ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2025.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: mint; pigment; flavone; transcriptome; metabolome
Online: 31 July 2023 (03:19:47 CEST)
Mint is considered to have a greater number of phenolic acids, flavonoids, antioxidants and other bioactive components, and is widely used as food, medicine, spices, and flavoring agents. Thus, chemical composition is an important parameter for assessing the quality of mint. In this study, two mint cultivars were sampled, purple mint and green mint. The purple mint had much higher anthocyanin and total flavone content compared with green mint. Transcriptome and metabolome technique were employed to elucidate the regulation network of mint pigment and flavone. A total of 167,901 unigenes were obtained by high-throughput RNA-Seq and 34,608 genes were differentially expressed. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly involved in lignin metabolic process and flavonoid biosynthetic process. A total of 143 differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs) were enriched in isoflavonoid biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways. The co-analysis results of DEGs and DEMs showed that the flavone and flavonol biosynthesis pathway (ko00944) contained the most DEMs, followed by flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (ko00941) and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway (ko00942). Furthermore, the most important nine genes and metabolites were screened using O2PLS model. The results will provide a theoretical basis for revealing pigment and flavone biosynthesis network of mint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1017.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: coordination polymers; room temperature phosphorescence; multicolor emission
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:44:03 CEST)
: Exploiting the relationship between the stacking modes of molecules and room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) performance is of great important to design afterglow materials. A series of coordination polymers base on carbazole–isophtalic acid are synthesized. These compounds exhibit stacking-dependent RTP. It reveals that the phosphorescence efficiency is not proportional to the overlap of p–p stacking, the triplet excited states of discrete dimer mode rather than H-aggregation can dominate the generation of room-temperature phosphorescence. Besides, compounds 1 and 2 exhibit obvious time-dependent RTP with the afterglow color from orange to green, and show white-light emission owing to fluorescence and phosphorescence dual emission. These results indicate that coordination induction is an efficient approach to regulate the aggregation of chromophores, further modulate the room-temperature phosphorescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1150.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: promethazine; promethazine sulfoxide; monodesmethyl-promethazine; swine edible tissues; high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:45:26 CEST)
To determine promethazine (PMZ) and its metabolites promethazine sulfoxide (PMZSO) and monodesmethyl-promethazine (Nor1PMZ) in swine muscle, fat, kidney, and liver, a sample preparation and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis method were established and validated. The sample was extracted with 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile, and the extract was purified with acetonitrile-saturated n-hexane. After concentration by rotary evaporation, the extract was re-dissolved in 0.1% formic acid-water and acetonitrile (80:20, v/v). The HPLC-MS/MS column used was a Waters Symmetry C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm), with 0.1% formic acid-water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase, and the target compounds were determined by positive ion scan and multiple reaction monitoring. PMZ and Nor1PMZ were quantified with deuterated promethazine (PMZ-d6) as the internal standard, while PMZSO was quantified by external standard method. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of PMZ and PMZSO in muscle, liver, and kidney spiked samples were 0.05 μg/kg and 0.1 μg/kg, respectively, while those of Nor1PMZ were 0.1 μg/kg and 0.5 μg/kg, respectively. The LOD and LOQ of analytes in fat spiked sample were 0.05 μg/kg and 0.1 μg/kg, respectively. The sensitivity of this method reaches or exceeds its presented in previous reports. The analytes PMZ and PMZSO showed good linearity within the range of 0.1 μg/kg to 50 μg/kg, while Nor1PMZ showed good linearity within the range of 0.5 μg/kg to 50 μg/kg, with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.99. The recoveries of the target compounds in the sam-ples were between 81.73% and 107.17%, and the precision ranged from 1.78% to 10.47%. This study developed for the first time an HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of PMZ and its metabolites PMZSO and Nor1PMZ in four swine edible tissues, comprehensively covered target tissues of monitoring object, which is applicable for monitoring veterinary drug residues in ani-mal-derived foods and ensuring food safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0190.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: zeolite; ion-exchange; adsorption; ammonium; Si/Al; temperature
Online: 11 September 2018 (08:50:29 CEST)
We investigate the ammonium removal abilities of natural and synthetic zeolites, which have distinct Si/Al ratios and various surface areas, to study how adsorption and ion-exchange processes in zeolites perform under different ammonium concentrations and different temperatures. Five zeolites including natural mordenite, chabazite, erionite, clinoptilolite and synthetic merlinoite were immersed in 20 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg ammonium solutions. The results demonstrate that zeolites under high ammonium concentrations (100 mg/kg) possess higher physical adsorption capacity (0.398–0.468 meq/g), whereas those under lower ammonium concentrations (20 mg/kg) possess greater ion-exchange property (64–99%). The ion-exchange ability of zeolites are extremely dependent on the cation content of the zeolites, and the cation content is affected by the Si/Al ratio. The surface area of zeolites also has a partial influence on its physical adsorption ability. When the surface area is less than 100 m2/g, the adsorption ability of zeolite increases obviously with surface area; however, adsorption ability is saturated as the surface area becomes larger than this critical value of 100 m2/g. When we carried out the zeolites in 50 mg/kg ammonium concentration at different temperatures (5~50 ℃), we found that zeolites exhibit the highest ammonium removal ability at 30°C and the potassium release was enhanced at 30~40 ℃.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0042.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; OsCDPK1; grain size; amylose content; endosperm appearance
