ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: open access; api; self archiving,; automation
Online: 13 February 2020 (10:34:30 CET)
This proposal describes the design and development of an interoperable application that supports green open access with long-term sustainability and improved user experience of article deposit. Introduction: The lack of library resources and unfriendly repository user interface are two significant barriers that hinder green open access. Tasked to implement the open access mandate, librarians at an American research university developed a comprehensive system called Easy Deposit 2 to automate the support workflow of green open access. Implementation: Easy Deposit 2 is a web application that is able to harvest newly publications, outreach for manuscript on behalf of the library, and facilitate self-archiving to IR. It is developed and maintained by the library and integrated with the IR. Results and Discussion: The article deposit rate is about 25% with Easy Deposit 2, which increases significantly comparing to the previous period. It also serves as a local database for faculty publications with open access status. The lesson learned is that library cannot rely on a single commercial provider for publication data due to mismatched priorities. Conclusion: Recent IT developments provides new opportunities of innovation like Easy Deposit 2 in supporting open access. Academic librarians are vital in promoting "openness" in scholarly communication such as transparency and diversity in the sharing of publication data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0145.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: emotion and will; music therapy; five phases, five phases music therapy; psychology
Online: 29 November 2017 (09:54:48 CET)
Music therapy has served as complementary and alternative medicine for various neurological disorders. Five Phases Music Therapy (FPMT) employs the theory of five phases and five music scales or tones (宫Gong (do), 商Shang (ri), 角Jue (mi), 徵Zhi (so) and 羽Yu (la)) to analyze and treat mind-body illness. In Chinese Medicine (CM), the five music scales are used to connect the human body and the universe, interpret personalities and constitution and analyze the influences of climatic changes on health. FPMT has a self-contained theory and routine of practice application. Large amounts of clinical and fundamental reports have been available and clinical benefits have been obtained. However more systemic clinic research esp. evidence-based and random controlled trials must be performed to validate and optimize its routines and biological and neurological mechanism must be further explored. It’s reasonable to believe that the effective music therapy will attract more attention from the world outside China with the introduction of FPMT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0404.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Chicken infectious anemia virus; isolation and identification; pathogenicity; whole genome; bioinformatics analysis
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:05:07 CEST)
Chicken infectious anemia (CIA) poses a significant threat to the chicken industry in China. De-spite its non-specific symptoms, the disease is often overlooked. This study aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the etiology and pathology of CIA in Guangxi Province, China. Three strains of the chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) were isolated from liver samples of diseased 20-week-old chickens. The complete genomes of these strains were sequenced, and experiments on specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks revealed that the GX21121 strain exhibited high virulence. Histopathological examination of the deceased chicks showed liver cell necrosis, fibrous-serous exudation, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage in liver tissues, as well as congestion in lung and renal tissues. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed that the three strains had a close genetic relationship to the Heilongjiang wild-type (GenBank KY486144). The genetic evolu-tion of their VP1 genes indicated that all three CIAV isolates belonged to genotype IIIc. In sum-mary, this study demonstrated the genomic diversity of three CIAV strains in adult layer hens. The isolation and characterization of the GX21121 strain as a highly virulent isolate provide val-uable information for further investigations into the etiology, molecular epidemiology, and viral evolution of CIAV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1810.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: border areas; tourism ecological security; spatial evolution; drivers
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:40:17 CEST)
Tourism activities generally have a ∩-type lock on the level of tourism ecological security in an area, but when applied to the border areas of China, there are certain specificities in the spatial evolution of tourism ecological security (TES) compared to traditional findings. This paper measures tourism ecological security in China’s border areas from 2009 to 2020 by using the DPSIR model with the superefficient SBM-DEA and analyzes the spatial differences, evolutionary characteristics, and driving factors of tourism ecological security in border areas by using Pearson’s correlation coefficients, center of gravity models, and geographic probes: (1) The overall tourism ecological security index of China’s border provinces is relatively good. Tourism activities do not completely affect the traditional “∩ lock” of the border provinces. The tourism ecological security level of the border provinces presents three spatial-temporal changes (“∩” type, “U” type, “\” type) and four evolution trends (“high–high–high”, “middle–middle–medium”, “medium–low–low”, and “low–low–low”). (2) The overall tourism ecological security level in border areas is polarized between high and low levels, and the ecological security efficiency of the three large areas is spatially characterized as “Southwest Area > Northeast Area > Northwest Area”, and the center of gravity of ecological security is mostly concentrated in Xinjiang, Tibet, and Neimenggu, where the ecological security level is higher. (3) Social and environmental factors are the main factors that influence tourism ecological security in border areas, while economic factors account for a smaller proportion. Accordingly, this thesis also proposes the driving mechanism of the ecological security of tourism sites in border areas in China with a view to providing theoretical support for policy formulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0666.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Compressed sensing MRI; GAN; U-net; dilated-residual blocks; channel attention mechanism
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:23:45 CEST)
Compressed Sensing (CS) MRI has shown great potential in enhancing time efficiency. Deep learning techniques, specifically Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), have emerged as potent tools for speedy CS-MRI reconstruction. Yet, as the complexity of deep learning recon-struction models increases, this can lead to prolonged reconstruction time and challenges in achieving convergence. In this study we present a novel GAN-based model that delivers superior performance without escalating model complexity. Our generator module, built on the U-net architecture, incorporates dilated residual (DR) networks, thus expanding the network's receptive field without increasing parameters or computational load. At every step of the downsampling path, this revamped generator module includes a DR network, with the dilation rates adjusted according to the depth of the network layer. Moreover, we have introduced a channel attention mechanism (CAM) to distinguish between channels and reduce background noise, thereby fo-cusing on key information. This mechanism adeptly combines global maximum and average pooling approaches to refine channel attention. We conducted comprehensive experiments with the designed model using public domain MRI datasets of the human brain. Ablation studies af-firmed the efficacy of the modified modules within the network. Compared to other relevant models, our proposed model exhibits exceptional performance, achieving not only excellent sta-bility but also outperforming other networks in terms of Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM). The model presents a promising pathway for enhancing the efficiency and quality of CS-MRI reconstruction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Walnuts; X-ray images; Non-destructive detection; Food quality inspection; Improved Faster R-CNN
Online: 30 April 2023 (09:30:42 CEST)
The purpose of this work was to achieve non-destructive detection of the internal defects of in-shell walnuts using X-ray radiography technology based on improved Faster R-CNN network model. First, the FPN structure was added to the feature extraction layer to extract richer image information. Then ROI Align was used to instead of ROI Pooling for eliminating the localization bias problem caused by quantization operation. Finally, the Softer-NMS module was introduced to the final regression layer with the predicted bounding box for improving the localization accuracy of the candidate boxes. The results indicated that the internal defects in intact walnuts with shells could be identified effectively using the proposed improved network model in this study. Specifically, the discrimination accuracy of the in-shell sound, shriveled and empty-shell walnuts were 96.14%, 91.72% and 94.80% respectively, and the highest overall accuracy can reach 94.22 %. Contrasted with original Faster R-CNN network model, the mAP and F1-value of the improved Faster R-CNN model increased by 5.86% and 5.65%, respectively. Consequently, the proposed method can be applied for the in-shell walnuts with shriveled and empty-shell defects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0585.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: babble noise; lexical tone; emotional prosody; masking
Online: 8 September 2023 (11:14:25 CEST)
How people recognize linguistic and emotional prosody in different listening conditions is essential for understanding the complex interplay between social context, cognition, and communication. The perception of both lexical tones and emotional prosody depends on prosodic features including pitch, intensity, duration, and voice quality. However, it is unclear which aspect of prosody is perceptually more salient and resistant to noise. This study aimed to investigate the relative perceptual robustness of emotional prosody and lexical tone recognition in quiet and in the presence of multi-talker babble noise. Forty young adults with normal hearing listened to monosyllables either with or without background babble noise and completed two identification tasks, one for emotion recognition and the other for lexical tone recognition. Compared with emotional prosody, lexical tones were more perceptually salient in multi-talker babble noise. Native Mandarin Chinese participants identified lexical tones more accurately and quickly than vocal emotions at the same signal-to-noise ratio. Lexical tone perception is also more robust against babble speech noise degradation than emotional prosody perception for native Mandarin Chinese listeners. Acoustic and cognitive dissimilarities between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody may have led to the phenomenon, which calls for further explorations into the underlying psychobiological and neurophysiological mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0764.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: GaN; micro-LED; non-radiative recombination; EQE; size effect
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:20:54 CEST)
