BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0390.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Hubble constant; Hubble constant tension; cosmology
Online: 23 January 2023 (02:12:01 CET)
The difference in the Hubble-Lemaitre constant determined by different probes is a yet unexplained observation. This paper proposes the contention that the tension could be explained by the Doppler shift effect of Ia supernovae or Cepheids, driven by the rotational velocity of their host galaxies relative to the rotational velocity of the Milky Way. While the effect of the Doppler shift is expected to be mild, observations show that it can lead to systematic differences in the apparent brightness, and consequently the estimated distances. A simple experiment is done by repeating a previous analysis. When using the original set of supernovae, $H_o$ is 73.758$\pm$1.943 km/s/Mpc. When using a subset of supernovae such that the host galaxies rotate in the same direction as the Milky Way, $H_o$ drops sharply to 69.049$\pm$3.42 km/s/Mpc, showing a far milder tension with the $H_o$ determined by the CMB. When using a subset of Ia supernovae that rotate in the opposite direction, Ho does not decrease, but instead it increases the Ho tension to 74.182$\pm$3.2. Further analysis will be required to determine the link between Ho observed by using Ia supernovae or Cepheids and the rotational velocity of the host galaxies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0233.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Supernova; Plasma; Gravitational Lens; Einstein Cross; Hubble Constant; Hubble Tension
Online: 24 May 2022 (13:24:51 CEST)
Simulations based on Supernova (SN) observations predict several galactic SN explosions (SNe) occur every century. Unlike SNes within the Interstellar Medium (ISM) where ambient gas generally absorbs blast waves within a million years, SNes occurring in a rarified environment outside of the (ISM) generate blast waves which remain in a high velocity free expansion phase for more extended periods. The SN blast wave forms an expanding spherical shell and when multiple blast waves intersect, the overlapping region naturally takes the form of a ring, an arc, or an Einstein Cross structure. The analysis shows the high velocity plasma establishes a medium with permeability which drives the index of refraction greater than 1. As a result, when a shock discontinuity forms in the overlapping region, light is reflected from the host galaxy which exposes the intersecting blast wave regions. The expanding shells are shown to induce an achromatic redshift to the reflected light consistent with those measured for gravitational lenses. Further, it is shown that a Hubble equation for a blast wave around the Milky Way Galaxy can be parameterized to align with measured redshifts of extragalactic light fields over a wide range of distances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0538.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Hubble constant; Hubble tension; early Universe; modified gravity; finite gravity
Online: 30 August 2021 (10:25:23 CEST)
The estimation of the Hubble constant in the past few decades has increasingly become more accurate with the advance of new techniques. But its value seems to depend on the epoch at which the measurements are made. The Planck estimate of the Hubble constant from the observations of the CMBR in the early Universe is about 67.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0476.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: gravitational lenses; hubble constant; cosmology
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:43:05 CEST)
We consider an alternative formula for time delay in gravitational lensing. Imposing a smoothness condition on the gravitationally deformed paths followed by the photons from the source to the observer, we show that our formula displays the same degrees of freedom of the standard one. In addition to this, it is shown that the standard expression for time delay is recovered when small angles are involved. These two features strongly support the claim that the formula for time delay studied in this paper is the generalization to arbitrary angles of the standard one, which is valid at small angles. This could therefore result in a useful tool in view of softening the known discrepancy between the various estimates of the Hubble constant. As an aside, two interesting consequences of our proposal for time delay are discussed: the existence of a constraint on the gravitational potential generated by the lens and a formula for the mass of the lens in the case of central potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0105.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: relativistic hydrodynamics; solutions; Hubble flow; acceleration
Online: 16 November 2017 (05:08:38 CET)
In ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions, the strongly interacting Quark Gluon Plasma (sQGP) is created. The fluid nature of the sQGP was one of the important discoveries of high energy heavy ion physics in the last decades. Henceforth the explosion of this matter may be described by hydrodynamical models. Besides numerical simulations, it is important to study the analytic solutions of the equations of hydrodynamics, as these enable us to understand the connection of the final and initial states better. In this paper we present a perturbative, accelerating solution of relativistic hydrodynamics, on top of a known class of solutions describing Hubble-expansion. We describe the properties of this class of perturbative solutions, and investigate a few selected solutions in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0173.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Dark matter; Weak interaction; Super gravity of baryonic matter; flat rotation speed; Hubble mass; Hubble radius
Online: 9 August 2022 (04:58:06 CEST)
In our recently published papers, considering Planck mass based light speed growing black hole universe and scaled Hawking’s black hole temperature formula, we have developed a simple procedure for estimating the current Hubble parameter and current cosmic mass. In addition to that, without considering galactic dark matter, starting from 10 km/sec to 500 km/sec, we have tried to fit the observed galactic flat rotation speeds with a concept of super gravity of galactic baryonic mass. To estimate the equivalent mass of currently hypothecated galactic dark matter, we have introduced a timely increasing cosmological reference mass unit. Its current magnitude seems to be around 200 million solar masses. In this paper, considering 200 million solar masses as a characteristic representation of cosmic weak interaction mass unit, we have developed a simple formula for its estimation. We would like to appeal that, weak interaction boosts the gravity of galaxies in proportion with their virtual dark mass as (galactic baryonic mass)3/2 / (200 million solar masses)1/2. With further study- dark matter existence and physical properties can be understood in a theoretical approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0052.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Dark Energy; LambdaCDM; Cosmological Constant; Hubble Tension
Online: 7 February 2022 (16:10:09 CET)
We consider the role information energy can play as a source of dark energy. Firstly, we note that, if stars and structure had not formed in the universe, elemental bits of information describing the attributes of particles would have exhibited properties similar to the cosmological constant. The Landauer equivalent energy of such elemental bits would be defined identical in form and value to the characteristic energy of the cosmological constant. But, with the formation of stars and structure, stellar heated gas and dust now provides the dominant contribution to information energy with the characteristics of a dynamic, transitional, dark energy. At low redshift, z<~1.35, this dark energy emulates the cosmological constant with a near constant energy density, w=−1.03±0.05, and an energy total similar to the mc2 of the universe's ∼1053 kg of baryons. At earlier times, z>~1.35, information energy was phantom, differing from the cosmological constant, Λ, by a CPL parameter difference of ∆wo=−0.03±0.05 and ∆wa=−0.79±0.08, values sufficient to account for the H0 Tension. Information dark energy agrees with most phenomena as well as Λ, while exhibiting characteristics that resolve many tensions and problems of ΛCDM: the cosmological constant problem; the cosmological coincidence problem; the H0 and σ8 tensions. As this proposed dark energy source is not usually considered, we identify the expected signature in H(a) that will enable the role of information dark energy to be falsified by experimental observation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v9
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: theory of everything; relativity; spacetime; cosmology; background radiation; Hubble’s law; Hubble constant; dark energy; wave–particle duality; quantum entanglement
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:44:41 CEST)
We introduce two symmetric concepts to physics: “distance” (space and time in one) and “wavematter” (electromagnetic wave packet and matter in one). We claim that physics has chosen the wrong concept of time: It is not aware that the time of a moving object flows in a direction other than my time. We provide 15 proofs for our claim by solving 15 mysteries of physics graphically! For example, we prove that length contraction and time dilation are actually geometrical effects in a 4D manifold that we call “Euclidean spacetime” (ES). We prove that the discrepancy in calculating the Hubble constant stems from a systematic error in the redshift measurement. We prove that what I deem wave, deems itself matter, which solves wave–particle duality. We even untangle quantum entanglement without the issue of non-locality. We finally understand why alternative theories of Euclidean relativity have failed: They are all based on four dimensions of space rather than distance. A huge amount of energy was injected into ES at a point that we take as origin. Ever since has this energy been moving radially away at the speed of light. We live in the 3D hypersurface of an expanding 4D hypersphere. Hyperspherical coordinates have the great advantage that they reduce all that is ever happening to just one formula. So, it is the Theory of Everything in these coordinates: “Energy is covering radial distance which, divided by Euclidean time, is equal to the speed of light.” Acceleration and force like gravitation emerge from a rotation of objects in ES and a subsequent projection to 3D space. Matching the symmetry simplifies physics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0183.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: hubble tension; modified gravity; dark energy; dark matter
Online: 7 August 2020 (10:08:19 CEST)
Here we propose a modification of the gravitational field on large scales as an alternate explanation for the discrepancy in the value of the Hubble constant as implied by Planck observations of the CMBR in the early Universe and that deduced from other distance indicators in the present epoch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0170.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: universe expansion; Hubble constant; cavity finesse; cosmological redshift; strain
Online: 27 February 2018 (03:41:54 CET)
We describe the effect of the expansion of space on the wavelength of the light beam in a Fabry-Pérot interferometer. For an instrument such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), which has high sensitivity and a long period of light storage, the wavelength of laser photons are redshifted due to the expansion of space in each cavity by an amount given by , where is the Hubble constant and is the light storage time for the cavity. Since is based on the cavity finesse which depends on the laser beam full width at half maximum (FWHM) of each cavity, we show that a difference in finesses between the LIGO arm cavities produces a signal at the anti-symmetric output port given by where and are the beam FWHM at time t, respectively, for the X and Y arm cavities and is a beam proportionality constant to be determined expermentally. Assuming , then for cavity beams FWHM of the output signal has the range , which is detectable by advanced LIGO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0039.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: relativistic astrophysics; theoretical and observational cosmology; redshift; Hubble parameter; quasar
Online: 2 December 2021 (12:54:08 CET)
Here we use the flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric describing a spatially homogeneous and isotropic universe to derive the cosmological redshift distance in a way which differs from that which can be found in the astrophysical literature. We use the co-moving coordinate re (the subscript e indicates emission) for the place of a galaxy which is emitting photons and ra (the subscript a indicates absorption) for the place of an observer within a different galaxy on which the photons - which were traveling thru the universe - are absorbed. Therefore the real physical distance - the way of light - is calculated by D = a(t0) ra - a(te) re. Here means a(t0) the today’s (t0) scale parameter and a(te) the scale parameter at the time of emission (te) of the photons. Nobody can doubt this real travel way of light: The photons are emitted on the co-moving coordinate place re and are than traveling to the co-moving coordinate place ra. During this traveling the time is moving from te to t0 (te ≤ t0) and therefore the scale parameter is changing in the meantime from a(te) to a(t0). Using this right way of light we calculate some relevant classical cosmological equations (effects) and compare these theoretical results with some measurements of astrophysics. As one result we get e.g. the today’s Hubble parameter H0a ≈ 62.34 km/(s Mpc). This value is smaller than the Hubble parameter H0,Planck ≈ 67.66 km/(s Mpc) resulting from Planck 2018 data  which is discussed in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0140.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: cosmology; theory; cosmology; observations; Hubble flow; dark energy; dark matter
Online: 8 September 2021 (11:08:46 CEST)
Hubble expansion may be considered as a velocity per photon travel time rather than as velocity or redshift per distance. Dimensionally, this is an acceleration and will have an associated curvature of space under general relativity. This paper explores this theoretical curvature as an extension to the spacetime manifold of general relativity, generating a modified solution with three additional non-zero Christoffel symbols, and a reformulated Ricci tensor and curvature. The observational consequences of this reformulation were compared with the ΛCDM model for luminosity distance using the extensive type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data with redshift corrected to the CMB, and for angular diameter distance with the recent baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) data. For the SNe Ia data, the modified GR and ΛCDM models differed by −0.15+0.11μB mag. over zcmb=0.01−1.3, with overall weighted RMS errors of ±0.136μB mag for modified GR and ±0.151μB mag for ΛCDM espectively. The BAO measures spanned a range z=0.106−2.36, with weighted RMS errors of ±0.034 Mpc with H0=67.6±0.25 for the modified GR model, and ±0.085 Mpc with H0=70.0±0.25 for the ΛCDM model. The derived GR metric for this new solution describes both the SNe Ia and the BAO observations with comparable accuracy to ΛCDM without requiring the inclusion of dark matter or w’-corrected dark energy.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0093.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Red shift; Photons; Quantum delocalization; Energy dissipation; Hubble constant; Large numbers
Online: 4 September 2020 (08:39:15 CEST)
The energy loss of photons due to the cosmological red shift is interpreted, here, as a periodical process of transferring electromagnetic field energy into the space. The transferred energy portions are independent on photon energy if this transfer occurs with their frequency. The amounts of periodically released energy are so small that the related ultra-long wave length photons have to be understood as perfectly delocalized. Thus, the described point of view bridges the quantum micro cosmos with the macro cosmos. It is proposed to regard this energy exchange as a typical property of universal time arrow and to interpret the “large numbers”, in particular the dimensionless reciprocal of product of Hubbles constant and Planck time as the fundamental parameter describing cosmic evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0239.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: dark matter; dark energy; alternate theories of gravity; MOND; Hubble tension
Online: 19 June 2020 (10:57:02 CEST)
While there is overwhelming evidence for dark matter (DM) in galaxies and galaxy clusters, all searches for DM particles have so far proved negative. It is not even clear whether only one particle is involved or a combination or particles, their masses not precisely predicted. This non-detectability raises the possible relevance of modified gravity theories – MOND, MONG, etc. Here we consider a specific modification of Newtonian gravity (MONG) which involves gravitational self-energy, leading to modified equations whose solutions imply flat rotation curves and limitations of sizes of clusters. The results are consistent with current observations including that involving large spirals. This modification could also explain the current Hubble tension. We also consider effects of dark energy (DE) in terms of a cosmological constant.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0200.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: local Hubble expansion; Solar system; Titan; laws of conservation of energy and angular momentum
Online: 13 January 2022 (12:58:55 CET)
Recently it was found from Cassini data that the mean recession speed of Titan from Saturn is v = 11.3 ± 2.0 cm/yr which corresponds to a tidal quality factor of Saturn Q ≈ 100 while the standard estimate yields Q ≥ 6 · 104 . It was assumed that such a large speed v is due to a resonance locking mechanism of five inner mid-sized moons of Saturn. In this paper, we show that an essential part of v may come from a local Hubble expansion, where the Hubble-Lemaˆıtre constant H0 recalculated to the Saturn-Titan distance D is 8.15 cm/(yrD). Our hypothesis is based on many other observations showing a slight expansion of the Solar system and also of our Galaxy at a rate comparable with H0. We demonstrate that the large disproportion in estimating the Q factor can be just caused by the local expansion effect. [Accepted for publication in "Gravitation and Cosmology". The paper is to appear in Vol. 28, Issue 2 (2022) of the journal Gravitation and Cosmology.]
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0239.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Mach's Principle; Dark Matter; Dark Energy; gravity; graviton mass; FRW cosmology; Hubble-Lemaitre Law.
Online: 14 December 2021 (13:51:38 CET)
We take a heterodox approach to the ΛFRW Cosmology starting from the modification of Newtonian gravity by explicitly incorporating Mach's Principle through an additional term a great scale in the gravitation. The results show that at the after of the matter-radiation decoupling, the distribution of matter at scales greater than 10Mpc contributes with an inverse Yukawa-like field, which verifies the observations: resulting null in the inner solar system, weakly attractive in ranges of interstellar comoving distances, very attractive in comoving distance ranges comparable to the clusters of galaxies, and repulsive in cosmic scales. This additional term explains dark energy, removes the incompatibility between the density of matter and the flatness of the universe; and also allows the theoretical deduction of the Hubble-Lemaitre Law. Additionally, Birkhoff Theorem, Virial Theorem, the missing mass of Zwicky, the BAO, gravitational redshift are discussed. It is concluded that the dark energy and the missing mass can be approached with the usual physics if a classical, large-scale modification of the Inverse Square Law.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0238.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: relativistic astrophysics; theoretical and observational cosmology; redshift; Hubble parameter; quasar; black hole; SNIa; galaxy; M87
Online: 17 January 2022 (15:28:25 CET)
In this part of the two-part series of essays, we first derive some equations for further physical redshift distances. We then analyze a catalog with 132,975 quasars, for which both the apparent magnitude m and the redshift z are given, in order to find the today’s value of the parameter β0 of the theory presented. We then use this value to determine the today’s value of the radius R0a of the Friedmann sphere using a magnitude redshift diagram of 19 SNIa. With the help of the known values of R0a and β0, statements about astrophysical data from the black hole in the galaxy M87 can be made. In addition, the today’s Hubble parameter H0 results from both parameters. Furthermore, we calculate the values of the further physical redshift distances for the black hole in M87 and all 19 SNIa. The resulting parameter values are: β0 ≈ 0.731, R0a ≈ 2,712.48 Mpc and H0 ≈ 65.638 km / (s ∙ Mpc). The today’s mass density of the Friedmann sphere is ρ0 ≈ 4.843 x 10-27 g / cm 3. For the mass of the Friedmann sphere we find MFK ≈ 1.206 x 1056 g. Annotation: Knowledge of the first part  of the series of articles is a prerequisite for understanding this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0017.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Oscillating universe; big bang; big bounce; Hubble constant; dark energy; dark matter; inflation; vacuum energy density; Casimir effect
Online: 15 January 2021 (09:47:00 CET)
In cosmology dark energy and dark matter are included in the CDM model, but they are still completely unknown. On the other hand the trans-Planckian problem leads to unlikely high photon energies for black holes. We introduce a model with quantized black hole matter. This minimizes the trans- Planckian problem extremely and leads to a scalar field in the oscillating universe model. We show that the scalar field has the same characteristics as a vacuum energy field and leads to the same Casimir effect. Shortly after the beginning of the big bounce this field decays locally and leads to the production of dark matter. In this model no inflation theory is needed. We emphasize that this model is mainly a phenomenological approach with the aim of new impetus to the discussion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0279.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Hubble-Hawking model; Light speed expansion; Black hole universe; Power law super gravity of baryonic mass; 200 million solar masses
Online: 4 January 2023 (12:20:26 CET)
Based on four major cosmological and astrophysical coincidences, it seems possible to develop a new model of Hubble-Hawking Universe having light speed expansion. First Coincidence is - distance travelled by light in 14 billion years seems to equal to the currently believed cosmic Hubble radius. Second Coincidence is - Product of currently believed cosmic critical density and cosmic Hubble volume seems to be equal to the black hole mass of the current Hubble universe. Third Coincidence is - Currently believed cosmic temperature seems to be equal to the geometric mean of Hawking temperature of Planck mass and Hawking temperature of current Hubble mass. Fourth coincidence is - single big bang having evolution that resembles a light speed growing Planck mass. Considering the analysis of 740 super novae data, it is possible to consider a constant rate of cosmic expansion. As there is no physical reasoning for the observed speed of light and all the cosmological observations are completely based on speed of light-by considering ‘light speed expansion’ concept as a characteristic nature of the universe, big bang, inflation, dark energy, quintessence and lambda term like ideal and unidentified concepts can be reviewed and relinquished at fundamental level and a practical model of expanding universe can be developed with ease and clarity. In this context, we encourage the reader to see Figure 1 pertaining to light travel distances prepared with . For a comparison, readers are encouraged to visit https://cosmocalc.icrar.org/ and http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/cosmodis.c. It may be noted that, considering 200 million solar masses as a cut off for ordinary gravity, dark matter can be considered as an effect of power law based super gravity of galactic baryonic mass. It is well believed that, Hawking’s findings about black holes are the most important contributions to physics in recent decades. Hence, we appeal the science community to recommend our Hubble-Hawking model for further research and study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0105.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: galaxies; supernovae; GRB; distances and redshifts; cosmic microwave background radiation; distance scale; cosmology theory; cosmological constant; Hubble constant; general relativity; TMT
Online: 9 April 2019 (11:38:12 CEST)
Many models have been proposed to explain the intergalactic redshift using different observational data and different criteria for the goodness-of-fit of a model to the data. The purpose of this paper is to examine several suggested models using the same supernovae Ia data and gamma-ray burst (GRB) data with the same goodness-of-fit criterion and weigh them against the standard CDM model. We have used the redshift – distance modulus ( ) data for 580 supernovae Ia with to determine the parameters for each model, and then use these model parameter to see how each model fits the sole SNe Ia data at and the GRB data up to . For the goodness-of-fit criterion, we have used the chi-square probability determined from the weighted least square sum through non-linear regression fit to the data relative to the values predicted by each model. We find that the standard ΛCDM model gives the highest chi-square probability in all cases albeit with a rather small margin over the next best model - the recently introduced nonadiabatic Einstein de Sitter model. We have made ( ) projections up to for the best four models. The best two models differ in only by 0.328 at , a tiny fraction of the measurement errors that are in the high redshift datasets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0096.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: big bang; planck scale Hubble parameter; quantum cosmology; Mach’s principle; holographic principle; observational cosmology; super luminal expansion speed; super luminal rotation speed; dark energy; cosmic rotational kinetic energy; cosmic microwave back
Online: 8 October 2016 (10:26:06 CEST)
With reference to Planck scale Hubble parameter, super luminal expansion speeds, super luminal rotation speeds, Mach’s principle and Holographic principle, we review the current cosmological observations with eight simple assumptions. By understanding Yuri N. Obukhov and V.A. Korotky proposed cosmic rotational effects of polarization of radiation due to massive bodies, to some extent cosmic rotation can be deep-rooted in an observational approach and the ratio of current angular velocity and Hubble parameter can be estimated. It is possible to show that, at H0 =70 km/sec/Mpc, current cosmic temperature, age, radius, mass, mass density are 2.721 K, 4.41x1017 sec, 90 billion light years, 1.14654x1054 kg, 0.0482 times the current critical density respectively. Clearly speaking, current universe seems to constitute 267 Hubble spheres. Important point to be noted is that, current rotational kinetic energy is 0.6667 times the current critical energy. Based on the estimated current mass density and current rotational kinetic energy, current cosmic dark matter density can be shown to be 0.2851 times the current critical density. These numerical coincidences cast serious doubt on the on the real existence of currently believed ‘dark energy’. Initial and current expansion speeds are 3x108 m/sec and 3.56x109 m/sec respectively. With increasing cosmic age and increasing cosmic expansion speed, current universe is expanding with a speed of 11.885c. By knowing the time to time future cosmic temperatures, future Hubble parameters and corresponding future cosmic expansion speeds can be estimated and thus future expansion speed can be understood. Starting from ‘speed of light’, our model assumes a continuous increase in expansion speed and attains a current radius of 90 billion light years (without inflationary concepts) and casts a serious doubt on the actuality of currently believed ‘inflation’.