ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1674.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: Late Middle Ages 1; Northern Iberia 2; Labour 3; Seamen’s guilds 4; Town ports 5; Social protest 6.
Online: 26 October 2023 (10:24:50 CEST)
The craft guilds have been at the core of important historiographical debates on the economic, social and political history of medieval cities for twenty years. The aim of this article is to examine the seamen’s guilds in the town ports of Northern Peninsula in the late Middle Ages. This study analyzes fundamental aspects of the social assistance, labour organization and social identity of the town ports, located on the maritime border of the Kingdom of Castile. In contrast to the more classical view of the craft guilds as protectionist institutions, which only served the interests of a privileged group of masters, this analysis highlights the contribution of the seamen craft guilds to the organization of labor at sea, the training of sea workers, the ability to negotiate with merchants and avoid labor exploitation, the provision of social assistance to the most vulnerable population, and the ability to lead the social protest for the guilders’ representation in the urban government. In summary, it is concluded that the seafarers’ guilds were constituted as networks of mutual help between individuals in the labor, welfare and political spheres of the population of the town ports of Northern Iberia in the late Middle Ages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0284.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: urban; rural; millet; garden; orchard; Iberian Peninsula; High/Late Middle Ages
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:09:03 CET)
Towns emerged as dynamic economic and political centers during the Middle Ages, giving rise to the emergence of new social classes. As a result of these functions, a new relationship began to be forged with the rural world, which supplied towns with foodstuffs that satisfied new social demands. Archaeobotanical analysis (carpology) allows us to understand the flow of cash crops by tracing seeds and fruits produced in the countryside that were consumed in and redistributed from the towns. The study of waterlogged contexts from medieval archaeological sites in the Kingdom of Galicia (Santiago de Compostela, Padrón, and Pontevedra) has provided a set of species that played a crucial role in the economy of the urban dwellers and that possibly were related to differential access or food preferences. Evidence for fruits (grapes, chestnuts, figs, apples, and cherries, among others), garden crops (melon), and cereals (foxtail millet, rye, naked wheat, and oat) has been documented. Broomcorn millet is particularly abundant, demonstrating that it was important for subsistence. Some of the species found (medlar and turnip/grelo) are novel in the archaeobotanical literature of the medieval period in the Iberian Peninsula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0763.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: High Ba-Sr granitoids; Late Ordovician; Subduction; Proto-Tethys; North Qilian orogen
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:32:41 CEST)
The petrogenesis of high Ba-Sr granitoids provide a great significance to penetrate the Proto-Tethys evolution in the North Qilian orogenic belt. This paper presents a combination of zircon U-Pb age, whole-rock major and trace element concentrations, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for Caowa high Ba-Sr dioritic intrusion from the eastern part of the North Qilian orogenic belt, aiming to decipher its petrogenesis and tectonic setting. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating yields an emplacement age of 447±3 Ma for the Caowa intrusion, indicating a magmatic activity of the late Ordovician. The Caowa quartz diorites contain moderate contents of SiO2, MgO, Mg# and resultant high concentrations of Na2O+K2O, Fe2O3T and Al2O3, displaying calc-alkaline and metaluminous characteristics. Their relatively elevated Ba (up to 1165 ppm) and Sr (561 to 646 ppm) contents, with obvious enrichment in LILEs (e.g. Ba、Th、U) and depletion in HFSEs (e.g. Nb、Ta、Ti) resemble those of typical high Ba-Sr granitoids in subduction zone. Together with enriched Sr-Nd isotopic compositons[(87Sr/86Sr)i=0.7082−0.7086, εNd(t)= -5.1 to -4.9], and relatively extensive εHf(t) values (-13.2 to +8.5) of zircons, it suggests that these high Ba-Sr quartz diorites were derived from a mixture magma source between the ancient crust materials and the enriched lithospheric mantle metasomatised by fluid was released from subducted oceanic crust or sediment. Taking into account the ophiolites, high pressure metamorphic rocks and arc magmatic rocks in the region, we infer that affected by the northward subduction of the Qilian Proto-Tethys ocean, the Laohushan oceanic crust of the North Qilian back-arc basin was subducted during the Late Ordovician and resulted in extensive metasomatism of lithospheric mantle by fluids derived from oceanic crust or sediments, and the Caowa high Ba-Sr quartz diorites generated in the process of crust-mantle interaction during the Late Ordovician.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: High resolution computed tomography; cholesteatoma surgery; very good correlation
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:20:17 CEST)
Conclusions: HRCT is a valuable tool in preoperative assessment of cholesteatoma, helping in making surgical decisions. It can accurately predict the extent of disease and is helpful for detecting unapparent dangerous situations. However it is not very accurate in detecting Fallopian canal and stapes erosion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0817.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: pharmaceutical; poisoning; low-and-middle-income countries; high-income countries; review
Online: 13 September 2023 (05:15:07 CEST)
Pharmaceutical poisoning is a significant global public health concern, causing approximately 190,000 deaths yearly. This scoping review aims to comprehensively map the available literature on pharmaceutical poisoning and compare patterns between high-income countries (HICs) and low-middle-income countries (LMICs). A systematic search was performed across the following databases: Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL. Studies included were from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2020, in English, with full text available. Seventy-nine articles were included in the study; 21 were from LMICs and 58 were from HICs. The toxic exposure was largely intentional (77%) in LMICs and accidental (68%) in HICs. Drugs acting on the nervous system were responsible for 95% of toxicities worldwide with analgesics accounting for the largest subtherapeutic group in both LMICs (40%) and HICs (58%). Notable statistics were that HICs accounted for 99% of opioid overdoses, and LMICs accounted for 19% of anti-epileptic-induced toxicities. Overall, the medical outcomes of poisonings were generally worse in LMICs. The review provides possible interventions to target specific geographic locations, based on the trends identified, to reduce the burden worldwide. Many gaps within the literature were recognised, calling for more robust analytical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2018.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: healthy life style; physical activity; frequency of practicing of physical activity; BMI; tobacco consumption; alcohol consumption; doctor’s visits; visits to psychiatrists, moderate-to-high-intensity sports, low-to-moderate-intensity sports; leisure activity
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:53:20 CET)
Several studies have shown that physical activity (PA) is related to physical and mental health. Yet, there are few studies on the frequency of PA as it relates to health and a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of practicing different types of physical activities (dependent variables), living a healthy lifestyle (BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption), physical health (sum of all doctor visits except psychiatrists) and mental health (a sum of visits to psychiatrists) at different ages (independent variables). We fo-cused on three types of PA: (1) medium to high-intensity aerobic exercises; (2) low to medium intensity relaxing and stretching exercises, (3) outdoor leisure PA. 9,617 participants (ages: 19 -81) were included in the study (with health registries over a period of 10 years prior to a cross-sectional survey). Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression on frequencies of three types of PA and factors related to health and healthy lifestyles, as well as age and sex, were performed in this study. The results indicate that a higher frequency of practicing PA had a higher probability of association with the following factors: lower BMI, less or non-smoking behavior (types 1 & 3); higher education (types 1 & 2); higher age (types 2 & 3) and better physical health (type 1). Occasional (practicing sometimes) PA, type 2, was positively associated with poorer mental health (higher number of psychiatrist visits). Women were more likely to practice PA type 2, and men – PA types 3 & 1. Conclusion: In general, a higher frequency of PA is related with better health and healthy life styles; with the exception of PA type 2 that is related to poorer mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0156.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: CBIR; , Late Fusion; SVM; BOVW
Online: 21 March 2017 (03:49:41 CET)
One of the challenges in Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) is to reduce the semantic gaps between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts. In CBIR, the images are represented in the feature space and the performance of CBIR depends on the type of selected feature representation. Late fusion also known as visual words integration is applied to enhance the performance of image retrieval. The recent advances in image retrieval diverted the focus of research towards the use of binary descriptors as they are reported computationally efficient. In this paper, we aim to investigate the late fusion of Fast Retina Keypoint (FREAK) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). The late fusion of binary and local descriptor is selected because among binary descriptors, FREAK has shown good results in classification-based problems while SIFT is robust to translation, scaling, rotation and small distortions. The late fusion of FREAK and SIFT integrates the performance of both feature descriptors for an effective image retrieval. Experimental results and comparisons show that the proposed late fusion enhances the performances of image retrieval.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0219.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: informal settlement indicators; very high resolution (VHR); urbanisation; sustainable development goals; object-based image analysis (OBIA); machine learning (ML); random forest (RF)
Online: 12 September 2018 (12:32:25 CEST)
The identification of informal settlements in urban areas is an important step in developing and implementing pro-poor urban policies. Understanding when, where and who lives inside informal settlements is critical to efforts to improve their resilience. This study aims to analyse the capability of machine-learning (ML) methods to map informal areas in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, using very-high-resolution (VHR) imagery and terrain data. Fourteen indicators of settlement characteristics were derived and mapped using an object-based ML approach and VHR imagery. These indicators were categorised according to three different spatial levels: environ, settlement and object. The most useful indicators for prediction were found to be density and texture measures, (with random forest (RF) relative importance measures of over 25% and 23% respectively). The success of this approach was evaluated using a small, fully independent validation dataset. Informal areas were mapped with an overall accuracy of 91%. Object-based ML as a hybrid approach performed better (8%) than object-based image analysis alone due to its ability to encompass all available geospatial levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1095.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: neonates; late-onset sepsis; inflammatory markers
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:08:24 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine the potential of early inflammatory markers to diagnose late-onset neonatal sepsis - procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and endocan (ESM-1), and to compare them with routinely used markers. A prospective (January, 2022 – January, 2023) clinical-epidemiological study was conducted in a third level NICU in Pleven, Bulgaria. Patients with suspected nosocomial infection and healthy controls were tested. A sandwich ELISA method was used to measure the serum concentrations. Sixty newborns with an average gestational age of 29.75 ± 3.61 gestational weeks were included, of which 35 % were symptomatic and infected, 33.3 % were symptomatic but uninfected, and 31.7 % were asymptomatic controls. The mean values of PCT, IL-6, I:T index and PLT differ significantly in the three groups. For ESM-1, IL-8 and CRP, the difference was statistically insignificant. The best sensitivity (78%) and negative predictive value (84%) was found for IL-6. The combination of PCT + IL-6 + I:T+ PLT demonstrated high precision (78%) and best sensitivity (94%) and negative predictive value (95%). The introduction into routine practice of indicators such as PCT and IL-6 may provide an opportunity to promptly optimize the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to LOS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: tomato; late blight; miRNA; overexpression; resistance
Online: 10 July 2019 (11:07:07 CEST)
Tomato is the highest-value fruit/vegetable crop worldwide. However, the quality and yield of tomatoes are severely affected by late blight. MicroRNA482s (miR482s) are involved in plant immune system. In this study, miR482c was transiently and stably overexpressed in tomatoes in transgenic plants to explore its mechanism in tomato resistance against late blight. Tomato in transgenic plants transiently overexpressed miR482c displayed larger lesion area than the control plants upon infection. Furthermore, compared with the WT tomato plants, the transgenic tomato plants stably overexpressing miR482c displayed decreased expression of target genes accompanied by lower POD, SOD, and PAL activity activities and higher MDA content, thereby leading to a decline in the ROS scavenging ability and aggravating the damage of lipid peroxidation product accumulation on the cell membrane, eventually enhancing plant susceptibility. This finding indicates that miR482c may act as a negative regulator in tomato resistance by regulating NBS-LRR expression levels and ROS levels.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: late-onset combined immunodeficiency; psoriasis; ustekinumab; infections
Online: 3 August 2023 (07:15:16 CEST)
A 35-year-old man with a late-onset combined immunodeficiency (LOCID) variant of common variable immunodeficiency, severe plaque psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease attended Regional Hospital of Presidente Prudente and HC-FMUSP, São Paulo, Brazil. Anti-IL-12/IL-23 (ustekinumab) monoclonal antibody was prescribed due to failure of other treatments (phototherapy, oral acitretin) for psoriasis and Psoriasis Area Severity Index <10. We evaluated the impact of ustekinumab, a potent immunosuppressor, on the risk of infectious diseases in this patient followed for 8 years. Four quarterly doses of ustekinumab 90 mg and human immunoglobulin replacement (10,000 mg at 28-day intervals) were administered. Immunophenotyping, culture of lymphocytes, genetic sequencing, and whole exome sequencing were performed to investigate the primary immunodeficiency. Normal lymphocyte proliferation, absence of pathogenic variants in the genes analyzed and no clinically significant variants were detected in the whole exome. The main infections included chronic sinusitis, tonsillitis, fungal and bacterial otitis, gastroenteritis, and community-acquired pneumonia. The patient was infected with COVID-19, dengue (twice), and influenza and was hospitalized three times for intravenous antibiotic therapy. Ustekinumab did not influence susceptibility to severe infections and significantly improved psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease in a patient with LOCID.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: HIV; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; late diagnosis; Nursing
Online: 19 July 2023 (11:40:18 CEST)
Introduction: This study aimed to identify factors associated with late diagnosis and clinically monitor newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients. Method: Retrospective longitudinal study, based on secondary data from a specialized unit at a tertiary hospital. Data collection included sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and laboratory data of newly diagnosed HIV patients between 2015-2019. Data analysis adopted inferential statistical tests using the SPSS program, considering α ≤ 0.05. Results: 314 individuals were newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. 70.3% (208) had a late diagnosis, and 57.1% (169) were diagnosed very late. There was an association of the very late diagnosis with the variables sex and education and with origin, entry, occurrence of opportunistic diseases, use of ARV therapy, and death, associated with late and very late diagnosis, respectively. The results of the regression model indicate that males had 2.28 [95% CI 1.11 - 4.46] higher chances of having a late diagnosis compared to females. Conclusions: This study evidenced a high prevalence of late and very late diagnoses in newly diagnosed male HIV patients who presented with opportunistic diseases, requiring hospitalization, and having a significant risk of progressing to death.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Late blight; PVY; Ryadg; quality control; KASP
Online: 4 October 2021 (17:37:19 CEST)
Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary causing potato late blight (LB) and potato virus Y (PVY), are serious constraints to cultivated potatoes causing important yield reduction, and phenotyping for resistance is challenging. Breeding operations for vegetatively propagated crops can lead to genotype mislabeling that in turn reduces the genetic gain. Low-density and low-cost molecular marker assessment for phenotype prediction and quality control stands as a viable option for breeding programs. We report here the development of Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) markers for LB and PVY resistance, and for quality control assessment, and their routine use in different breeding populations. Two KASP markers for LB resistance and two for PVY Ryadg were validated with an estimated assay power ranging between 0.65 and 0.88. Developed QC KASP markers demonstrated the power of tetraploid calls in discriminating the breeding material, including full sibs and half sibs. The routine implementation of developed markers in a breeding program will allow a better allocation of resources and a precise characterization of the breeding material, leading to an increased genetic gain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sex differences; suicide attempt; late life; depression; physical disability
Online: 11 December 2017 (13:04:01 CET)
Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80) were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt. There were no sex differences in depression and anxiety, but women were more likely to report that they found their situation hopeless (67.9% vs. 43.8%, p = 0.02). At least one serious physical disability was noted in 60.7% of the women and 53.2% of the men (p = 0.55). Proportions attributing their attempt to somatic illness did not differ (women, 14.5% vs. men 17.4%, p = 0.79), and similar proportions attributed the attempt to reduced autonomy (women, 21.8% vs. men, 26.1 %, p = 0.64). The unexpected lack of sex differences might be influenced by cultural context in which sex norms play a part.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1583.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Telomere length; Telomeres; Alzheimer’s Disease; late-onset AD, Aging, Neurodegeneration
Online: 22 August 2023 (13:22:03 CEST)
Telomeres are structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that help maintain genomic stability. During aging, telomere length gradually shortens, producing short telomeres, which are considered markers of premature cellular senescence. This is believed to contribute to age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and based on this, several studies have hypothesized that telomere shortening may characterize AD. Current research, however, has been inconclusive regarding the direction of the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and disease risk. We assessed the association between LTL and AD in a retrospective case-control study of a sample of 255 unrelated patients with late-onset AD (LOAD), including 120 sporadic cases and 135 with positive family history for LOAD, and a group of 279 cognitively healthy unrelated controls, which were all from Calabria, a region from south Italy. Following regression analysis, telomeres were found to be significantly shorter in LOAD cases than in controls (p<0.001 for both sporadic and familial cases). Interestingly, LTL were associated to disease risk independently of the presence of conventional risk factors (e.g., age, sex, MMSE scores, presence of the APOE-ε4 allele). Altogether, our findings lend support to the notion that LTL shortening may be an indicator of the patho-genesis of LOAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0467.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiac magnetic resonance; T1 mapping; Late gadolinium enhancement; T2-STIR
Online: 6 June 2023 (14:48:58 CEST)
We sought to compare native T1 mapping to conventional Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T2-STIR techniques in a cohort of consecutive patients undergoing cardiac MRI (CMR).. CMR was performed in 323 patients, 206 males (64%), mean age 54±8 years and in 27 age- and sex- matched healthy controls. At T2-STIR images myocardial hyperintensity suggesting edema was found in 41 patients (27%). LGE images were positive in 206 patients (64%). T1 mapping was abnormal in 171 (49%). In 206 patients (64%) a matching between LGE and native T1 was found. T1 was abnormal in 32 out of 41 (78%) with edema at T2-STIR. Overall, LGE and/or T2-STIR were abnormal in 209 patients, whereas native T1 in 154(52%). Conventional techniques and T1 mapping were concordant in 208 patients (64%). In 39 patients T1 mapping was positive despite negative conventional techniques (12%). T1 mapping was able in conditions with diffuse myocardial damage as cardiac amyloidosis, scleroderma and Fabry disease (additive role in 42%). On contrast, T1 mapping was less effective in cardiac disease with regional distribution of myocardial damage as myocardial infarction, HCM, myocarditis. In conclusion, conventional LGE/T2-STIR and T1 mapping are complementary techniques and should be used together in every CMR examination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Museums; special events; late opening; visitors' motivations; sustainability, touristic attractions
Online: 17 August 2020 (12:11:29 CEST)
The urban museum has become a multi-functional institution that transcends the functional display of artifacts. The museum has become, in cities, a hybrid institution that keeps its doors open late to support a wide variety of special events. This study explored London’s ‘Museum Lates’ programs and event characteristics, using museums’ theoretical views as cultural tourism attractions. Furthermore, the study applied the contextual model of learning to understand visitor attendance motivations. Authors employed an interpretive approach using interviews with two types of participants, event visitors, and event coordinators. Findings suggested that attendees possess a complex of personal, physical, and socio-cultural motivations for participating in museum lates events. The characteristics of late events – extraordinary quality and evening time atmosphere – produce different effects than current museum exhibitions held during regular operating hours. Museum lates events can contribute to achieving cultural sustainability, adding cultural construct to the traditional three-pillars of sustainability. Keywords: Museums; special events; late opening; visitors' motivations; sustainability, touristic attractions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0378.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: stellar evolution; late stage stellar evolution; binarity; transients; planetary nebulae
Online: 25 June 2018 (10:30:21 CEST)
Intermediate-luminosity-optical-transients (ILOTs) are stellar outbursts with luminosity between those of classical novae and supernovae. They are divided into a number of sub-groups depending on the erupting progenitor and the properties of the eruption. Many of the ILOTs sit on the slanted Optical Transient Stripe (OTS) in the Energy-Time Diagram (ETD) that shows their total energy vs. duration of their eruption. We describe the different kinds of ILOTs that populate the OTS and other parts of the ETD. We also stand on similarities between Planetary Nebulae (PN) to ILOTs, and suggest that some PNe were formed in an ILOT event. The high energy part of the OTS is reserved to the supernova impostors -- giant eruption of very massive stars. We show results of 3D hydrodynamical simulations of supernova impostors that expose the mechanism behind these giant eruptions, and present new models for recent ILOTs. We stand on the connection between different kinds of ILOTs, and suggest that they are powered by a similar source of energy -- gravitational energy released by mass transfer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0336.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Walnut diversity; germplasm evaluation; late-leafing; pomological characteristics; superior geno-types
Online: 22 September 2022 (08:47:22 CEST)
Evaluating genetic diversity in walnut (Juglans regia L.) populations is a rapid approach used by walnut breeding programs to distinguish superior genotypes. The present study identified the Hamedan province walnut population as one of the richest, most genetically diverse regions in Iran during 2019-2020. After initial screening, 47 genotypes were selected for further evaluation of pomological and phenological traits based on International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) descriptors. Nut and kernel weights among the selected genotypes ranged between 7.15-21.05 g and 3.0-10.8 g, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) categorized genotypes into three distinct groups while cluster analysis (CA) further categorized genotypes into one of four groups. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation (P <0.01) between nut weight (NWT), nut size, and kernel weight (KW) while a negative correlation (P <0.01) between shell thickness (STH) and packing tissue thickness (PTT) with kernel percentage (KP) was observed. Lastly, 10 of 47 genotypes (TAL8, TAL9, TAL10, TAL14, TAL19, TAL22, TB2, TB4, TB6, and RDGH5) were considered superior. Superior genotypes were late-leafing (25-40 days after the standard) and displayed a lateral bearing (LB) habit with heavy nuts (12.52–16.82 g) and kernels (6.53–8.15 g), thin-shells (1.06–1.25 mm), and lightly-colored kernels. Cuttings of superior genotypes were then grafted in the orchard. Detecting superior and late-leafing genotypes in this investigation suggests cultivars resistant to late-spring frost may soon be isolated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0209.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Sign Language Recognition; Multi-modality; Late Fusion; multi-sensor; Gesture Recognition
Online: 8 August 2020 (17:28:00 CEST)
In this work, we show that a late fusion approach to multi-modality in sign language recognition improves the overall ability of the model in comparison to the singular approaches of Computer Vision (88.14%) and Leap Motion data classification (72.73%). With a large synchronous dataset of 18 BSL gestures collected from multiple subjects, two deep neural networks are benchmarked and compared to derive a best topology for each. The Vision model is implemented by a CNN and optimised MLP and the Leap Motion model is implemented by an evolutionary optimised deep MLP topology search. Next, the two best networks are fused for synchronised processing which results in a better overall result (94.44%) since complementary features are learnt in addition to the original task. The hypothesis is further supported by application of the three models to a set of completely unseen data where a multi-modality approach achieves the best results relative to the single sensor method. When transfer learning with the weights trained via BSL, all three models outperform standard random weight distribution when classifying ASL, and the best model overall for ASL classification was the transfer learning multi-modality approach which scored 82.55% accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1557.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: magnetic survey; aerial archaeology; late Neolithic; Eastern Croatia; enclosure; settlement organization
Online: 24 November 2023 (05:50:26 CET)
The decade of research concentrating on the area of Easter Slavonia revealed abundance of large on complex late Neolithic sites. It changed profoundly how we perceive late Neolithic settlement and space size and organization. As s first step in particular site detection we mostly conducted aerial reconnaissance and satellite image analysis but also data from the field such as excavation. On detected potential sites we conducted intensive field surveys and confirmed the attribution to the late Neolithic by surface finds. On those confirmed sites in the vicinity of Đakovo, Croatia, magnetic survey was conducted on 5 sites so far and the results confirmed presence of large scale late Neolithic settlements with complex spatial organization and enclosure(s). Most complex remains so far is site Gorjani Kremenjača and Topole which we present in this paper where a remains of one or two settlements covers the area of 70 hectares and is currently in the process of formal protection as a cultural landscape by the Ministry of Culture and Media of the Republic of Croatia. Special focus of the paper is the application of remote sensing in detection, archaeological confirmation and protection of the position Gorjani Topole.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0705.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: North Qinling orogen belt; Late Triassic; tectonic setting; petrogenesis; geochronology; syenitic porphyries
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:33:26 CET)
Precise determination of the tectonothermal events at the Qinling-Qilian junction is extremely significant for understanding the tectonic evolution of the eastern branch of the Paleo-Tethys. The Banpo porphyry outcrops in the northern margin of the North Qinling were chosen as the research subject, and its formation and tectonic environment were analyzed using Zircon U-Pb age estimation and geochemical studies. The results indicated the final stage of the Triassic orogeny and the closure phase of the Paleo-Tethys. The weighted average values of 206Pb/238U ages of samples from 3 sites of the Banpo porphyry corresponded to 213.4 ±2.1 Ma (MSWD = 0.56), 213.0 ±1.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.92), and 213.2 ±4.4 Ma (MSWD = 1.6). This study revealed that the Banpo porphyry was formed during the Late Triassic (Norian). The porphyry with high SiO2 and high alkali is typical A-type granite, which belongs to the weak peraluminous shoshonite series. All the samples are rich in low rare earth elements. However, the heavy rare earth elements are low, especially Eu, which exhibits a seagull-type right-leaning partitioning curve. In addition, based on the regional geological data, it can be concluded that the Banpo porphyry was formed during the transition period from a post-orogenic environment to a non-orogenic environment. This study indicated the closure of the Paleo-Tethys-Mianxian-Lveyang Ocean by the Late Triassic as well as the completion of the collision between the North China and Yangtze Blocks along the Qinling orogenic belt.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1641.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: dietary habits; meal timing; meal frequency; late night dinner; skipping meals; Kuwait
Online: 26 September 2023 (03:23:15 CEST)
Dietary habits, including meal frequency, meal timing, and skipping meals, have been extensively studied due to their association with the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study describes dietary habits, meal timing, meal frequency, skipping meals, and late-night eating in Kuwaiti adults. The Kuwait National Nutrition Surveillance System data was utilized to reach the objectives of this study. The findings reveal that approximately 50% of the adults in Kuwait eat after 10 p.m., 29% skip breakfast, and 9.8% skip dinner. Furthermore, adults in Kuwait consume 4.4 meals per day on average. Women skip breakfast more often and have extended night fasting than men (p<0.001). Married adults skip breakfast and dinner less than unmarried adults (p<0.001). In conclusion, this descriptive study provides valuable insights into the dietary habits of Kuwaiti adults, emphasizing the importance of further investigating the association between meal timing, meal frequency, and the prevalence of NCDs in Kuwait.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1463.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Late Permian coal; trace element geochemistry; coal facies; depositional environment; Xuanwei Formation
Online: 22 August 2023 (04:47:31 CEST)
Paleopeat-forming environments have an important effect on the dispersion and enrichment of trace elements in coal. The C3 coal seam of the Xuanwei Formation in eastern Yunnan was used as a case study to reconstruct the paleopeat-forming environment based on the coal facies parameters and geochemical characteristics, and its influence on trace element (including rare earth elements and yttrium, REY) enrichment was investigated. The C3 coal was classified as medium rank coking coal with an ultra-low moisture content, medium-high-ash yield, and low-medium volatile content. Compared to the average values for Chinese coals, Cu and V were enriched and Co was slightly enriched in the C3 coal. Compared with the average values for world coals, Cu and V were enriched, while several other trace elements were slightly enriched, including Co, Hf, Nb, Sc, Ta, Zn, and Zr in the C3 coal. The C3 coal was deposited in a low peat mainly limno-telmatic swamp, with deep water, weak hydrodynamic conditions, brackish to salty water, and reducing conditions. Trace elements, including Cu, V, Hf, Nb, Sc, Ta, Zr, and REY, are typically enriched in a limno-telmatic environment with fresh water, and reducing and weak hydrodynamic conditions. Additionally, REY and V are also significantly enriched in brackish water limno-telmatic conditions with the same depositional environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Fabry disease; Cardiac magnetic Resonance; T1 mapping; Late gadolinium enhancement; Feature tracking.
Online: 14 October 2022 (03:25:53 CEST)
Fabry disease (FD) is a X-linked inheritable storage disease caused by deficiency of al-pha-galactosidase causing lysosomal overload of sphingolipids. FD cardiomyopathy is character-ized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and should be considered in differential diagnosis with all the other causes of LV hypertrophy. An early diagnosis of FD is very important because the enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) may change the fate of patients by blocking both cardiac and systemic involvement and improving prognosis. Diagnosis may be relatively easy in young patients with the typical signs ans symptoms of FD, but in male patients with late onset of disease and in females, diagnosis may be very challenging. Morphological and functional aspects are not specific for FD, which cannot be diagnosed or excluded by echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with tissue characterization capability, is the preferred technique for the differential diagnosis of LV hypertrophy. The finding of decreased myocardial T1 value in LV hypertrophy is very specific for FD. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is found in late stage of disease but it is useful to predict the cardiac response to ERT and to stratify the prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: late blight; mating type; mefenoxam; metalaxyl; potato; SSR genotyping; race structure; tomato
Online: 27 January 2020 (07:28:44 CET)
Late blight caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans is a devastating disease of potato and tomato worldwide, including Israel. The population structure of this pathogen was monitored in potato and tomato fields in Israel during a 36-year period of 1983-2019. Isolates of the pathogen were tested for sensitivity to phenylamide fungicides, mating type, race structure, and genotype. The phenotypic and genotypic structure of the population from potato have changed greatly from one year to another, from one season to the next, within a season and within a single field. Major changes also occurred in the population collected from tomato crops. The mechanisms driving these multiple changes and the heterogeneous nature of the population in Israel are shown to derive from multiple migration events of the pathogen via seed tubers from Europe and from fitness-driven selection processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0476.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Late potentials; signal-averaged electrocardiogrhy; heart rate variability; fatal arrhyrthmia; sudden cardiac death
Online: 8 June 2023 (03:37:05 CEST)
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Holter-based late potentials (LPs) are useful for predicting lethal arrhythmias in organic cardiac diseases. Although Holter-based LPs exhibit diurnal varia-tion, no studies have evaluated the optimal timing of LP measurement over 24 h for predicting lethal arrhythmia that leads to sudden cardiac death. Thus, this study aimed to validate the most effective timing for Holter-based LP testing and to explore factors influencing diurnal variability of LP parameters. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 126 patients with post-myocardial infarction (MI) status and 60 control participants who underwent high-resolution Holter electrocardiography. Among the 126 post-MI patients, 23 developed sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (the MI-VT group), while 103 did not (the MI-non-VT group) during the obser-vation period. Holter-based LPs were measured at 0:00, 4:00, 8:00, 12:00, 16:00, and 20:00, and heart rate variability analysis was simultaneously performed to investigate factors influencing diurnal variability of LP parameters. Results: Holter-based LP parameters showed diurnal variation with significant deterioration at night and improvement during the day. Assessment at the time with the longest duration of low-amplitude signals <40 μV in the filtered QRS complex terminus (LAS40) gave the highest receiver operating characteristics curve (area under the curve, 0.659) and the highest odds ratio (3.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.45–9.71; p=0.006) for predicting VT. In the multiple regression analysis, heart rate and noise were significant factors affecting LP parameters in the MI-VT and control groups. In the non-VT group, LP parameters were significantly influenced by noise and parasympathetic heart rate variability parameters such as logPNN50. Conclusions: For Holter-based LP measurements, test accuracy was higher when LP was measured at the time of the highest or worst value of LAS40. Changes in autonomic nervous system activity, including heart rate and noise levels, were factors influencing diurnal variability.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: circadian clock; otitis media; late dinner; common cold; Mediterranean diet; oxidative stress; chronotype
Online: 23 June 2022 (10:37:16 CEST)
Running at odds with the timing imposed by the circadian clock plays an important role in the process that leads to communicable and non communicable diseases. The primary objective of this study was to analyse whether early dinner eater children were at lower risks of acute respiratory infections than late dinner eater children, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from July to December 2020 on children attending Majorcan emergency services. Clinical data collected included timing, symptoms, laboratory tests and imaging studies of current illness. Each diagnosis was validated by general paediatricians. Our survey on dinner time habits was carried out by using self-administered questionnaires. Results: A total of 669 children under age 18 were included in the study. The median of dinner time was 8:30 pm. Late dinner eaters accounted for a higher proportion of acute otitis media than early dinner eaters (7% vs 3%; P=0.028). Other infectious diseases were not associated with dinner time habits. Conclusions: We make a preliminary estimate of the link between late dinner habits and acute otitis media in children. However, no conclusions about causality can be established due to the observational design of the study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: left ventricular noncompaction; cardiomyopathy; sinus bradycardia; HCN4 mutation; late gado-linium enhancement; children
Online: 21 February 2022 (03:16:22 CET)
Background: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous cardiomyopathy characterized by a two-layered myocardium consisting of compacted and noncompacted segments, prominent ventricular trabeculations, and intertrabecular recesses. Patients with LVNC are at increased risk to develop heart failure, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and/or systemic thromboembolic events. Familial forms of primary sinus bradycardia have been attributed to mutations in HCN4. There are very few reports about the association between HCN4 mutations and LVNC. The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical phenotype of families with LVNC and sinus bradycardia caused by mutation of the HCN4 gene. Methods: From March 2008 to July 2021 we prospectively enrolled 6 patients from 4 families with diagnosed isolated LVNC based on the clinical presentation, family history and echocardiographic and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) evidence of LVNC. Next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis was undertaken for evaluation of the molecular basis of the disease in each family. Results: A total of 6 children (median age 11 years) were enrolled and followed prospectively for the median of 12 years. All 6 patients were diagnosed with LVNC by echocardiography and 5 participants additionally by CMR. The presence of LGE was found in 3 children. Sinus bradycardia and dilation of the ascending aorta occurred in 5 studied patients. In 4 patients from 3 families the molecular studies demonstrated the presence of rare heterozygous HCN4 mutations. Conclusion: (1) The HCN4 mutation influences the presence of a complex LVNC phenotype, sinus bradycardia and dilation of the ascending aorta. (2) HCN4 mutation may be associated with the early presentation of clinical symptoms and the severe course of the disease. (3) It is particularly important to assess myocardial fibrosis not only within the ventricles, but also in the atria in patients with LVNC and sinus bradycardia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0098.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Prebiotic chemistry, Late Heavy Bombardment, Hadean Eon, carbonaceous chondrites, primitive terrestrial atmosphere, viroids
Online: 7 March 2019 (13:54:30 CET)
Geochemists disagree whether or not prebiotic chemistry has existed already during the Hadean Eon and whether the then terrestrial atmosphere has been strongly or weakly reduced. Here I argue that cellular life has existed already just after the end of the Hadean Eon and that terrestrial life has survived a number of cataclysms during the Earth's history. I argue that although organic molecules have been detected in meteorites that most organic molecules required for the formation of macromolecules must have been formed on Earth. Finally, I argue that the primitive terrestrial atmosphere during the Hadean Eon has been weakly reduced, so that amino acids and small nucleic acids could have been formed. I suggest that the first self-replicable macromolecules have been similar to viroids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: severe aortic stenosis; longitudinal axis strain; late gadolinium enhancement; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Online: 28 December 2018 (07:12:57 CET)
To analyze the predictive ability and incremental value of left ventricular longitudinal axis strain (LAS) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) using standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of severe aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with an indication for aortic valve replacement. We conducted a prospective study on 128 patients with severe AS and 52 volunteers. The evaluation protocol included standard biochemistry tests, novel biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis, 12-lead electrocardiograms and 24-hour Holter, the 6-minute walk test and extensive echocardiographic and CMR imaging studies. Outcomes were defined as the composite of major cardiovascular events (MACEs). Among AS patients, most (n = 17, 77.2%) of those who exhibited LGE at CMR imaging had MACEs during follow-up. Kaplan-Meier curves for event-free survival showed a significantly higher rate of MACEs in patients with LGE (p < 0.01) and decreased LAS (p < 0.001). In Cox regression analysis, only reduced LAS [hazard ratio 1.33, 95%CI (1.01 to 1.74), p < 0.01] and the presence of LGE [hazard ratio 11.3, 95%CI (1.82 to 70.0), p < 0.01] were independent predictors for MACEs. The predictive value increased if both LGE and reduced LAS were added to LVEF. None of the biomarkers of increased collagen turnover exhibited any predictive value for MACEs. LAS by CMR is an independent predictor of outcomes in patients with AS and provides incremental value beyond the assessment of LVEF and the presence of LGE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0438.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Preeclampsia; epidemiology; early onset preeclampsia; late onset preeclampsia; twin pregnancies; monozygotic twins; dizygotic twins
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:44:40 CEST)
Objectives: To develop a multivariate model for risk factors specific to early onset preeclampsia (EOP) and late onset preeclampsia (LOP) in our entire population (singleton and twin pregnancies). Material and methods: 20 year-observational population-based historical cohort study (2001-2020). All consecutive births delivered at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hospitalier Sud Reunion’s maternity. A standardized validated epidemiological perinatal data base. Results: During the 20-year period, there were 81,834 pregnancies and 83,555 infants born, 1232 dichorionic and 350 monochorionic twin pregnancies. There were 2120 cases of preeclampsia, of which 2001preeclamptic singleton pregnancies and 119 twin pregnancies (incidence 7.5% in twin pregnancies vs 2.5% singletons, OR 3.0, p<0.001). Independent risk factors for EOP and LOP in a multivariate model (controlling for the two major confounders: namely maternal ages -both risks for EOP and LOP- and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI – specific risk factor for LOP) were: history of preeclampsia (aOR 11.7 for EOP, 7.8 for LOP, p < 0.0001), chronic hypertension (aOR 7.3 for EOP, 3.9 for LOP, p < 0.0001), history of perinatal death (aOR 2.2 for EOP, p < 0.0001 and 1.48 for LOP, p= 0.007), primipaternity (aOR 3.0 for EOP and 3.6 for LOP, p = 0.001), dizygotic twin pregnancies (aOR 3.7 for EOP, p < 0.0001 and 2.1 for LOP, p = 0.003), monozygotic twin pregnancies (aOR 3.98 for EOP, p = 0.003 and NS for LOP), ovulation induction (aOR 5.6 for EOP, p = 0.004 and NS for LOP), and in vitro fertilization (aOR 2.8 for EOP, p = 0.05 and NS for LOP). Specific to LOP and NS for EOP: renal diseases (aOR for LOP 2.9, p= 0.007) and gestational diabetes mellitus (aOR 1.2, p= 0.04). Conclusions: Maternal ages over 35 years, chronic hypertension , history of preeclampsia, ovulation induction, in vitro fertilizations, history of perinatal deaths and twin pregnancy (in our experience, especially mono zygotic twin pregnancies) are significant risk factors for EOP. New paternity is an independent factor for both EOP and LOP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: qualia; consciousness; emission theories; perception; event-related brain potentials; P600 or late posterior positivity; N400
Online: 6 June 2018 (10:51:03 CEST)
We take what we see, hear, smell and feel for the reality. However, as neuroscientists, we know that this reality, that is, our perceptual world, is in fact made up by the brain from the processing of the nerve impulses coming from receptors. Ancient Greeks used to think that this perceptual world, sometimes called our 3D movie (Chalmers), is emitted and has its own physical nature. Given how real the 3D movie looks to us, it is still difficult today to consider that all we would be dealing with would be patterns of brain activity The present study thus aimed at testing whether the perceptual world could have some physical existence in addition to that of the neural patterns responsible for it. To achieve that goal, we tried to see whether brains could be sensitive to the 3D movie of others. This, admittedly unusual, operational hypothesis was based on two assumptions. First, brains are sensitive to the 3D movie, as our experience includes reactions to our perceptual world. Second, the physicality at stake does not differ across individuals. We recorded the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) evoked by stimuli of the international affective picture system in pairs of closely-related participants. Most importantly, they could neither see the stimuli simultaneously presented to their partners nor their reactions to them. As in Bouten et al. (2015), around 400 ms after the onset of the stimuli, ERPs started being more positive in inconsistent conditions. Namely, when the two subjects of each pair were presented with the same stimulus whereas they were told it would be a different one and vice-versa (i.e., different-stimuli expected to be same). ERPs were less positive when the two subjects of a pair were presented with the same stimuli and were told they were the same and conversely (i.e., different-stimuli expected to be different). The same experiment was then run in pairs of strangers. No significant effect of consistency on ERPs was observed even though participants could, this time, see, in the very periphery of their visual field, the reactions of their partner to the stimuli. We thus use the results of both studies to support a new version of the emission theory of consciousness and to suggest that the sensitivity to the perceptual world of others may depend on their prior familiarity with it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: thermal design; miniaturization; high power; high density; automation
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:22:44 CEST)
Multi-board electronic cases with high density and high power modules are widely used in industrial power supply management. With the improvement of case performance and miniaturization requirements, heat dissipation becomes one of the important factors to be considered in the design process. First,The existing small electronic thermal design methods focus on heat dissipation structure or heat source layout optimization,and ignores on-load test for modeling analysis. Second,The selected power module has on-load power consumption, resulting in relatively low calorific value and the effectiveness of thermal design cannot be verified. Third, The thermal lacks Intelligent monitoring and feedback control mechanism. In order to solve these problems, this paper designs a kind of heat dissipation case with intelligent temperature control based on high-power and high-density power supply array. Based on the extremely miniaturization design principle, we adopt the composite heat dissipation mode based on conduction and supplemented by forced air cooling . The case is made of magnesium and aluminum alloy with a perforated design. Finally, we compare and analyze with the existing cooling design. The results show that the case is smaller in volume, and the cooling performance parameters are slightly better than the existing case. Under the condition of high-density and high-power design, The output power of the whole system is not less than 10kw and the lowest packing-level density is not less than 47w/cm2 with high reliability, portability and practicability. It also provides technical support and prototype support for the standardized design of similar power arrays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2058.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Dermoscopy; high magnification; super-high magnification; keratinocyte; melanocyte; melanoma.