GaN-based micro-size light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) have a number of appealing and distinctive benefits for display, visible-light communication (VLC), and other novel applications. The smaller size of LEDs affords them the benefits of enhanced current expansion, less self-heating effects, and higher current density bearing capacity. Low external quantum efficiency (EQE) resulting from non-radiative recombination and quantum confined stark effect (QCSE) is the serious barrier for applications of µLEDs. In this work, the reasons for the poor EQE of µLEDs are reviewed, as well as the optimization techniques for improving the EQE of µLEDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0890.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: LiDAR; Odometry and Mapping; SLAM; Urban Environment
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:12:25 CEST)
Solid-state LiDAR offers multiple advantages over mechanism mechanical LiDAR, including higher durability, improved coverage ratio, and lower prices. However, solid-state LiDARs typically possess a narrow field of view, making them less suitable for odometry and mapping systems, especially for mobile autonomous systems. To address this issue, we propose a novel rotating solid-state LiDAR system that incorporates a servo motor to continuously rotate the solid-state LiDAR, expanding the horizontal field of view to 360∘. Additionally, we propose a multi-sensor fusion odometry and mapping algorithm for our developed sensory system that integrates an IMU, wheel encoder, motor encoder and the LiDAR into an iterated Kalman filter to obtain a robust odometry estimation. Through comprehensive experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach in both outdoor open environments and narrow indoor environments.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Magnetite (Fe3O4); wool keratin; Cu2+ ions; adsorption
Online: 17 March 2021 (11:35:16 CET)
The treatment of wastewater containing heavy metals and the utilization of wool waste are very important for the sustainable development of textile mills. In this study, the wool keratin modified magnetite (Fe3O4) powders were fabricated by using wool waste via a co-precipitation technique for removal of Cu2+ ions from aqueous solutions. The morphology, chemical compositions, crystal structure, microstructure, magnetism properties, organic content, and specific surface area of as-fabricated powders were systematically characterized by various techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and BET surface area analyzer. The effects of experimental parameters such as the volume of wool keratin hydrolysate, the dosage of powder, the initial Cu2+ ion concentration, and the pH value of solution on the adsorption capacity of Cu2+ ions by the powders were examined. The experimental results indicated that the Cu2+ ion adsorption performance of the wool keratin modified Fe3O4 powders exhibited much better than that of the chitosan modified ones with a maximum Cu2+ adsorption capacity of 29.2 mg/g under favorable conditions (0.05 g powders; 50 mL of 40 mg/L CuSO4; pH 5; temperature 293 K). The high adsorption capacity towards Cu2+ ions on the wool keratin modified Fe3O4 powders was primarily because of the strong surface complexation of -COOH and -NH2 functional groups of wool keratins with Cu2+ ions. The Cu2+ ion adsorption process on the wool keratin modified Fe3O4 powders followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic model. After Cu2+ ion removal, the wool keratin modified Fe3O4 powders were easily separated using a magnet from aqueous solution and efficiently regenerated using 0.5 M EDTA-H2SO4 eluting. The wool keratin modified Fe3O4 powders possessed good regenerative performance after five cycles. This study provided a feasible way to utilize waste wool textiles for preparing magnetic biomass-based adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0105.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Zero-Gauss plane; CUSP-magnetic field (CMF), crystal-melt interface; Magnetic Czochralski method
Online: 2 August 2023 (07:17:14 CEST)
: The silicon single crystals for semiconductor application is usually grown by Czochralski (CZ) method. This paper researches 300mm silicon Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth with CUSP magnetic field for IGBTs substrate application. The different positions of Zero-Gauss plane (ZGP) under CUSP magnetic field are simulated and compared to numerical analysis, investigated melt convection, melt flow velocity near to quartz crucible wall, diffusion boundary layer and effect of initial oxygen concentration in the silicon crystal, and the shape of solid/liquid interface was discussed. The results show that the change of the ZGP of the CMF mainly affects the convection in the melt, which leads to the difference of the thickness of the boundary layer near to the wall of the quartz crucible, and was found to be the key to reduce the oxygen dissolution from the crucible wall and oxygen diffuse into the crystal, along with the differences in the shape of the crystal-melt interface. In addition, we have carried out actual industrial single crystal production under the three configurations. The results show that the experimental data of oxygen content and shape of the crystal-melt interfaces in silicon crystal are consistent with the numerical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Juvenile hormone; Juvenile hormone binding protein; Silk protein; Bombyx mori
Online: 30 May 2023 (03:41:29 CEST)
Production of silkworm silk is the most economically important traits in the silk industry. Silk protein synthesis is regulated by juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E). Therefore, it is important to understand the genetic regulation of silk production is thus a priority. JH binding protein (JHBP) transports JH from the hemolymph to target organs and cells and protects JH. In a previous study, we identified 41 genes containing a JHBP domain in the Bombyx mori genome. Only one JHBP gene, that is, BmJHBPd2, is highly expressed in the posterior silk gland (PSG) and its function remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression levels of BmJHBPd2 and the major silk protein genes in the high silk-producing practical strain 872 (S872) and the low silk-producing local strain Dazao. Our results have shown that BmJHBPd2 was more highly expressed in S872, than in the Dazao strain, which is consistent with the expression pattern of fibroin genes. A subcellular localization assay indicated that BmJHBPd2 is located in the cytoplasm. In vitro hormone induction experiments showed that BmJHBPd2 was upregulated by treatment with juvenile hormone analogue (JHA). BmKr-h1 upregulation was significantly inhibited by overexpression of BmJHBPd2 at the cell level when induced by JHA. However, overexpression of BmJHBPd2 in the posterior silk gland by transgenic methods led to the inhibition of the expression of the silk fibroin gene, resulting in a reduction in silk yield. Further investigation has shown that in the BmJHBPd2OE individual, the key transcription factor Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) of the JH signaling pathway was inhibited, and 20E signaling pathway genes, such as broad complex (Brc), E74A, and ultraspiracle protein(USP), were upregulated. Our results have indicated that BmJHBPd2 plays an important role in the JH signaling pathway and was important for silk protein synthesis. Furthermore, our findings have helped to elucidate the mechanisms by which JH regulates silk protein synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1702.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: large-scale floating shock platform (LFSP); shock environments; underwater explosion; marine diesel engines; shock spectra
Online: 26 October 2023 (11:40:15 CEST)
To conduct a precise impact assessment of marine diesel engines, a 200t floating impact platform was utilized to simulate realistic testing conditions. The testing generated the acceleration time curve and the impact response spectrum for the diesel engine. According to the applicable standards, the spectral velocity was chosen as the evaluation index, and an evaluation of the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical impact environment of the diesel engine was conducted. The shock factor interpolation method was corrected using the confidence interval based on normal distribution, and the interpolated confidence interval of the shock factor was determined. The findings reveal that: The 200t-class floating shock platform is capable of providing a reliable shock environment for diesel engine tests. The shock wave serves as the primary external force during the experiment, and the impact of bubble pulsation can be disregarded when assessing using the floating shock platform. To more accurately describe the experimental shock intensity when presented with dispersed data, the confidence interval can be utilized, and the resulting prediction formula provides a higher level of impact safety. The obtained conclusions can serve as a reference for predicting the shock environment of large shipboard equipment using the shock platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0663.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Thick-Plate-Bridge steel; GMAW; welding process parameters; thermal-mechanical coupling
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:29:13 CEST)
The welding and construction processes of H-type thick-plate-bridge steel involve complex multi-pass welding processes, which is difficulty to ensure its welding performance. Accordingly, it is crucial to explore the inherent correlation among the welding processes parameters and welding quality, and applied it into the welding robots, eliminating the instability from manual welding. In order to improve the welding quality, the GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) welding process parameters are simulated using the Q345qD bridge steel flat joint model. Four welds with X-shaped grooves are designed to optimize the parameters of welding current, welding voltage, and welding speed. The optimal welding process parameters are investigated through thermal-elastic-plastic simulation analysis and experimental verification. The results indicate that when the welding current is set to 230A, the welding voltage to 32V, and the welding speed to 0.003m/s, the maximum deformation of the welded plate is 0.52mm, with a maximum welding residual stress of 345MPa. Both the simulation results of multi-pass welding and experimental tests meet the welding requirements, as they show no excessive stress or strain. These parameters can be applied into building large steel frame bridges with welding robots, improving the quality of welded joints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: automotive applications; concentrated windings; eddy current losses; fractional-slot windings; interior permanent-magnet motors
Online: 16 March 2017 (09:02:53 CET)
This paper analyzes and compares models for predicting average magnet losses in interior permanent-magnet motors with fractional-slot concentrated windings due to harmonics in the armature reaction (assuming sinusoidal phase currents). Particularly, loss models adopting different formulations and solutions to the Helmholtz equation to solve for the eddy currents are compared to a simpler model relying on an assumed eddy-current distribution. Boundaries in terms of magnet dimensions and angular frequency are identified (numerically and using an identified approximate analytical expression) to aid the machine designer whether the more simple loss model is applicable or not. The assumption of a uniform flux-density variation (used in the loss models) is also investigated for the case of V-shaped and straight interior permanent magnets. Finally, predicted volumetric loss densities are exemplified for combinations of slot and pole numbers common in automotive applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0424.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: emotional speech processing; communication channel; emotion category; task type
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:04:59 CEST)
How language mediates emotional perception and experience is poorly understood. The present event-related potential (ERP) study examined the explicit and implicit processing of emotional speech to differentiate the relative influences of communication channel, emotion category and task type in the prosodic salience effect. Thirty participants (15 women) were presented with spoken words denoting happiness, sadness and neutrality in either the prosodic or semantic channel. They were asked to judge the emotional content (explicit task) and speakers’ gender (implicit task) of the stimuli. Results indicated that emotional prosody (relative to semantics) triggered larger N100 and P200 amplitudes with greater delta, theta and alpha inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) values in the corresponding early time windows, and continued to produce larger LPC amplitudes and faster responses during late stages of higher-order cognitive processing. The relative salience of prosodic and semantics was modulated by emotion and task, though such modulatory effects varied across different processing stages. The prosodic salience effect was reduced for sadness processing and in the implicit task during early auditory processing and decision-making but reduced for happiness processing in the explicit task during conscious emotion processing. Additionally, across-trial synchronization of delta, theta and alpha bands predicted the ERP components with higher ITPC values significantly associated with stronger N100, P200 and LPC enhancement. These findings reveal the neurocognitive dynamics of emotional speech processing with prosodic salience tied to stage-dependent emotion- and task-specific effects, which can reveal insights to research reconciling language and emotion processing from cross-linguistic/cultural and clinical perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0642.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: blastema regeneration: epigenetic reprogramming; keratin; BMP signaling; myocardium resalvage; zebrafish
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:17:12 CEST)
Heart regeneration after myocardial infarction remains challenging in reconstruction of blood resupply system. Here, we find that in zebrafish heart after resection of the ventricular apex, the local myocardial cells and the clotted blood cells undergo cell remodeling process via cytoplasmic exocytosis and nuclear reorganization within revascularization-based blastema. The regenerative processes are visualized by spatiotemporal expression of three blastema representative factors (alpha-SMA- which marks for fibrogenesis, Flk1for angiogenesis/hematopoiesis, and Pax3a for remusculogensis)，and two histone modifications (H3K9Ac and H3K9Me3 mark for chromatin remodeling). Using the cultured zebrafish embryonic fibroblasts we identify blastema fraction components and show that Krt5 peptide could link cytoskeleton network and BMP4 signaling pathway to regulate the transcription and chromatin accessibility at the blastema representative genes and bmp4 genes. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into the epithelial-dependent and revascularization-based blastema regeneration for potential myocardial infarction therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19, seroconversion, neutralizing antibody, spike protein, SARS-CoV-2, convalescent plasma, vaccine
Online: 6 August 2020 (12:16:11 CEST)
The newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people and caused tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide. Effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 infection is lacking and different therapeutic strategies are under testing. Host humoral and cellular immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection is a critical determinant for patients’ outcome. SARS-CoV-2 infection results in seroconversion and production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The antibodies may suppress viral replication through neutralization but also might also participate in COVID-19 pathogenesis through a process termed antibody-dependent enhancement. Rapid progress has been made in the research of antibody response and therapy in COVID-19 patients including characterization of the clinical features of antibody responses in different populations infected by SARS-CoV-2, treatment of COVID-19 patients with convalescent plasma and intravenous immunoglobin products, isolation and characterization of a large panel of monoclonal neutralizing antibodies, as well as preliminary clinical results from several COVID-19 vaccine candidates. In this review, we summarize the recent progress and discuss the implications of these findings in vaccine development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; mortality; cytokine storm; cytokine release syndrome; chemokine; inflammation; immunopathology; IL-6; IL-1; CCL2; CCL5
Online: 14 June 2020 (15:44:38 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has resulted in tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide. A major underlying cause of COVID-19 mortality is a hyperinflammatory cytokine storm in severe/critically ill patients. Although many clinical trials are testing the efficacy of targeting inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in COVID-19 patients, the critical inflammatory mediator initiating COVID-19 patient death is undefined. Here we suggest that the immunopathological pathway leading to COVID-19 mortality can be divided into three stages with distinct clinical features that can be used to guide therapeutic strategies. Our interpretation of the recently published clinical trials from COVID-19 patients suggests that the clinical efficacy in preventing COVID-19 mortality using IL-1 blockade is subjected to notable caveats, while that for IL-6 blockade is suboptimal. We discuss critical factors in determining appropriate inflammatory cytokine/chemokine targets, timing, and combination of treatments to prevent COVID-19 mortality.