REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1939.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: HAR, Human Activity Recognition, Feature extraction, Machine Learning, Computer Vision
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:13:40 CEST)
Human Action Recognition is widely used in multiple fields to recognize activities and extract spatial and temporal information. This paper focuses on analyzing various methods as well as provides extensive knowledge of the foundational concepts of the HAR. A dataset is also very crucial for any research study so we discussed the popular dataset and its features in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0635.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: human activity recognition; MLP-Mixer; efficiency
Online: 11 September 2023 (05:30:21 CEST)
Convolution, recurrent and attention-based deep learning techniques have produced the most recent state-of-the-art results in multiple sensor-based human activity recognition (HAR) datasets. However, these techniques have high computing costs, restricting their use in low-powered devices. Different methods have been employed to increase the efficiency of these techniques; however, this often results in worse performance. Recently, pure MLP architectures have demonstrated competitive performance in vision-based tasks with lower computation costs than other deep-learning techniques. The MLP-Mixer is a pioneering pure MLP architecture that produces competitive results with state-of-the-art models in computer vision tasks. This paper shows the viability of the MLP-Mixer in sensor-based HAR. Furthermore, experiments are performed to gain insight into the Mixer modules essential for HAR, and a visual analysis of the Mixer’s weights is provided, validating the Mixer’s learning capabilities. As a result, the Mixer achieves an F1 score of 97%, 84.2%, 91.2% and 90% on the PAMAP2, Daphnet Gait, Opportunity Gestures and Opportunity Locomotion datasets, respectively, outperforming state-of-the-art models in all datasets except Opportunity Gestures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0111.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Transformer; human activity recognition; time series; sequence-to-sequence prediction
Online: 8 February 2022 (13:09:21 CET)
This paper describes the successful application of the Transformer model used in the natural language processing and vision tasks as a means of processing the time series of signals from gyroscope and accelerometer sensors for the classification of human activities. The Transformer model is based on deep neural networks with many layers which can generalize well on signals. All measured signals come from a smartphone placed in a waist bag. Activity prediction is sequence-to-sequence, each time step of the signal is assigned a designation of the performed activity. Emphasis is placed on attention mechanisms, which express individual dependencies between signal values within a time series. In comparison with another recent result, the recognition precision was improved from 89.67 percent to 99.2 percent. The transformer model should in the future be included among the top options in machine learning methods for human activity recognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0033.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: smartphone accelerometers; dataset; human activity recognition; fall detection
Online: 18 July 2017 (13:16:10 CEST)
Smartphones, smartwatches, fitness trackers, and ad-hoc wearable devices are being increasingly used to monitor human activities. Data acquired by the hosted sensors are usually processed by machine-learning-based algorithms to classify human activities. The success of those algorithms mostly depends on the availability of training (labeled) data that, if made publicly available, would allow researchers to make objective comparisons between techniques. Nowadays, publicly available data sets are few, often contain samples from subjects with too similar characteristics, and very often lack of specific information so that is not possible to select subsets of samples according to specific criteria. In this article, we present a new smartphone accelerometer dataset designed for activity recognition. The dataset includes 11,771 activities performed by 30 subjects of ages ranging from 18 to 60 years. Activities are divided in 17 fine grained classes grouped in two coarse grained classes: 9 types of activities of daily living (ADL) and 8 types of falls. The dataset has been stored to include all the information useful to select samples according to different criteria, such as the type of ADL performed, the age, the gender, and so on. Finally, the dataset has been benchmarked with two different classifiers and with different configurations. The best results are achieved with k-NN classifying ADLs only, considering personalization, and with both windows of 51 and 151 samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0183.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Cyber-physical security; Human activity recognition; GoogleNet; BiLSTM; Deep Learning; Algorithm
Online: 10 March 2023 (02:07:09 CET)
Cyber-physical security is vital for protecting key computing infrastructure against cyber attacks. Individuals, corporations, and society can all suffer considerable digital asset losses due to cyber attacks, including Data loss, theft, financial loss, reputation harm, company interruption, infrastructure damage, ransomware attacks, and espionage. A cyber-physical attack harms both digital and physical assets. Cyber-physical system security is more challenging than software-level cyber security because it requires physical inspection and monitoring. This paper proposes an innovative and effective algorithm to strengthen Cyber-Physical Security (CPS) with minimal human intervention. It is a Human Activity Recognition (HAR)-based approach where a GoogleNet-BiLSTM network hybridization has been used to recognize suspicious activities in cyber-physical infrastructure perimeter. The proposed HAR-CPS algorithm classifies suspicious activities from real-time video surveillance with an average accuracy of 73.15%. It incorporates Machine Vision at the IoT Edge (Mez) technology to make the system latency tolerant. Dual-layer security has been ensured by operating the proposed algorithm and GoogleNet-BiLSTM hybrid network from a cloud server, which ensures the security of the proposed security system. The innovative optimization scheme makes it possible to strengthen cyber-physical security with $4.29 per month only.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0117.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Continual Learning; Lifelong Learning; Prototypical Networks; Catastrophic Forgetting; Intransigence; Task-free; Incremental Learning; Online Learning; Human Activity Recognition
Online: 5 August 2022 (08:35:15 CEST)
Continual learning (CL), a.k.a lifelong learning, is an emerging research topic that has been attracting increasing interest in the field of machine learning. With human activity recognition (HAR) playing a key role in enabling numerous real-world applications, an essential step towards the long-term deployment of such systems is to extend the activity model to dynamically adapt to changes in people’s everyday behavior. Current research in CL applied to HAR domain is still under-explored with researchers exploring existing methods developed for computer vision in HAR. Moreover, analysis has so far focused on task-incremental or class-incremental learning paradigms where task boundaries are known. This impedes the applicability of such methods for real-world systems. To push this field forward, we build on recent advances in the area of continual learning and design a lifelong adaptive learning framework using Prototypical Networks, LAPNet-HAR, that processes sensor-based data streams in a task-free data-incremental fashion and mitigates catastrophic forgetting using experience replay and continual prototype adaptation. Online learning is further facilitated using contrastive loss to enforce inter-class separation. LAPNet-HAR is evaluated on 5 publicly available activity datasets in terms of its ability to acquire new information while preserving previous knowledge. Our extensive empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of LAPNet-HAR in task-free CL and uncover useful insights for future challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0367.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Human Activity Recognition; Smart Activity Sensors; Optimal Feature Selection; Colliding Bodies Optimization; Recurrent Neural Network
Online: 19 October 2020 (10:44:36 CEST)
— In a smart healthcare system," Human Activity Recognition (HAR)" is considered as an efficient approach in pervasive computing from activity sensor readings. The "Ambient Assisted Living (AAL)" in the home or community helps the people to provide independent care and enhanced living quality. However, many AAL models are restricted to multiple factors that include both the computational cost and system complexity. Moreover, the HAR concept has more relevance because of its applications, such as content-based video search, sports play analysis, crowd behavior prediction systems, patient monitoring systems, and surveillance systems. This paper attempts to implement the HAR system using a popular deep learning algorithm, namely "Recurrent Neural Network (RNN)" with the activity data collected from smart activity sensors over time, and it is publicly available in the "UC Irvine Machine Learning Repository (UCI)". The proposed model involves three processes: (1) data collection, (b) optimal feature learning, and (c) activity recognition. The data gathered from the benchmark repository was initially subjected to optimal feature selection that helped to select the most significant features. The proposed optimal feature selection method is based on a new meta-heuristic algorithm called "Colliding Bodies Optimization (CBO)". An objective function derived from the recognition accuracy has been used for accomplishing the optimal feature selection. The proposed model on the concerned benchmark dataset outperformed the conventional models with enhanced performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0050.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: video-based human action recognition; Action Recognition; Deep Learning Methods; handcrafted Methods; Human Action; Overview
Online: 3 February 2023 (01:17:56 CET)
Artificial intelligence’s rapid advancement has enabled various applications, including intelligent video surveillance systems, assisted living, and human-computer interaction. These applications often require one core task: video-based human action recognition. Research in human video-based human action recognition is vast and ongoing, making it difficult to assess the full scope of available methods and current trends. This survey provides an in-depth exploration of the vision-based human action recognition field, comprehensively offering the available techniques and their evolution, highlighting the cutting-edge ideas driving its development. We also analyze the most used keywords in research papers over the past years to identify trends and predict possible future directions. Hence, this concise survey helps researchers understand the breadth of existing approaches, evaluate current research trends, and stay up-to-date on potential developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0230.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: wearables; human motion monitoring; SWCNT; textiles; machine learning algorithm
Online: 13 July 2018 (10:36:00 CEST)
Wearable sensors for human physiological monitoring have attracted tremendous interest from researchers in recent years. However, most of the research was only done in simple trials without any significant analytical algorithms. This study provides a way of recognizing human motion by combining textile stretch sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and spandex fabric (PET/SP) and machine learning algorithms in a realistic applications. In the study, the performance of the system will be evaluated by identification rate and accuracy of the motion standardized. This research aims to provide a realistic motion sensing wearable products without unnecessary heavy and uncomfortable electronic devices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Human Attribute Recognition; Imbalanced Learning; Pedestrian Recognition; Privacy Concerns; Clothing Attributes; Soft Biometrics; Appearance-Based Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 5 July 2020 (08:21:00 CEST)
Over the last decade, the field of Human Attribute Recognition (HAR) has dramatically changed, mainly due to the improvements brought by deep learning solutions. This survey reviews the progress obtained in HAR, considering the transition from the traditional hand-crafted to deep-learning approaches. The most relevant works on the field are analyzed concerning the advances proposed to address the HAR's typical challenges. Furthermore, we outline the applications and typical evaluation metrics used in the HAR context. Finally, we provide a comprehensive review of the publicly available datasets for the development and evaluation of novel HAR approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: human action recognition; machine learning; action feature representation; action classification; deep learning
Online: 9 May 2020 (03:56:56 CEST)
With the evolution of computing technology in many application like human robot interaction, human computer interaction and health-care system, 3D human body models and their dynamic motions has gained popularity. Human performance accompanies human body shapes and their relative motions. Research on human activity recognition is structured around how the complex movement of a human body is identified and analyzed. Vision based action recognition from video is such kind of tasks where actions are inferred by observing the complete set of action sequence performed by human. Many techniques have been revised over the recent decades in order to develop a robust as well as effective framework for action recognition. In this survey, we summarize recent advances in human action recognition, namely the machine learning approach, deep learning approach and evaluation of these approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0289.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: drone video; human action recognition; CNN; Support vector machine (SVM)
Online: 28 August 2019 (03:52:22 CEST)
Recognition of the human interaction on the unconstrained videos taken from cameras and remote sensing platforms like a drone is a challenging problem. This study presents a method to resolve issues of motion blur, poor quality of videos, occlusions, the difference in body structure or size, and high computation or memory requirement. This study contributes to the improvement of recognition of human interaction during disasters such as an earthquake and flood utilizing drone videos for rescue and emergency management. We used Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the high-level and stationary features obtained from Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) in key-frames from videos. We extracted conceptual features by employing CNN to recognize objects from first and last images from a video. The proposed method demonstrated the context of a scene, which is significant in determining the behaviour of human in the videos. In this method, we do not require person detection, tracking, and many instances of images. The proposed method was tested for the University of Central Florida (UCF Sports Action), Olympic Sports videos. These videos were taken from the ground platform. Besides, camera drone video was captured from Southwest Jiaotong University (SWJTU) Sports Centre and incorporated to test the developed method in this study. This study accomplished an acceptable performance with an accuracy of 90.42%, which has indicated improvement of more than 4.92% as compared to the existing methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0244.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Attention mechanism; CHMM; LSTM; Multi-modal fusion; Human behavior recognition
Online: 14 December 2021 (15:09:15 CET)
The multi-modal data fusion method based on IA-net and CHMM technical proposed is designed to solve the problem that the incompleteness of target behavior information in complex family environment leads to the low accuracy of human behavior recognition.The two improved neural networks(STA-ResNet50、STA-GoogleNet)are combined with LSTM to form two IA-Nets respectively to extract RGB and skeleton modal behavior features in video. The two modal feature sequences are input CHMM to construct the probability fusion model of multi-modal behavior recognition.The experimental results show that the human behavior recognition model proposed in this paper has higher accuracy than the previous fusion methods on HMDB51 and UCF101 datasets. New contributions: attention mechanism is introduced to improve the efficiency of video target feature extraction and utilization. A skeleton based feature extraction framework is proposed, which can be used for human behavior recognition in complex environment. In the field of human behavior recognition, probability theory and neural network are cleverly combined and applied, which provides a new method for multi-modal information fusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0256.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Extracellular matrices; Macromolecular crowding; human iPSC derived astrocytes; human iPSC derived dopaminergic neurons; drug testing
Online: 19 May 2022 (08:50:28 CEST)
