ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: N-nitrosamines; formation potential; membrane treatment; reverse osmosis; membrane fouling; pilot-scale
Online: 24 July 2018 (15:46:34 CEST)
This study investigated the removal characteristics of N-nitrosamines and their precursors at three pilot-scale water reclamation plants. These plants applies different integrated membrane systems: (1) microfiltration (MF) / nanofiltration (NF) / RO; (2) sand filtration/three-step RO; and (3) ultrafiltration (UF) / NF and UF / RO. Variable removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) by the RO membrane processes could be attributable to membrane fouling and feed water temperature. The effect of membrane fouling on N-nitrosamines removal was extensively evaluated at one of the plants by conducting one month of operation and chemical cleaning of the RO membrane element. Membrane fouling enhanced N-nitrosamines removal by the pilot-scale RO membrane process. This finding contributes to better understanding of variable removal of NDMA by RO membrane processes. This study also investigated the removal characteristics of N-nitrosamines precursors. The NF and RO membrane processes greatly reduced NDMA formation potential (FP), but the UF process had little effect. The contributions of MF, NF, and RO membrane processes for reducing FPs of NDMA, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were different, suggesting different size distributions of their precursors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: doubly labeled water; total energy expenditure; physical activity level; lactate threshold, physical fitness; International Physical Activity Questionnaire
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:32:02 CEST)
Adequate energy intake is critical for the healthy longevity of older adults, and the estimated energy requirement is determined by total energy expenditure (TEE). We aimed to identify the relationship between measured aerobic capacity and TEE, activity energy expenditure (AEE) or physical activity level (PAL) with the doubly labeled water (DLW) methods in the advanced older adults. A total of 12 physically independent older adults (10 males and 2 females) aged between 81 to 94 years participated in this study. Aerobic capacity was evaluated according to the lactate threshold (LT). TEE under free-living conditions was assessed using the DLW method, and self-reported physical activity was obtained through the Japanese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). LT was significantly positively correlated with TEE, AEE, and PAL after adjustment for age and sex (ρ= 0.77 (P<0.01), 0.86 (p<0.01), and 0.86 (p<0.01), respectively). We found the LT as an aerobic capacity is positively and independently correlated with TEE, AEE or PAL. The present results suggest that maintaining aerobic capacity is an important factor for preventing frailty, although further research is needed to multisite studies and many samples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0140.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: protein crystallization; protein sample qualification; JAXA PCG; microgravity
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:43:29 CET)
We summarize how to obtain protein crystals from which better diffraction images can be obtained. In particular, we describe in detail the quality evaluation of the protein sample, the crystallization methods and crystallization conditions, the flash-cooling protection of the crystal, and the crystallization under a microgravity environment.