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:00:14 CEST)
Overexpression of a constitutively active truncated form of OsCDPK1 (OEtr) in rice produced smaller seeds, but a double-stranded RNA gene-silenced form of OsCDPK1 (Ri) yielded large seeds, suggesting that OsCDPK1 plays a functional role in rice seed development. In the study presented here, we propose a model in which OsCDPK1 plays key roles in negatively controlling the grain size, amylose content, and endosperm appearance, and also affects the physicochemical properties of the starch. The dehulled transgenic OEtr grains were smaller than the dehulled wild-type grains, and the OEtr endosperm was opaque and had a low amylose content and numerous small loosely packed polyhedral starch granules. However, the OEtr grain sizes and endosperm appearances were not affected by the temperature being either optimal (25 °C ) or low (22 °C) or high (31 °C) during the grain-filling phase. In contrast, the transgenic Ri grains were larger, had higher amylose contents, and had more transparent endosperms filled with tightly packed polyhedral starch granules. This demonstrates that OsCDPK1 plays a novel functional role in starch biosynthesis during seed development and affects the transparent appearance of the endosperm. These results improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which the grain filling process occurs in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: KCNJ12; SNP; myoblast differentiation; stature; Chinese beef cattle
Online: 28 April 2019 (09:38:56 CEST)
Potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 12 (KCNJ12) gene is one promising candidate for economic traits because of its crucial roles in myoblast development. Here, a missense mutation (Cys>Arg), was firstly detected to locate in exon 3 of KCNJ12 from three Chinese cattle breeds by DNA-pool sequencing. Then, we performed the association analysis of this SNP with stature in three Chinese cattle populations (n = 820). Significantly positive correlation was revealed by reduced animal general linear model and the genotype of CC is the most excellent genotype in three breeds. Further, we measured the expression profiling of the KCNJ12 gene in various cattle tissues and primary bovine skeletal muscle cells. Ubiquitous expression with high abundance in muscle was observed. Further, in primary bovine skeletal muscle cells, the KCNJ12 mRNA expression was gradually up-regulated in differentiation medium (DM) compared with that in growth medium (GM), suggesting that KCNJ12 gene is involved in bovine myocyte differentiation. Conclusively, KCNJ12 gene is a functional candidate gene which can be used as molecular marker for beef cattle breeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0768.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: silybin; prostate cancer; 2,3-dehydrosilybin; cell proliferation; cell apoptosis.
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:16:29 CET)
As part of our ongoing silybin project, this study aims to introduce a basic nitrogen-containing group to 7-OH of 3,5,20-O-trimethyl-2,3-dehydrosilybin or 3-OH of 5,7,20-O-trimethyl-2,3-dehydrosilybin via an appropriate linker for in vitro evaluation as potential anti-prostate cancer agents. The synthetic approaches to 7-O-substituted-3,5,20-O-trimethyl- 2,3-dehydrosilybins through a five-step procedure and to 3-O-substituted-5,7,20-O-trimethyl-2,3- dehydrosilybins via a four-step transformation have been developed. Thirty-two nitrogen-containing derivatives of silybin have been achieved through these synthetic methods for the evaluation of their antiproliferative activities towards both androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and DU145) using WST-1 cell proliferation assay. These derivatives exhibited greater in vitro antiproliferative potency than silybin. Among them, 11, 29, 31, 37, and 40 were identified as five optimal derivatives with IC50 values in the range of 1.40–3.06 µM, a 17- to 52-fold improvement in potency as compared with silybin. All these five optimal derivatives can arrest the PC-3 cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase and promote PC-3 cell apoptosis. Derivatives 11, 37, and 40 are more effective than 29 and 31 in activating PC-3 cell apoptosis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1032.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: porous silicon; quantum dots; near-infrared
Online: 15 September 2023 (11:10:30 CEST)
porous silicon-based photodetectors have attracted more researches due to their high luminous efficiency, good stability and low cost. In this paper, a PbS quantum dots/porous silicon hybrid structure has been fabricated. The PbS quantum dots (QDs) partly infiltrated into the porous silicon (PSi) layer and partly deposited on its surface, which could increase the absorption of near-infrared wavelength range and extend the light absorption in silicon for wavelengths longer than 1100 nm. After that, A metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device is fabricated and its response spectrum could extend to the 1200 nm at -3 V. As a silicon-based photodetector (PD), one can envision its role for operation from visible light to short-wavelength infrared range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0011.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: MST4; EMT; AKT; Apoptosis; Breast cancer
Online: 1 December 2022 (04:46:12 CET)
The mammalian STE 20-like protein kinase 4 (MST4) gene is highly expressed in several cancer types, but little is known on the role of MST4 in breast cancer and the function of MST4 during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that overexpression of MST4 in breast cancer results in enhanced cell growth, migration, and invasion, whereas inhibition of MST4 expression significantly attenuates these properties. Further study shows that MST4 promotes EMT by activating Akt and its downstream signaling molecules such as E-cadherin/N-cadherin, Snail, and Slug. MST4 also activates AKT and its downstream pro-survival pathway. Furthermore, by analyzing breast cancer patient tissue microarray and silicon datasets, we found that MST4 expression is much higher in breast tumor tissue compared to normal tissue, and significantly correlates with cancer stage, lymph node metastasis and a poor overall survival rate (p<0.05). Taken together, our findings demonstrate the oncogenic potential of MST4 in breast cancer, highlighting its role in cancer cell proliferation, migration/invasion, survival, and EMT, suggesting a possibility that MST4 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer.