermal performance, an example of which is the structural solution developed in collaboration with the University of Zagreb and the University of Ljubljana within the Croatian Science Foundation VETROLIGNUM project. The design concept involves the mechanical interaction of timber and glass load-bearing members without sealing or bonding the glass-to-timber surfaces. Following earlier research efforts devoted to the structural analysis and optimization of thus-assembled hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT)-glass façade elements, in this paper, special focus is given to a thermal and energy performance investigation under ordinary operational conditions. A simplified numerical model representative of a full-size building is first presented by taking advantage of continuous ambient records from a Live-Lab mock-up facility in Zagreb. Afterwards, a more detailed Finite Element (FE) numerical analysis is carried out at the component level to further explore the potential of CLT–glass façade elements. The collected numerical results show that CLT–glass composite panels can offer stable and promising thermal performance for façades similar to national and European standard requirements.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: hybrid energy storage system; L2-gain disturbance attenuation; passivity-based control; port-controlled Hamiltonian model
Online: 16 April 2020 (06:36:09 CEST)
Battery/Supercapacitor(SC) current tracking control is a key issue for hybrid energy storage system (HESS) in electric vehicles. An innovative passivity-based L2-gain adaptive control (PBL2AC) based on port-controlled Hamiltonian model with dissipativity (PCHD) for reference current tracking and bus voltage stability in HESS is presented. The developed PCHD model has considered both parameter variations and external disturbances. By using L2-gain disturbance attenuation, the PBL2AC ensures robust reference current tracking and stable bus voltage. Moreover, adaptive mechanism is adopted to estimate the electrical parameters. To validate the proposed control scheme for HESS, simulations and experiments were done and compared with traditional PID and sliding mode control under several typical driving cycles, and results show that the effectiveness of the proposed controller can be confirmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0139.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Forest Fire; Prediction Model; Energy-Efficient; Sensors; WSN; X-MAC; Hybrid; Adaptive; Duty-Cycle; Protocol
Online: 3 September 2018 (10:09:11 CEST)
In this paper, we propose an adaptive duty-cycled hybrid X-MAC (ADX-MAC) protocol for energy-efficient forest fire prediction. The X-MAC protocol acquires the additional environmental status collected by each forest fire monitoring sensor for a certain period. And, based on these values, the length of sleep interval of duty-cycle is changed to efficiently calculate the risk of occurrence of forest fire according to the mountain environment. The performance of the proposed ADX-MAC protocol was verified through experiments the proposed ADX-MAC protocol improves throughput by 19% and was more energy-efficient by 24% compared to X-MAC protocol. As the probability of forest fires increases, the length of the duty cycle is shortened, confirming that the forest fires are detected at a faster cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy use; demand-controlled ventilation; hybrid ventilation; humidity; multi-unit residential building; simulation; CONTAM
Online: 16 November 2020 (09:16:41 CET)
A humidity-sensitive demand-controlled ventilation system is known for many years. It has been developed and commonly applied in regions with an oceanic climate. Some attempts were made to introduce this solution in Poland in a much severe continental climate. The article evaluates this system's performance and energy consumption applied in an 8-floor multi-unit residential building, virtual reference building described by the National Energy Conservation Agency NAPE, Poland. The simulations using the computer program CONTAM were performed for the whole hating season for Warsaw's climate. Besides passive stack ventilation that worked as a reference, two versions of humidity-sensitive demand-controlled ventilation were checked. The difference between them lies in applying the additional roof fans that convert the system to hybrid. The study confirmed that the application of demand-controlled ventilation in multi-unit residential buildings in a continental climate with warm summer (Dfb) leads to significant energy savings. However, the efforts to ensure acceptable indoor air quality require hybrid ventilation, which reduces the energy benefits. It is especially visible when primary energy use is analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: degrees of freedom (DoF); full-duplex systems; hybrid opportunistic scheduling; partial channel state information (CSI); user scaling law
Online: 7 January 2018 (11:46:28 CET)
It was recently studied how to achieve the optimal degrees of freedom (DoF) in a multi-antenna full-duplex system with partial channel state information (CSI). In this paper, we revisit the DoF of a multiple-antenna full-duplex system using opportunistic transmission under the partial CSI, in which a full-duplex base station having M transmit antennas and M receive antennas supports a set of half-duplex mobile stations (MSs) having a single antenna each. Assuming no self-interference, we present a new hybrid opportunistic scheduling method that achieves the optimal sum DoF under an improved user scaling law. It is shown that the optimal sum DoF of 2M is asymptotically achievable provided that the number of MSs scales faster than SNRM, where SNR denotes the signal-to-noise ratio. This result reveals that in our full-duplex system, better performance on the user scaling law can be obtained without extra CSI, compared to the prior work that showed the required user scaling condition (i.e., the minimum number of MSs for guaranteeing the optimal DoF) of SNR2M−1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0221.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: fuel cell; wind energy; solar energy; hybrid energy system; Colombian caribbean region; multi-objective optimization
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:40:02 CEST)
The hybrid system is analyzed and optimized to produce electric energy in Non-Interconnected Zones in the Colombian Caribbean region, contributing both to the improvement in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and to the rational use of energy. A comparative analysis of the performance of these systems was carried using a dynamic model in real wind and solar data. The model is integrated by a Southwest Wind Power Inc. wind turbine. AIR 403, a proton exchange fuel cell (PEM), an electrolyze, a solar panel and a charge regulator based on PID controllers to manipulate oxygen and hydrogen flows in the cell. The transient responses of the cell voltage, current, and power were obtained for the demand of 200 W for changes in solar radiation and wind speed for all days of the year 2013 in the Ernesto Cortissoz airport, Puerto Bolívar, Alfonso Lopez airport and Simon Bolívar airport, by regulating the flow of hydrogen and oxygen into the fuel cell. The maximum contribution of power generation from the fuel cell was presented for the Simon Bolívar airport in November with a value of 158,358W (9.45%). A multi-objective design optimization under a Pareto front is presented for each place studied to minimize the Levelized Cost of Energy and CO2 emission, where the objective variables are the number of panel and stack in the PV system and PEM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0318.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Solar PV, Green Energy, Hybrid Power Source, Mobile Cellular Base Station, OPEX, Solar Irradiance
Online: 25 July 2018 (14:30:45 CEST)
Over the years, sustainability, impact on the environment, as well as the operation expenditure have been a major concern to the deployment of mobile cellular base stations worldwide. This is because the mobile cellular base stations are known to consume a high percentage of power within the mobile cellular network. Such energy consumption contributes to the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) through the use of conventional diesel generating a set. As a result, the mobile cellular operators are faced with the dilemma of minimising the power consumption, GHG emission, and the operation cost, while improving the Quality of Service of the networks. In attempting to find a solution, this study presents the feasibility and simulation of a solar photovoltaic (PV) with battery hybrid power system (HPS) as a predominant source of power for a specific mobile cellular base station site situated in Soshanguve area of the city of Pretoria, South Africa. It also presents the technical development, showed the environmental advantage and cost benefits of using a solar PV-battery HPS to power a base station site of a 24 hrs daily load of 241.10 kWh/d and the peak load of 20.31 kW as compared to using the HPS of solar PV-diesel generating set-battery. The solar resource pattern for the city of Pretoria was collected from The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and modelled statistically. Thus, the statistical modelling done using solar radiation resource exposure characteristic patterns of Pretoria, South Africa, revealed an average annual daily solar radiation of 5.4645 Wh/m2/d and 0.605 clearness index. The simulation and the design were done using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables and Matlab/Simulink software. The simulation finding shows that the HPS of solar PV-battery combination has about 59.62 % saving on Net Present Cost, Levelized Cost of Energy, and 80.87% saving on Operating cost as against conventional BS powered with Gen Set-Battery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0498.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Cattle farming; COVID-19 pandemic; economic point of view; food safety; HOMER; hybrid system; smallholder; thin-film coating
Online: 21 September 2020 (07:32:51 CEST)
This paper reports on the optimization of thin-film coating assisted self-sustainable off-grid hybrid power generation systems for cattle farming in rural areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a lower middle-income country with declining rates of poverty among its 160 million people due to persistent economic growth in conjunction with balanced agricultural improvements. Most of the rural households adopt a mixed farming system by cultivating crops and simultaneously rearing livestock. Among the animals raised, cattle are considered as the most valuable asset for the small/medium-scale farmers in terms of their meat and milk production. Currently, along with the major health issue, the COVID-19 pandemic is hindering the world’s economic growth and has thrust millions into unemployment; Bangladesh is also in this loop. However, natural disasters such as COVID-19 pandemic and floods, largely constrain rural smallholder cattle farmers from climbing out of their poverty. In particular, small and medium-scale cattle farmers face many issues that obstruct them from taking advantage of market opportunities and imposing a greater burden on their families and incomes. An appropriate measure can give a way to make those cattle farmers’ businesses both profitable and sustainable. Optimization of thin-film coating assisted self-sustainable off-grid hybrid power generation system for cattle farming is a new and forward-looking approach for sustainable development of the livestock sector. In this study, we design and optimize a thin-film coating assisted hybrid (photovoltaic-battery-generator) power system by using the Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER, Version 3.14.0) simulation tool. An analysis of the results has suggested that the off-grid hybrid system is more feasible for small and medium-scale cattle farming systems with long-term sustainability to overcome the significant challenges faced by smallholder cattle farmers in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040061
Subject: Keywords: industry4.0; fault detection; fault diagnosis; random forest; diagnostic graph; distributed diagnosis; model-based; data-driven; hybrid approach; hydraulic test rig
Online: 24 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
In this work, a hybrid component Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) approach for industrial sensor systems is established and analyzed, to provide a hybrid schema that combines the advantages and eliminates the drawbacks of both model-based and data-driven methods of diagnosis. Moreover, it shines the light on a new utilization of Random Forest (RF) together with model-based diagnosis, beyond its ordinary data-driven application. RF is trained and hyperparameter tuned using three-fold cross validation over a random grid of parameters using random search, to finally generate diagnostic graphs as the dynamic, data-driven part of this system. This is followed by translating those graphs into model-based rules in the form of if-else statements, SQL queries or semantic queries such as SPARQL, in order to feed the dynamic rules into a structured model essential for further diagnosis. The RF hyperparameters are consistently updated online using the newly generated sensor data to maintain the dynamicity and accuracy of the generated graphs and rules thereafter. The architecture of the proposed method is demonstrated in a comprehensive manner, and the dynamic rules extraction phase is applied using a case study on condition monitoring of a hydraulic test rig using time-series multivariate sensor readings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0548.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: industry4.0; fault detection; fault diagnosis; random forest; diagnostic graph; distributed diagnosis; model-based; data-driven; hybrid approach; hydraulic test rig
Online: 23 July 2020 (11:26:41 CEST)
In this work, A hybrid component Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) approach for industrial sensor systems is established and analyzed, to provide a hybrid schema that combines the advantages and eliminates the drawbacks of both model-based and data-driven methods of diagnosis. Moreover, spotting the light on a new utilization of Random Forest (RF) together with model-based diagnosis, beyond its ordinary data-driven application. RF is trained and hyperparameter tuned using 3-fold cross-validation over a random grid of parameters using random search, to finally generate diagnostic graphs as the dynamic, data-driven part of this system. Followed by translating those graphs into model-based rules in the form of if-else statements, SQL queries or semantic queries such as SPARQL, in order to feed the dynamic rules into a structured model essential for further diagnosis. The RF hyperparameters are consistently updated online using the newly generated sensor data, in order to maintain the dynamicity and accuracy of the generated graphs and rules thereafter. The architecture of the proposed method is demonstrated in a comprehensive manner, as well as the dynamic rules extraction phase is applied using a case study on condition monitoring of a hydraulic test rig using time series multivariate sensor readings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: hybrid level-sets, active contours, nodule segmentation, hybrid deformable model
Online: 5 April 2019 (15:36:24 CEST)
Lung nodule segmentation in CT images and its subsequent volume analysis can help determinethe malignancy status of a lung nodule. While several efficient segmentation schemes have beenproposed, only a few studies evaluated the segmentation’s performance for large nodules. In thisresearch, we contribute a semi-automatic system which is capable of performing robust 3-D segmen-tations on both small and large nodules with good accuracy. The target CT volume is de-noisedwith an anisotropic diffusion filter and a region of interest is selected around the target nodule ona reference slice. The proposed model performs nodule segmentation by incorporating a mean in-tensity based threshold in Geodesic Active Contour model in level sets. We also devise an adaptivetechnique using image intensity histogram to estimate the desired mean intensity of the nodule.The proposed system is validated on both lung nodules and phantoms collected from publicly avail-able diverse databases. Quantitative and visual comparative analysis of the proposed work withthe Chan-Vese algorithm and statistic active contour model of 3D Slicer platform is also presented.The resulting mean spatial overlap between segmented nodules and reference nodules is 0.855, themean volume bias is 0.10±0.2 ml and the algorithm repeatability is 0.060 ml. The achieved resultssuggest that the proposed method can be used for volume estimations of small as well as large-sizednodules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: hybrid problem-based learning; hybrid-PBL; biomedicine; systematic review; higher education
Online: 15 November 2018 (05:37:35 CET)
The impact of instructional guidance on learning outcomes in higher biomedical education is subject of intense debate. There is the teacher-centered or traditional way of teaching (TT) and, on the other side, the notion that students learn best under minimal guidance (problem-based learning, PBL). Although the benefits of PBL are well-known, there are aspects susceptible to improvement. Hence, a format merging TT and PBL (hybrid-PBL, h-PBL) may advance education in biomedical sciences. Here, we systematically reviewed studies that employed h-PBL in higher biomedical education compared to TT and/or pure PBL. We found that h-PBL resulted in better overall students’ performance and perception than TT or pure PBL. These findings encourage more research on investigating the pedagogical benefits of h-PBL and posit an eclectic system in which the pedagogical tools from TT and PBL are used cooperatively in the best interest of the education and satisfaction of the students.
Online: 7 March 2020 (03:05:56 CET)
Heterosis or hybrid vigour is a phenomenon in which hybrid progeny exhibit superior yield and biomass to parental lines and has been used to breed F1 hybrid cultivars in many crops. A similar level of heterosis in all F1 individuals is expected as they are genetically identical. However, we found variation of rosette size in individual F1 plants from a cross between C24 and Columbia-0 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Big sized F1 plants had 26.1% larger leaf area in the 1st and 2nd leaves than medium sized F1 plants at 14 days after sowing in spite of the identical genetic background. We identified differentially expressed genes between big and medium sized F1 plants by microarray; genes involved in the category of stress response were overrepresented. We made transgenic plants overexpressing 21 genes, which were differentially expressed between the two size classes, some lines had increased plant size at 14 or 21 days after sowing but not at all time points. Change of expression levels in stress responsive genes among individual F1 plants, implying epigenetic changes, could generate the variation in plant size of individual F1 plants in A. thaliana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0323.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Intrusion Detection System (IDS); HNADAM-SDG(Hybrid Nestrov-Accelerated Adaptive Moment Estimation –Stochastic Gradient Descent); Network-based Intrusion Detection System (NIDS); Host-based Intrusion Detection System (HIDS); Signature-based Intrusion Detection System (SIDS); Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System (AIDS); Algorithms; Machine Learning.
Online: 21 December 2021 (11:45:39 CET)
A single Information security is of pivotal concern for consistently streaming information over the widespread internetwork. The bottleneck flow of incoming and outgoing data traffic introduces the issue of malicious activities taken place by intruders, hackers and attackers in the form of authenticity desecration, gridlocking data traffic, vandalizing data and crashing the established network. The issue of emerging suspicious activities is managed by the domain of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). The IDS consistently monitors the network for identifica-tion of suspicious activities and generates alarm and indication in presence of malicious threats and worms. The performance of IDS is improved by using different signature based machine learning algorithms. In this paper, the performance of IDS model is determined using hybridization of nestrov-accelerated adaptive moment estimation –stochastic gradient descent (HNADAM-SDG) algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is compared with other classi-fication algorithms as logistic regression, ridge classifier and ensemble algorithm by adapting feature selection and optimization techniques
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hybrid FRP-steel reinforcement; ductility; hybrid reinforcement ratio; fiber element; neutral axis
Online: 11 January 2022 (14:04:26 CET)
An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the ductility of reinforced concrete beams longitudinally reinforced with hybrid FRP-Steel bars. The specimens were fourteen reinforced concrete beams with and without hybrid reinforcement. The test variables were bars position, the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement, and the type of FRP bars. The beams were loaded up to failure using a four-point bending test. The performance of the tested beams was observed using the load-deflection curve obtained from the test. Numerical analysis using the fiber element model was used to examine the growth of neutral axis depth due to the effect of test variables. The neutral axis curves were then used to further estimate the neutral axis angle and neutral axis displacement index. The test results show that the position of the reinforcement greatly influences the flexural behavior of the beam with hybrid reinforcement. It was observed from the test that the flexural capacity of beams with hybrid reinforcement is 4% to 50% higher than that of the beams with conventional steel bars depending on bars position and the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement. The ductility decreases as the hybrid reinforcement ratio (Af/As) increases. This study also showed that a numerical model developed can predict the flexural behavior of beams with hybrid reinforcement with reasonable accuracy.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Fibonacci hybrid numbers, Lucas hybrid numbers, Binet Formula, generating function, matrix method.
Online: 14 December 2020 (15:39:16 CET)
In this paper, we introduce hybrid numbers with Fibonacci and Lucas hybrid number coefficients. We give the Binet formulas, generating functions, exponential generating functions for these numbers. Then we define an associate matrix for these numbers. In addition, using this matrix, we present two different versions of Cassini identitiy of these numbers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0345.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep learning; solar radiation forecasting; model prediction; solar energy; multi climates data; generalizability; sustainability; Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM); Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU); Convolutional Neural Network (CNN); Hybrid CNN-Bidirectional LSTM; LSTM Autoencoder
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:59:18 CEST)
The sustainability of the planet and its inhabitants is in dire danger and is among the highest priorities on global agendas such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN). Solar energy -- among other clean, renewable, and sustainable energies -- is seen as essential for environmental, social, and economic sustainability. Predicting solar energy accurately is critical to increasing reliability and stability, and reducing the risks and costs of the energy systems and markets. Researchers have come a long way in developing cutting-edge solar energy forecasting methods. However, these methods are far from optimal in terms of their accuracies, generalizability, benchmarking, and other requirements. Particularly, no single method performs well across all climates and weathers due to the large variations in meteorological data. This paper proposes SENERGY (an acronym for Sustainable Energy), a novel deep learning-based auto-selective approach and tool that, instead of generalising a specific model for all climates, predicts the best performing deep learning model for GHI forecasting in terms of forecasting error. The approach is based on carefully devised deep learning methods and feature sets through an extensive analysis of deep learning forecasting and classification methods using ten meteorological datasets from three continents. We analyse the tool in great detail through a range of metrics and methods for performance analysis, visualization, and comparison of solar forecasting methods. SENERGY outperforms existing methods in all performance metrics including Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Forecast Skills (FS), Relative Forecasting Error, and the normalised versions of these metrics. The proposed auto-selective approach can be extended to other research problems such as wind energy forecasting and predict forecasting models based on different criteria (in addition to the minimum forecasting error used in this paper) such as the energy required or speed of model execution, different input features, different optimisations of the same models, or other user preferences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0218.v1
Online: 30 March 2017 (16:22:32 CEST)
In the present study, an attempt was made to induce rooting from single-node cuttings of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. ×P. tremuloides Michx.) with different concentrations of IAA, IBA and NAA during rooting. Among the three auxins used, NAA showed more effective induction on rooting as compared to IAA and IBA at the whole level. Thereafter, NAA was used further in experiments for anatomical and biochemical investigation. The results showed that it took 12 days from the differentiation of primordium to the appearance of young adventitious roots with NAA application. It was found that endogenous IAA, ZR and GA3 levels increased, but ABA decreased in cuttings with 0.54 mM NAA treatment. In contrast to the endogenous IAA level, NAA had negative effect on IAA-oxidase (IAAO) activity. Similarly, the decreased peroxidase (POD) activity, consistent with down-regulation of expressed levels of POD1 and POD2, was observed in NAA-treated cuttings. Whereas, NAA resulted in a higher activity in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) compared to the control cuttings. Collectively, the study highlighted that 0.54 mM NAA is efficient on rooting in hybrid aspen, and its effect on metabolic changes during rooting is discussed, which provide valuable information for propagating hybrid aspen.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0349.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: hybrid machines; hybrid manufacturing; additive manufacturing; subtractive manufacturing; Directed Energy Deposition; Powder Bed Fusion
Online: 15 November 2018 (08:21:29 CET)
Hybrid machine tools combining additive and subtractive processes have arisen as a solution to the increasing manufacture requirements, boosting the potentials of both technologies, while compensating and minimizing their limitations. Nevertheless, the idea of hybrid machines is relatively new and there is a notable lack of knowledge in the field. Therefore, in the present paper, an insight into the advancements of hybrid machines is given, identifying their real capabilities, together with the latest developments from an industrial context. In addition, the current situation and future perspectives of hybrid machines from the point of view of process planning, monitoring and inspection are discussed. Finally, the challenges that must be overcome and the opportunities that the hybrid machines will provide in the forthcoming years are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0373.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: active power loss; total generation cost; emission index; optimal power flow; equilibrium optimizer; solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system; wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system; hybrid wind and solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:15:42 CEST)
Over the last decades, the energy market around the world has reshaped due to accommodating the high penetration of renewable energy resources. Although renewable energy sources have brought various benefits, including low operation cost of wind and solar PV power plants, and reducing the environmental risks associated with the conventional power resources, they have imposed a wide range of difficulties in power system planning and operation. Naturally, classical optimal power flow (OPF) is a nonlinear problem. Integrating renewable energy resources with conventional thermal power generators escalates the difficulty of the OPF problem due to the uncertain and intermittent nature of these resources. To address the complexity associated with the process of the integration of renewable energy resources into the classical electric power systems, two probability distribution functions (Weibull and lognormal) are used to forecast the voltaic power output of wind and solar photovoltaic, respectively. Optimal power flow, including renewable energy, is formulated as a single-objective and multi-objective problem in which many objective functions are considered, such as minimizing the fuel cost, emission, real power loss, and voltage deviation. Real power generation, bus voltage, load tap changers ratios, and shunt compensators values are optimized under various power systems’ constraints. This paper aims to solve the OPF problem and examines the effect of renewable energy resources on the above-mentioned objective functions. A combined model of wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system, solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system, and hybrid wind and solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system are performed using the equilibrium optimizer technique (EO) and other five heuristic search methods. A comparison of simulation and statistical results of EO with other optimization techniques showed that EO is more effective and superior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0344.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: active power loss; total generation cost; emission index; optimal power flow; equilibrium optimizer; 21 solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system; wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system; hybrid wind and solar PV 22 integrated IEEE 30-bus system
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:50:46 CEST)
Over the last decades, the energy market around the world has reshaped due to accommodating the high penetration of renewable energy resources. Although renewable energy sources have brought various benefits, including low operation cost of wind and solar PV power plants, and reducing the environmental risks associated with the conventional power resources, they have imposed a wide range of difficulties in power system planning and operation. Naturally, classical optimal power flow (OPF) is a nonlinear problem. Integrating renewable energy resources with conventional thermal power generators escalates the difficulty of the OPF problem due to the uncertain and intermittent nature of these resources. To address the complexity associated with the process of the integration of renewable energy resources into the classical electric power systems, two probability distribution functions (Weibull and lognormal) are used to forecast the voltaic power output of wind and solar photovoltaic, respectively. Optimal power flow, including renewable energy, is formulated as a single-objective and multi-objective problem in which many objective functions are considered, such as minimizing the fuel cost, emission, real power loss, and voltage deviation. Real power generation, bus 13 voltage, load tap changers ratios, and shunt compensators values are optimized under various power systems’ 14 constraints. This paper aims to solve the OPF problem and examines the effect of renewable energy resources 15 on the above-mentioned objective functions. A combined model of wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system, solar 16 PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system, and hybrid wind and solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system are performed 17 using the equilibrium optimizer technique (EO) and other five heuristic search methods. A comparison of 18 simulation and statistical results of EO with other optimization techniques showed that EO is more effective 19 and superior.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Palygorskite; Halloysite; Betanin; Hybrid materials; Stability
Online: 4 September 2020 (04:36:18 CEST)
Eco-friendly betanin/clay minerals hybrid materials with good stability were synthesized combining natural betanin molecules extracted from beetroot with 2:1 type palygorskite (Pal) and 1:1 type halloysite (Hal), respectively. It was found that the adsorption, grinding and heating treatment played a key role to enhance the interaction between betanin and clay minerals during preparation process, which favored improving the thermal stability and solvent resistance of natural betanin. The L* and a* values of the betanin/Pal and betanin/Hal hybrid materials were 64.94 and 14.96, 62.55 and 15.48, respectively, indicating that betanin/Hal exhibited the better color performance. The structural characterizations confirmed that betanin was mainly adsorbed on the outer surface of Pal or Hal through hydrogen-bond interaction, and part of them also were entered into the inner surface of Hal via electrostatic interaction. Therefore, Hal preferred to improve the color properties, heating stability and solvent resistance of natural betanin due to its structural features compared with Pal.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; hybrid; metastasis
Online: 3 February 2020 (06:54:32 CET)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been well recognized for its essential role in cancer progression as well as normal tissue development. In cancer cells, activation of EMT permits the cells to acquire migratory and invasive abilities and stem-like properties. However, simple categorization of cancer cells into epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes misleads the understanding of the complicated metastatic process, and contradictory results from different studies also indicate the limitation of application of EMT theory in cancer metastasis. Nowadays, growing evidence suggests the existence of an intermediate status between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes, i.e., the “hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal (hybrid E/M)”state, provides a possible explanation for those conflicting results. Appearance of hybrid E/M phenotype offers a more plastic status for cancer cells to adapt the stressful environment for proceeding metastasis. In this article, we review the biological importance of the dynamic changes between the epithelial and the mesenchymal states. The regulatory mechanisms encompassing the translational, post-translational, and epigenetic control for this complex and plastic status are also discussed .
Online: 6 December 2019 (11:29:09 CET)
Directional Modulation (DM) technique, as an emerging promising approach to secure wireless communications, has been attracting increasing attention for its unique characteristic in the past decade. The baseband signal is synthesized at the antenna level for maintaining the standard constellation format along the prescribed direction(s) while simultaneously distorting the signal constellations in other undesired directions. In this paper, we present a novel DM signal synthesis method based on phased array using a hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which takes advantages of both GA and PSO algorithm. Then, the bit error rate of the proposed method is analyzed and simulated. Simulation results are presented to verify that the proposed DM signal have a narrower information beam-width. Therefore, it can offer a better physical layer security (PLS) performance compared with the conventional directional modulation signal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0187.v1
Online: 18 January 2019 (12:15:17 CET)
Considering Games with the broad definition proposed by Juul (Juul, 2010), consequences outside of the magic circle can be negotiated. This definition opens up the possibility to define serious games, games developed with an utilitarian goal in mind, in addition to fun. The entertaining and utilitarian objectives may however be contradictory, leading serious games to be, more often than not, less than optimal in at least one of the two dimensions. Another way to play with the boundaries of games is to consider pervasive games, which include alternate reality games, and crossmedia games (Montola, 2005). We question here the limit between game, play and toy in the context of a mixed reality serious game. ‘Pangu’ is a game designed for bachelor students, with biochemistry as the utilitarian objective, and the origin of life as a game theme. The students are asked to play the game on their smartphone, which in turn ask them to build molecules with a tangible balls-and-sticks model typically used in chemistry classes. Pictures taken from the models allow users to ‘scan’ these models and progress in the game. The use of the game was observed in four opportunities. An unanticipated observation is that, in addition to expected behaviors, some students used briefly the models like a toy rather than in the context of the game. It is therefore tempting to speculate that the pervasive nature of the game is blurring the game/non game boundary and, in the context of this serious game, opens a door for fun.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0501.v1
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:22:14 CEST)
The predictability of wind information in a given location is essential for the evaluation of a wind power project. Predicting wind speed accurately improves the planning of wind power generation, reducing costs and improving the use of resources. This paper seeks to predict the mean hourly wind speed in anemometric towers (at a height of 50 meters) at two locations: a coastal region and one with complex terrain characteristics. To this end, the Holt-Winters (HW), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Hybrid time-series models were used. Observational data evaluated by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications-Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis at the same height of the towers. The results show that the hybrid model had a better performance in relation to the others, including when compared to the evaluation with MERRA-2. For example, in terms of statistical residuals, RMSE and MAE were 0.91 and 0.62 m/s, respectively. As such, the hybrid models are a good method to forecast wind speed data for wind generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0184.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: instability; attractors; randomness; quantum-classical hybrid
Online: 20 August 2016 (05:39:37 CEST)
The challenge of this work is to re-define the concept of intelligent agent as a building block of social networks by presenting it as a physical particle with additional non-Newtonian properties. The proposed model of an intelligent agent described by a system of ODE coupled with their Liouville equation has been introduced and discussed. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as superposition, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that the proposed model can be linked to mathematical models of livings as well as to models of AI. The model is presented in two modifications. The first one is illustrated by the discovery of a stochastic attractor approached by the social network; as an application, it was demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to the corresponding system of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. It was emphasized that evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying micro- dynamics supports a “violent reputation” of the power-law statistics. The second modification of the model of social network associated with a decision-making process and applied to solution of NP-complete problems known as being unsolvable neither by classical nor by quantum algorithms. The approach is illustrated by solving a search in unsorted database in polynomial time by resonance between external force representing the address of a required item and the response representing the location of this item.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0156.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: ANN; NN; Speech Recognition; interaction; hybrid method
Online: 5 February 2021 (10:58:40 CET)
Human and Computer interaction has been a part of our day-to-day life. Speech is one of the essential and comfortable ways of interacting through devices as well as a human being. The device, particularly smartphones have multiple sensors in camera and microphone, etc. speech recognition is the process of converting the acoustic signal to a smartphone as a set of words. The efficient performance of the speech recognition system highly enhances the interaction between humans and machines by making the latter more receptive to user needs. The recognized words can be applied for many applications such as Commands & Control, Data entry, and Document preparation. This research paper highlights speech recognition through ANN (Artificial Neural Network). Also, a hybrid model is proposed for audio-visual speech recognition of the Tamil and Malay language through SOM (Self-organizing map0 and MLP (Multilayer Perceptron). The Effectiveness of the different models of NN (Neural Network) utilized in speech recognition will be examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0309.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: classification; hybrid; Whale Optimization Algorithm; email spam
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:08:33 CET)
Selecting a feature in data mining is one of the most challenging and important activities in pattern recognition. The issue of feature selection is to find the most important subset of the main features in a specific domain, the main purpose of which is to remove additional or unrelated features and ultimately improve the accuracy of the categorization algorithms. As a result, the issue of feature selection can be considered as an optimization problem and to solve it, meta-innovative algorithms can be used. In this paper, a new hybrid model with a combination of whale optimization algorithms and flower pollination algorithms is presented to address the problem of feature selection based on the concept of opposition-based learning. In the proposed method, we tried to solve the problem of optimization of feature selection by using natural processes of whale optimization and flower pollination algorithms, and on the other hand, we used opposition-based learning method to ensure the convergence speed and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. In fact, in the proposed method, the whale optimization algorithm uses the bait siege process, bubble attack method and bait search, creates solutions in its search space and tries to improve the solutions to the feature selection problem, and along with this algorithm, Flower pollination algorithm with two national and local search processes improves the solution of the problem selection feature in contrasting solutions with the whale optimization algorithm. In fact, we used both search space solutions and contrasting search space solutions, all possible solutions to the feature selection problem. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, experiments are performed in two stages. In the first phase, experiments were performed on 10 sets of data selection features from the UCI data repository. In the second step, we tried to test the performance of the proposed algorithm by detecting spam emails. The results obtained from the first step show that the proposed algorithm, by running on 10 UCI data sets, has been able to be more successful in terms of average selection size and classification accuracy than other basic meta-heuristic algorithms. Also, the results obtained from the second step show that the proposed algorithm has been able to perform spam emails more accurately than other similar algorithms in terms of accuracy by detecting spam emails.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0191.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: hybrid vigor; flowering plants; apomixis; CRISPR/Cas9
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:30:45 CET)
The hybrid seeds of several important crops with supreme qualities, including yield, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, have been cultivated from decades. Thus far, a major challenge with hybrid seed, it does not hold ability to produce plants with same qualities over subsequent generations. Apomixis exist naturally an asexual mode of reproduction in flowering plants via avoiding meiosis and ultimately leads to seed production. Apomixis possess potential to preserve hybrid vigor for multiple generations for economically important plant genotypes. The evolution and genetics of asexual seed production is unclear and need much more efforts to find its genetic architecture. To fix hybrid vigor synthetic apomixis has been suggested an alternative. The development of MiMe (Mitosis instead of Meiosis) genotypes are utilized further for clonal gametes production. However, the identification and parental origin of genes responsible for synthetic apomixis are less known and need further understanding. Genome modifications utilizing genome editing technologies (GETs) like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (cas9) a reverse genetics tool has paved way to utilize emerging technologies in plant molecular biology. From the last decade, several genes in important crops have been successfully edited. The vast availability of GETs has made the functional genomics studies easy to conduct in crops important for food security. The disruption of expression of genes specific to egg cell MATRILINEAL (MTL) or BABY BOOM1 (BBM1) through CRISPR/Cas genome editing system can promote haploid plants. The establishment of synthetic apomixis by engineering MiMe genotype by genome editing BBM1 expression or disruption of MTL leads toward clonal seed production. In present review, we discussed the current development in plants by utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its possibility of promoting apomixis in crops to preserve hybrid vigour. In addition to this, genetics, evolution, epigenetic modifications and strategy for MiMe genotype development has been discussed in detail.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0330.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: incompatibility; male sterility; mitochondria; somatic hybrid; recombination
Online: 29 July 2019 (05:21:51 CEST)
Plant male sterility refers to the failure in the production of fertile pollen. It occurs spontaneously in natural populations and may be caused by genes encoded in the nuclear (genic male sterility; GMS) or mitochondrial (cytoplasmic male sterility; CMS) genomes. This feature has great agronomic value for the production of hybrid seeds and has been widely used in crops, such as corn, rice, wheat, citrus, and several species of the family Solanaceae. Mitochondrial genes determining CMS have been uncovered in a wide range of plant species. The modes of action of CMS have been classified in terms of the effect they produce in the cell, which ultimately leads to a failure in the production of pollen. Male fertility can be restored by nuclear-encoded genes, termed restorer-of-fertility (Rf) factors. CMS from wild plants has been transferred to species of agronomic interest through somatic hybridization. Somatic hybrids have also been produced to generate CMS de novo upon recombination of the mitochondrial genomes of two parental plants or by separating the CMS cytoplasm from the nuclear Rf alleles
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0176.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: hybrid fractional integrodifferential equation; hybrid fixed point theorems of Dhage; approximations solutions; Lipschitz conditions; weaker mixed partial continuity
Online: 14 February 2020 (02:12:02 CET)
In the present work we study the existence of solutions for hybrid nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations. We developed an algorithm by using the operator theoretical techniques in order to obtain the approximate solutions. The main results depend on the Dhage iteration method that were incorporated with the modern hybrid fixed point theorems. The approximate solutions were obtained by using Lipschitz conditions and weaker form of mixed partial continuity. Further, we provide some examples to explain the hypotheses and the related results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0284.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: deep learning; composite hybrid feature selection; machine learning; stack hybrid classification; CT-image; MPEG7 edge histogram feature extraction; CNN
Online: 18 March 2020 (08:32:46 CET)
The paper demonstrates the analysis of Corona Virus Disease based on a probabilistic model. It involves a technique for classification and prediction by recognizing typical and diagnostically most important CT images features relating to Corona Virus. The main contributions of the research include predicting the probability of recurrences in no recurrence (first time detection) cases at applying our proposed approach for feature extraction. The combination of the conventional statistical and machine learning tools is applied for feature extraction from CT images through four images filters in combination with proposed composite hybrid feature extraction (CHFS). The selected features were classified by the stack hybrid classification system(SHC). Experimental study with real data demonstrates the feasibility and potential of the proposed approach for the said cause.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: online learning; e-learning; hybrid learning; innovation; education
Online: 31 January 2023 (08:07:58 CET)
In recent years, online learning has become one of the most popular methods of educational delivery due to advances in technology, which has been made even more evident in the COVID-19 lockdown period. Online education has evolved into a distinct field of study within the educational system over the last few years. It is also important to note that parallel with the growth in this field, there has also been an increase in the number of scholarly journals that regularly publish research in this field, reflecting the importance of this field in the modern day. In spite of the fact that online learning offers a wide range of educational options, from short courses to full-time degrees, as well as being accessible, flexible, environmentally friendly, and affordable, there are also certain challenges associated with this educational approach. These challenges include the lack of social interaction, technical errors, a lack of hands-on training, and difficulties in assessing students. It is, therefore, imperative to ask the crucial question of whether online learning can replace traditional classroom learning or whether it can supplement it in hybrid models with it, as well as what factors and conditions are likely to determine this in the short- and long-term, as well as how it will be blended together in the future. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a brief summary of the current status of both learning models, as well as their pros and cons, in order to answer the question that was posed above.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0231.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: vegetation indices; precision farming; hybrid; phenotyping; remote sensing
Online: 17 May 2022 (12:47:44 CEST)
Abstract: Early assessment of crop development is a key aspect of precision agriculture. Shortening the time of response before a deficit of irrigation, nutrients and damage by diseases is one of the usual concerns in agriculture. Early prediction of crop yields can increase profitability in the farmer's economy. In this study we aimed to predict the yield of four maize commercial hybrids (Dekalb7508, Advanta9313, MH_INIA619 and Exp_05PMLM) using remotely sensed spectral vegetation indices (VI). A total of 10 VI (NDVI, GNDVI, GCI, RVI, NDRE, CIRE, CVI, MCARI, SAVI, and CCCI) were considered for evaluating crop yield and plant cover at 31, 39, 42, 46 and 51 days after sowing (DAS). A multivariate analysis was applied using principal component analysis (PCA), linear regression, and r-Pearson correlation. In the present study, highly significant correlations were found between plant cover with VIs at 46 (GNDVI, GCI, RVI, NDRE, CIRE and CCCI) and 51 DAS (GNDVI, GCI, NDRE, CIRE, CVI, MCARI and CCCI). The PCA indicated a clear discrimination of the dates evaluated with VIs at 31, 39 and 51 DAS. The inclusion of the CIRE and NDRE in the prediction model contributed to estimate the performance, showing greater precision at 51 DAS. The use of RPAS to monitor crops allows optimizing resources and helps in making timely decisions in agriculture in Peru.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: magnetite; dopamine; surface modification; hybrid materials; antibacterial agents.
Online: 9 May 2022 (13:47:08 CEST)
Organically-coated nanomaterials are intensively studied and find numerous applications in a wide range of areas ranging from optics to biomedicine. One of the recent trends in material science is the application of bio-mimetic polydopamine coatings that can be produced on a variety of substrates in a cost-efficient way under mild conditions. Such coatings not only modify the biocompatibility of the material but also add functional amino groups to the surface that can be further modified by classic conjugation techniques. Here we show an alternative strategy of substrates modification using not dopamine but dopamine conjugates. Compared to the classic scheme the proposed strategy allows for separation of the "organic" and "colloidal" stages and simplifies identification and purification steps. Modification with pre-modified dopamine allowed to achieve high active components loading up to 10.5% wt. A series of organo-inorganic hybrids were synthesized and their bioactivity was analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0250.v1
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:07:48 CET)
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer death and can be realized through the phenomenon of tumor cell fusion. The fusion of tumor cells with other tumor or normal cells leads to the appearance of tumor hybrid cells (THCs) exhibiting novel properties such as increased proliferation and migration, drug resistance, decreased apoptosis rate and avoiding immune surveillance. Experimental studies showed the association of THCs with a high frequency of cancer metastasis; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Many other questions also remain to be answered: the role of genetic alterations in tumor cell fusion, the molecular landscape of cells after fusion, the lifetime and fate of different THCs, and the specific markers of THCs, and their correlation with various cancers and clinicopathological parameters. In this review, we discuss the factors and potential mechanisms involved in the occurrence of THCs, the types of THCs, and their role in cancer drug resistance and metastasis, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for the prevention and targeting of tumor cell fusion. In conclusion, we emphasize the current knowledge gaps in the biology of THCs that should be addressed to develop highly effective therapeutics and strategies for metastasis suppression.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Knee osteoarthritis; hybrid hyaluronic acid; viscosupplementation; obesity; overweight.
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:46:23 CEST)
(1) Background:A BMI > 25 is the most decisive, albeit modifiable,risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed at assessing the efficacy of intra-articular injections of hybrid hyaluronic acid (HA) complexes (Synovial® H-L)for the treatment of kneeOA in overweight patientsin terms ofdisease severity, cardiocirculatory capacity, and quality of life. (2) Materials: In this single-site, open-label, prospective trial, 37 patients with symptomatic knee OA were assessed at baseline and 3 months after ultrasound-guided intra-articular injection of hybrid HA complexes (Synovial® H-L). (3) Results: Primary variables displaying a statistically significant improvement after treatment were pain (NRS), disease severity (WOMAC), and cardiopulmonary capacity a(6-Minute Walk Test). Among secondary variables, quality of life (SF-12) improved significantly, as did analgesic intake for pain control. No statistically significant difference was observed in body fat and muscle mass percentage measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. (4) Conclusions:Intra-articular hybrid HA injections are significantly effective in improving OA-related disease severity, cardiopulmonary function, and analgesic intake. This supports the role of hybrid HA viscosupplementation as a non-pharmacological treatment to relieve pain, reduce disability and improve quality of life, and limit the risk of polypharmacy in overweight patients with knee OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0388.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomimetic hydrogels; hybrid nanocomposites; anomalous sorption; Tissue engineering
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:44:37 CET)
Innovative tissue engineering biomimetic hydrogels based on hydrophilic polymers have been investigated for their physical and mechanical properties. 5% to 25% by volume loading PHEMA-nanosilica glassy hybrid samples were equilibrated at 37°C in aqueous physiological isotonic and hypotonic saline solutions (0.15 and 0.05 M NaCl) simulating two limiting possible compositions of physiological extracellular fluids. The glassy and hydrated hybrid materials were characterized both for dynamo-mechanical properties and equilibrium absorptions in the two physiological-like aqueous solutions. Mechanical and the morphological modifications occurring in the samples have been described. The 5% volume nanosilica loading hybrid nanocomposite composition showed mechanical characteristics in the dry and hydrated states that were comparable to those of cortical bone and articular cartilage, respectively, and then chosen for further sorption kinetics characterization. Sorption and swelling kinetics were monitored up to equilibrium. Changes in water activities and osmotic pressures in the water-hybrid systems equilibrated at the two limiting solute molarities of the physiological solutions have been related to the observed anomalous sorption modes using the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter approach. The bulk modulus of the dry and glassy PHEMA-5% nanosilica hybrid at 37°C has been observed to be comparable with the values of the osmotic pressures generated from the sorption of isotonic and hypotonic solutions. The anomalous sorption modes and swelling rates are coherent with the difference between osmotic swelling pressures and hybrid glassy nano-composite bulk modulus: the lower the differences the higher the swelling rate and equilibrium solution uptakes. Bone tissue engineering benefits of use of tuneable biomimetic scaffold biomaterials that can be “designed” to act as biocompatible and biomechanically active hybrid interfaces are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hybrid modelling; prescriptive analytics; gas engine; machine learning
Online: 20 September 2020 (13:48:48 CEST)
This paper presents a methodology for predictive and prescriptive analytics of complex engineering systems. The methodology is based on a combination of physics-based and data-driven modeling using machine learning techniques. Combining these approaches results in a set of reliable, fast, and continuously updating models for prescriptive analytics. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study of a jet-engine power plant preventive maintenance and diagnostics of its flame tube.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: network simulation modeling; rail infrastructure; hybrid-simulation optimization
Online: 27 May 2019 (11:18:59 CEST)
The availability of rail infrastructure resources is a major driver of rail operations performance. To evaluate the impact of infrastructure provision, network simulation models can be used to accurately represent train traffic behavior in a wide range of scenarios. However, performing this task can result in a problem of high combinatorial nature as the number of factors and their associated levels increase. This requires more sophisticated techniques such as experimental design formulations or optimization modeling in order to yield satisfactory results. Yet the research in network simulation models for rail systems has hitherto been limited to simple what-if analysis, made up from few factors that cannot represent the whole spectrum of interventions. This is especially critical in closed-loop rail systems where trains are subject to various interferences. Local improvements can be misleading as the queues are merely transferred within the network. Considering this, we propose a hybrid simulation-optimization model to aid the strategic decision of minimizing supplementary capital costs in a heavy-haul Brazilian railroad under construction. As soon as the railroad is completed, investments in both loading and unloading rail terminals will be necessary. First, we developed a representative and flexible model capable of dealing with complex relations between variable infrastructure provision and the resulting operational performance. Then, we simulated this system to prove that the current set of proposed infrastructure resources cannot meet the transportation demands. Afterwards, we demonstrate that local improvements can be delusive as the queues are shifted from loading to unloading operations, reciprocally. Then, we solve an optimization model to define the minimal supplementary investment in order to meet the commercial goals of mining companies. This is done by choosing the best trackage configuration, equipment quantity and capacity and fleet sizing in 3 different production scenarios. The best values of the objective function were found by improving both loading and unloading equipment and increasing the number of trains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0264.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: hybrid composites, thermal analysis, kenaf, carbon fibre, epoxy
Online: 21 February 2019 (03:30:31 CET)
The effects of carbon fiber hybridisation on the thermal properties of woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composites kenaf fibre were studied. Woven kenaf hybrid composites at the different weave designs of plain and satin, and fabric count of 5 × 5 and 6 × 6 were manually prepared by vacuum infusion technique. Thermal properties of pure carbon fibre and hybrid composites were conducted by using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It was found that at high kenaf fibre content showed better thermal stability while the highest thermally stable was found in pure carbon fibre composite. The TG and DTG results showed that the amount of residue decreased in plain-designed hybrid composite compared to satin-designed hybrid composite. The DSC data revealed that the presence of woven kenaf increase decomposition temperature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0213.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: inorganic perovskites; hybrid perovskites; stimulated emission; laser devices
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:14:55 CET)
Inorganic and organic – inorganic (hybrid) perovskite semiconductor materials have attracted the worldwide scientific attention and research effort as the new wonder material in optoelectronics. Their excellent physical and electronic properties have been exploited to boost the solar cells efficiency beyond 23% and captivate their potential as competitors to the dominant silicon solar cells technology. However, the fundamental principles in Physics dictate that an excellent material for photovoltaic applications must be also an excellent light emitter. This has been realized for the case of perovskite based light emitting diodes (LEDs) but much less for the case of the respective laser devices. Here, the strides have been made since 2014 are presented for the first time. The solution processability, low temperature crystallization, formation of nearly defect free, nanostructures, the long range ambipolar transport, the direct energy band gap, the high spectral emission tunability over the entire visible spectrum and the almost 100% external luminescence efficiency show perovskite semiconductors’ potential to transform the nanophotonics sector. The operational principles, the various adopted material and laser configurations along the future challenges are reviewed and presented in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0331.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: Distributed computing; Task scheduling; Hybrid Tasks; Generic algorithm;
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:17:23 CEST)
The resource allocation for tasks in heterogeneous distributed system is a well known NP-hard problem. For the sake of making the makespan is minimized, it is hard to distribute the tasks to proper processors. The problem is even more complex and challenging when the processors have unavailable time and the tasks type are various. This paper investigates a resource allocation problem for hybrid tasks comprising both divisible and bag-of-tasks(BoT) in heterogeneous distributed system when the processors has unavailable time. First, the mathematical model, which minimizes the makespan of the hybrid tasks when the processors have unavailable time, is established. Second, we propose a scheduling algorithm referred to as bag-of-tasks allocate-pull and divisible task allocation (BoTAPDTA) algorithm for handling hybrid tasks on heterogeneous distributed systems. In addition, to solving the optimization model efficiently, a generic algorithm(GA) is proposed. For the sake of reducing the search space and solving the optimization model effectively, a two step scheduling algorithm(TSGA), which first allocate bag-of-tasks(BoT) using generic algorithm and then assign divisible task to processors like BoTAPDTA, is designed. Finally, numerical simulation experiments are conducted, and experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Electricity Demand; ANN; PSO; GA; Hybrid Optimization; Forecasting
Online: 23 January 2018 (15:30:10 CET)
In the present study, a hybrid optimizing algorithm has been proposed using Genetic Algorithm (GA)and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to improve the estimation of electricity demand of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The GA-PSO model optimizes the coefficients of factors of gross state domestic product (GSDP) , electricity consumption per capita, income growth rate and consumer price index (CPI) that affect the electricity demand. Based on historical data of 25 years from 1991 till 2015 , the simulation results of GA-PSO models are having greater accuracy and reliability than single optimization methods based on either PSO or GA. The forecasting results of ANN-GA-PSO are better than models based on single optimization such as ANN-BP, ANN-GA, ANN-PSO models. Further the paper also forecasts the electricity demand of Tamil Nadu based on two scenarios. First scenario is the "as-it-is" scenario , the second scenario is based on milestones set for achieving goals of "Vision 2023" document for the state. The present research also explores the causality between the economic growth and electricity demand in case of Tamil Nadu. The research indicates that a direct causality exists between GSDP and the electricity demand of the state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0190.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: electricity demand; ANN; PSO; GA; hybrid optimization; forecasting
Online: 16 January 2018 (07:44:04 CET)
In the present study, a hybrid optimizing algorithm has been proposed using Genetic Algorithm (GA)and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to improve the estimation of electricity demand of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The GA-PSO model optimizes the coefficients of factors of gross state domestic product (GSDP) , electricity consumption per capita, income growth rate and consumer price index (CPI) that affect the electricity demand. Based on historical data of 25 years from 1991 till 2015, the simulation results of GA-PSO models are having greater accuracy and reliability than single optimization methods based on either PSO or GA. The forecasting results of ANN-GA-PSO are better than models based on single optimization such as ANN-BP, ANN-GA, ANN-PSO models. Further the paper also forecasts the electricity demand of Tamil Nadu based on two scenarios. First scenario is the “as-it-is” scenario, the second scenario is based on milestones set for achieving goals of “Vision 2023” document for the state. The present research also explores the causality between the economic growth and electricity demand in case of Tamil Nadu. The research indicates that a direct causality exists between GSDP and the electricity demand of the state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0297.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Data Mining; Alzheimer’s Dementia; Composite Hybrid Feature Selection; Machine learning; Stack Hybrid Classification; AI Techniques; Classification; AD Diagnose; Clinical AD Dataset
Online: 19 March 2020 (10:52:31 CET)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant regular type of dementia that causes damage in brain cells. Early detection of AD acting as an essential role in global health care due to misdiagnosis and sharing many clinical sets with other types of dementia, and costly monitoring the progression of the disease over time by magnetic reasoning imaging (MRI) with consideration of human error in manual reading. Our proposed model, in the first stage, apply the medical dataset to a composite hybrid feature selection (CHFS) to extract new features for select the best features to improve the performance of the classification process due to eliminating obscures features. In the second stage, we applied a dataset to a stacked hybrid classification system to combine Jrip and random forest classifiers with six model evaluations as meta-classifier individually to improve the prediction of clinical diagnosis. All experiments conducted on a laptop with an Intel Core i7- 8750H CPU at 2.2 GHz and 16 G of ram running on windows 10 (64 bits). The dataset evaluated using an explorer set of weka data mining software for the analysis purpose. The experimental show that the proposed model of (CHFS) feature extraction performs better than principal component analysis (PCA), and lead to effectively reduced the false-negative rate with a relatively high overall accuracy with support vector machine (SVM) as meta-classifier of 96.50% compared to 68.83% which is considerably better than the previous state-of-the-art result. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was equal to 95.5%. Also, the experiment on MRI images Kaggle dataset of CNN classification process with 80.21% accuracy result. The results of the proposed model show an accurate classify Alzheimer's clinical samples against MRI neuroimaging for diagnoses AD at a low cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0526.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: rice; variety; hybrid; lines; anther; induction; callus; regeneration; digaploids
Online: 28 January 2023 (10:30:44 CET)
The evaluation of the possibility of obtaining dihaploids by the method of anther culture in vitro to accelerate selection for resistance to prolonged flooding of seeded rice with water was carried out. The object of research is rice hybrids F2 of the Rice Breeding and Seed Production Laboratory of the “Donskoy” ASC, obtained as a result of interbreeding the best economically valuable varieties with samples bearing genes of resistance to prolonged flooding with water. Basic nutrient medium with an optimal composition of nutrition elements and growth hormones stimulating callo- and morphogenesis were used. For the induction of callus formation, 12604 anthers were planted, according to 26 hybrid combinations represented by 68 plants, as a result, 716 neoplasms were obtained, including 586 non–morphogenic callus, 130 regenerating plants. Cultivation of anthers revealed large genotypic differences in the samples. According to the responsiveness to neoplasms, 60% of the panicles showed a positive result, the rest did not give callus. The most responsive to the formation of callus were hybrid combinations: 5009/2 – 84 pcs., 5010/2 – 94 pcs., 4565/3 – 85 pcs., 4641/2 – 69 pcs. They also showed the ability to morphogenesis. Androgenic plants were obtained by 14 hybrid combinations, their share was 1.03% of the total number of inoculated anthers. 30 green regenerative lines from four rice hybrids were obtained, differing in visual morphological assessment: 5009/2 - 5 pcs., 5010/2 – 5 pcs., 4565/3 – 2 pcs., 4641/2 – 18 pcs. The isolated lines are characterized by good responsiveness in the culture of anthers in vitro, carry genes for resistance to prolonged flooding, and can be used in rice breeding programs using DG technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0122.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: anchored hybrid enrichment; biodiversity, biorepository; nested PCR; Sanger sequencing
Online: 8 June 2022 (09:57:51 CEST)
Despite several decades’ effort to detect and identify phytoplasmas (Tenericutes: Mollicutes) using PCR and Sanger sequencing focusing on diseased plants, knowledge of phytoplasma biodiversity and vector associations remains highly incomplete. To improve protocols for documenting phyto-plasma diversity and ecology, we used DNA extracted from phloem-feeding insects and com-pared traditional Sanger sequencing with a next-generation sequencing method, Anchored Hy-brid Enrichment (AHE) for detecting and characterizing phytoplasmas. Among 22 of 180 leaf-hopper samples that initially tested positive for phytoplasmas using qPCR, AHE yielded phyto-plasma 16Sr sequences for 20 (19 complete and 1 partial sequence) while Sanger sequencing yield-ed sequences for 16 (11 complete and 5 partial). AHE yielded phytoplasma sequences for an addi-tional 7 samples (3 complete and 4 partial) that did not meet the qPCR threshold for phytoplasma positivity or yielded non-phytoplasma sequences using Sanger sequencing. This suggests that AHE is more efficient for obtaining phytoplasma sequences. Twenty-three samples with sufficient data were classified into eight 16Sr subgroups (16SrI-B, I-F, I-AO, III-U, V-C, IX-J, XI-C, XXXVII-A), three new subgroups (designated as 16SrVI-L, XV-D, XI-G) and three possible new groups. Our results suggest that screening phloem-feeding insects using qPCR and AHE sequencing may be the most efficient method for discovering new phytoplasmas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0147.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: SARIMA; Artificial Neural Networks (ANN); LSTM; hybrid methodologies; prediction
Online: 11 May 2022 (05:50:41 CEST)
The choice of holiday destinations is highly depended on climate considerations. Nowadays, since the effects of climate crisis are being increasingly felt, the need of accurate weather and climate services for hotels is crucial. Such a service could be beneficial for both the future planning of tourists’ activities and destinations and for hotel managers as it could help in decision making about the planning and expansion of the touristic season, due to a prediction of higher temperatures for a longer time span, thus causing increased revenue for companies in the local touristic sector. The aim of this work is to calculate predictions on climatic variables using statistical techniques as well as Artificial Intelligence (AI) for a specific area of interest utilising data from in situ meteorological station, and produce valuable and reliable localised predictions with the most cost-effective method possible. This investigation will answer the question of the most suitable prediction method for time series data from a single meteorological station that is deployed in a specific location. As a result, an accurate representation of the microclimate in a specific are is achieved. To achieve this high accuracy in situ measurements and prediction techniques are used. As prediction techniques, Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA), AI techniques like the Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) Neural Network and hybrid combinations of the two are used. Variables of interest are divided in the easier to predict temperature and humidity that are more periodic and less chaotic, and the wind speed as an example of a more stochastic variable with no known seasonality and patterns. Our results show that the examined Hybrid methodology performs the best at temperature and wind speed forecasts, closely followed by the SARIMA whereas LSTM perform better overall at the humidity forecast, even after the correction of the Hybrid to the SARIMA model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: polyimide bonding; plasma activation; hydrophilic; hybrid bonding; 3D integration
Online: 2 March 2022 (07:47:17 CET)
Polymer adhesives have emerged as a promising dielectric passivation layer in hybrid bonding for 3D integration while they raise misalignment problems during curing. In this work, the synergistic effect of oxygen plasma surface activation and wetting is utilized to achieve bonding between completed cured polyimides. The optimized process achieves a void-less bonding with a maximum shear strength of 35.3 MPa at a low temperature of 250 °C in merely 2 min, significantly shortening the bonding period and decreasing thermal stress. It is found that the plasma activation generated hydrophilic groups on the polyimide surface, and the wetting process further introduced more -OH groups and water molecular on the activated polyimide surface. The synergistic process of plasma activation and wetting facilitate bridging polyimide interfaces to achieve bonding, providing an alternative path for adhesive bonding in 3D integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0159.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: hybrid degradation; generative adversarial network; attention mechanism; disentangled representation
Online: 11 February 2022 (08:42:43 CET)
In this paper, we propose an unsupervised blind restoration model for images in hybrid degradation scenes. The proposed model encodes the content information and degradation information of images and then uses the attention module to disentangle the two kinds of information. It can improve the ability of disentangled presentation learning for a generative adversarial network (GAN) to restore the images in hybrid degradation scenes, enhance the detailed features of restored image and remove the artifact combining the adversarial loss, cycle-consistency loss, and perception loss. The experimental results on the DIV2K dataset and medical images show that the proposed method outperforms existing unsupervised image restoration algorithms in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM), and subjective visual evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0355.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: dark treatment; hybrid poplar; plant hormone; rooting; shoot culture
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:46:18 CET)
Phenotypic plasticity in response to adverse conditions determines plant productivity and survival. The aim of this study was to test if two highly productive Populus genotypes, characterized by different in vitro etiolation patterns, differ also in their responses to hormones gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and to a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PBZ). The experiments on shoot cultures of ‘Hybrida 275’ (abbr. H275; Populus maximowiczii × P. trichocarpa) and IBL 91/78 (Populus tremula × P. alba) were conducted either by modulating the physical in vitro environment or by adding specific chemicals to the nutrient medium. Our results show that there are significant differences between the studied genotypes in environmental and hormonal regulation of growth responses. The genotype H275, which responded to darkness with PBZ-inhibitable shoot elongation, was unable to recover its growth after treatment with ABA. In contrast, the genotype IBL 91/78, whose shoot elongation was not affected either by darkness or PBZ treatment, recovered so well after the ABA treatment that, when rooted subsequently, it developed longer shoots and roots than without ABA treatment. Our results indicate that GA catabolism and repressive signaling provide an important pathway to control growth and physiological adaptation in response to immediate or impending adverse conditions. These observations can help breeders define robust criteria for identifying genotypes with high resistance and productivity and highlight where genotypes exhibit susceptibility to stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0209.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Rpi-genes; parental lines; hybrid progeny; dRenSeq; SCAR markers.
Online: 14 October 2021 (08:38:05 CEST)
(1) Background: Although resistance to pathogens and pests has been researched in many potato cultivars and breeding lines with DNA markers, there is scarce evidence as to the efficiency of the marker-assisted selection (MAS) for these traits when applied at the early stages of breeding. A goal of this study was to estimate the potential of affordable DNA markers to track Rpi disease resistance genes, that are effective against the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, as a practical breeding tool on a progeny of 68 clones derived from a cross between the cultivar Sudarynya and 13/11-09. (2) Methods: this population was studied for four years to elucidate the distribution of LB resistance and other agronomical desirable or simple to phenotype traits such as tuber and flower pigmentation, capacity and structure of yield. LB resistance was phenotypically determined through natural and artificial infection and the presence/absence of nine Rpi genes was assessed via 11 sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. To aid this analysis, the profile of Rpi genes in the 13/11-09 parent was established using diagnostic resistance gene enrichment sequencing (dRenSeq) as a gold standard. (3) Results: at the early stages of a breeding program, MAS can halve the workload when screening the segregation of F1 offspring and selected SCAR markers for Rpi-genes provide useful tools.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0496.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Nanomedicine; molecularly imprinted polymer; drug delivery; targeting; hybrid material
Online: 29 September 2021 (14:16:32 CEST)
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been widely used in nanomedicine during the last few years. However, their potential is limited by their intrinsic properties resulting, for instance, in lack of control in drug release processes or complex detection for in vivo imaging. Recent attempts in creating hybrid nanomaterials combining MIPs with inorganic nanomaterials succeeded in providing a wide range of new interesting properties suitable for nanomedicine. Through this review, we aim to illustrate how hybrids molecularly imprinted polymers may improve patient care with enhanced imaging, treatments and combination of both.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0594.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Hybrid scaffold; Bioactive Glass; Gelatin; GPTMS; Bone tissue engineering
Online: 28 January 2021 (16:13:18 CET)
Hybrid scaffolds based on bioactive glass (BAG) particles (<38µm), covalently linked to the gelatin (G*), using 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), have been studied for bone bioengineering. In this study, two glass compositions (13-93 and 13-93B20 [where 20% of the SiO2 was replaced with B2O3]) were introduced in the gelatin matrix. The Cfactor (Gelatin/GPTMS molar ratio) was kept constant at 500. The hybrids obtained were found to be stable at 37°C, in solution; condition at which pure gelatin is liquid. All hybrids were characterized by in vitro dissolution in TRIS solution (for up to 4 weeks) and Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) (for up to 2 weeks). Samples processed with 13-93B20 exhibit a faster initial dissolution and significantly faster precipitation of a hydroxyapatite (HA) layer. The faster ion release and HA precipitation recorded from the G*/13-93B20 samples, is attributable to the higher reactivity of borosilicate compared to the silicate glass. MC3T3-E1 cells behavior, in direct contact with the hybrids, was investigated, showing that the cells were able to proliferate and spread on the developed biomaterials. Tailoring the glass composition allows to better control the material’s dissolution, biodegradability, and bioactivity. Bioactive (especially with 13-93B20 BAG), and biocompatible, the hybrids are promising for bone application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0390.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Hybrid Vigor; Heterosis; Bulked Segregant Analysis; Marker Assisted Selection
Online: 13 November 2020 (15:47:40 CET)
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a perennial, outcrossing legume crop predominantly grown for hay, silage, or pasture. Intensive selection has resulted in dramatic improvement in fitness traits, including winter survival and disease resistance. However, there has been minimal improvement in other economically important traits, such as hay yield, which is still comparable to 30 years ago. Intensive phenotyping costs on this type of trait hinder high selection pressure to identify superior outcross individuals. Severe inbreeding depression inhibits the development of inbred lines with accumulated favorable alleles that exhibit heterosis. This review highlights the outcomes of inbreeding depression as well as the causes, including unmasking deleterious alleles and triggering self-incompatibility. We tracked the research efforts that unveil the genetic bases underlying deleterious alleles and self-incompatibility. The magnitudes of inbreeding depression were compared with the rate of heterozygous halved time in diploid and tetraploid organisms. To fill in the gaps between the controversy and existing hypotheses, we theorized a dosage dominant model of inheritance. The dosage dominant model is similar to the Mendelian dominance model, in which a genotype exhibits a dominant phenotype if there is a dominant allele (alphabet dominant). The difference is that in the dosage dominant model, a genotype will result in a dominant phenotype if the number of dominant alleles is equal to or greater than the number of recessive alleles. This review also includes a discussion on the development of pseudo inbreds and a hypothesis to identify deleterious alleles using bulked segregant analysis and consequently to purge deleterious alleles using marker-assisted selection, to progress toward the successful development of pure inbred lines in alfalfa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0700.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: hybrid educational recommender system; learning objects; matrix factorization; personalization
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:58:50 CEST)
One of the main challenges for autonomous learning in virtual environments is finding the right material that fits students’ needs and supports their learning process. Personalized recommender systems partially solve this problem by suggesting online educational resources to students based on their preferences. However, in educational environments (which need a proper characterization of both users and educational resources), most existing recommendation algorithms either fail to include all the available information or use hybrid processes that do not exploit possible relationships between users and item features. This article presents a personalized recommender system for educational resources aimed at combining user and item information into a single mathematical model based on matrix factorization. As a result, estimated latent factors can provide insight into possible interactions between users and item features, improving the quality of the information retrieval process. We validated the proposed model on a real dataset that contains the ratings assigned by students from Universidad Nacional de Colombia and Universidade Feevale to educational resources in the Colombian Federation of Learning Object Repositories (FROAC in Spanish). User characterization included learning style and educational level, whereas item characterization (obtained from the objects’ metadata), included interactivity level, aggregation level and type, and resource format. These results, compared to those obtained when not all the available information is included, show that our method can improve the recommendation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0409.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Agronomic traits; Hybrid performance; Nitrogen response; Plant density; Variability
Online: 27 February 2020 (15:59:14 CET)
Maize (Zea mays L.) production in West and Central Africa is constrained by drought, low soil-N and Striga infestation. Breeders in the region have developed and commercialized extra-early and early-maturing hybrids (E-EH and EH), which combine high yield potentials with tolerance/resistance to the three stresses. Hybrids of both maturity groups are new to the farmers; thus, the urgent need to recommend appropriate agronomic practices for these hybrids. We investigated the responses of four hybrids belonging to extra-early and early-maturity groups to plant density (PD) and nitrogen (N) application in five agroecologies. The EHs consistently out-yielded the E-EHs in all the five agroecologies. The hybrids showed no response to N-fertilizer application above 90 kg ha-1. All interactions involving N had no significant effect on all traits except in few cases. The E-EHs and EHs had similar response to PD; their grain yield decreased as PD increased. Contrarily, flowering was delayed and expression of some other agronomic traits such as plant and ear aspects became poorer with increased PD. Optimal yield was obtained at approximately 90 kg N ha-1 and 66,666 plants ha-1. Most of the measured traits indicated high repeatability estimates (i.e. ≥ 60) across the N levels, PDs and environments. Evidently, the hybrids were intolerant of high PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0307.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: hybrid nanocomposites; polyaniline; titanium(IV) oxide; photocatalytic gypsum plaster
Online: 26 January 2020 (04:32:12 CET)
Hybrid materials of conjugated polymer and titanium(IV) oxide have attracted considerable attention concerning potential benefits, including (i) efficient exploitation of visible light, (ii) high adsorption capacity for organic contaminants, (iii) effective charge carriers separation. The new class of the photocatalysts is promising for the removal of environmental pollutants in both aqueous and gaseous phases. For the first time, in this study, the PANI/TiO2 hybrid composite was used for the degradation of phenol in water and toluene in the gas phase. Polyaniline-TiO2 was prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline on the TiO2 surface. The obtained hybrid material was characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DR/UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fast-Fourier transformation spectroscopy (FTIR), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, microscopy analysis (SEM/TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). An insight into the mechanism was shown based on the photodegradation analysis of charge carriers scavengers. Polyaniline is an efficient TiO2 photosensitizer for photodegradation in visible light (λ> 420 nm). The trapping experiments revealed that mainly h+ and ˙OH were reactive oxygen species responsible for phenol degradation. Furthermore, the PANI-TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite was used in gypsum plaster to study the self-cleaning properties of the obtained building material. The effect of PANI-TiO2 content on hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties and crystallographic structure of gypsum was studied. The obtained PANI-TiO2 modified gypsum plaster had improved photocatalytic activity in the reaction of toluene degradation under Vis light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wheelchair; hybrid manual-electric drives; drives supporting the movement
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:00:13 CET)
Overcoming terrain obstacles presents a major problem for people with disabilities or with limited mobility who are dependent on wheelchairs. An engineering solution designed to facilitate the use of wheelchairs are assisted propulsion systems. The objective of the research described in this article is to analyse the impact of the hybrid manual-electric wheelchair propulsion system on the kinematics of the anthropotechnical system when climbing hills. The tests were carried out on a wheelchair ramp with an incline degree of 4°, using a prototype wheelchair with a hybrid manual-electric propulsion system in accordance with the patent application P.427855. The test subjects were three people whose task was to propel the wheelchair in two assistance modes supporting manual propulsion. The first mode is hill climbing assistance, while the second one is assistance with propulsion torque in the propulsive phase. During the tests, a number of kinematic parameters of the wheelchair were monitored. An in-depth analysis was performed for the amplitude of speed during a hill climb and the number of propulsive cycles performed on a hill. The tests performed showed that when propelling the wheelchair only using the hand rims, the subject needed an average of 13 pushes on the uphill slope, and their speed amplitude was 1.8 km/h with an average speed of 1.73 km/h. The climbing assistance mode reduced the speed amplitude to 0.76 km/h, while the torque assisted mode in the propulsive phase reduced the number of cycles required to climb the hill from 13 to 6. The tests were carried out at various values of assistance and assistance amplification coefficient, and the most optimally selected parameters of this coefficient were presented in the results. The tests proved that electric propulsion assistance has a beneficial and significant impact on the kinematics of manual wheelchair propulsion when compared to a classic manual propulsion system when overcoming hills. In addition, assistance and assistance amplification coefficient were proved to be correlated to operating conditions and the user's individual characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0501.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: hybrid; MAC protocol; UAV; wireless sensor networks; system architecture.
Online: 20 November 2018 (12:05:29 CET)
This paper proposes a hybrid medium access control (MAC) protocol for wireless sensor network (WSN) data gathering, employing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The UAV sends a beacon frame periodically to inform sensor nodes regarding its presence. Afterward, each sensor node which receives beacon frame contends to send registration frame to the UAV. The UAV will transmit the second beacon frame to the registered nodes to notify their transmission schedule. The time-slot scheme is used for the transmission schedule. The transmission schedule of each sensor is determined based on their priority. Specifically, the priority of each sensor is determined during the registration process. Furthermore, the architecture of UAV-WSN data gathering system is introduced in this paper. Simulations are performed, showing that the proposed MAC protocol achieves fairness while enhancing network performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0276.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: hybrid optical networks; Ethernet; fronthaul; backhaul; C-RAN; convergence
Online: 12 October 2018 (16:48:50 CEST)
Centralized/Cloud Radio Access Networks (C-RAN) are deployed in converged fixed-mobile networks to exploit the flexibility coming from joint application of Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and Software Defined Networking (SDN). In this context, optical links connecting C-RAN nodes, possibly based on the Ethernet standards, may carry traffic with different requirements in terms of latency and throughput. This paper considers the problem of traffic aggregation on C-RAN optical Ethernet links with latency control for fronthaul traffic and throughput capability for backhaul traffic. Integrated hybrid nework technique is applied to show how time transparency can be enforced for Ethernet encapsulated Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) traffic while allowing statistical multiplexing of backhaul traffic. Simulation results show the effectiveness of segmentation of backhaul traffic to allow exploitation of the available bandwidth even with high capacity CPRI options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0196.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: WRF; Medicane; extra-tropical cyclone; hybrid cyclone; sensitivity analysis
Online: 10 October 2018 (03:43:36 CEST)
Towards the investigation and further understanding of the development and propagation of Medicanes, this study explores the forecasting capability of WRF model in case of cyclone “Cleopatra” which affected with extreme rainfall and strong winds Sardinia and Calabria, Italy, in November 2013. This cyclone was unusual in that it developed a warm core but did not fulfill its transformation into a tropical-like cyclone because its core did not expand high enough in the tropospnere. The ERA5 reanalysis dataset was dynamically downscaled from 31 km spatial horizontal resolution to 9 km using WRF model. The methodology consists of; firstly, an extensive physical parameterization schemes sensitivity test and consequently, a short-range ensemble forecasting implementation based on the highest statistical scored physics configuration. All simulation results were validated against surface observations and remote sensing products. Subsequently, the modeled cyclone trajectories are compared to satellite imagery derived from EUMETSAT-SEVIRI gridded data. The findings of the conducted analysis illustrate that ensemble average displays significant difference in performance compared to any of the deterministic runs individually, suggesting that ensemble forecasts will be beneficial in studies assessing cyclonic events in the Mediterranean region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0299.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Data Mining; Alzheimer’s Dementia; Composite Hybrid Feature Selection; Machine learning; stack Hybrid Classification; AI; MRI; Neuroimaging; MPEG7 edge histogram feature extraction; CNN
Online: 19 March 2020 (11:25:01 CET)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) detection acting as an essential role in global health care due to misdiagnosis and sharing many clinical sets with other types of dementia, and costly monitoring the progression of the disease over time by magnetic reasoning imaging (MRI) with consideration of human error in manual reading. This paper goal a comparative study on the performance of data mining techniques on two datasets of Clinical and Neuroimaging Tests with AD. Our proposed model in the first stage, Apply clinical medical dataset to a composite hybrid feature selection (CHFS), for extract new features to select the best features due to eliminating obscures features, In parallel with Apply a novel hybrid feature extraction of three batch edge detection algorithm and texture from MRI images dataset and optimized with fuzzy 64-bin histogram. In the second stage, we applied a clinical dataset to a stacked hybrid classification(SHC) model to combine Jrip and random forest classifiers with six model evaluations as meta-classifier individually to improve the prediction of clinical diagnosis. At the same stage of improving the classification accuracy of neuroimaging (MRI) dataset images by applying a convolution neural network (CNN) in comparison with traditional classifiers, running on extracted features from images. The authors have collected the clinical dataset of 426 subjects with (1229 potential patient sample) from oasis.org and (MRI) dataset from a benchmark kaggle.com with a total of around ~5000 images each segregated into the severity of Alzheimer's. The datasets evaluated using an explorer set of weka data mining software for the analysis purpose. The experimental show that the proposed model of (CHFS) feature extraction lead to effectively reduced the false-negative rate with a relatively high overall accuracy with a stack hybrid classification of support vector machine (SVM) as meta-classifier of 96.50% compared to 68.83% of the previous result on a clinical dataset, Besides a compared model of CNN classification on MRI images dataset of 80.21%. The results showed the superiority of our CHFS model in predicting Alzheimer's disease more accurately with the clinical medical dataset in early-stage compared with the neuroimaging (MRI) dataset. The results of the proposed model were able to predict with accurately classify Alzheimer's clinical samples at a low cost in comparison with the MRI-CNN images model at the early stage and get a good indicator for high classification rate for MRI images when applying our proposed model of SHC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0145.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Leishmania; co-infections; mixed infections; co-culture; hybrid; intercellular communication
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:20:49 CEST)
Leishmania parasites present astonishing adaptative abilities that represent a matter of life or death within disparate environments during the heteroxenous parasite life cycle. From an evolutionary perspective, organisms develop methods of overcoming such challenges. Strategies that extend beyond the genetic diversity have been discussed and include variability between parasite cells during the infections of their hosts. The occurrence of Leishmania subpopulation fluctuations with variable structural genomic contents demonstrates that a single strain might shelter the variability required to overcome inconsistent environments. Such intrastrain variability provides parasites with an extraordinary ability to adapt and thus survive and propagate. However, different perspectives on this evolution have been proposed. Strains or species living in the same environment can cooperate but also compete. These interactions might increase the replication rate of some parasites but cause the loss of more aggressive competitors for others. Adaptive responses to intra- and interspecific competition can evolve as a fixed strategy (replication is adapted to the average genetic complexity of infections) or an optional strategy (replication varies according to the genetic complexity of the current infection). This review highlights the complexity of interspecies and intrastrain interactions among Leishmania parasites as well as the different factors that influence this interplay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0379.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: porous TiO2; hybrid TiO2/CDs; photocatalysts; photodegradation; large surface areas
Online: 28 June 2022 (06:02:11 CEST)
Electron-hole recombination and narrow range utilization of sunlight limit the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2. We synthesized a carbon dots (CDs) modified TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with flower-like mesoporous structure, i.e., porous TiO2/CDs nanoflowers. Among such hybrid parti-cles, CDs worked as photosensitizers for the mesoporous TiO2 and enabled the resultant TiO2/CDs nanoflowers with a wide-range light absorption. Rhodamine B (Rh-B) was employed as a model organic pollutant to investigate the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2/CDs nanoflowers. The results demonstrated that the decoration of CDs on both TiO2 nanoflowers and P25 NPs enabled a significant improvement of the photocatalytic degradation efficiency compared with the pristine TiO2. TiO2/CDs nanoflowers with porous structure and larger surface areas than P25 showed a higher efficiency owing to prevent local aggregation of carbon materials. All the results revealed that the introduced CDs and the unique mesoporous structure, large surface areas and loads of pore channels of the prepared TiO2 NPs played important roles in the enhancement of the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2/CDs hybrid nanoflowers. Such TiO2/CDs composite NPs also opens a door for photodegradation, photocatalytic water splitting and enhanced solar sun-light as light source.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0084.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: hybrid; lager; yeast; introgression; interspecific; domestication; phylogeny; brewing; molecular; genomics
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:55:13 CET)
: Microbiology has long been a keystone in fermentation and the utilization of yeast biology rein-forces molecular biotechnology as the pioneering frontier in brewing science. Consequently, modern understanding of the brewer’s yeast has faced significant refinement over the last few decades. This publication presents a condensed summation of Saccharomyces species dynamics with an emphasis on the relationship between traditional ale yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the interspecific hybrids used in lager beer production, S. pastorianus. Introgression from other Sac-charomyces species is also touched on. The unique history of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharo-myces hybrids are exemplified by recent genomic sequencing studies aimed at categorizing brewing strains through phylogeny and redefining Saccharomyces species boundaries. Phylogenetic investigations highlight the genomic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale strains long known to brewers by their fermentation characteristics and phenotypes. Discoveries of genomic contribu-tions from interspecific Saccharomyces species into the genome of S. cerevisiae strains is ever more apparent with increased investigations on the hybrid nature of modern industrial and historical fermentation yeast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0517.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Rhodotorula babjevae; de-novo hybrid assembly; Nanopore sequencing; genome divergence
Online: 29 November 2021 (07:57:39 CET)
The genus Rhodotorula includes basidiomycetous oleaginous yeast species. R. babjevae can produce compounds of biotechnological interest such as lipids, carotenoids and biosurfactants from low value substrates such as lignocellulose hydrolysate. High-quality genome assemblies are needed to develop genetic tools and to understand fungal evolution and genetics. Here, we combined short- and long-read sequencing to resolve the genomes of two R. babjevae strains, CBS 7808 (type strain) and DBVPG 8058 at chromosomal level. Both genomes have a size of 21 Mbp and a GC content of 68.2%. Allele frequency analysis indicated tetraploidy in both strains. They harbor 21 putative chromosomes with sizes ranging from 0.4 to 2.4 Mb. In both assemblies, the mitochondrial genome was recovered in a single contig, which shared 97% pairwise identity. The pairwise identity between the majority of chromosomes ranges from 82% to 87%. We found indications for strain-specific extrachromosomal endogenous DNA. 7,591 protein-coding genes and 7,607 associated transcripts were annotated in CBS 7808 and 7,481 protein-coding genes and 7,516 associated transcripts in DBVPG 8058. CBS 7808 has accumulated a higher number of tandem duplications than DBVPG 8058. We identified large translocation events between putative chromosomes and a high genetic divergence between the two strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0786.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hybrid fibre-reinforced concrete; thermal conductivity; spalling; residual mechanical strength.
Online: 30 April 2021 (11:13:43 CEST)
Over the years, leaked fluids from the aircraft caused severe deterioration of the airfield pavement. The combined effect of hot exhaust from the auxiliary power unit of military aircraft and spilt aviation oils caused rapid pavement spalling. If the disintegrated concreted pieces caused by spalling is sucked into the jet engine, it may cause catastrophic damage to the aircraft engine or physical injury to maintenance crews. This study investigates the effectiveness of incorporating hybrid fibres into ordinary concrete to improve the residual mechanical and thermal properties to prevent spalling damage of pavement. Three fibre reinforced concrete samples made with micro steel fibre and polyvinyl alcohol fibre with a fibre content of zero, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% by volume fraction. These samples were exposed to recurring high temperature and aviation oils. Tests were conducted to measure the effects of repeated exposure on the concrete's mechanical, thermal and chemical characteristics. The results showed that polyvinyl alcohol fibre reinforced concrete suffered a significant loss of thermal properties and residual mechanical strength than the micro steel fibre reinforced concrete. However, hybrid fibre reinforced concrete performed better in retaining higher residual properties, and no spalling of concrete was observed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0204.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Hybrid Automata; Formal Modeling; Discrete State; Continuous State; Formal Methods
Online: 5 March 2021 (21:45:11 CET)
In this paper, Hybrid Automata, which is a formal model for hybrid systems, has been introduced. A summary of its theory is presented and some of its special and important classes are listed and some properties that can be studied and checked for it are mentioned. Finally, the purposes of use, the most widely used areas, and the tools that provide H.A. Support are addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; CNN; DLNN; GRU; mental anxiety; hybrid approach
Online: 15 September 2020 (02:56:33 CEST)
COVID-19 and new concept, lockdown, change social life of all classes of humans. Children partially feel the changes of daily life and this situation has been children’s free mind. Children are under a new type of restriction imposed on them by their parents. Normally they prefer play with their their friends than study and always waiting for holidays. They heard a new jargon i.e. lockdown where everything stands still. Very often they see peoples in the roads and few vehicles are moving in the roads. However, a peculiar thing happens now that they sit in front of computer to hear the virtual classes that are taken by the teachers. This also happens when there is no lockdown since COVID-19 still affects people. The environment is totally changed and they do not find any proper answers from the parents about the scenario.This study has been made an attempt to carry out the mental affairs of children in West Bengal, India. Several families are surveyed for collecting responses mostly from rural areas as well as urban areas for the time-period from April, 2020 to July, 2020. An effort has been given in this paper to predict the stress, depression and anxiety faced by children during the COVID-19. A Deep Learning Neural Network (DLNN) based method is applied to understand the stress level, depression level and anxiety level amongst the children. A hybrid DLNN has been presented in this research that combines both Convolutional Layer and Gated-Recurrent Unit (GRU) for obtaining the prediction of the mental health of children. The model obtains an accuracy of 89.57% for defeminizing mental anxiety of children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0123.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Sol-gel; Hybrid coating; Superhydrophobic; textile fabric; polydimethylsiloxane; contact angle
Online: 7 May 2020 (12:46:02 CEST)
This work attempted to fabricate superhydrophobic fabric via simple immersion technique. Textile fabrics were coated with silica nanoparticles prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to obtain sufficient roughness with hydrophobic surface chemistry. Then the coated fabrics were treated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to reduce the surface energy. The effects of PDMS concentration on the surface morphology and superhydrophobicity of as-prepared fabric were investigated. The morphology and the composition of superhydrophobic fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results revealed the formation of spherical silica nanoparticles with average particle size of 250 nm throughout the fabric surface. The possible interactions between silica nanoparticles and APTES, as well as the fabrics were elucidated. Investigating the hydrophobicity of fabrics via water contact angle (WCA) measurement showed that the treated fabric exhibits excellent water repellency with a water contact angle as high as 151° and a very low water sliding angle. It also found that the treated fabric maintained most of its hydrophobicity against repeated washing. The comfort properties of the obtained superhydrophobic fabrics in term of air permeability and bending length did not reveal any significant changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0233.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: wind power; machine learning; hybrid model; prediction; whale optimization algorithm
Online: 17 February 2020 (02:22:05 CET)
Wind power as a renewable source of energy, has numerous economic, environmental and social benefits. In order to enhance and control the renewable wind power, it is vital to utilize models that predict wind speed with high accuracy. Due to neglecting of requirement and significance of data preprocessing and disregarding the inadequacy of using a single predicting model, many traditional models have poor performance in wind speed prediction. In the current study, for predicting wind speed at target stations in the north of Iran, the combination of a multi-layer perceptron model (MLP) with the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) used to build new method (MLP-WOA) with a limited set of data (2004-2014). Then, the MLP-WOA model was utilized at each of the ten target stations, with the nine stations for training and tenth station for testing (namely: Astara, Bandar-E-Anzali, Rasht, Manjil, Jirandeh, Talesh, Kiyashahr, Lahijan, Masuleh and Deylaman) to increase the accuracy of the subsequent hybrid model. Capability of the hybrid model in wind speed forecasting at each target station was compared with the MLP model without the WOA optimizer. To determine definite results, numerous statistical performances were utilized. For all ten target stations, the MLP-WOA model had precise outcomes than the standalone MLP model. The hybrid model had acceptable performances with lower amounts of the RMSE, SI and RE parameters and higher values of NSE, WI and KGE parameters. It was concluded that WOA optimization algorithm can improve prediction accuracy of MLP model and may be recommended for accurate wind speed prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: EEG; Transition; 2D to 3D; Anaglyph; Feature extraction; Classification; Hybrid
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:48:51 CET)
Despite the long and extensive history of 3D technology, it has recently attracted the attention of researchers. This technology has become the center of interest of young people because of the real feelings and sensations it creates. People see their environment as 3D because of their eye structure. In this study, it is hypothesized that people lose their perception of depth during sleepy moments and that there is a sudden transition from 3D vision to 2D vision. Regarding these transitions, the EEG signal analysis method was used for deep and comprehensive analysis of 2D and 3D brain signals. In this study, a single-stream anaglyph video of random 2D and 3D segments was prepared. After watching this single video, the obtained EEG recordings were considered for two different analyses: the part involving the critical transition (transition-state) and the state analysis of only the 2D versus 3D or 3D versus 2D parts (steady-state). The main objective of this study is to see the behavioral changes of brain signals in 2D and 3D transitions. To clarify the impacts of the human brain’s power spectral density (PSD) in 2D-to-3D (2D_3D) and 3D-to-2D (3D_2D) transitions of anaglyph video, 9 visual healthy individuals were prepared for testing in this pioneering study. Spectrogram graphs based on Short Time Fourier transform (STFT) were considered to evaluate the power spectrum analysis in each EEG channel of transition or steady-state. Thus, in 2D and 3D transition scenarios, important channels representing EEG frequency bands and brain lobes will be identified. To classify the 2D and 3D transitions, the dominant bands and time intervals representing the maximum difference of PSD were selected. Afterward, effective features were selected by applying statistical methods such as standard deviation (SD), maximum (max), and Hjorth parameters to epochs indicating transition intervals. Ultimately, k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) algorithms were applied to classify 2D_3D and 3D_2D transitions. The frontal, temporal, and partially parietal lobes show 2D_3D and 3D_2D transitions with a good classification success rate. Overall, it was found that Hjorth parameters and LDA algorithms have 71.11% and 77.78% classification success rates for transition and steady-state, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0068.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: NiCo2O4 nanocores; hybrid nancomposite; carbon-based materials; electrochemical capacitance; supercapacitor
Online: 7 May 2019 (04:56:28 CEST)
New hybrid nanostructured electrodes for supercapacitors made by combination of electrical double layer and faradaic supercapacitors based-nanomaterials within a single hybrid composite has a great potential on expanding the range of use of these devices and increase their electrochemical performance. In this work, we developed several hybrid nanostructured composites with combinations of such types of materials with potential applicability as electrodes in supercapacitors. In particular, these composites were obtained by easy, cost-effective and scalable procedures, and were composed by NiCo2O4 nanocores as the main faradaic-based nanomaterial and either the conductive polymer polyaniline (PANI), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), or reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) as the electrical double layer-based carbonaceous-based nanomaterials in order to enable the combination of both type of energy storage processes within a single nanostructured device. These constructions allowed us to obtain specific capacitance as large as 1760 F/g, 900 F/g and 734 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g for NiCo2O4/PANI, NiCo2O4/MWCNT, and NiCo2O4/r-GO hybrid nanocomposite electrodes, respectively. Besides, the stability of NiCo2O4/MWCNTs and NiCo2O4/r-GO-based electrodes was outstanding, with capacity losses below 10% after long periods of operation (> 500 cycles).
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: polyethylene; nanocomposites; silver nanoparticles; Fe3O4-Ag hybrid nanoparticles; antibacterial activity
Online: 19 March 2019 (07:54:54 CET)
We report here the synthesis of uniform nanospheres-like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, 5-10 nm) and the dumbbell-like Fe3O4-Ag hybrid nanoparticles (FeAgNPs, 8-16 nm) by the use of seeding growth method in the presence of oleic acid (OA)/oleylamine (OLA) as surfactants. The antibacterial activity of pure nanoparticles and nanocomposites by monitoring the bacterial lag–log growth has been investigated. The electron transfer from AgNPs to Fe3O4NPs which enhances the biological of silver nanoparticles has been proven by nanoscale Raman spectroscopy. The lamellae structure in the spherulite of FeAgNPs/PE nanocomposites seems play the key role to the antibacterial activity of nanocomposites, which has been proven by nanoscale AFM-IR. An atomic force microscopy coupled with nanoscale infrared microscopy (AFM-IR) is use to highlight the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of nanocomposite at the nanoscale. The presence of FeAgNPs in PE nanocomposites has a better antibacterial activity than that reinforced by AgNPs due to the faster Ag+ release rate from the Fe3O4-Ag hybrid nanoparticles and the ionization of AgNPs in hybrid nanostructure.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: polyurethane, sol-gel method, hyperbranched hybrid, thermal stability, flame retardant
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:12:48 CET)
The NCO functional group of 3-isocyanatoproply triethoxysilane (IPTS) and the OH functional group of DOPO-BQ were used to conduct an addition reaction. Following completion of the reaction, triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) was introduced to conduct a ring-opening reaction. Subsequently, a sol-gel method was used to take place a hydrolysis- condensation reaction on TGIC-IPTS-DOPO-BQ to form a hyperbranched nitrogen–phosphorous–silicon (HBNPSi) flame retardant. This flame retardant was incorporated into a polyurethane (PU) matrix to prepare a hybrid material. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index (LOI), UV-VIS spectrophotometry, and Raman analysis were conducted to structure characterization and analyzed transparency, thermal stability, flame retardancy, and residual char to understand the flame retardant mechanism of prepared hybrid materials. After the flame retardant was added, the maximum degradation rate decreased from −36 wt%/min to −17 wt%/min, the integral procedure decomposition temperature (IPDT) increased from 348 ℃ to 488 ℃, and the char yield increased from 0.7 to 8.1 wt%. The aforementioned results verified that thermal stability of PU can be improved after adding HBNPSi. The LOI analysis indicated that the pristine PU was flammable because the LOI of pristine PU was only 19. When the content of added HBNPSi was 40%, the LOI value was 26; thus the PU hybrid became nonflammable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0034.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: aluminum matrix composites; hybrid; A390; SiC; Gr; MoS2; tribological properties
Online: 2 November 2018 (07:50:35 CET)
Several challenges stand in the way of production of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) such as higher processing temperatures, particulate mixing, particulate-matrix interface bonding issues and ability to process into desired geometrical shapes. Although there are many literatures showing composites with single particulate reinforcements, the studies on composites with multiple reinforcing agents (hybrid composites) are found to be limited. Development of a hybrid particulate composite with optimized mechanical and tribological properties is very significant to suit modern engineering applications. In this study, Al-Si hypereutectic alloy (A390) is used as the matrix and Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Graphite (Gr) and Molybdenum di-Sulphide (MoS2) are used as particulates. Particulate volume (wt%) is varied and sample test castings are made using squeeze casting process through stir casting processing route. The evaluation of mechanical properties indicates that presence of both the hard phase (SiC) and the soft phase has distinct effect on the properties of Hybrid Composite. Composite samples were characterized to understand the performance and to meet the tribological applications. Fractography study indicated an intra-granular brittle fracture for hybrid composites. Wear study shows that Hybrid MMCs has better tribological performance compared to that of A390 alloy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0376.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: DNA fingerprinting; SSR-markers; gel electrophoresis; hybrid testing and pigeonpea
Online: 25 June 2018 (09:57:54 CEST)
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) of Fabaceae family belongs to genus Cajanus usually grown in semi-arid tropics of Asia and Oceania, Africa and America. This crop has been a best source for improving food and soil quality amongst farmers. However, its seed have been always questioned for purity. This problem is managed by using polymorphic SSR markers. In present study, a DNA fingerprints generated by seven SSR markers and hybrid testing is performed on Pigeonpea test samples along with parental lines. The seed samples of pigeonpea were germinated in laboratory and three week old leaves samples were used for DNA isolation by CTAB method. A total of 9 alleles were observed in three test samples using three primers out of seven primers. The screening of the allelic data associated with the three cultivated varieties, revealed markers (CcM0246) displayed unique allelic profiles for one variety. Yet, the genetic fingerprinting data is not well resolved to potentially distinguished two bands of hybrid that are merely of 4–8 bp to confirm hybrid testing of seed. Hybrid testing of may be confirmed including more SSR primers prepared from genomic DNA of pigeonpea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0005.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: peptoids; peptoid-peptide hybrid; nisin; antibacterial; alkyne-azide click reactions
Online: 1 June 2018 (06:18:06 CEST)
Antimicrobial peptides and structurally related peptoids offer potential for the development of new antibiotics. However, progress has been hindered by challenges presented by poor in vivo stability (peptides) or lack of selectivity (peptoids). Herein, we have developed a process to prepare novel hybrid antibacterial agents that combine both linear peptoids (increased in vivo stability compared to peptides) and a nisin fragment (lipid II targeting domain). The hybrid nisin-peptoids prepared were shown to have low µM activity (comparable to natural nisin) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.