The neuroglial extracellular matrix (ECM) provides critical support and physiological cues for the proper growth, differentiation, and function of neuronal cells in the brain. However, in most in vitro settings that study neural physiology, cells are grown as monolayers on stiff surfaces that maximize adhesion and proliferation, and therefore lack the physiological cues that ECM in native neuronal tissues provides. Macromolecular crowding (MMC) is a biophysical phenomenon based on the principle of excluded volume that can be harnessed to induce native ECM deposition by cells in culture. Here, we show that MMC using two species of Ficoll with vitamin C supplementation significantly boosts deposition of relevant brain ECM by cultured human astrocytes. Dopaminergic neurons co-cultured on this astrocyte-ECM bed prepared under MMC treatment showed longer and denser neuronal extensions, a higher number of pre ad post synaptic contacts, and increased physiological activity as evidenced by higher frequency calcium oscillation, compared to standard co-culture conditions. When the pharmacological activity of various compounds was tested on MMC-treated co-cultures, their responses were enhanced, and for apomorphine, a D2-receptor agonist, it was inverted in comparison to control cell culture conditions, thus emulating responses observed in in vivo settings. These results indicate that macromolecular crowding can harness the ECM-building potential of human astrocytes in vitro forming an ultra-flat 3D microenvironment that makes neural cultures more physiological and pharmacological relevant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0134.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Human Robot Interaction (HRI); social robot; Speech Emotion Recognition (SER); Gender Recognition, affective states
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:31:07 CET)
The real challenge in Human Robot Interaction (HRI) is to build machines capable of perceiving human emotions so that robots can interact with humans in a proper manner. It is well known from the literature that emotion varies accordingly to many factors. Among these, gender represents one of the most influencing one, and so an appropriate gender-dependent emotion recognition system is recommended. In this paper, a two-level hierarchical Speech Emotion Recognition (SER) system is proposed: the first level is represented by the Gender Recognition (GR) module for the speaker’s gender identification; the second is a gender-specific SER block. Specifically for this work, the attention was focused on the optimisation of the first level of the proposed architecture. The system was designed to be installed on social robots for hospitalised and living at home elderly patients monitoring. Hence, the importance of reducing the software computational effort of the architecture also minimizing the hardware bulkiness, in order for the system to be suitable for social robots. The algorithm was executed on the Raspberry Pi hardware. For the training, the Italian emotional database EMOVO was used. Results show a GR accuracy value of 97.8%, comparable with the ones found in literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0559.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Nori; human ovarian tetracarcinoma (PA1); Tatridin B; NSD2 inhibitor
Online: 29 December 2022 (09:57:46 CET)
Marine seaweeds are nature’s largesse resource in human well-being. Seaweed’s contribution to the food industry is being widened for its rich source of essential vitamins, minerals, and PUFA. ‘Nori’ is a dried sheet of red seaweed Porphyra sp. used to make ‘sushi’ a renowned cuisine in Japan, and other Southeast Asian countries. In this present study, commercial-grade ‘Nori’ was extracted and fractionated with different solvents, and subjected to evaluate the cytotoxic activity on human ovarian tetracarcinoma cells (PA1). As a result, the ethyl acetate fraction was found effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells with an IC50 value of 41.1 µg/mL. The main component responsible for anticancer activity was determined as a sesquiterpene lactone Tatridin B (3h-cyclodeca[b]furan-2-one, 4,9-dihydroxy-6-methyl-3,10-dimethylene-). Moreover, it was found effective in inhibiting NSD2, an important and recently proposed biomarker for several types of cancer. This is a hitherto report on the presence of this compound in ‘Nori’ showing potent anticancer activity on human ovarian tetracarcinoma (PA1).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0086.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: 3D human action recognition; skeleton-based representation; SPMF; enhanced-SPMF; AHE; D-CNNs; DenseNet
Online: 7 March 2019 (09:10:43 CET)
Designing motion representations for the problem of 3D human action recognition from skeleton sequences is an important yet challenging task. An effective representation should be robust to noise, invariant to viewpoint changes and result in a good performance with low-computational demand. Two main challenges in this task include how to efficiently represent spatio-temporal patterns of skeletal movements and how to learn their discriminative features for classification task. This paper presents a novel skeleton-based representation and a deep learning framework for 3D action recognition using RGB-D sensors. We propose to build an action map called SPMF (Skeleton Posture-Motion Feature), which is a compact image representation built from skeleton poses and their motions. An Adaptive Histogram Equalization (AHE) algorithm is then applied on the SPMF to enhance their local patterns and form an enhanced action map, namely Enhanced-SPMF. For learning and classification tasks, we exploit Deep Convolutional Neural Networks based on the DenseNet architecture to learn directly an end-to-end mapping between input skeleton sequences and their action labels via the Enhanced-SPMFs. The proposed method is evaluated on four challenging benchmark datasets, including both individual actions, interactions, multiview and large-scale datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms previous state-of-the-art approaches on all benchmark tasks, whilst requiring low computational time for training and inference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1894.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Aircraft control human factors; Cognitive workload; Data Mining; Electroencephalography; Fatigue; Safety
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:40:35 CEST)
The purpose of the research was to examine and assess the relation between the pilot’s concentration and reaction time with specific brain activity during short-haul flights. In order to obtain this task, participants took part in 1-hour long flight sessions performed on FNPT II class flight simulator. During the flight auto–pilot was activated and subjects were instructed to give response to unexpected events that were occurring during the flight. Brainwaves of each participant were recorded with Emotiv EPOC+ Scientific Contextual EEG device. Statistical analyses of the results were presented in the article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0101.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mouse-Human Chimeric Antibody; Immunotherapy; Infectious diseases; Histoplasmosis; Paracoccidioidomycosis; Histoplasma capsulatum; Paracoccidioides lutzii
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:33:24 CEST)
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly conserved molecules that are constitutively expressed and upregulated in response to physiological stress conditions. These immunogenic chaperones can have essential functions in fungi, particularly in dimorphic pathogens. Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides species are dimorphic fungi that are the causative agents of histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis, respectively, which are systemic mycoses with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Current treatment consists of long-term antifungal agents, and there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches with higher efficacy, lower toxicity, better biodistribution and improved selectivity. We engineered an immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody, titled ch-MAb 4E12, from the parental IgG2a MAb 4E12, a monoclonal antibody to H. capsulatum Hsp60 that is protective in experimental histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis models elicited by H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and Paracoccidioides lutzii, respectively. The ch-MAb 4E12 increased phagolysosomal fusion and enhanced the yeasts uptake by PMA differentiated human THP1 macrophage cells in vitro. At low concentrations, the chimeric antibody significantly reduced the pulmonary and splenic fungal burden compared to an irrelevant antibody or no treatment. These results are the first to show that a chimeric mouse-human antibody can modify infection caused by dimorphic fungi.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: nighttime light data; human activities; karst rocky desertification; environmental impact; China
Online: 8 September 2019 (16:49:12 CEST)
Due to remarkable socioeconomic development, an increasing number of karst rocky desertification areas have been severely affected by human activities in southern China. Effectively analyzing human activities in karst rocky desertification areas is a critical prerequisite for managing and restoring areas with tremendous negative impacts from desertification. At present, a timely and accurate way of quantifying the spatiotemporal variations of human activities in karst rocky desertification areas is still lacking. In this communication, we attempted to quantify human activities from the corrected NPP-VIIRS nighttime light data from 2012 to 2018 based on statistical analysis. The results show that a significant increase of night lights could be clearly identified during the study period. The total nighttime lights (TL) related to severe karst rocky desertification (S) were particularly concentrated in Guizhou and Yunnan. The nighttime light intensity (LI) related to the S areas in Chongqing were the strongest due to its rapid socioeconomic development. The annual growth rate of nighttime lights (GL) has been slow or even negative in Guangdong because of its various karst rocky desertification restoration programs. This communication could provide an effective approach for quantifying human activities and provide useful information about where prompt attention is required for policy-making on the restoration of the karst rocky desertification areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0293.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), PARP-DNA complex,DNA-protein binding,DNA repair, 5′,8-Cyclopurine-2′-deoxynucleoside, DNA damage , DNA repair efficiency.
Online: 24 December 2018 (16:01:44 CET)
Abstract5′,8-Cyclo-2′-deoxyadenosine (cdA), in the 5′R and 5′Sdiastereomeric forms, are typical non strand-break oxidative DNA lesions, induced by hydroxyl radicals, with emerging importance as a molecular marker. These lesions are exclusively repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) mechanism with a low efficiency, thus readily accumulating in the genome. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase1 (PARP1) acts as an early responder to DNA damage and plays a key role as a nick sensor in the maintenance of the integrity of the genome by recognizing nicked DNA. So far, it was unknown whether the diastereomeric cdA lesions could induce specific PARP1 binding. Here we provide the first evidence of PARP1 to selectively recognize the diastereomeric lesions 5′S-cdA and 5′R-cdA in vitro as compared to deoxyadenosine in model DNA substrates (23-mers) by using circular dichroism,fluorescence spectroscopy, immunoblotting analysis and gel mobility shift assay. Several features of the recognition of the damaged and undamaged oligonucleotides by PARP1were characterized. Remarkably, PARP1 efficiently binds to both cdA lesions in the double stranded (ds)-oligonucleotides. In particular, PARP1 proved to bind 5′S-cdAwith a higher affinity constant for the 5'S lesion in a model of ds DNA than 5′R-cdA, showing different recognition patterns, also compared with undamaged dA. This new finding highlights the ability of PARP1 to recognize and differentiate the distorted DNA backbone in a biomimetic system caused by different diastereomeric forms of a cdA lesion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0672.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Review; Human action recognition; Smart living; Services; Applications; Context Awareness; Data Availability; Personalization; Privacy; Sensing technology; Machine learning; Deep learning; Signal processing; Smart home; Smart environment; Smart city; Smart Community; Ambient Assisted Living
Online: 9 June 2023 (05:34:18 CEST)
Smart Living, an increasingly prominent concept, entails incorporating sophisticated technologies in homes and urban environments to elevate the quality of life for citizens. A critical success factor for Smart Living services and applications, from energy management to healthcare and transportation, is the efficacy of human action recognition (HAR). HAR, rooted in computer vision, seeks to identify human actions and activities using visual data and various sensor modalities. This paper extensively reviews the literature on HAR in Smart Living services and applications, amalgamating key contributions and challenges while providing insights into future research directions. The review delves into the essential aspects of Smart Living, the state of the art in HAR, and the potential societal implications of this technology. Moreover, the paper meticulously examines the primary application sectors in Smart Living that stand to gain from HAR, such as smart homes, smart healthcare, and smart cities. By underscoring the significance of the four dimensions of Context Awareness, Data Availability, Personalization, and Privacy in HAR, this paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners striving to advance Smart Living services and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0018.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV); NDV ZG1999HDS; NDV La Sota; TLT (Human macrophage cell line; Immunomodulation; Anti - Gram Positive bacteria; Anti - Gram - Negative bacteria; activity
Online: 1 November 2021 (13:01:38 CET)
ABSTRACT. The immunotherapies, as a modern therapeutic approach, get an attention because of theirs’ promise to treat a large number of different medical disorders. Immunomodulation effects of low titres (10 HA/ml) of NDV (Newcastle Disease Virus) ZG1999HDS or La Sota were tested on TLT (Human macrophage cell line) bound to PBMC (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells). During the immunomodulation, the amount of NO, H2O2, lysozym and induced antibacterial activity against Gram - positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus mutants) and against Gram - negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter baumanii) were analysed. In addition, the cytokine secretion, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, GM-CSF, TNF-α, IFN-α and IFN-α were evaluated. Firstly, the TLT cells are activated through the NDV ZG1999HDS or La Sota binding, followed by the NO “burst” and H2O2 and lysozyme level increase. Secondly, after the binding to the TLT cells and interaction with the PBMCs, the decrease of GM-CSF, and an increase of TNF – α and IFN – γ were found. Simultaneously, the decrease of pro – inflammatory cytokine IFN-α and the differentially increase of IL-1α, IL-2 and IL-4 were recorded. During the induction of the antibacterial response, against Gram - positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus mutants) the effect was one third higher with NDV ZG1999HDS compared to La Sota. Antibacterial response against Gram - negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter baumanii) was not so clear. In general, NDV ZG1999HDS or La Sota activated TLT cells, further bound to PBMC; the ZG1999HDS is stronger immunomodulator than La Sota.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Review; Human action recognition; Smart living; Multimodality; Real-time processing; Interoperability; Resource-constrained processing; Sensing technology; Machine learning; Deep learning; Signal processing; Smart home; Smart environment; Smart city; Smart Community; Ambient Assisted Living
Online: 3 May 2023 (06:54:40 CEST)
Smart living, a concept that has gained increasing attention in recent years, revolves around integrating advanced technologies in homes and cities to enhance the quality of life for citizens. Sensing and human action recognition are crucial aspects of this concept. Smart living applications span various domains, such as energy consumption, healthcare, transportation, and education, which greatly benefit from effective human action recognition. This field, originating from computer vision, seeks to recognize human actions and activities using not only visual data but also many other sensor modalities. This paper comprehensively reviews the literature on human action recognition in smart living environments, synthesizing the main contributions, challenges, and future research directions. This review selects five key domains: Sensing Technology, Multimodality, Real-time Processing, Interoperability, and Resource-Constrained Processing, as they encompass the critical aspects required for successfully deploying human action recognition in smart living. These domains highlight the essential role that sensing and human action recognition play in successfully developing and implementing smart living solutions. This paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners seeking to explore further and advance the field of human action recognition in smart living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0032.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Human Capital; Human Capital Management; Human Capital Factors; Affecting Factors in Human Capital; Human Capital in Singapore
Online: 4 October 2021 (08:45:54 CEST)
The human capital index is a multivariate variable used to measure the assessment of human resource productivity in the future. Human capital has a connection with economic development. Moreover, the study looks to analyses the relationship between Human Capital and Economic Growth indicators such as HCI and GDP. Human Capital relates to the development of individual skills to make them function more profitable for the national economy. The study was aimed at investigating the effect of population, the number of people engaged and the average annual hours worked by engaged persons on the human capital index. The analysis was in SPSS for the findings. Correlation tests were used for analysis. The study revealed that population, the number of people engaged and the average annual hours worked by engaged persons had a significant positive effect on the human capital index.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0475.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: food bioactive compunds; stokes aster ethanolic extarcts; health effects; antiproliferative activity; Caco2 cells; docking; human tankyrase 1
Online: 28 September 2021 (14:23:04 CEST)
In this study, five polyphenol compounds (reference substances, ref.) were added to Stokesia laevis (Slae26) ethanolic extract (5 mg GAE / mL) in order to test their antiproliferative effects on human colon tumor cell line Caco-2 (ATCC-HTB-37). The five phenolics (ref.) are luteolin-7-O-glucoside (orientin), luteolin-8-C-glucoside (cinnaroside), caffeic acid, gentisic acid and para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and they were combined in ratio 1:1 between the active compounds in samples (GAE : ref.). Results indicated certain antiproliferative effects of Slae26 (IC50=36 μg GAE/mL sample), of the five reference compounds, but mainly of Slae26 combinations with the five phenolics tested (ref.). Punctually, there were obtained IC50 values around 5 μg/mL sample, signifying real therapeutic usefulness and antitumor potency of Slae26 combinations with the five food bioactive compounds tested. In silico docking studies provided potential therapeutic agents to inhibit the catalytic domain of human tankyrase 1 (TNKS1) in the series of food bioactive compounds tested, and revealed luteolin-7-O-glucoside high effectiveness.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: human origins; mitochondrial DNA; Africa; human evolution
Online: 17 November 2019 (00:55:26 CET)
Chan and colleagues in their paper titled “Human origins in a southern African palaeo-wetland and first migrations” (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1714-1) report 198 novel whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and infer that ‘anatomically modern humans’ originated in the Makgadikgadi–Okavango palaeo-wetland of southern Africa around 200 thousand years ago. This claim relies on weakly informative data. In addition to flawed logic and questionable assumptions, the authors surprisingly disregard recent evidence and debate on human origins in Africa. As a result, the emphatic and high profile conclusions of the paper are unjustified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: human virome; human microbiome; bacteriophage; elderly adults
Online: 9 July 2018 (10:50:10 CEST)
The human virome is an area of increasing interest with relation to human health and disease. It has been demonstrated to alter in concert with the bacterial microbiome in early life and was also found to be different in patients with certain diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. However, all virome analyses are hampered by a lack of annotated representative database sequences, often referred to as the ‘viral dark matter’. Here we provide the first description of the gut DNA virome in elderly individuals (>65 years old) as well as the description of novel bacteriophages not present in current reference databases. Diversity analysis comparing elderly persons from different residence locations (community living vs long term care facilities) did not reveal any difference in their virome diversity profiles despite the reported differences at the bacteriome level. An abundance of Microviridae of the subfamily Gokushovirinae were present in the faeces of elderly individuals. Several novel members of the order Caudovirales were also characterized and annotated. Assignment of host bacteria to detected viral genomes was attempted using a combination of CRISPR spacers, tRNA genes and a probabilistic approach. Further characterization of the viral dark matter is necessary for developing tools and expanding databases to study the human virome. This study focused on the virome of an aging human cohort with the goal of illuminating part of the viral dark matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: human-robot interaction; human-robot collaboration; collaborative robots; motion planning; robot control; human motion prediction; human-following robots
Online: 9 November 2021 (14:12:17 CET)
Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) for collaborative robots has become an active research topic recently. Collaborative robots assist the human workers in their tasks and improve their efficiency. But the worker should also feel safe and comfortable while interacting with the robot. In this paper, we propose a human-following motion planning and control scheme for a collaborative robot which supplies the necessary parts and tools to a worker in an assembly process in a factory. In our proposed scheme, a 3-D sensing system is employed to measure the skeletal data of the worker. At each sampling time of the sensing system, an optimal delivery position is estimated using the real-time worker data. At the same time, the future positions of the worker are predicted as probabilistic distributions. A Model Predictive Control (MPC) based trajectory planner is used to calculate a robot trajectory that supplies the required parts and tools to the worker and follows the predicted future positions of the worker. We have installed our proposed scheme in a collaborative robot system with a 2-DOF planar manipulator. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme enables the robot to provide anytime assistance to a worker who is moving around in the workspace while ensuring the safety and comfort of the worker.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0180.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ferromagnetic fibre network; human albumin; fibrin hydrogel; human foetal osteoblasts; human endothelial cells
Online: 17 September 2019 (04:48:21 CEST)
Porous coatings on prosthetic implants encourage implant fixation. Enhanced fixation may be achieved using a magneto-active porous coating that can deform elastically in vivo on application of an external magnetic field, straining in-growing bone. Such coating, made of 444 ferritic stainless steel fibres, was previously characterised in terms of its mechanical and cellular responses. In this work, co-cultures of human osteoblasts and endothelial cells were seeded into a novel fibrin-based hydrogel embedded in a 444 ferritic stainless steel fibre network. Albumin was successfully incorporated into fibrin hydrogels improving the specific permeability and the diffusion of fluorescently-tagged dextrans without affecting their Young’s modulus. The beneficial effect of albumin was demonstrated by upregulation of osteogenic and angiogenic gene expression. Furthermore, mineralisation, extracellular matrix production and formation of vessel-like structures were enhanced in albumin-enriched fibrin hydrogels compared to fibrin hydrogels. Collectively, the results indicate that the albumin-enriched fibrin hydrogel is a promising bio-matrix for bone tissue engineering and orthopaedic applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0131.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: physical human-robot interaction; human factors; robot manipulators
Online: 2 June 2023 (04:58:29 CEST)
As the global population rapidly ages with longer life expectancy and declining birth rates, the need for healthcare services and caregivers for older adults is increasing. Current research envisions addressing this shortage by introducing domestic service robots to assist with daily activities. The successful integration of robots as domestic service providers in our lives requires them to possess efficient manipulation capabilities, provide effective physical assistance, and have adaptive control frameworks that enable them to develop social understanding during human-robot interaction. In this context, human factors, especially quantifiable ones, represent a necessary component. The objective of this paper is to conduct an unbiased review encompassing studies on human factors studied in research involving physical interactions and strong manipulation capabilities. We identified the prevalent human factors in physical human-robot interaction (pHRI), noted the factors typically addressed together and determined the frequently utilized assessment approaches. Additionally, we gathered and categorized proposed quantification approaches based on measurable data for each human factor. We also formed a map of common contexts and applications addressed in pHRI for a comprehensive understanding and easier navigation of the field. We found out that most of the studies in direct pHRI (when there is direct physical contact) focus on social behaviors with belief being the most commonly addressed human factor type. Task collaboration is moderately investigated, while physical assistance is rarely studied. In contrast, indirect pHRI (when the physical contact is mediated via a third item) studies often involve industrial settings, with physical ergonomics being the most frequently investigated human factor. More research is needed on human factors in direct and indirect physical assistance applications, including studies that combine physical social behaviors with physical assistance tasks. We also found that while the predominant approach in most studies involves the use of questionnaires as the main method of quantification, there is a recent trend that seeks to address quantification approaches based on measurable data.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mostly studied human protein structure; human diseases; biophysics
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:11:04 CEST)
Of the roughly 20,000 canonical human protein sequences, as of September 15, 2020, 6,937 proteins have had their full or partial, medium- to high-resolution structures determined by x-ray crystallography or other methods. Which of these proteins dominate the Protein Data Bank (the PDB) and why? In this paper, we list the 273 top human protein structures based on the number of their PDB entries. This set of proteins accounts for more than 40% of all available human PDB entries and represent past trends as well as current status for protein structural biology. We briefly discuss the relationship which some of the prominent protein structures have with protein research as a whole and mention their relevance to human diseases. The top-10 soluble and membrane proteins are all well-known (most of their first structures being deposited more than 30 years ago). Overall, there is no dramatic change in recent trends in the PDB. Remarkably, the number of structure depositions has grown nearly exponentially over the last 10 or more years (with a doubling time of 7 yrs for proteins from all organisms). Growth in human protein structures is slightly faster (at 5.9 yrs, while E.Coli and Mouse+Rat protein structures accumulate more slowly, Zebrafish protein structures are growing most, at a doubling every 3.7 years, albeit starting from only approx. 100 structure entries in 2010). The information may be informative to senior scientists but also inspire researchers who are new to protein science, providing the year 2020 snap-shot for the state of protein structural biology.
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: irrationality; human senses; human mind; material continuity; existence
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:57:08 CEST)
It has been a challenge to visualize in nature some concepts from abstract subjects such as mathematics and philosophy. Irrationality is certainly among the least comprehensive. This essay aimed to propose that irrationality is simply an illusion resulting from the human inability to grasp the full nature of reality, rather than actual continuity flaws in the fabric of existence. There are three major arguments: (1) human senses have limitations and these are likely to be extended to the intellect, (2) there are no observable existential discontinuities in everyday experience, and (3) some rational phenomena have irrational components. These arguments point towards the existence of a physical existence of irrational quantities or distances, visible to the human eye but not fully comprehended through arithmetic abstraction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0101.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Human virome; human microbiome; elderly; viral dark matter
Online: 5 July 2018 (16:23:36 CEST)
The human virome is an area of increasing interest with relation to human health and disease. It has been demonstrated to alter in concert with the bacterial microbiome in early life and was also found to be different in patients with certain diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. However, all virome analyses are hampered by a lack of annotated representative database sequences, often referred to as the ‘viral dark matter’. Here we provide the first description of the gut DNA virome in elderly individuals (>65 years old) as well as the description of novel bacteriophages not present in current reference databases. Diversity analysis comparing elderly persons from different residence locations (community living vs long term care facilities) did not reveal any difference in their virome diversity profiles despite the reported differences at the bacteriome level. An abundance of Microviridae of the subfamily Gokushovirinae were present in the faeces of elderly individuals. Several novel members of the order Caudovirales were also characterized and annotated. Assignment of host bacteria to detected viral genomes was attempted using a combination of CRISPR spacers, tRNA genes and a probabilistic approach. Further characterization of the viral dark matter is necessary for developing tools and expanding databases to study the human virome. This study focused on the virome of an aging human cohort with the goal of illuminating part of the viral dark matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: propolis extracts; antiviral activity; virucidal activity; viral adsorption, Human coronavirus; Human respiratory syncytial virus; Herpes simplex virus; Human rhinovirus; Human adenovirus
Online: 15 June 2023 (10:05:09 CEST)
Propolis, or bee glue, is a complex mixture of resins from plant buds and flowers, wax, pollen and bee saliva. It also contains various vitamins, essential oils, mineral salts, trace elements, hormones and enzymes. It has been found that propolis possesses antimicrobial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. We have studied the antiviral activity of six extracts of Bulgarian propolis collected from six districts of Bulgaria. The study was conducted against structurally different viruses: Human coronavirus strain OC-43 (HCoV OC-43) and Human respiratory syncytial virus type 5 (HRSV-5) (enveloped RNA viruses), Human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) (enveloped DNA virus), Human rhinovirus type 14 (HRV-14) (non-enveloped RNA virus) and Human adenovirus type 2 (HadV-2) (non-enveloped DNA virus). The influence of the extracts on the internal replicative cycle of viruses was determined using the cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition test. The virucidal capacity, their influence on the adsorption stage and their protective effect on uninfected cells were also determined by the end-point dilution method. Residual viral infectivity in propolis samples was compared to untreated controls and Δlgs were calculated. When administered during viral replication, most propolis extracts demonstrated the strongest activity against HCoV OC-43. The influence of propolis extracts on the viability of extracellular virions was expressed to a different degree in the various viruses studied, and the effect was significantly stronger in those with an envelope. Almost all extracts significantly inhibited the step of herpes virus adsorption to the host cell, and some of them showed a protective effect on healthy cells before they were subjected to herpes infection. Our results enlarge the knowledge about the action of propolis and could open new perspectives for its application in viral infections treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0288.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Exposure routes; Human breast milk; Human placenta; Microplastics; Nanoplastics
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:19:01 CEST)
Given the broad and intense use of plastic, society is being increasingly affected by its degradation and by-products, particularly by microplastics (MPs) -fragments smaller than 5 mm in size-, and nanoplastics (NPs) -with sizes less than 1 µm. MPs and NPs may enter the body primarily through inhalation, consumption, and skin contact. Once ingested, MPs can penetrate tissues, deviating to other parts of the body, and hence potentially affecting important cellular pathways such as nonconforming chemokine receptors that control the communication between the fetus and the mother. Consequently, the potential health harm induced by MP internalization is a major issue, evidenced by multiple studies demonstrating harmful consequences in diverse animal models and human cells. Here, an overview of the various modes of exposure to MPs and NPs is presented, including inhalation, placental transfer, ingestion, breastmilk consumption, and skin absorption, as well as placental and fetal toxicity due to plastic particles based on animal and in vitro studies. Though MPs in our environment are becoming more recognized, their developmental toxicity is still scarcely known. Besides negatively affecting pregnancy, MPs and NPs have been shown to potentially harm the developing fetus, given their ability to cross the placental barrier. Still, considerable gaps remain in our understanding of the dispersion and toxicity of these particles in the environment, as well as the precise types of NPs and MPs bearing the greatest dangers. As a result, we advocate for larger-scale epidemiological investigations, the development of novel approaches for measuring NP and MP exposures, and the necessity of understanding the toxicity of various kinds of NPs to guide future research efforts.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0470.v1
Online: 18 December 2020 (14:03:16 CET)
Ancient DNA has given a new vision to the recent history of human evolution. However, by always relying on the information provided by whole genome sequencing, some relevant relationships between modern humans and its archaic relatives have been misinterpreted by hybridization and recombination causes. In contrast, the congruent phylogeny, obtained from non-recombinant uniparental markers, indicates that humans and Neanderthals are sister subspecies, and that the most recent common ancestor of modern humans was not of African origin but Eurasian.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0415.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: human–machine interaction; multimodal interface; human–robot interaction; spatial computing
Online: 10 May 2023 (09:42:13 CEST)
Multimodal user interfaces promise a natural and intuitive human machine interactions. But is the extra effort for the development of a complex multi-sensor system justified, or can users also be satisfied with one input modality already? This study investigates interactions in an industrial weld inspection workstation. Three unimodal interfaces, including spatial interaction with buttons augmented on a workpiece or a worktable, and speech commands, were tested individually and in a multimodal combination. Within the unimodal conditions, users preferred the augmented worktable, but overall, the interindividual usage of all input technologies in the multimodal condition was ranked best. Our findings indicate that the implementation and use of multiple input modalities is valuable, and that it is difficult to predict the usability of individual input modalities for complex systems.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0368.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: proteoform; human genome project; proteomics; post-translational modification; human proteome
Online: 19 October 2020 (10:49:39 CEST)
Proteins are the primary effectors of function in biology, and thus complete knowledge of their structure and properties is fundamental to deciphering function in basic and translational research. The chemical diversity of proteins is expressed in their many proteoforms, which result from combinations of genetic polymorphisms, RNA splice variants and post-translational modifications. This knowledge is foundational for the biological complexes and networks that control biology, yet remains largely unknown. We propose here an ambitious initiative to define the human proteome; that is to generate a definitive reference set of the proteoforms produced from the genome. Several examples of the power and importance of proteoform-level knowledge in disease-based research are presented, along with a call for improved technologies in a two-pronged strategy to accomplish the Human Proteoform Project.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: first heartbeat; human embryonic heart; human embryos; onset of blood circulation
Online: 5 May 2022 (09:56:10 CEST)
The onset of embryonic heart beating may be regarded as the defining feature for the beginning of personal human life. Clarifying the timing of the 1st human heartbeat, therefore, has religious, philosophical, ethical, and medicolegal implications. This article reviews the historical and contemporary sources of knowledge on the beginning of human heart activity. Special attention is given to the problem of the determination of the true age of human embryos and to the problem of visualization of the human embryonic heart activity. It is shown that historical and current textbook statements about the onset of blood circulation in man do not derive from observations on living human embryos but derive from the extrapolation of observations on animal embryos to the human species. This fact does not preclude the existence of documented observations on human embryonic heart activity: Modern diagnostic (ultrasound) and therapeutic (IVF) procedures facilitate the visualization of early embryonic heart activity in precisely dated pregnancies. Such studies showed that the human heart started its pumping action during the 4th post-fertilization week. A small number of direct observations on the heart activity of aborted human embryos were reported since the 19th century but did not receive much recognition by embryologists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0684.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: human-wildlife interactions; non-human primates; zooanthropology; primate sanctuary; Lemur catta
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:18:23 CEST)
The aim of the present study is to investigate themes related to visitors’ perceptions of captive wildlife in particular, attitudes towards non-human primates (henceforth, primates). This research took place in free-roaming, multi-species primate sanctuary, Monkeyland (South Africa), where 400 visitors were interviewed using an anonymous survey both before and after attending a guided tour. The answers were divided into different categories, in order to standardize the motivations behind tourists’ choices. The results of the survey demonstrated that most visitors agree that a primate would not be a good companion animal. Visitors’ desire to touch primates was found to be positively correlated with desire for companion primates and inversely associated with visitor age. In response to: “would you like to touch a monkey?”, the majority of tourists who expressed this desire seemed aware that such interactions are not appropriate, with concern for animal welfare and human health. Of the various primate species present in the sanctuary, visitors preferred the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) and, generally speaking, expressed appreciation for primates’ “cuteness”. Our results indicate a general awareness by the visitors on the importance of animal welfare in the human interactions with captive wildlife, in agreement with the “hands-off” policy of Monkeyland primate sanctuary. We discuss the findings from a general to zooanthropological point of view, proposing some reflections on the attitudes of visitors toward non-human primates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0313.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: artificial intelligence; human-AI interaction; human factors; safety challenges; black-box challenge
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:50:32 CET)
In response to the need to address the safety challenges in the use of artificial intelligence (AI), this research aimed to develop a framework for a safety controlling system (SCS) to address the AI black-box mystery in the healthcare industry. The main objective was to propose safety guidelines for implementing AI black-box models to reduce the risk of potential healthcare-related incidents and accidents. The system was developed by adopting the multi-attribute value model approach (MAVT), which comprises four symmetrical parts: extracting attributes, generating weights for the attributes, developing a rating scale, and finalizing the system. On the basis of the MAVT approach, three layers of attributes were created. The first level contained 6 key dimensions, the second level included 14 attributes, and the third level comprised 78 attributes. The key first level dimensions of the SCS included safety policies, incentives for clinicians, clinician and patient training, communication and interaction, planning of actions, and control of such actions. The proposed system may provide a basis for detecting AI utilization risks, preventing incidents from occurring, and developing emergency plans for AI-related risks. This approach could also guide and control the implementation of AI systems in the healthcare industry.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Keywords: Nature-based Solutions; transformation; framing; human-nature dichotomy; human-nature relations
Online: 25 December 2020 (15:05:31 CET)
Nature-based Solutions (NbS) have rapidly been gaining traction across the research, policy, and practice spheres, touted as transformative actions to jointly address biodiversity loss and climate change. However, there are multiple, alternative ways to imagine NbS in those three spheres. To inform the NbS discourses across these three spheres, we critically reflect on the prevailing framing of NbS and consider the potential of a different framing of NbS to support transformations towards regenerative relationships between humans and nature. Such reflection is urgently needed to ensure that research, policy, and practice delivers on the transformative ambitions of NbS. We propose a novel “core framing” of NbS, charting two pathways for how such a framing can support a human value-based transformation – first through influencing individual beliefs and values, and second through the communication and application of the NbS concept in research, policy, and practice. We argue that for NbS to support transformation, it must support a reframing of human-nature relationships, one where the interdependencies between people and nature are recognized as essential for social and environmental well-being. We elaborate on how such a framing is key to support inclusivity and collaboration between diverse research perspectives, policy objectives across scales, and implementation practices, to deliver successful NbS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1678.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: company law; development studies; sociology; corporate social responsibility; education; human development; human dignity
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:26:47 CEST)
This paper aims to argue the fundamental significance of education in addressing notable gaps in the constitutive, performance, and evaluation criteria for corporate social responsibility (CSR) and endeavours to showcase the complementarity between education, human security, sustainable human development, and the pursuit of CSR as an ideal normative paradigm. An abstractive approach to studying CSR engages with corporate philanthropy, which has not been helpful outside traditional CSR paradigms without looking at key dynamics that can robustly underpin successful CSR. It relies on the systematic analysis of written data sources to theoretically explore the central significance, and complementarity between human security, education, and human dignity and how they can orchestrate a holistic CSR paradigm. In 1994, the UNDP in formulating the human security doctrine recognised the syncretic correlation between human security, education, and sustainable human development as fundamental elements that should underpin CSR. This paper contends that these are necessary intrinsic components of human dignity as the central factor that justifies a multi-dimensional and proactive approach to CSR. Despite the criticisms against human security, this paper identifies it as an important concept that could instrumentally orchestrate a model of CSR that uniformly mainstreams sustainable human development and human dignity that leverages education which has routinely and traditionally been seen as a constitutive component of CSR. It reveals how a holistic path to CSR can reinvigorate the central pillars of human security and human dignity using education as a springboard and makes a compelling case for supporting explicit references to education in company law with appropriate human security informed constitutive, performance, and evaluation criteria which are absent in existing legally orchestrated CSR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0070.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: decision-making; human-autonomous systems interaction; human performance; intelligent machines; overreliance; situational awareness
Online: 23 January 2023 (13:19:41 CET)
Autonomous systems and intelligent machines are involved in almost all areas of human activity and they are now more and more present in our everyday life. The reason for this extensive use certainly resides in all the benefits these machines offer to the users. In experimental settings, numerous studies have demonstrated the positive effects that the introduction of autonomous systems have on human decision-making and performance. However, studies have shown in addition that the introduction of these systems can have important negative effects as well. Considering that autonomous systems are now introduced in sensitive domains like the military or medicine, we need more than ever a comprehensive understanding of the effects they cause on human performance and decision-making, and particularly in tasks and contexts with a social or moral dimension. The aim of this narrative review is threefold. First, we will provide an overview of the main effects on a human agent’s decision-making and performance produced by the introduction of autonomous systems. Second, we will review the conditions identified as underlying factors of these effects, and see how current models of human – autonomous systems interaction integrate those conditions. Third, we will conclude this review by highlighting new directions for future investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0352.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial agents; human machine teaming; metrics; synthetic agents; human factors; ergonomics; empirical studies
Online: 12 November 2020 (14:48:50 CET)
This paper presents a multi-year research study conducted at the University of Toledo, aimed at improving human-machine teaming (HMT) methods and technologies. With the incorporation of artificial intelligence (AI) into 21st-century machines, collaboration between humans and machines has become highly complicated for real-time applications. The penetration of intelligent and synthetic assistants (IA/SA) in virtually every field has opened a path for the new area of HMT. When it comes to crucial tasks such as patient treatment and care, defense, and industrial production, the use of non-standardized HMT technologies may pose a risk to human lives as well as up to billions of taxpayer dollars. A thorough literature survey revealed that there are not many established standards or benchmarks for HMT. In this paper, we aim to address the lack of HMT design and development standards. We propose a method to design an HMT based on a generalized architecture. This design includes the development of an intelligent collaborative system and human team. Followed by processes and metrics to test and validate the proposed model, we present a novel human-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation method using two controlled HMT scenarios; first, emergency care provider (ECP) training, and second, patient treatment by an experienced medic. Both scenarios include humans processing visual data and performing actions that represent real-world applications while responding to a Voice-Based Synthetic Assistant (VBSA) as a collaborator that keeps track of actions. As part of these HMT simulation studies, the impact of each parameter related to machines, humans, and HMT (such as errors made by humans and by the VBSA) is presented from the perspective of performance, rules, roles, and operation limitations. In addition, based on the analysis of results from two case studies, we presented guidelines for designing future HMT. Our conclusions indicate that the proposed HIL can be used to perform standardization studies in the pursuit of developing techniques for benchmarking HMT that can be used in critical situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0481.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Irukandji syndrome; box jellyfish; CSL antivenom; nematocyst extracts; antigenicity; human sera; human antibodies
Online: 29 August 2018 (05:23:55 CEST)
Carukia barnesi (Cb), Malo kingi (Mk) and Chironex fleckeri (Cf) are dangerous Australian box jellyfish species that provoke distinct and not well understood envenomation syndromes. Specifically, Cb and Mk are small, rare and able to induce a systemic syndrome of generalised muscle pain and catecholamine excess termed “Irukandji syndrome”; Cf has been widely regarded as one of the most venomous organisms in the animal kingdom causing severe sting site pain combined with potentially lethal cardiotoxicity. Building on past studies of major chirodropid and carybdeid species venoms, this study compared the utility of various cubozoan specific antibody reagents to better define the relationships between venom proteins from both exemplar Irukandji species (Cb and Mk) and the archetype C. fleckeri box jellyfish. With the aid of commercial ovine derived Cf-specific antivenom, mouse antibodies reactive to Cb and Mk and rabbit antibodies specific to two Cf toxins (CfTX-1 and 2), as well as human sera, the cross-reactivity of jellyfish species-specific polyclonal antibodies against these three cubozoan venoms was investigated. Immunoblot assays revealed distinc levels of immune recognition across the three species, indicating that Mk specific reagents may bind both Irukandji and Cf venoms. Irukandji venom appears to be antigenic with the exception of a few proteins in the range of 43/46 kDa maybe homologous to CfTX-1 and 2. The implications of such antibody binding for future antivenom development require further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0246.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial intelligence; artificial intelligence and its application on human health; AI and its appli-cation on human health; AI and human health
Online: 14 March 2023 (04:18:22 CET)
Background: Artificial intelligence can help improve the quality of healthcare by analyzing vast amounts of data and providing more effective and personalized treatment plans. Researchers are working on developing AI-powered solutions that can help improve the outcomes of patients. Objective: To explore the potential of AI in improving healthcare outcomes and patient experience. Results: The study suggests that AI can improve healthcare efficiency and patient outcomes but cannot fully replace human healthcare professionals. AI can assist healthcare professionals in their work, leading to better resource utilization and improved patient care. However, there is still a need for human healthcare professionals to oversee AI systems and provide empathy and personalized care to patients. Conclusion: While there is immense potential for AI in healthcare, it is not yet feasible to replace human healthcare workers. Instead, it should be viewed as a tool that can help improve the efficiency and effectiveness of human healthcare.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2110.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: human-swarm interface; virtual reality
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:22:41 CEST)
With the emergence of new VR/AR technologies, the question arises of how they can be used in human-swarm interaction. Where are the limitations and boundaries of conventional interfaces, and how can VR/AR overcome them? To find out, a user study was conducted. The subjects were able to interact with an autonomously acting swarm of drones using both a conventional desktop interface (Desktop-HSI) and a newly developed VR interface (VR-HSI).The resulting assessments are used as a basis for determining the extent to which this new technology can be applied in human-swarm interaction. The technical basis was an already tested simulation software that was expanded with a network interface to allow interacting with a drone swarm using connected HSIs (Human-Swarm Interfaces). Standardized communication was emphasized to enable the development of HSIs with different requirements. Specifically for this work, a VR-HSI was developed with Unity and a desktop-HSI with Java and their performance regarding human-swarm interaction was evaluated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0093.v1
Online: 1 June 2023 (13:31:56 CEST)
Prostate cancer contributes to cancer-related deaths globally, and the etiology of this disease is not yet fully understood. While Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with several types of cancer, including cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer, studies investigating the relationship between HPV and prostate cancer have shown mixed results. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the causative association between HPV and prostate cancer using Bradford Hill's criteria. A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted, and 60 out of 482 studies were included in the review. The included studies were evaluated based on nine Bradford Hill criteria, and information on the identification and transmission of the virus and potential oncogenic mechanisms was also extracted. The strength of association criterion was not met, and other criteria, such as consistency and coherence, were not fulfilled. However, biological plausibility was supported, and potential oncogenic mechanisms were identified. While some studies have reported the presence of HPV in prostate cancer tissues, the overall quality of evidence remains low, and the association between HPV and prostate cancer is weak. Nevertheless, the prostate is a potential reservoir for the transmission of HPV, and the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins and inflammation are likely to be involved in any oncogenic mechanisms. Further studies with a higher level of evidence are needed to establish a definitive link between HPV and prostate cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: human bocaparvovirus; acute gastroenteritis; children
Online: 4 April 2023 (05:19:34 CEST)
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is an emerging virus that has been detected worldwide that could be associated with cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, its contribution to AGE has not been elucidated. This study aimed to describe the frequency, clinical features, and HBoV genotypes circulation in children up to 5 years with or without AGE symptoms in Acre, Northern Brazil. A total of 480 stool samples were collected between January and December 2012. Fecal samples were used for extraction, nested PCR amplification, and sequencing for genotyping. Statistical analysis was applied to verify the association between epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Overall HBoV-positivity was 10% (48/480), being HBoV-positivity rates of 8.4% (19/226) and 11.4% (29/254) recorded among diarrheic and non-diarrheic children, respectively. The most affected age group was between 7 and 24 months (50%). HBoV infection was more frequent in children living in urban areas (85.4%), using water from the public network (56.2%), and living with adequate sewage facilities (50%). Co-infection with other enteric viruses was 16.7% (8/48) and the most prevalent coinfection was RVA+ HBoV (50%, 4/8). HBoV‐1 was the most frequent species detected, responsible for 43.8% (21/48) of cases, followed by HBoV-3 (29.2%, 14/48) and HBoV-2 (25%, 12/48). In the present study, HBoV infections are not associated with AGE, as most HBoV cases belonged to the non-diarrheal group without AGE symptoms. Future studies are warranted to determine the role of HBoV in causing acute diarrhea disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0199.v2
Online: 7 February 2023 (12:12:55 CET)
With the advent of Neural Machine Translation, the more the achievement of human-machine parity is claimed at WMT, the more we come to ask ourselves if their evaluation environment can be trusted. In this paper, we argue that the low quality of the source test set of the news track at WMT may lead to an overrated human parity claim. First of all, we report nine types of so-called technical contaminants in the data set, originated from an absence of meticulous inspection after web-crawling. Our empirical findings show that when they are corrected, about 5% of the segments that have previously achieved a human parity claim turn out to be statistically invalid. Such a tendency gets evident when the contaminated sentences are solely concerned. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first attempt to question the “source” side of the test set as a potential cause of the overclaim of human parity. We cast evidence for such phenomenon that according to sentence-level TER scores, those trivial errors change a good part of system translations. We conclude that to overlook it would be a mistake, especially when it comes to an NMT evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0075.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Africa; Human Capital; OFDI; Heterogeneity
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:16:52 CET)
Is human capital heterogeneity a decisive factor for Chinese enterprises to invest in Africa? Based on the Outward Foreign Direct Investment (OFDI） data of Chinese enterprises in 37 African countries from 2007 to 2017, this paper using the FGLS model, is the empirical analysis of the mechanism and effect of the human capital heterogeneity of host countries on OFDI location selection. The human capital heterogeneity can be divided into four dimensions: scale, quality, cost and structure, which can be measured by health level, education level, wage level, child dependency ratio and old-age dependency ratio. The results show that: (1) the host country's human capital scale and child dependency ratio structure have a significant positive impact on decision-making for OFDI; (2) the cost of human capital and the structure of old-age dependency ratio are negatively correlated with the inflow of OFDI; (3) different from the existing conclusions, the quality of human capital will inhibit the inflow of OFDI in the sample period; (4) the extended test shows that the quality of human capital has a significant positive impact on OFDI decision-making. The results of robustness test are reliable. Finally, according to the conclusion of this paper, policy recommendations are put forward.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: preterm infant; human milk; growth
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:48:34 CEST)
Human milk (HM) is the gold standard for feeding infants but has been associated with slower growth in preterm infants compared with preterm formula. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarises the post-1990 literature to examine the effect of HM feeding on growth during the neonatal admission of preterm infants with birth weight ≤1500g and/or born ≤28 weeks’ gestation. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus were searched, and comparisons grouped as: exclusive human milk (EHM) vs exclusive preterm formula (EPTF), any HM vs EPTF and higher vs lower doses of HM. We selected studies that used fortified HM and compared that with a PTF; studies comparing unfortified HM and term formula were excluded. Experimental and observational studies were pooled separately. The GRADE system was used to evaluate risk of bias and certainty of evidence. Forty-four studies were included with 37 (n =9,963 infants) included in the meta-analyses. In general, due to poor quality studies, evidence of the effect of any HM feeds or higher versus lower doses of HM was inconclusive. There was a possible effect that lower doses of HM compared with higher doses of HM improved weight gain during the hospital admission, and separately, a possible effect of increased head circumference growth in infants fed EPTF vs any HM. The clinical significance of this is unclear. There was insufficient evidence to determine the effects of an exclusive HM diet on any outcomes.
Online: 27 August 2020 (05:33:14 CEST)
Human factors are the things that go wrong in the interactions between a team of people and a system of technology. This is part of a broader transdisciplinary field called engineering psychology, which as the name suggests, draws from both engineering and psychology. Many, if not most, catastrophic accidents involve a socio-technical interaction, i.e. are not solely due to technology failure. Hence, there is a need to consider human factors in the development or deployment of any technical system. This article is about the human factors involved in an aviation accident in New Zealand between a Yak and a cherry picker. The types of human error are identified, and the barrier bowtie method is used to represent them. The analysis gives different insights into the accident compared to the formal accident report, and better represents the human error characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0143.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: human papillomaviruses; immunosuppression; renal recipients
Online: 27 November 2018 (14:10:17 CET)
OBJECTIVES: Most of human papilomavirus (HPV) infections are “cleared” by the immune system, however, in cases of immune system suppression infections could lead to development of malignancies. The aim of this study was to find out the frequency of HR-HPV infection in early period after renal transplantation in Latvian recipients receiving immunosuppressive therapy and to follow the progression of the infection up to one year. METHODS: 43 female renal recipients (median age of 48 IQR= 39-58) and 79 practically healthy female individuals (median age of 48 IQR= 42-57) as a control group were enrolled in this investigation. For the detection of HPV infection patients' samples (blood and vaginal swabs) where collected two weeks after transplantation with following collection of six months and one year. Different polymerase chain reactions for HR-HPV genomic sequences detection and commercial ELISA kit for detection of anti-HPV IgG antibodies were used. RESULTS: In this study we show that frequency rate of HR-HPV infection has increased by the one year after transplantation from early stage of immumosuppressive therapy (from 24% to 36%). Also increase of HR-HPV load was detected over the time, showing the highest median viral load at sixth month after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: From the obtained data follows that it is very important to carefully monitor patients receiving immunosuppression therapy on progression of HR-HPV. In the case of this viral infection presence, immunosuppressive therapy must be attentively adjusted to avoid the HR-HPV infection rapid progression with the subsequent development of CIN or cervical cancer.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1658.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: qPCR assay; probe-based detection; SYBR green; human KRAS gene; human gastric CloTest samples
Online: 23 June 2023 (10:50:59 CEST)
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the gold standard approach for detecting a variety of pathogens either via probe-based or SYBR green detection chemistry. Generally, probe-based detection is more specific than SYBR green chemistry. This report describes work done in using a FAM probe targeting a specific segment of the human KRAS gene for detecting presence and relative abundance of the gene in human gastric CloTest samples. Results indicate ineffective detection of the human KRAS gene in samples that are shown to harbor the gene through a similar qPCR assay using SYBR green detection chemistry. Such observations point to inability of the designed FAM probe to bind to target segment of the human KRAS gene that suggests a region of rapid genomic evolution that require close surveillance in the public health community. Given its rapid genomic evolution, this probe region may be an important region in the human KRAS gene playing critical functional roles in either molecular recognition or other structural functions. Overall, human KRAS gene may be undergoing rapid genomic evolution, and qPCR probes targeting specific segment of the gene may be rendered ineffective in short time clinically, thereby, making SYBR green qPCR assay a more reliable choice.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Safe physical Human-Robot Collaboration; collision detection; human action recognition; artificial intelligence; industrial automation
Online: 5 November 2020 (11:08:19 CET)
Digital enabled manufacturing systems require high level of automation for fast and low-cost production but should also present flexibility and adaptiveness to varying and dynamic conditions in their environment, including the presence of human beings; However, this presence of workers in the shared workspace with robots decreases the productivity as the robot is not aware about the human position and intention which leads to concerns about the human safety. This issue is addressed in this work by designing a reliable safety monitoring system for collaborative robots (Cobots). The main idea here is, to significantly enhance safety by a combination of recognition of human actions using visual perception and at the same time interpreting physical human-robot contact by tactile perception. Two datasets containing contact and vision data are collected by using different volunteers. The action recognition system classifies human actions using the skeleton representation of the latter when entering the shared workspace and the contact detection system distinguishes between intentional and incidental interactions if a physical contact between human and cobot takes place. Two different deep learning networks are used for human action recognition and contact detection which in combination, are expected to lead to the enhancement of human safety and an increase of the level of cobot perception about human intentions. The results show a promising path for future AI-driven solutions in safe and productive human–robot collaboration (HRC) in industrial automation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0484.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: analytical index; continental U.S.; Human Footprint; human perception; landscape modification; landscape transformation; systematic conservation planning
Online: 29 September 2021 (10:04:40 CEST)
We assessed how close human perceptions of landscape modification matched a multivariate index based on remotely sensed data of the same locations. Using a Human Footprint (HF) map of the continental U.S. (scaled 0-100), we created three series of aerial images, each with ten images distributed evenly across the 10 deciles of HF score. Using a web-based survey, 290 members of the global public ranked the images in one series based on their perception of the degree of human modification. Respondents also reported age, sex, and country. The degree of correspondence between rankings by respondents and by HF score was high, an average of 1.29 units of difference out of a maximum possible of 5.0. Differences among respondents were not explained by age, sex, or general geographic location. These results suggest that human perception of relative landscape modification conforms closely with the relative ranking made by a multivariate, analytical index.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Human; lifespan; aging; consciousness; brain; integration
Online: 30 September 2023 (17:55:59 CEST)
Human longevity is an important but difficult goal due to the extreme complication of human body. If people could repeatedly transfer their consciousness from old bodies to new ones, their lifespan might be prolonged extremely. However, there are several difficulties which prevent the achievement of such a technique. In this paper, we propose an approach that can transfer human consciousness indirectly, and avoid or significantly relieve those difficulties. The strategy of our approach is to integrate the consciousnesses of two bodies (old and new) into a unique consciousness. By doing so, the consciousness is extended to the new body. After that, the consciousness shrinks and remains in the new body when the old body dies. This may also apply to integrating more than two bodies of human, or animal, or even across different species. After investigating thousands of literatures, we find quite strong evidence (related discoveries and technologies) that can support the proposed approach and its advantages. Beside prolonging human lifespan, the approach could also have other meaningful applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1961.v1
Online: 28 September 2023 (07:56:15 CEST)
Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a common mitochondrial genetic disease, causing irreversible blindness in young individuals. Current treatments are inadequate, and there is no definitive cure. This study evaluates the effectiveness of delivering wildtype human NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (hND4) gene using mito-targeted AAV(MTSAAV) to rescue LHOH mice. We observed declining pattern electroretinograms amplitudes as mice aged across all groups (P< 0.001), with significant differences among groups (P = 0.023, Control vs. LHON, P = 0.008; Control vs. Rescue, P = 0.228). Inner retinal thickness and intraocular pressure do not change significantly with age or groups. Compared to LHON mice, those rescued with wildtype hND4 exhibit improved retinal visual acuity (0.29± 0.1 cy/deg vs.0.15 ± 0.1 cy/deg) and increased functional hyperemia response (effect of flicker, P<0.001, effect of Group, P=0.004; Interaction Flicker x Group, P<0.001). Postmortem analysis shows a marked reduction in retinal ganglion cell density in the LHON group compared to the other groups (Effect of Group, P<0.001, Control vs. LHON, P<0.001, Control vs. Rescue, P=0.106). These results suggest that MTSAAV-delivered wildtype hND4 gene rescues, at least in part, visual impairment in an LHON mouse model and has the therapeutic potential to treat this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human longevity; single nucleotide polymorphisms; Sardinia
Online: 18 September 2023 (07:02:09 CEST)
Background. In the central-eastern region of the Mediterranean island of Sardinia more than two decades ago, a mountain area was identified where the population displays exceptional longevity, especially among men (the longevity Blue Zone, LBZ). This community was thoroughly investigated seeking to understand the underlying factors of this phenomenon. In the present study, 11 genetic markers previously associated with longevity in several long-lived populations were analyzed. Methods. APOE (rs429358 and rs7412), APOE promoter (rs449647, rs769446, and rs405509), ACE1 (rs1799752), IL6 ‒174G/C (rs1800795), TNFα ‒308G/A (rs1800629), FOXO3A (rs2802292), KLOTHO (rs9536314) and G6PD (c.563C→T) were investigated. PCR-based genotyping was performed following genomic DNA extraction from 150 nonagenarians living in the LBZ and 150 controls from a nearby area. Results. No significant deviation of the frequency of the analyzed markers was detected between the two groups except a weak association with the –174G>C gene variant of the IL-6 gene (p=0.040), a major modulator of the inflammatory response. Conclusions. The findings of this study do not support a significant association of known genetic variants on survival in the population of the Sardinian LBZ. Other genetic or epigenetic traits might play a role not yet identified.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Human Cytomegalovirus; miRNAs; Acute Aortic Syndrome
Online: 5 September 2023 (10:31:09 CEST)
Aortic dissection is a clinicopathological entity caused by rupture of the intima leading to a high mortality if not treated. Over time, diagnostic and investigative methods, antihypertensive therapy, and early referrals have resulted in improving outcomes according to registry data. Some data has also emerged from recent studies suggesting a link between Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and aortic dissection. Furthermore, the use of microRNAs have also become increasingly widespread in the literature. These have been noted to play a role in aortic dissections with elevated levels noted in studies as early as 2017. This review aims to provide a broad and holistic overview of the role of miRNAs, while studying the role of HCMV infection in the context of aortic dissections. The role of long non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs and microRNAs are explored to identify changes in expression during aortic dissections. The use of such biomarkers may one day be translated into clinical practice to allow early detection and prognostication of outcomes and drive preventative and therapeutic options in the future.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1931.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Neural Networks; Data Screening; Human Perception
Online: 31 August 2023 (08:43:17 CEST)
The Necessity of Human resources beyond perception of human understanding towards the Evaluation of video quality or Data screening methodology is conducted based on human perception level since it is concerned with how visual content is perceived by a observer based on observations with his/ her perception on a particular video sequence. Therefore, we considered that the subject has to grade the encoded video sequences under certain test environment conditions based on ITU-Recommendations. Since Human perception is considered as the true judgment and precise measurement of visual content, data screening has became quite essential and quite comfortable to general public due to introduction of User Experience(UX) concept by User Experience community. The translations of A recurrent neural network is based on certain principles, for instance we considered natural language processing which is certainly adaptable towards understanding sequential data and use patterns to predict the consistency within observers. In our research, we adapted principles based on Recurrent Neural Networks while assuming consistency within observers for predicting video quality within data screening environment towards subjective experiments. Moreover,this research work explores the trade offs between Human perception on visual content and consistency of observations within individual observer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1789.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Human papillomavirus; CIN; Chemical-peeling therapy
Online: 25 August 2023 (07:24:43 CEST)
Objective: This study aimed to validate the use of liquid phenol-based chemical peeling therapy for cervico-vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and VaIN), with the goal of circumventing obstetric complications associated with surgical treatment. Methods: A total of 483 eligible women diagnosed with CIN and/or VaIN participated in this study. Participants underwent phenol-based chemical peeling therapy every 4 weeks until disease clearance. Disease clearance was determined by negative Pap tests for four consecutive weeks. HPV genotyping was conducted at the onset of the study and after disease clearance in select cases. Results: Among the 476 participants (excluding those with cancer), the number of treatment sessions until CIN/VaIN clearance ranged from 2 to 49 (median = 7 sessions). Forty-five participants (9.4%) underwent surgical treatments. Seven participants (1.5%) experienced recurrence, presenting with CIN2/VaIN2 or worse lesions; of these, three underwent LEEP, while four repeated the chemical peeling therapy. No obstetrical complications were noted among the 98 pregnancies following this therapy. The findings suggest that phenol-based therapy is safe and effective for CIN, although it requires numerous and lengthy treatments. Factors associated with resistance to this therapy include immune suppression, high-grade lesions, multiple HPV type infection, and direct or passive smoking.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0667.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Drosophila; Phytochemical; Human health; Metabolism; Disease
Online: 9 August 2023 (05:12:05 CEST)
Fruits, vegetables, and spices are natural sources of bioactive phytochemicals such as polyphenols, carotenoids, flavonoids, curcuminoids, terpenoids, and capsaicinoids, possessing multiple health benefits and relatively low toxicity. These compounds found in the diet play a central role in organism development and fitness. Given the complexity of the whole-body response to dietary changes, invertebrate model organisms can serve as valuable tools to examine the interplay between genes, signaling pathways, and metabolism. Drosophila melanogaster, an invertebrate model with its extensively studied genome, has more than 70% gene homology to humans and has been used as a model system in biological studies for a long time. The notable advantages of Drosophila as a model system, such as their low maintenance cost, high reproductive rate, short generation time and lifespan, and the high similarity of metabolic pathways between Drosophila and mammals, have encouraged the use of Drosophila in the context of screening and evaluating the impact of phytochemicals present in the diet. In this chapter, we summarize and review the benefits of Drosophila as a model system for use in the study of phytochemical ingestion and describe the previously reported effects of phytochemical consumption in Drosophila.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1722.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Neurosciences; Biodiversity; Psychopathologies; Biophilia; Human Ecology
Online: 25 July 2023 (12:28:49 CEST)
The high incidence of psychopathologies recorded in today's human society, correlated with the high percentages of biodiversity loss, point to the need for an interdisciplinary approach of the scientific fields under study – Neurosciences and Biodiversity Conservation. Thus, our approach here pre-sents, in a synergistic manner, the significant correlation between mental health and the increased values of biodiversity in the ecosystems located in the immediate vicinity, especially those located in the middle of cities. Our approach aims to emphasize the importance of biodiversity conservation in the context of preserving mental health and general well-being. There are a series of recent ex-perimental demonstrations that outline the influence of natural elements on the human psyche and implicitly the effects of nature in the prevention and reduction of stress, anxiety and depression. And beyond the cognitive barriers of humanity in relating to the surrounding biodiversity must lie the desire to know the values of biodiversity and the absolute importance of its conservation. The sustainable relationship between man and living nature, seen as a complex of biodiversity, is dealt with by a branch of science called Human Ecology. Therefore, this study emphasizes the crucial need to know and respect the connection between man and nature, based, since time immemorial, on biophilia. And with the regression of ignorance and the correlated approach of several scientific fields, some at the intersection of humanities and natural sciences, one can observe the progress of preserving the dynamic balance within the ecosystems and implicitly the preservation of mental health and human well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: raw milk; bacteriological analysis; human consumption
Online: 19 June 2023 (07:58:04 CEST)
The study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw milk produced in Supare-Akoko of Ondo State, Nigeria. Two study areas (Supare and Akungba Villages) both in the Akoko South-West L.G.A. of Ondo State, in Nigeria's South-West geopolitical zone, were selected for the study. The study area served as the raw milk collection points. Raw milk samples were collected with the aid sterile container into the milking bucket and then transported to the laboratory of the Adekunle Ajasin University's department of microbiology in Akungba-Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria, for further analysis. Several tests such as test for serial dilution, PH measurement, gram staining, and biochemical analysis, to identify and evaluate the microbe species in the raw milk selected for the study.The findings showed that numerous microbe species, including Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Alcaligens, Actinomycetes, Enterobacteria, Licheniformis, Listeria, and Streptococcus species, were present in all of the raw milk samples. Therefore, the study recommended that there should be adequate awareness & education on handling of milk in the most hygienic way possible, as well as the establishment of bulk milk tanks and milk processing plants in key locations that could enable appropriate test and production of quality milk before the product is being made available to the general public for consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0218.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Analysis; bacterial; pathogens,bacteriology; human health
Online: 13 March 2023 (06:23:55 CET)
The study was geared toward isolating, characterizing and identifying bacterial pathogen in sachet water in addition to determines the bacterial count of the sachet water sold in Obi Local Government Area. Twelve sachet water samples from different companies were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. The microorganism found are Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp, with Staphlococuss aureus showing the highest incidence (50%), observed by Escherichia coli (29.17%) and Salmonella spp with the lowest occurrence (20.8%). The presence of these microbes in drinking water possesses a threat to life. The findings consequently suggest that some of the sachet water sold in obi L.G. A are not healthy for human intake and are risky to health. Hence there's need for strict concern and routine monitoring by regulatory agencies to make sure that appropriate treatment is applied inside the manufacturing of exceptional and safe sachet drinking water. This study is aimed to analyze the bacteriological quality of some selected sachet water in Obi Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0310.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: IoT; implementation; human factors; Europe; survey
Online: 19 December 2022 (01:23:50 CET)
The commonly accepted definition of sustainability considers the availability of relevant resources to make an activity feasible and durable while also recognizing users' support as essential part of the social side of sustainability. IoT represents a disruption in the general scenario of computing for both users and professionals, The real expansion and integration of applications based on IoT depend on our capacity of exploring the necessary skills and professional profiles that are essential for implementation of IoT projects, but also on the perception of relevant aspects for users, e.g., on privacy, legal, IPR and security issues. Our participation in several EU-funded projects with focus in this area has enabled the collection of information on both sides of IoT sustainability through surveys but also collecting data from a variety of sources. Thanks to these varied and complementary sources of information, this article will explore the user and professional aspects for sustainability of Internet of Things in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Human brain evolution; complex systems theory
Online: 1 June 2022 (03:37:03 CEST)
Scientific theories on the functioning and dysfunction of the human brain require a good understanding of both its development — before and after birth, and through maturation to adulthood — and its evolution from the ancestral primate brain. Adopting a complex-systems approach, here we propose that the apparent uniqueness of humans’ cognitive capacities might best be understood as emerging from multiple nested “virtuous cycles.” In particular, we propose that the intimate link that exists between oxygen metabolic loops, cortical expansion, and ultimately cognitive and social demands is a key driver of genetic developmental programs for the human brain. Overall, our proposed evolutionary model makes explicit mechanistic links between metabolism, molecular and cellular brain heterogeneity, and behaviour that may in time provide a clearer understanding of brain developmental trajectories and their disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: forest bathing; forest medicine; human health
Online: 19 January 2022 (14:24:50 CET)
According to several evidence, forest environmental seems able to provide beneficial effects on functional and psychological parameters, related to cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory functions as well depression and anxiety. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a one-day forest walking in Selva di Castelfidardo (AN, Italy) on 37 participants aged 21-68, most of them living in either urban or suburban areas of large cities. We observed a statistically significant effect on sympathovagal balance by the means of heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body temperature, skin temperature, skin conductance, HRV parameters (AVNN, SDNN, rMSSD, pNN50, LF, HF, LF/HF ratio), oxygen oximetry, PEF, FEV1. A significant difference was also detected on the Perceived Stress Scale responses (19.27 pre vs 13.81 post-immersion, p=<0,05; -28,3% variation). Our data contribute to increase the body of literature about the effect of forest walking, adding data on an Italian area qualified for forest bathing.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Glyphosate; Roundup; formulants; toxicity; placenta; human
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:23:50 CEST)
Glyphosate (G)-based herbicidal formulations, such as the most commonly used one, Roundup (R), are major pesticides used worldwide on food and feed. Pregnant women may thus be frequently exposed to R compounds. These are composed of G, which is declared as the active principle, and other products contained in formulations, named formulants, which have been declared as inerts and diluents by the manufacturers. These formulants have, in fact, been demonstrated to be much more toxic than G, in particular to placental and embryonic human cells. In this work, we thus compared the effect of G and R, using placental perfusion ex vivo. R, but not G alone, was demonstrated to alter the placental permeability of a known small model molecule, antipyrine. Similar results were observed for the fetal venous flow rate. The transfer of G alone increases with time, but is significantly decreased in presence of its formulants. The perfusion of R provokes a destruction of fetal vessels, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Formulants obviously alter the fetal-placental circulation and placental integrity according to time of exposure. Therefore, G does not appear to be the main toxic agent of R. Formulants, although undeclared, include polyoxyethanolamines, PAHs, or heavy metals, and may be responsible for this toxicity. These compounds are also present in other pesticides. The progressive blood flow reduction due to the toxic compounds of formulations may diminish the nutrient supply to the fetus, alter the development, and may enhance the poisoning effects. Although these are preliminary results, they could at least partially explain some adverse pregnancy outcomes in mothers exposed to pesticides or other environmental pollutants. The debate on glyphosate alone is proven insufficient for the understanding of the toxicity.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Human factor; hazardous materials; transport; safety
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:49:20 CEST)
The article discusses the issues related to the safety of transport of dangerous goods by road. Research on accidents in transport unambiguously points to the human factor, which is most responsible for causing the accident. Determining the causes of driver unreliability in the hu-man-vehicle-environment system requires thorough research. Unfortunately, in this case, experimental research with human involvement is limited in scope. This leaves modeling and simulation of the behavior of the human factor, i.e., the driver transporting dangerous goods. The human being, due to its complexity, is a challenging element to parameterize. The literature presents various attempts to model human actions. In their work, the authors used heuristic methods, specifically fuzzy set techniques, to build a human factor model. In these models, human actions were specified using a verbal or linguistic description. The specificity of fuzzy sets allows to "naturally" limit the "precision" in describing human behavior. The model was built based on the author's questionnaire and expert research, based on which individual features were selected. Then, the traits were assigned appropriate states. The output parameter of the model is λL - the intensity of human error. The obtained values of the intensity of the accident caused by the driver's error were implemented into the author's method of risk assessment. They constituted one of the factors determining the probability of an accident in the transport of dangerous goods, which allowed to determine the optimal route of transport of these goods characterized by the lowest risk of an undesirable event on the route. The article presents the model's assumptions, structure, and features included in the model, which have the most significant influence on shaping the intensity of human error. The results of the simulation studies showed a diversified effect of the analyzed characteristics on the driver's efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0309.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: CXCR4; EPI-X4; human serum albumin
Online: 11 March 2021 (10:55:07 CET)
Background: Endogenous Peptide Inhibitor of CXCR4 (EPI-X4) is a natural antagonist of the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). EPI-X4 is a 16-mer peptide that is released from human serum albumin (HSA) by acidic aspartic proteases such as Cathepsin D and E. Since human serum albumin (HSA) is an important medicinal substance we asked whether different pharmaceutical HSA products contain EPI-X4 which could have been generated during manufacturing and whether HSA can serve as a substrate for cathepsins despite of the presence of stabilizers like caprylate. Methods: Eight pharmaceutical HSA preparations representing all currently used fractionation technologies were analyzed. The previously described specific EPI-X4 ELISA was used for quantification; in vitro EPI-X4 generation by acidification in the presence or absence of cathepsins was followed by quantification with ELISA. Results: None of the pharmaceutical HSA preparations tested contained EPI-X4. Acidification of HSA did not generate EPI-X4. Addition of cathepsins D and E to acidified HSA yielded high concentrations of EPI-X4 in all HSA preparations, indistinguishable between individual products. Conclusion: Medicinal HSA preparations per se do not contain EPI-X4, but will replenish its precursor which can be cleaved to EPI-X4 in vivo, environmental conditions permitting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Human papillomavirus; vaccine; pregnancy; attitudes; knowledge
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:47:19 CET)
We aimed to assess awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of healthy pregnant women towards human papillomavirus (HPV), to estimate factors associated with a positive attitude towards HPV immunization and to assess the uptake of the vaccine among their children. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Belgrade, Serbia among pregnant women attending their regular gynecological check-ups at the 12th gestational week. Knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine was assessed using a specifically designed 12-item and 5-item questionnaires. Out of total 265 included women, 79.3% had heard of HPV, and 37.5% knew that HPV vaccine exists. HPV vaccine knowledge score was associated with higher odds for a positive attitude towards vaccination of both female (OR = 4.10, 95% CI 1.50-11.29) and male (OR = 3.71, 95% CI 1.52-9.01) child. The number of children (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.67) and high vaccine knowledge score (OR = 1.64 95% CI 1.13-2.39) were independent predictors associated with willingness to vaccinate child against HPV. The gynecologist was the preferable point of reference for information seeking about the HPV vaccine. Despite relatively high HPV awareness and knowledge among pregnant women in Serbia, about one-third of them are HPV vaccine aware, and are willing to vaccinate their children against HPV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0515.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air pollution; MASP; human health; quarantine
Online: 30 April 2020 (03:11:40 CEST)
Social distancing policies put in place during COVID-19 epidemic in addition to helping to limit the spread of the disease also contributed to improving urban air quality. Here we show a decrease in air pollutant concentration as a consequence of mobility reduction in São Paulo during the containment measure which began on 22nd March 2020. When comparing to foregoing weeks to equivalent periods of 2019, the concentration of most air pollutants sharply decreased in the first days of mobility restriction, to then increase again after government officials downplayed the threat of the disease. This trend is also followed by a decrease in hospital admissions by SARS-influenza. Therefore, despite the great economic and social unrest caused by the pandemic, this unique situation shows that large-scale mobility reduction policy had a significant impact on air quality, benefiting, directly and indirectly, the public health system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0405.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; Cathepsin K; human; metastasis; physiology
Online: 27 March 2020 (10:33:50 CET)
The effect of proteolytic enzymes including Cathepsin K, a cysteine cathepsin, in onset and progression of cancers in human has been research intensive. Cathepsin K involves in many aspects and stages of cancers including apoptosis, cell proliferation, cancer immunology, inflammatory cell recruitment to tumors and aiding in the process of mobilization of normal healthy cells from their tissue compartments assisting in metastasis and angiogenesis. The objective of this review is to collect together and summarize and analyze the biochemical and physiological pathways of how cathepsin K is involved in onset and progression of cancers with more emphasis on breast and prostate cancers and cathepsin K regulated mechanisms underlying metastasis of such cancers to bones. Information for the review was gathered through published literature from global databases such as Google Scholar, PUBMED and NCBI on different studies on physiological interactions between enzymatic activity of cathepsin K with cancers and metastasis to bones. Analysis of published studies reveal that immunohistochemical studies of breast cancer cells indicate that they overexpress cathepsin K resulting in induction of aberrant mechanisms of cell signaling in breast cancers, creating a higher tendency for their metastasis to bones. Immunohistochemical, immunoprecipitation and fluorgenic assays of several studies done on the association of the same enzymatic activity on prostate cancers shows elevated levels of cathepsin K. Lesions derived from prostate cancer cell masses were observed to undergo increased bone formation and resorption levels. Such resorption levels cause secretion of biological factors promoting tumor expansion. In addition, studies indicate that Cathepsin K was observed to be a key component promoting higher bone resorption levels in patients suffering from cancer. Authors suggest that, to completely understand the association of cathepsin K on cancerous cells and their mechanism in metastasis, distributary patterns of cathepsin K in healthy human tissues needs to be extensively studied initially. It is also suggested that metastasis of breast and prostate cancers to bone could be terminated and overcome by successful production of efficient and precise inhibitory therapeutics targeting the enzymatic activity of Cathepsin K with minimum unintended adverse health effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0358.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Coronavirus; China; human; infectious diseases; pneumonia
Online: 25 February 2020 (05:10:58 CET)
The emergence of novel coronavirus strain 2019 (COVID-19) linked with pneumonia poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. Firstly, the COVID-19 was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. Initially, the major proportion of virus-infected cases (i.e. about 99%) was reported in China and now it is being reported in other counties as well. Humans begin to be infected within their communities and transmittance of the viral epidemic increased rapidly due to lack of understanding of its transmission routes and precautionary measures. The existence of COVID-19 in China threatened the population greatly due to the high incidence of fatal respiratory infections. Current investigations speculated that this virus transferred into a human from viral-infected bats. However, the process of interspecies viral transmission is an important scientific question to be addressed. Due to the continuous increase in the patients infected with COVID-19, the World Health Organization (WHO) has included this viral epidemic to the priority list of diseases. Therefore, accelerated research developments are required to control the spread of this outbreak, as it is declared as a public health emergency by WHO especially in the absence of efficacious drugs and vaccines. Our review encompasses the recent status of disease severity in China, a particular replication mechanism of COVID-19 and potential risks and precautionary measures required to avoid contact with this fatal viral infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0361.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: human resource; management; environmental protection; Serbia
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:27:44 CET)
Starting from the fact that the units of local self-government of the Republic of Serbia are not sufficiently oriented towards innovations related to human resources and the environment, the application of quantitative research tradition examines the positioning and understanding of certain procedures and decisions of human resources management regarding the functioning of the environmental protection system, on the one hand, and future strategies for changing the given system, on the other. A series of 105 face-to-face interviews were conducted during the whole of 2016 in 105 of the 191 municipalities in the Republic of Serbia. Examination of the attitudes of the local self-government was carried out using a specially designed closed electronic questionnaire. The results of the multivariate regressions show that the most important predictor of the possible improvement of the environment is the size of the municipality. The remaining variables (e.g., human resources policy, human resources service) did not have significant effects on the ability to improve the environment. In more than half of local self-governments, there was no clearly defined human resources strategy in the field of environmental protection, an environmental protection service, an Environmental Action Plan, as well as an employment plan for waste management in local governments, etc. The research has shown that top managers of local governments agree that the management of human resources in environmental protection represents a significant opportunity to improve the quality of the environment. The results of the research can be used to improve the organization of human resource competence in environmental protection and the quality of a working and sustainable environment in the area of local self-government.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: biodynamic interface; environment; human; health; conjecture
Online: 24 December 2019 (15:03:37 CET)
The environment impacts human health in profound ways, yet few theories define the form of the relationship between human physiology and the environment. Under current epidemiological constructs of causation, it is assumed that two complex systems (environment and humans) can transfer information directly. This is the underlying structure of the relationship when studies examine, for example, air pollution and brain health. In marked contrast, we conjecture that complex systems cannot interact directly, but rather such interaction requires the formation of an “interface”. Further, we contend that this dynamic, process-based interface incorporates components from all the interacting systems but exhibits operational independence. This property has many consequences, the foremost being that characteristics of the interface cannot be fully resolved by only studying the systems involved in the interaction. The interface itself must be the subject of inquiry. Without refocusing our attention on biodynamic interfaces, we cannot discern how our environment impacts health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0748.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: social capital; human capital; bibliometric; visualization
Online: 31 October 2018 (10:22:32 CET)
Academic interest in social and human capital is growing significantly. Similarly, their relationship with sustainability is increasing, especially compared to sustainability’s relationship with natural capital and financial and economic capital. Bibliometric and visualization research on these relationships is nonetheless insufficient. This study analyzes the evolution of the literature on natural capital, financial and economic capital, and social and human capital related to sustainability. On the other hand, the study presents a bibliometric analysis on social capital and human capital (SHC) related to sustainability. The article studies 635 references collected from the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database and utilizes visualization of similarities (VOS) viewer program to graphically map the material. The analysis involves co-occurrence of keywords, co-citation, and co-authorship. The results reveal not only the state of the art and the leading trends, but also the evolution regarding impact, main journals, documents, topics, authors, institutions, and countries. The study provides researchers and practitioners with a visual and schematic frame of the research on this topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0063.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: human urine; biomonitoring; chlorophenol; demographic characteristics
Online: 8 March 2018 (09:50:42 CET)
Humans are exposed to the environmental pollutants 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP) and 2, 5-dichlorophenol (2, 5-DCP) through air, use of water and consuming products. In this study, we evaluated the urinary concentrations of these compounds in Korean people from the age of 18 to 69 years by making use of the data from the Korean National Human Biomonitoring Survey that was completed in 2009. Of 1,865 representative Koreans, 63.4% and 97.9% were found to have concentrations of 2, 4-DCP and 2, 5-DCP > 0.05 μg/L (limit of detection) in their urine. The geometric mean urinary concentrations were 0.14 μg/L (confidence interval of 95% = 0.13–0.16) and 0.44 μg/L (confidence interval = 0.41–0.48), respectively. It was fond that the adjusted proportional changes in 2, 4-DCP concentrations were significantly associated with body mass index, whereas those of 2, 5-DCP concentrations were influenced by place of residence. From these findings, it is evident that most adults in Korea have levels of 2, 4-DCP and 2, 5-DCP that are detectable in their urine and burden of these compounds on their bodies varies depending on numerous demographic factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: graph alignment; brain network; human connectome
Online: 12 October 2017 (04:07:33 CEST)
A growing area in neurosciences is focused on the modeling and analysis the complex system of connections in neural systems, i.e. the connectome. Here we focus on the representation of connectomes by using graph theory formalisms. The human brain connectomes are usually derived from neuroimages; the analyzed brains are co-registered in the image domain and brought to a common anatomical space. An atlas is then applied in order to define anatomically meaningful regions that will serve as the nodes of the network - this process is referred to as parcellation. Recently, it has been proposed to perform atlas-free random brain parcellation into nodes and align brains in the network space instead of the anatomical image space to define network nodes of individual brain networks. In the network domain, the question of comparison of the structure of networks arises. Such question is tackled by modeling the comparison of brain network as a network alignment (NA) problem. In this paper, we first defined the NA problem formally, then we applied three existing state of the art of multiple alignment algorithms (MNA) on diffusion MRI-derived brain networks and we compared the performances. The results confirm that MNA algorithms may be applied in cases of atlas-free parcellation for a fully network-driven comparison of connectomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Human papillomavirus; Network model; Vaccination strategies
Online: 28 July 2017 (12:32:26 CEST)
HPV vaccine induces a herd immunity effect in genital warts when a large number of the population is vaccinated. That aspect should be taken into account when devising new vaccine strategies, like vaccination at older ages or male vaccination. Therefore it is important to develop mathematical models with good predictive capacities. We devised a sexual contact network that was calibrated to simulate the Spanish epidemiology of different HPV genotypes. Through this model we simulated the scenario that occurred in Australia in 2007, where 12-13 year-old girls where vaccinated with a three-dose schedule of a vaccine containing genotypes 6 and 11, that protect against genital warts, and also a catch-up program in women up to 26 years of age. Vaccine coverage were 73 % in girls with three doses and with coverage rates decreasing with age until 52 % for 20-26 year-olds. A fast 59 % reduction in the genital warts diagnoses occurred in the model in the first years after the start of the program, similar to what was described in the literature.
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Arendt; Constitutionalism; Property; Privacy; Esteem; Human Condition; Public Freedom; Human Action; Tocqueville; Totalitarianism; Tyranny.; Shame; Centralization
Online: 26 July 2023 (07:27:56 CEST)
In On Revolution, Hannah Arendt makes the case that a constitution must account for the need of the human person to participate in the building of society, both as a primordial and continual action of founding. This paper draws on Arendt's insight on the relationship between privacy and the notion of property, both of which the constitution must protect, as it is dependent on those notions. Property in its fullest sense is the means by which a person interacts with others and establishes a society. Particularly important for this notion of engagement are the concepts of shame and the love of goodness. The actor emerges from the private sphere to interact with others on the strength of the secrecy and confidentiality of her intimate, private relationships. Property is therefore essential to human flourishing and happiness. Following this, the activity of constructing the public forum on the basis of the private is an important feature of Arendt's constitutionalism. Human action showers third-party esteem on the actor's family and friends, binding them to the constitutional structure and strengthening familial relationships and social cohesion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0162.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells; human stem cell-derived hepatocytes; in vitro; metabolic diseases; transcriptomics; maturation; characterization
Online: 14 November 2019 (11:24:24 CET)
There is a strong anticipated future for human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes (hiPS-HEP), but so far their use has been limited due to insufficient functionality. We investigated the potential of hiPS-HEP as an in vitro model for metabolic diseases by combining transcriptomics with multiple functional assays. The transcriptomics analysis revealed that 86% of the genes were expressed at similar levels in hiPS-HEP as in human primary hepatocytes (hphep). Adult characteristics of the hiPS-HEP were confirmed by the presence of important hepatocyte features, e.g. Albumin secretion and expression of major drug metabolizing genes. Normal energy metabolism is crucial for modeling metabolic diseases, and both transcriptomics data and functional assays showed that hiPS-HEP were similar to hphep regarding uptake of glucose, LDL and fatty acids. Importantly, the inflammatory state of the hiPS-HEP was low under standard conditions, but in response to lipid accumulation and ER stress the inflammation marker TNFα was upregulated. Furthermore, hiPS-HEP could be co-cultured with primary hepatic stellate cells both in 2D and in 3D spheroids, paving the way for using these co-cultures for modeling NASH. Taken together, hiPS-HEP have the potential to serve as an in vitro model for metabolic diseases. Furthermore, differently expressed genes identified in this study can serve as targets for future improvements of the hiPS-HEP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0139.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: neoliberalism; education development; trade alliances; economic development; human capital; cultural capital; social capital; human capabilities; social action
Online: 8 February 2023 (06:27:28 CET)
This paper argues that the neoliberal consensus about education finance has broken down due to growing economic inequality. First, I use a comparative historical analysis of political alliances to examine patterns of world trade and nations’ policies for economic and educational development since World War II. The United States emphasized STEM-collegiate preparation for all students, while most countries continued the dual emphasis on technical-tertiary and higher education. Educational policy in the US and Pacific region also shifted to reliance on markets and student loans resulting in worsening economic inequality in access. Nations with dual technical and academic pathways in secondary and postsecondary education systems expand college enrollment rates more rapidly than the US. They also experience class conflict between the working-middle class and the new technology elite. Next, I examine how education policy shifted from national planning aligned with public funding to market-based incentives for institutional development, further exposing gaps in opportunity within nations. Finally, recognizing the variations in systemic causes of inequality, I argue that governments, education agencies, and civic activists can best promote equity by organizing to address barriers to opportunity for groups left behind in the wake of withering neoliberal education policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0535.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: mumps; parotitis; parotid gland extenstion; salivary gland; respiratory virus; human herpesvirus 4 (HHV4); human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6)
Online: 31 August 2022 (07:11:53 CEST)
Mumps is the second-most reported infectious disease in South Korea; however, due to the low pathogen confirmation rate in laboratory diagnoses, we proposed a method for reevaluating the high incidence rate via the laboratory verification of other viral diseases. In 2021, 63 cases of pharyngeal or cheek mucosal swabs of suspected mumps cases in Gwangju, South Korea, were assessed for causative pathogens using massive simultaneous pathogen testing (TaqManTM Array Cards). More than one respiratory virus was detected in 60 cases (95.2%), 44 (73.3%) of which were co-detected. Human rhinovirus was detected in 47 cases, followed by human herpesvirus (HHV)6 in 30; HHV4 (17), human bocavirus (17), HHV5 (10), and human parainfluenza virus 3 (6) were also detected. Our findings suggest the need for further investigations on the pathogenesis of diseases mimicking mumps, which are considered to aid with appropriate public health responses, treatment, and the prevention of infectious disease outbreaks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0081.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Social Robot; Empirical Research; Human-Robot Interaction; Human-Computer Interaction; Ethnomethodology; Robot development; HCI; HRI; Qualitative Research
Online: 8 April 2022 (12:48:04 CEST)
This study observes, interprets, and analyses the knowledge production in the research field of Human–Robot Interaction (HRI). It intends to foreground the hidden assumptions that are often taken for granted when roboticist design and conduct their research. By doing so, this study demonstrates how these assumptions influence the result of their research. Based on data collected through sociological field observation, this study argues that the current practise in HRI research is highly anthropocentric. In short, the robots are designed to be like human instead of for human. Therefore, the human–robot relationship embodies the existing power relations between human beings. These relations generate inequality, hierarchy, and dominance, which are the opposite of the common imagination of the robotised future among roboticists. For the purpose of enabling the robotised future closer to their ideal, this study suggests that HRI researchers to go beyond the conventional methodology, to allow a human–robot relationship that realises reciprocity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0003.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: human activity analysis; human intention understanding; affective computing; data visualisation; depth data; head pose estimation; emotion recognition
Online: 10 July 2017 (08:26:31 CEST)
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Marxism; religion; human geography; critical research; ideologies
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:04:25 CEST)
This essay discusses the complicated relationship between ideology and faith, focusing on the importance of faith. It endeavors to enrich the critical examination of religion by providing a platform to analyze the multifaceted nature of ideologies and their profound influence on human geography. This study is particularly distinctive for its focus on the complex interplay of Marxism, religion, and modernity, deepening our understanding of how these dynamics shape contemporary societies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0384.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Solid Waste; Waste Management; Environment; Human Health
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:06:49 CEST)
Solid waste has become a tenacious issue worldwide. It has been increasing exponentially due to urbanization and the increase in the population. Since the twentieth-century technological revolution, there have been significant changes in the composition of solid waste. It poses significant challenges for waste management systems worldwide. Waste management is the process of handling waste right from its creation to its final disposal, including transport, collection, treatment, and monitoring. The present solid waste management (SWM) system is affected by unfavorable institutional, economic, technical, legislative, and operational constraints. Poor waste management is affecting ecosystems and human health, damaging our finite natural resources, impeding human economic progress, and harming people's quality of life. Now, researchers are concerned about the environment's degradation, a decline in quality of life, and risks related to waste management grow as the volume of solid waste. So, they are focusing on sustainable waste management practices which will be crucial for creating a cleaner and healthier environment for future generations. This chapter focuses on the concept of solid waste, its types, management, and its effect on the health of humans and the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1685.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: human gait; criticality analysis; support vector machine
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:36:57 CEST)
The way in which a person walks, known as human gait, is a significant indicator of overall health and well-being. Abnormalities in gait can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders, such as diabetes or obesity. However, detecting these disorders can be challenging using traditional methods, which often involve subjective assessments or invasive procedures. In this study, a novel methodology known as Criticality Analysis (CA) was proposed for the detection and monitoring of human gait in people with metabolic disorders taking part in an intervention to increase activity and reduce weight. The CA approach utilised inertial measurement unit gait data, alongside clinical health measures. This allows for the control of nonlinear growth in the system, resulting in lower dimensional, nonlinear, free-scale, stable, controlled, and organised trajectories. These trajectories were then analysed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm, which is well-suited for this task due to its ability to handle nonlinear and dynamic data. The combination of the CA approach and the SVM algorithm demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness in detecting metabolic disorders, yielding an average accuracy within the range of 78.2% to 90%. Additionally, the classification technique accuracy, at a group level was observed to reduce during period of the intervention (e.g., from week 2 to week 3) alongside changes in fitness and health, which indicates the potential of using the approach to measure and monitor biological systems. As such, this novel methodology has the potential to be a valuable tool for healthcare professionals in detecting and monitoring metabolic disorders, as well as other unknown diseases associated with the human biological system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1916.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Frequency; Restoration; Interaction; Daily life; Human geography
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:27:14 CEST)
This study explores the relationship between mental and physical therapeutic through three dimensions: man-environment relationships; a sense of place and symbolic landscapes. The study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Local residents living in the coastal area of Xinglin Bay are the research objects. Quantitative data analysis revealed that the frequency of residents' visits was an important variable affecting their physical and treatment perceptions. In addition, the significance is higher for females than for males. The text analysis shows that the environment, especially the ecological restoration of water quality and migratory birds, is of great significance to the identity of local residents. Daily activities contribute to a sense of place and are what make the coast a place of therapeutic landscape function.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1632.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Bioarchaeology; Skeletal collections; Human Remains; Native American
Online: 25 July 2023 (03:11:20 CEST)
In the 21st century, museums have come to realize that the human skeletons they display might have problematic origins. The older anthropological skeletal collections typically originate from anatomical dissection of the executed and the very poor, or from scavenged graves of indigenous people. Such collections are currently being re-evaluated in many countries, and reburying or repatriating museum skeletons have become viable options. A particularly difficult question is what to do with human remains of unknown origins. Here, we present and discuss one such case, where a human skeleton of unclear origin in the 1930’s was brought to a local museum in Bollnäs, Sweden, under likely unethical circumstances. Most of the bones have now been lost, except for the skull, the sacrum and one lumbar vertebra, which in 2007 were transferred to the Museum of Ethnography in Stockholm. The skull was there put on display as the “Bollnäs skull”, and was presented to the public to illustrate the dilemmas involved in handling human remains in the post-colonial era. The original gift letter from 1934 stated that the skeleton came from San Nicolas Island outside the California coast, but this letter contained numerous instances of incorrect information and was therefore deemed not trustworthy. However, our critical examination of the skull and its background information indicates that San Nicolas Island is a plausible origin, and we suggest that a bioarchaeological comparison should be made between the skull and living descendants of the San Nicolas Island population, and/or with archaeological human skeletons excavated from the island.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Human Pluripotent Stem Cells; Mitotic Fidelity; Aneuploidy
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:37:18 CEST)
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which include both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, are widely used in fundamental and applied biomedical research. They have been instrumental for better understanding development and cell differentiation processes, disease origin and progression, and can aid in the discovery of new drugs. PSCs also hold great potential in regenerative medicine to treat or diminish the effects of certain debilitating diseases, such as degenerative disorders. However, some concerns have recently been raised over their safety for the use in regenerative medicine. One of the major concerns is the fact that PSCs are prone to errors in passing the correct number of chromosomes to daughter cells, resulting in aneuploid cells. Aneuploidy, characterised by an imbalance in chromosome number, elicits the upregulation of different stress pathways that are deleterious to cell homeostasis, impair proper embryo development and can potentiate cancer development. In this review we will summarise known molecular mechanisms recently revealed to impair mitotic fidelity in human PSCs and the consequences of the decreased mitotic fidelity of these cells. We will finish with speculative views on how the physiological characteristics of PSCs can affect the mitotic machinery and how their suboptimal mitotic fidelity may be circumvented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1697.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Bovine hemoglobin; Human hemoglobin; Bioactives peptides; Neokyotorphin
Online: 24 June 2023 (15:06:20 CEST)
Cruor, the main component responsible for the red color of blood in mammals, contains 90% hemoglobin, a protein that is considered a rich source of bioactive peptides. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential of human hemoglobin as a source of bioactive peptides, compared to bovine hemoglobin, which has been widely studied in recent years. More specifically, the study focused on neokyotorphin, a natural antimicrobial peptide and meat preservative, which corresponds to the α137-141 fragment of bovine hemoglobin produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. Firstly, the results of the in-silico analysis showed that the two types of hemoglobin have a high similarity for the α and β chains (identities of 88% and 91%, respectively). Secondly, both types of hemoglobin were subjected to similar enzymatic hydrolysis conditions, which showed that the hydrolysis of human hemoglobin followed the same reaction mechanism as the hydrolysis of bovine hemoglobin, the 'Zipper' mechanism. The hydrolysis conditions (23°C, pH 3.5) made it possible to obtain α137-141 in significant quantities to allow for significant valorization from an industrial point of view. The hydrolyses were able to take place at high initial substrate concentrations, allowing for faster and more efficient processing of the co-product in the same amount of time, with over 65% of this production achieved in just 30 min. Increasing the substrate concentration (from 1% to 10% (w/v)) resulted in a proportional increase in α137-141 production. Regardless of the concentrations tested, the kinetic pattern remained similar. Finally, the results of the mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of several bioactive peptides in cattle and humans. Although some were known before, new bioactive peptides were discovered in human hemoglobin, such as four antibacterial peptides (α37-46 PTTKTYFPHF; α36-45 FPTTKTYFPH; α137-141 TSKYR; α133-141 STVLTSKYR), four opioid peptides (α137-141 TSKYR; β31-40 LVVYPWTQRF; β31-37 LVVYPWT), an ACE inhibitor (β129-135 KVVAGVA), an anticancer agent (β33-39 VVYPWTQ) and an antioxidant (α137-141 TSKYR). These peptides have never been found in human hemoglobin before, according to our knowledge. These results highlight the potential of human hemoglobin as a source of bioactive peptides useful for the food or pharmaceutical industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0903.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Rapid; beta-carotene; UHPLC; human sera; Malaysia
Online: 13 June 2023 (08:41:31 CEST)
Beta-carotene is a fat-soluble antioxidant commonly found in foods such as fruits, vegetables, and palm oil. Despite various liquid chromatography methods are proposed to detect and measure the sera carotenoid level, a long retention time to elute this marker is needed. This study attempted to develop a rapid reverse phase method in eluding beta-carotene in human sera. The researchers managed to elute the antioxidant in 2.2 minutes by applying a combination of a C8 column, mobile phase comprising of acetonitrile mixed with methanol in 70:30 proportion, and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system. The outputs had a good calibration curve (R2=0.959) and low coefficient of variation (0.2%), suggesting this protocol is reliable. A column with a lower carbon chain such as C8 allows the beta-carotene molecule to flow through the column faster. Besides, selecting solvents with high elution strength coupled with an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system which equipped with high pressure can force the beta-carotene through the column in a shorter duration compared to previous reported methods. Therefore, it is recommended to adopt this protocol in epidemiological studies where beta-carotene is screened as a dietary biomarker associated with disease of interest by using human sera in the population level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0609.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Kinases; human diseases; macrocyclic inhibitors; drug discovery
Online: 8 June 2023 (08:54:08 CEST)
Kinases play an important role in regulating various intracellular signaling pathways that control cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and other cellular processes and their deregulation causes more than 400 diseases. Consequently, macrocyclization can be considered a noteworthy approach to develop new therapeutic agents for human diseases. Macrocyclization has emerged as an effective drug discovery strategy over the past decade to improve target selectivity and potency of small molecules. Small compounds with linear structures upon macrocyclization can lead to changes in their physicochemical and biological properties by firmly reducing conformational flexibility. A number of distinct protein kinases exhibit similar binding sites. Comparison of protein binding site provides crucial insights for the drug discovery and development. Binding site similarities are helpful to understand polypharmacology, identifying potential off-targets and repurposing of known drugs. In this review, we focused on comparing binding sites of those kinases for which macrocyclic inhibitors are available/studied so far. Furthermore, we calculated the volume of binding site pocket for each targeted kinase and then compared it with the binding site pocket of the kinase for which only acyclic inhibitors were designed till date. Our review and analysis of several explored kinases might be useful to target new protein kinases for macrocyclic drug discovery.