Online: 30 May 2023 (06:04:10 CEST)
Super-high (x400) magnification dermoscopy (D400) is a new non-invasive imaging technique that has been shown to add information for the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions in a pilot study. Our study aimed to confirm if D400 can add details for the discrimination of clinically atypical nevus and melanoma. This is a retrospective observational, multicentric study enrolling patients who received an x20 (D20) and x400 (D400) magnification dermoscopic examination of pigmented skin lesions. Dermoscopic images were retrospectively evaluated by three observers for the presence/absence of nine D20 and twenty D400 dermoscopic features defined in the previous pilot study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find predictors of benign and malignant behaviors. At D20 atypical pigment network, blue-whitish veil, atypical vascular pattern, regression, and homogenous pattern were more frequent in melanoma than in nevi (p<0.001). At D400 melanoma showed more frequently than benign lesions melanocytes with an irregular arrangement and irregular in shape and size (p<0.001). Network with edged papillae was more frequent in benign lesions than melanomas (p<0.001). Our study confirms that D400 can identify melanocytes with an irregular arrangement and irregular in shape and size in melanomas, adding information to the conventional D20 examination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: strawberry; high-temperature and high-light; AsA-GSH cycle
Online: 3 February 2023 (09:54:45 CET)
Chitosan (CTS) is widely used in agriculture as a soil amendment, plant growth regulator and promoter of cold resistance. However, the effects of CTS on strawberry seedlings under the combined stress of high-temperature and high-light are unclear. In this study, Xuelixiang strawberry was used as a test material, and 100 mg·kg-1 CTS solution was sprayed onto the leaves. We measured the chlorophyll content, membrane peroxidation, reactive oxygen species content, antioxidant enzyme content, AsA-GSH cycle activity and other related indicators of strawberry seedling leaves under the combined stress of high-temperature and high-light and found that CTS can increase the contents of antioxidants, increase the contents of osmotic adjustment substances, increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes activity,; remove reactive oxygen species over time, reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species to photosynthetic organs and cell membranes, and improve the photosynthesis efficiency of leaves of strawberry plants under high-temperature and high-light stress, thereby reducing damage to strawberry seedlings caused by high-temperature and high-light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Oil shale; Permeability; Pyrolysis; High temperature and high pressure
Online: 10 September 2018 (09:14:56 CEST)
In-situ injection of steam for heating of the subsurface is an efficient method for the recovery of oil and gas from oil shale where permeability typically evolves with temperature. We reported measurements on Jimusar oil shales(Xinjiang, China) at different temperatures to 600℃ and under recreated in situ triaxial stresses to obtain permeability evolution with temperature and stress. Permeability of tight oil shales evolves with temperature to a threshold temperature and peak temperature. The threshold temperature was subjected to triaxial stresses. For Jimusar oil shale, the threshold temperature ranges from 200℃ to 250℃ at ground stress of buried depth of 500m and from 350℃ to 400℃ at buried depth of 1000m. The peak temperature was almost not subjected to triaxial stress and the range is from 450℃ to 500℃ for all Jimusar samples. Pyrolysis plays an important role in permeability evolution and fundamentally changes permeability tendency and magnitude. At high temperature permeability exhibits a little reduction due to stress effect but still remains a high level due to pyrolysis. The above results show that oil shale mass can change from tight porous media into highly permeable media and oil & gas can easily flow through oil shale stratum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0783.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer, cancer survivor, exercise, athletes, competition, long-term effects, late effects, living with and beyond cancer
Online: 31 May 2021 (14:02:13 CEST)
Athletes living with and beyond cancer can continue to train and, in some cases, compete during treatment. Following cancer treatment, athletes can return to competitive sport but need to learn to adapt their physical strength and training to lingering effects of cancer. It is critical for oncology healthcare providers to use the principles of assess, refer and advise to exercise oncology programs that are appropriate for the individual. Managing side effects of treatment is key to being able to train during and immediately following cancer treatment. Keen attention to fatigue is important at any point in the cancer spectrum to avoid overtraining and optimize the effects of training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0141.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: the Late Bronze Age; Bashkir Transurals; Srubnaya-Alacul type of monuments; interdisciplinary methods in archaeological investigation
Online: 15 February 2019 (11:16:37 CET)
The Late Bronze Age on the territory of Southern Transurals is represented by two major archeological cultures: Srubnaya and Andronovskaya (Alakul culture and Fyodorovskaya – type). Their interaction of constitutes a special mix of material cultures which preserves common features of two independent, Srubnaya and Andronovskaya cultures, but also creates novel local material features. These cultural groups are also known to have brought to the region the technology of bronze production. This is evidenced, amongst others, by the proximity of the largest copper mining in the region, Kargaly mines Chernykh (2002). New methods to produce ceramics and to work bones were also developed, combining two traditions, coming from Srubnaya and Andronovskaya cultures respectively. Importantly, the features of these cultures are commonly encountered together in a single cultural horizon across the distribution ares. These diffusion processes took place in a vast area (more than 120,000 km2) andwere reflected in archeological micro-district of the Urshak river basin. We present here the most recent results of the scientific examination of the Late Bronze Age settlements in southern Transurals and attempt to address a peculiar cultural co-habitation of two distinct cultural groups in this region. We also discuss their synchronism based on absolute dates and elaborate on this cultural syncretism in the entire territory of the Volga-Ural region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1917.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: WASHR; co-treatment; high-rate treatment; high-strength wastewater; waste activated sludge-high rate; winery wastewater
Online: 28 July 2023 (13:02:22 CEST)
High-strength wastewaters from a variety of sources, including the food industry, domestic septage and landfill leachate, are often hauled to municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for co-treatment. Due to their high organic loadings, these wastewaters can cause process upsets in both the WWTP’s liquid and solids treatment trains and consume organic treatment capacity, leaving less capacity available to service customers in the catchment area. A novel pre-treatment method, the Waste Activated Sludge-High Rate (WASHR) process, is proposed to optimize the co-treatment of high-strength wastewaters. The WASHR process combines the contact stabilization and sequencing batch reactor processes. It utilizes waste activated sludge from the municipal WWTP as its biomass source, allowing rapid start-up. Bench scale treatment trials of winery wastewater confirm the WASHR process can reduce loadings on the downstream WWTP’s liquid treatment and solids treatment trains. A case study approach is used to confirm the economic viability and environmental sustainability of the WASHR process compared to direct co-treatment using life cycle cost analyses and greenhouse gas emissions estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; hypertension; blood pressure; low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; extremely high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; body mass index; big data
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:53:04 CEST)
Background Although high-density lipoprotein has cardioprotective effects, the association between serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and hypertension is poorly understood. Objective We investigated whether low and high concentrations of HDL-C are associated with hypertension using a large healthcare dataset. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study of 1,493,152 Japanese people aged 40–74 years who underwent a health checkup, blood pressures and clinical parameters, including nine HDL-C concentrations (20–110 mg/dL or over) were investigated. Results A crude U-shaped relationship was observed between the nine HDL-C concentrations and blood pressure in males (n = 830,669), while a left-to-right inverted J-shaped relationship was observed in females(n = 662,483). An age-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed J-shaped relationships (left-to-right inversion in females) between HDL-C and odds ratios for hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg), with lower limits of 60–79 mg/dL in males and 90–99 mg/dL in females, which were unchanged after adjusting for smoking, habitual exercise, alcohol consumption, and pharmacotherapy for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. However, further adjustment for body mass index and serum triglyceride concentration revealed latent positive linear associations between HDL-C and hypertension, although the association between extremely high HDL-C (≥100 mg/dL) and hypertension was attenuated in non-alcohol drinkers. Conclusion Both low and extremely high HDL-C concentrations are associated with hypertension. The former association may be dependent on excess fat mass, which is often concomitant with low HDL-C, whereas the latter association may be dependent on frequent alcohol consumption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0288.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diet; Obesity; Gut microbes; High-fiber diet; High fat diet
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:50:36 CEST)
With the ever-increasing rate, obesity has become an epidemiological problem throughout the globe comprising about 39% of the world population as of now. Among several reasons, disruption of the gut microbial ecosystem might contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other associated comorbidities. Though the mechanisms related to dysbiosis are unclear, diet might play a modulating role where different dietary approaches manipulate microbial richness and abundance as well as stability. For instance, shifting of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut might have a role in association with the dietary approaches and ingestion duration. Along with altered gut microbial composition, microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after ingestion of non-digestible dietary starches may have an impact on host metabolism by regulating lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation with potential associations to health and obesity. The dietary approaches like carbohydrates, fibre, protein, and/or fat diet at various arrangements can make a shift in the composition of gut microbiota if introduced for a short period. However, the unique pattern of the gut microbes usually remains the same along with the longer period of habitual diet. Though the short-term dietary intervention or circadian rhythm influences a transient change in gut microbes, other than habitual diet, the understanding related to long-term dietary change-induced permanent alterations is minimum. Alternatively, the usage of prebiotics, probiotics as well as postbiotics could be beneficial to overcome dysbiosis. This review highlights the current knowledge and the interaction between the human intestinal microbiota and diet as a modifying factor, in obesity allowing the scientists to uncover novel targets and tools to use as customized therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: spatiotemporal analysis; high to ultra high spatial resolution; high to very high temporal resolution; NDVI; NIR; neural network modelling, Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:35:50 CET)
The salt marshes, lying at the land-sea temperate interface, furnish a plethora of ecosystems services such as biodiversity niche support, ocean-climate change regulation, ornithology recreo-tourism or plant gathering by hand. They undergo significant worldwide losses due to their conversion into crop fields and to their spatial compression between the rising sea-level and the armoring shoreline. Their monitoring however requires to use a suite of remote sensing sensors to embrace the regional scale while capturing the plant details. This research innovatively adopts a multiscale approach using a cascading spaceborne and airborne process, from the 10-m Sentinel-2, through the 3-m Dove, to the 0.03-m unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) imageries. The high to very high temporal resolution of the Sentinel-2 and Dove enabled to cover twenties and tens of km2 over five and four years, respectively, in the form of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) classes, associated with microphytobenthos, low, medium and high salt marsh vegetation, including the opportunistic Elyma genus. The NDVI was then modelled at the UAV scale (a few km2) using a three-layered NN prediction, providing the final near-infrared (NIR), and the intermediate red, green and blue reflectance imageries, calibrated/validated/tested with the Dove reflectance imageries (R2NIR=0.98, R2red=0.88, R2green=0.84, and R2blue=0.90). The 100fold increase in pixel size allowed to detect the decimeter-scale objects of the tidal flats and salt marshes, to enlarge the NDVI class ranges, and hold great promise to model other spectral bands at the UAV scale for further deeply enhancing the salt marsh mapping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0489.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: High pressure X-ray crystallography; high pressure magnetometry; high pressure absorption spectroscopy; high pressure EPR; molecule-based magnets; single-molecule magnets; single-ion magnets
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:48:58 CEST)
The cornerstone of molecular magnetism is a detailed understanding of the relationship between structure and magnetic behaviour, i.e. the development of magneto-structural correlations. Traditionally, the synthetic chemist approaches this challenge by making multiple compounds that share a similar magnetic core but differ in peripheral ligation. Changes in the ligand framework induce changes in the bond angles and distances around the metal ions which are manifested in changes to magnetic susceptibility and magnetisation data. This approach requires the synthesis of series of different ligands and assumes that the chemical/electronic nature of the ligands and their coordination to the metal, the nature and number of counter ions and how they are positioned in the crystal lattice, and the molecular and crystallographic symmetry have no effect on the measured magnetic properties. In short, the assumption is that everything outwith the magnetic core is innocent, which is a huge oversimplification. The ideal scenario would be to have the same complex available in multiple structural conformations, and this is something that can be achieved through the application of external hydrostatic pressure, correlating structural changes observed through high pressure single crystal X-ray crystallography with changes observed in high pressure magnetometry, in tandem with high pressure inelastic neutron scattering (INS), high pressure electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and high pressure absorption/emission/Raman spectroscopy. In this review, which summarises our work in this area over the last 15 years, we show that the application of pressure to molecule-based magnets can (reversibly): (1) lead to changes in bond angles, distances and Jahn-Teller orientations; (2) break and form bonds; (3) induce polymerisation/depolymerisation; (4) enforce multiple phase transitions; (5) instigate piezochromism; (6) change the magnitude and sign of pairwise exchange interactions and magnetic anisotropy and (7) lead to significant increases in magnetic ordering temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: neonatal sepsis; blood culture; early-onset sepsis; late-onset sepsis; FilmArray® blood culture identification panel; neonates.
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:50:19 CET)
This prospective single-center study was designed to assess the clinical utility of the FilmArray® blood culture identification (BCID) panel for improving the diagnostic accuracy in neonatal sepsis. Results obtained using the FilmArray® BCID panel were correlated with results of blood culture in all consecutive neonates with suspicion of early-onset (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) attended in our service over a 2-year period. A total of 102 blood cultures from 92 neonates were included, 69 (67.5%) in cases of EOS and 33 (32.3%) in LOS. The FilmArray® BCID panel was performed in negative culture bottles at a median of 10 hours of blood culture incubation (range 7.5-20 hours), without differences by the type of sepsis. The FilmArray® BCID panel showed a 66.7% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 95.7% negative predictive value. There were four false-negative cases, three of which of Streptococcus epidermidis in neonates with LOS and one case of Granulicatella adiacens in one neonate with EOS. We conclude that the use of the FilmArray® BCID panel in negative blood cultures from neonates with clinical suspicion of sepsis is useful in decision-making of starting or early withdrawal of empirical antimicrobials because of the high specificity and negative predictive values of this assay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0722.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: cosmology; Bianchi Type I; particle creation; open thermodynamic system; constant deceleration parameter; accelerated expansion; late time acceleration
Online: 30 October 2018 (09:36:05 CET)
A study of Bianchi Type I cosmological model is undertaken in the framework of creation of particles. To accommodate the creation of new particles, the universe is regarded as an Open thermodynamical system. The energy conservation equation is modified with the incorporation of a creation pressure in the energy momentum tensor. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained (i) for a particular choice of the particle creation function and (ii) by considering the deceleration parameter to be constant. In the first model the behavior of the solution at late times is investigated. The physical aspects of the model have also been discussed. In the case of the second model we have restricted our analysis to the power law behaviour for the average scale factor. This leads to a particular form for the particle creation function. The behavior of the solution is investigated and the physical aspects of the model have also been discussed for the matter dominated era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0174.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: high-pressure water jet; high-pressure abrasive water- jet; rock processing
Online: 9 December 2022 (09:22:30 CET)
Rocks are materials with a wide variety of structures and properties. These can be unprocessed conglomerates of conglomerated minerals as well as crystallized outcrop or metamorphic rocks. Their processing, especially shaping, poses many technological difficulties. Therefore, it is very important to answer the question of how these natural materials yield to high-pressure water jet and abrasive water. It is equally important to determine the effect of key process parameters such as pressure, water nozzle diameter and feed rate on cutting efficiency. The first two parameters determine the water output and power of the jet, while the third determines the jet erosion time per unit volume of material. Their interdependence, using appropriate evaluation indicators, allows to determine the energy intensity of processing and directions for its minimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0042.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: high volume fly ash, high fluidity concrete, early strength, field application
Online: 13 February 2017 (11:44:54 CET)
In the recent concrete industry, high fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high fluidity concrete that using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated that fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration and drying shrinkage of concrete.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plum consumption; Consumer Quality Index; flesh breakdown; temperature management; critical bruising thresholds; maximum maturity; late harvest; firmness; SSC
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:25:20 CEST)
Plums are primarily marketed for fresh consumption, canning, freezing, jam and jelly. Unfortunately, plum consumption has remained steady or declined. Consumers complain about a lack of flavor quality but are willing to pay for higher quality. Thus, lack of flavor and cold storage disorders are the main barriers to consumption. Plum cultivars are susceptible to gel breakdown, flesh browning and ‘off flavors’. Consumer acceptance and postharvest life are highly dependent on genotype, quality attributes, harvest date and proper postharvest handling. A consumer quality index (CQI) based on soluble solids concentration (SSC) and minimum firmness is proposed to maximize flavor and postharvest life. In most cases, late harvest increases quality attributes. Our work and industry experience demonstrated that using critical bruising thresholds (CBT) based on minimum firmness measured at harvest acts as a reliable predictor of how late to harvest safely for maximum visual and sensory quality. Plums are well adapted to late harvest because of their low susceptibility to bruising damage, but proper postharvest temperature management and marketing within the potential market life are necessary to maintain flavor and avoid the onset of storage disorders. Thus, to maximize flavor and postharvest life, a CQI based on SSC and minimum firmness measured at consumption is proposed. This article provides guidance on using this CQI, combined with proper postharvest handling techniques such as correct harvest date determination and temperature management, to maintain quality and increase consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0407.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Parenteral fluids in premature infants; late premature infants; infections associated with the use of lines; early oral feeds
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:05:52 CEST)
Introduction: Some of the practices in medicine are carried out of habit without proven benefits. This is the case of premature babies from 30 to 34 weeks of gestation who are always given parenteral fluids, even though this practice has been associated with an increase incidence of infection. At the end of 2017, we started a protocol of rationalization in the use of parenteral fluid. To administer nutrition/fluids, we used oral fluids by suction if this was possible or otherwise by oral/nasogastric tube at volumes of 70-80 mL/Kg/day divided every 3 hours, with 5 mL increments every 12-24 hours until 200 mL/K/day was achieved, always using breast milk when possible. Material and methods: The present study sought to compare results before and after this new policy. For this work, we review all premature babies between 30-34 weeks of gestation in two time periods, the first from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2017 and the second from 01/01/2018 to 08/15/2022. The number of cases with and without parenteral fluids (PF), the incidence of infection, the weight at admission and discharge, and the change in the weight Z score between birth and discharge were compared. Both the anthropometric and outcome variables were compared using the different statistical methods according to each variable. Results: were found 920 cases with the described characteristics. The groups before and after the intervention did not show significant differences in their general demographic characteristics. We observed a decrease use of PF in the second period, from 425 cases (82.0%) before to 297 (26.2%) after implementation, p <0.0001 and fewer days of use (4.1 days/average before vs 1.3 after, p <0.0001) of PF. The weight at discharge and the change in weight Z-score were the same in both groups. Infections went from nine cases before to two cases after but it was not statistically significant. There were no complications due to less use of PF. Discussion: This study showed that the use of PF is not associated with significant changes in outcomes of interest, which reinforces that its use does not generate any benefit for the patient. Larger number of cases is required to detect differences in low incidence events such as infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0109.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Automated Fare Collection (AFC); Smart Card; Crowding; Practical Waiting Area; Subway Station Platform; Time-Varying; Late-Night Peak
Online: 6 March 2020 (09:02:01 CET)
Management of crowding at subway platform is essential to improving services, preventing train delays and ensuring passenger safety. Establishing effective measures to mitigate crowding at platform requires accurate estimation of actual crowding levels. At present, there are temporal and spatial constraints since subway platform crowding is assessed only at certain locations, done every 1~2 years, and counting is performed manually Notwithstanding, data from smart cards is considered real-time big data that is generated 24 hours a day and thus, deemed appropriate basic data for estimating crowding. This study proposes the use of smart card data in creating a model that dynamically estimates crowding. It first defines crowding as demand, which can be translated into passengers dynamically moving along a subway network. In line with this, our model also identifies the travel trajectory of individual passengers, and is able to calculate passenger flow, which concentrates and disperses at the platform, every minute. Lastly, the level of platform crowding is estimated in a way that considers the effective waiting area of each platform structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-DC converter; photovoltaic energy storage system; high voltage gain; high efficiency
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:40:50 CEST)
Intended for the high voltage gain and wide-range operation of DC/DC converters for photovoltaic energy storage systems, a topology for four-phase interleaved DC/DC converters for photovoltaic power generation is proposed. This topology increases output voltage for output in series, and reduces the input current ripple by paralleling the input. Compared with traditional boost converter topology, the proposed topology reduces the output current and output voltage ripple, reduces the stress of the switching device, and reduces the withstanding voltage of the output capacitor under the premise of ensuring the boost ratio. Experimental results show that the maximum efficiency of the converter reaches 95.37%. Compared with traditional boost converters, the proposed converter offers obvious advantages in efficiency under the conditions that the output voltage and load are variable.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion; hypoxic encephalopathy; bright tree appearance; glutamate excitotoxicity; nonconvulsive status epilepticus
Online: 4 May 2023 (04:15:17 CEST)
Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and reduced diffusion (AESD) is characterized by biphasic seizures following febrile viral infections and delayed reduced diffusion of the cerebral white matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (bright tree appearance, BTA). However, hypoxic encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and AESD-mimicking imaging findings has not been reported. Herein, we report an case of hypoxic encephalopathy due to suffocation with concomitant biphasic seizures and BTA, mimicking AESD. On day 1, a 5-month-old female was found face down with breathing cessation and deteriorating consciousness level. The electroencephalography (EEG) revealed periodic epileptic discharges, suggesting possible nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Despite the improvements in consciousness level and EEG abnormalities on day 2, her consciousness level deteriorated again with generalized tonic-clonic seizures on day 3, and head MRI-DWI revealed restricted diffusion predominantly in the subcortical areas, suggesting BTA. Treatment for acute encephalopathy resolved clinical sei-zures and EEG abnormalities. The persistence of abnormal EEG, reflecting abnormal excitation and accumulation of neurotoxic substances caused by hypoxia, may have contributed to the devel-opment of AESD-like findings. As hypoxic encephalopathy causes AESD-like biphasic seizures, monitoring the consciousness level, seizure occurrence, and EEG abnormalities even after acute symptoms have temporarily improved following hypoxia is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0102.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: global warming and environmental change; Late Quaternary paleoenvironments; Termination I; sea-water paleotemperature; marine microfossils; North Atlantic; stable isotopes
Online: 6 August 2018 (08:56:58 CEST)
The micropaleontological study (radiolarians and foraminifera) of the sediment core AMK-340, Reykjanes Ridge, North Atlantic, combined with the radiocarbon dating and Oxygen/Carbon isotopic record, provided data for the reconstruction of the summer paleotemperature on the water depth of 100 m, and paleoenvironments during the Termination I in the age interval of 14.5–8 ka. The response of the main microfossil species on the paleoceanographic changes within the Bølling-Allerød (BA) warming, the Younger Dryas (YD) cold event, and final transition to the warm Holocene was different. The BA warming was well reflected in the radiolarian and benthic but not planktic foraminiferal record. The high abundances of the cold-water radiolarian species Amphimelissa setosa as the Greenland/Iceland Sea indicator marked a cooling at the end of the BA and within the start of the YD at 13.2–12.3 ka. The micropaleontological and isotopic data together with the paleotemperature estimates for the Reykjanes Ridge at 60° N document that, after the warm BA, the middle YD ca. 12.5–12.2 ka was the next significant step toward the Holocene warming. Start of the Holocene interglacial conditions was reflected in abundant occurrence of the microfossils being indicators of the open boreal North Atlantic environments and lower oxygen isotope values indicating increasing warmth.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0655.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: high stable; stable zone; water jet guided laser; green laser; high repetition frequency
Online: 9 November 2023 (15:11:15 CET)
This paper presents the design and experimental results of a long cavity length Nd: YAG laser with large stable zone for water jet guided laser (WJGL) applications. The design is based on the light transmission matrix and resonator stability conditions, aiming to achieve a large stable zone and a short cut-off thermal focal length (CTFL). A folded concave resonator is researched to enhance the cavity length, and the influence of the tun-able cavity arm length on the oscillating beam in the resonator and in the YAG crystal is theoretically studied. Moreover, the effects of the output mirror curvature and the cavity arm length on the range of the stable area and the cut-off thermal focal length are also investigated. Experimental results show that a stable green laser output is obtained after second harmonic generation (SHG), with a pulse width ranging from 43ns to 143ns within the laser operating frequency range of 5-20kHz. At an operation frequency of 10kHz, the output power is 21.33W, and the instability of the output power within 400 minutes is 0.88%. The laser source achieves a maximum power of 25.7W at 20kHz, and the maximum single pulse energy reaches 2.7mJ at 6kHz. Finally, this is used as the laser source to couple with a water jet with a diameter of 100 microns, achieving a lossless water conductivity transmission over 60mm length with a peak power density of 0.742GW/cm2. These results demonstrate the suitability of the designed laser source for WJGL technology research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: high voltage alternating current; high voltage direct current; particle swarm optimization; power losses
Online: 16 September 2022 (07:52:57 CEST)
Indonesia's SUMBAGUT 150 kV transmission of High Voltage Alternating Current Network (HVAC) system has considerable power losses. These power losses are a critical problem in the transmission network system. Meanwhile, this study provides one solution to reduce power losses using a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) network system. Determining the location to convert HVAC into HVDC is very important. The authors use Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to get the optimal location on the 150 kV SUMBAGUT HVAC transmission network system. The study results showed that before using the HVDC network system, the power losses were 122.26 MW. Meanwhile, power losses with one transmission HVDC in the "Paya Pasir-Sei Rotan" are 84.16 MW, "Porsa-P. Siantar" 90.83 MW, "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" 104.14 MW. Then power losses with two transmission HVDC in "Paya Pasir-Sei Rattan" and "Porsa-P. Siantar" is 71.24 MW, "Paya Pasir-Sei Rotan" and "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" 77.46 MW, "Porsa-P. Siantar" and "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" 78.52 MW. The last result, power losses with three transmission HVDC in "Paya Pasir-Sei Rotan," "Porsa-P. Siantar," and "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" lost 64.57 MW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0070.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Web app; Cloud computing; High Availability; High performance computing; Docker container; Horizontal Scaling
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:33:58 CET)
This study analyses some of the leading technologies for the construction and configuration of IT infrastructures to provide services to users. For modern applications, guaranteeing service continuity even in very high computational load or network problems is essential. Our configuration has among the main objectives of being highly available (HA) and horizontally scalable, that is, able to increase the computational resources that can be delivered when needed and reduce them when they are no longer necessary. Various architectural possibilities are analysed, and the central schemes used to tackle problems of this type are also described in terms of disaster recovery. The benefits offered by virtualisation technologies are highlighted and are bought with modern techniques for managing Docker containers that will be used to build the back-end of a sample infrastructure related to a use-case we have developed. In addition to this, an in-depth analysis is reported on the central autoscaling policies that can help manage high loads of requests from users to the services provided by the infrastructure. The results we have presented show an average response time of 21.7 milliseconds with a standard deviation of 76.3 milliseconds showing excellent responsiveness. Some peaks are associated with high-stress events for the infrastructure, but the response time does not exceed 2 seconds even in this case. The results of the considered use case studied for nine months are presented and discussed. In the study period, we improved the back-end configuration and defined the main metrics to deploy the web application efficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1099.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: photocatalysis; BiOCl; nanosheets; high-crystallinity
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:20:10 CEST)
: The stability of semiconductor catalysts is a very important property in the field of catalytic reactions. Materials necessitate resistance to mechanical abrasion and chemical erosion for better overall performance. In this work, high crystallinity BiOCl nanosheets were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The photocatalysts demonstrate full UV light absorption ability and excellent photocatalytic norfloxacin degradation performance. 84 % of highly toxic norfloxacin were photocatalytically eliminated within 180 min. The internal structure and surface chemical state of BiOCl were analyzed by SEM, TEM, Raman, FTIR, UV-vis, XPS, and other techniques. Such high crystallinity makes BiOCl molecules closely arranged and the molecular chains strongly connected, thus exhibiting a high level of photocatalytic stability and recyclability.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0271.v1
Online: 18 July 2022 (11:07:08 CEST)
UHPC is a type of cement-based composite used in new construction and/or rehabilitation of existing buildings to extend service life. It is a novel composite material that can serve as an alternative to concrete construction in hostile climates. Following decades of study and production, a diverse variety of commercial UHPC compositions are now available globally to meet the rising number of applicants and demand for high-quality building materials. Although UHPC offers major benefits over normal concrete, its utilization is restricted due to restrictive design rules and exorbitant costs. As a result, a thorough examination of the durability properties of UHPC is required to give important information for material testing requirements and processes, as well as to broaden its practical uses. This report is aimed at increasing basic understanding of UHPC and supporting more UHPC research and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0088.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: High-temperature superconductivity; critical temperature
Online: 6 January 2022 (12:36:26 CET)
The dependence of the critical temperature $T_c$ of high-temperature superconductors of various families on their composition and structure is proposed. A clear dependence of the critical temperature of high-temperature superconductors (hydrides, Hg- and Y-based cuprates) on the serial number of the constituent elements, their valence and crystal lattice structure has been revealed. For cuprates, it is shown that it is possible to obtain even higher temperatures of superconducting transitions at normal pressure by implanting mercury atoms into the crystal lattice of cuprate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: biofilm; antimicrobial; high-throughput analysis
Online: 9 August 2018 (00:20:24 CEST)
The oral cavity harbors hundreds of microbial species that are present either as planktonic cells, or incorporated into biofilms. The majority of the oral microbes are commensal organisms. Those that are pathogenic microbes can result in oral infections, and at times initiate systemic diseases. Biofilms that contain pathogens have been challenging to control. Many conventional antimicrobials have proven to be ineffective. Recent advances in science and technology are providing new approaches for pathogen control and containment and methods to characterize biofilms. This perspective provides: 1) A general understanding of biofilm development; 2) A description of emerging chemical and biological methods to control oral biofilms; 3) An overview of high-throughput analytical approaches to analyze biofilms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Intensive care unit; percutaneous tracheostomy; COVID-19; early tracheostomy; late tracheostomy; ICU length of stay; health care workers; mechanical ventilation.
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:04:34 CEST)
(1) Background: Benefits and timing of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients are still controversial. PDT is considered a high risk procedure for transmission of SARS CoV-2 to health care workers (HCWs). The present study analyzed optimal timing of PDT, clinical outcomes of patients undergoing PDT and safety of HCWs performing PDT. (2) Methods: 133 COVID-19 patients underwent PDT in our ICU from April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021, 23 patients were excluded and 110 patients were enrolled. A trained medical team was dedicated to the PDT procedure. Demographic, clinical history and outcome data were collected. Patients who underwent PDT were stratified into two groups: early group, PDT ≤ 12 days from orotracheal-intubation (OTI) and late group, >12 days from OTI; HCW surveillance program was performed. (3) Results: Early group included 57 patients and late group included 53 patients. Early group patients showed shorter ICU length of stay and fewer days of mechanical ventilation than the late group (p<0.001). At day 7 after tracheostomy, early group patients required fewer intravenous anesthetic drugs and experienced an improvement of ventilation parameters, PaO2/FiO2-Ratio, PEEP and FiO2 (p<0.001). No difference in case fatality ratio between the two groups was reported. No SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in HCWs performing PDT. (4) Conclusions: PDT was safe and effective for COVID-19 patients, since it improved respiratory support parameters, reduced ICU length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation, and optimized the weaning process. The procedure was safe for all HCWs involved in the dedicated medical team. The development of standardized early PDT protocols should be implemented and PDT procedure could be considered as first line approach in ICU COVID-19 requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Smart home electricity management system; bidirectional DC-AC converter; high power quality; high efficiency.
Online: 14 July 2018 (20:25:57 CEST)
The management of the electrical energy still raises a huge interest for end-users at the household level. Home electricity management systems (HEMS) have recently emerged both to warrant uninterruptible power and high power quality, and to decrease the cost of electricity consumption, by either shifting it in off peak time or smoothing it. Such a HEMS requires a bidirectional DC-AC converter, specifically when an energy transfer is required between a storage system and the AC-grid, and vice versa. This article points out the relevance of an innovative topology based on sinusoidal waveforms from the generation of sine half-waves. Such a topology is based on a DC-DC stage equivalent to an adjustable output voltage source and a DC-AC stage (H-bridge) which are in series. The results of a complete experimental procedure prove the feasibility to improve the power quality of the output signals in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD-values about 5%). The complexity of the proposed converter is minimized in comparison with multilevel topologies. Finally, wide band-gap semiconductor devices (SiC MOSFETs) are helpful both to warrant the compactness and the high efficiency (about 96%) of the bidirectional converter, whatever its operation mode (inverter or rectifier mode).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0515.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: efficient ultrasonic transceivers, broadband piezoelectric transducers, industrial NDE, medical imaging, pulsed high-power spikes, HV capacitive-discharge pulsers, high-current driving, high dynamic range.
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:16:39 CET)
Ultrasonic imaging & NDE applications can greatly improve their signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) by driving each transducer (composing piezoelectric arrays) with a spike giving pulsed power of k-Watts, repetitively at a PRF = 5000 spikes/s, by using a HV capacitive-discharge generator. However very-high levels, of pulsed intensities (3-10 A) and voltages (300-700 V) must be considered for a rigorous spike modeling. Even though the consumed "average" power will be small, the intensity through each transducer achieves several amperes, so the pulsed powers delivered by each HV generator can attain levels higher than in CW high-power ultrasonic applications: e.g., up to 5 kW / spike. This is concluded here from a transient modeling of the loaded generator. Then, unforeseen phenomena rise: intense brief pulses of driving power & emitted force in transducers, and non-linearities in driver semiconductors, because their characteristic curves only include linear ranges. But fortunately, piezoelectric devices working in this intense regime do not show serious heating problems, because the average power remains being moderate. Intensity, power and voltage, driving a broadband transducer from a HV capacitive pulser, are calculated to drastically improve (in ≅ 40 dB) the ultrasonic net dynamic range available, with emitted forces ≅ 250 Newtons pp and E/R received pulses of 70 V pp.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0543.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: mining unloading valve; high pressure; large flow; high-water-based fluid; digitally controlled unloading valve
Online: 8 September 2023 (05:09:06 CEST)
In order to create a smart mine, it is necessary to digitize the existing emulsion pumping station. Existing research does not achieve this task, this paper designs and manufactures a high-pressure, high-flow, high-water-based mining digital controlled unloading valve (abbreviated as HLHMDCUV), which achieves good results in both theoretical analysis and experimental testing. In order to obtain the accurate dynamic characteristics, this valve was analyzed by simulation using AMESim. Based on the dynamic performance analysis and the flow field analysis inside the valve body, the structure has been optimized to improve the performance of HLHMDCUV. The results show that the HLHMDCUV has a better dynamic characteristics, which were also demonstrated in the experiment. At the same time, the HLHMDCUV is easy to disassemble and maintain. This paper provides a theoretical basis for the design of such valves, which is conducive to the subsequent promotion of intelligent mine transformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Policosanol; high cholesterol diet; high-density lipoproteins; apoA-I; inflammation; interleukin-6; liver; testis; ovary
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:27:04 CEST)
Although many policosanols from different sources, such as sugar cane, rice bran, and insects, have been marketed worldwide, there has been no comparative study of the in vivo efficacy using a hyperlipidemic animal model. This study compared the efficacy of treating dyslipidemia with four different policosanols, including one sugar cane wax alcohol from Cuba (Raydel®) and three policosanols from China (Xi’an Natural sugar cane, Xi’an Realin sugar cane, and Shaanxi rice bran) in hyperlipidemic zebrafish. After 12 weeks of consumption of each policosanol (final 0.1% in diet, wt/wt) and high cholesterol diet (HCD, final 4%, wt/wt) in a tetrabit, the Raydel policosanol group and Xi’an Natural policosanol group showed the highest survivability of approximately 81%, whereas the Xi’an Realin policosanol group and Shaanxi policosanol group showed 57% and 67% survivability, respectively. Among five HCD groups, the Raydel policosanol group showed the lowest serum total cholesterol (TC, p<0.001 versus HCD control) and triglyceride (TG, p<0.001 versus HCD control) with the highest percentage of high-density lipoproteins (HDL)-C in TC. The Raydel policosanol group also showed the lowest serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels with the least infiltration of inflammatory cells and interleukin-6 production in hepatocytes. In the ovary, the Raydel policosanol group also showed the highest contents of mature vitellogenic oocytes with the lowest production of reactive oxygen species and cellular apoptosis in ovarian cells. In the testis, the Raydel policosanol group also showed the healthiest morphology for spermatogenesis with the least interstitial area and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in testicular cells. In conclusion, 12 weeks of Raydel policosanol consumption resulted in remarkable improvement of the blood lipid profile, amelioration of inflammation in the liver, and enhancement of the cell morphology in the ovary and testis with the highest survivability under the HCD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0120.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: refractory high-entropy alloys; fused slurry method; silicide coating; Si-20Cr-20Fe; high-temperature oxidation
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:43:24 CEST)
The poor oxidation resistance of refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs) is a major obstacle for their use in high-temperature engineering applications. Anti-oxidation coating technology is an effective method for improving the oxidation resistance. In this paper, the Si-20Cr-20Fe coating was prepared on MoNbTaTiW RHEA by a fused slurry method. The microstructural evolution and compositions of the silicide coating under high-temperature oxidation environment were studied. The results show that the silicide coating could effectively prevent the oxidation of the MoNbTaTiW RHEA. The initial silicide coating had a double-layer structure; a high silicon-content layer mainly composed of MSi2 as the outer layer and a low silicon-content layer mainly contained M5Si3 as the inner layer. Under high-temperature oxidation conditions, the silicon element diffused from the silicide coating to the RHEA substrate while the oxidation of the coating occurred. After oxidation, the coating was composed of an outer oxide layer and an inner silicide layer. The silicide layer moved toward the inside of the substrate, led to the increase of its thickness. Compared with the initial silicified layer, its structure did not change significantly. The structure and compositions of the oxide layer on the outer surface strongly depended on the oxidation temperature. This paper provides a strategy for protecting RHEAs from oxidation at high-temperature environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Meta-analysis; Effect size; Precision; Ultra-high strength concrete; Ultra-high strength fiber reinforced concrete
Online: 7 April 2020 (13:28:16 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis that shows the influence of fiber on ultimate compressive strength and tensile strength of ultra-high performance concrete. The internet scholarly search engines and ScienceDirect article references were used to illustrate the papers concerning the experimental investigations of mechanical properties of ultra-high strength concrete with and without fiber with clearly, completely and comparative raw data. The normal concrete test results were dismissed from this search. Seven trials were identified based on the adopted inclusion and exclusion criteria above. The meta-analysis based on standardized mean difference was carried out on the basis of a fixed-effects model for the major outcomes of the ultimate compressive and tensile properties of ultra-high performance concrete. A total of 888 test specimens were enrolled in these seven trials. The combined analysis yielded a sign of a significant improvement in ultimate compressive strength and tensile strength of ultra-high strength concrete with fiber addition of 2% by concrete volume. The summary effect size of ultimate compressive strength was 2.34 while a more improvement in term of tensile strength with effect size of 2.64. By addition fiber of 2% provides a significant benefit in mechanical properties of ultra-high performance concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0322.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: java virtual machine (jvm); high level programming languages; high performance computing (hpc); php framework; compiler
Online: 29 September 2019 (05:01:46 CEST)
With the existence of several programming languages such as C/C++, Java, C#, LISP, Prolog, Python, Simula, F#, Go, Haskell, Scala, Ruby, Dart, Swift, Groovy etc. and diverse paradigms like structured, object-oriented, list, aspect-oriented, service-oriented, web, mobile and logic programming, there is a need to perform an exhaustive comparative analysis of diverse compilers and environments before making a choice of implementation technology in software engineering. Optimization of compilers helps to reduce execution time by making use of high speed processor registers, thereby, eliminating redundant computation. This paper reports some series of performance analysis done with some popular programming languages including Java, C++, Python and PHP. Programs involving recursive and iterative functions like factorial of large numbers and binary search of large arrays were run on the various platforms with the execution time recorded in milliseconds and represented in a chart. This can aid in making a selection of the appropriate language to use for a given application domain.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0486.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: high altitude, chronic hypobaric hypoxia, physiologic adaptation, travel to high altitude cities, high altitude physiology, pulmonary hypertension, lung disease, hemoglobin, tolerance to hypoxia, oxygen content.
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:22:04 CEST)
Acute high altitude illnesses are of great concern for physicians and people traveling to high altitude. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) can be better understood through the Oxygen Transport Triad which involves the Pneumo-Dynamic Pump (Ventilation), the Hemo-Dynamic Pump (Heart and circulation), and Hemoglobin. The two pumps are the first physiologic response upon initial exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Hemoglobin is the balancing energy-saving time-evolving equilibrating factor. The increased hemoglobin at high altitude reduces the percentage of dissolved oxygen in the arterial oxygen content with respect to sea level. At high altitude, the acid-base balance must be adequately interpreted using the high altitude Van-Slyke correction factors. Pulse-oximetry measurements during breath-holding at high altitude allow for the evaluation of high altitude diseases. The Tolerance to Hypoxia Formula shows that, paradoxically, the higher the altitude the more tolerance to hypoxia. All organisms adapt physiologically and optimally to a high-altitude environment to survive. Reduction of pulmonary hypertension in HAPE through oxygen administration results in a favorable outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1092.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Antarctica; High Arctic; fungi; climate change
Online: 17 July 2023 (09:48:48 CEST)
The Antarctica and High Arctic regions are extreme environments, with average maximum temperatures below 0 °C for most days of the year. Interestingly, fungi inhabit these regions. This review describes the history of fungal surveys near the Syowa Station and the fungal diversity in this region. In the High Arctic region, I summarized the changes in fungal communities in glacial retreat areas of Ny-Ålesund, Norway and Ellesmere Island, Canada in response to climate change. In addition, growth and enzyme secretion ability of Antarctic and Arctic fungi at sub-zero temperatures are presented. Finally, I have also provided the future directions of Antarctic and Arctic fungal research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: high blood pressure; Cancer; malignancies; hypertension
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:05:11 CET)
Background of the Study: We investigated the link between hypertension and cancer since it has been suggested that hypertension may raise the long-term risk of cancer. Previous large observational cohort studies found that greater blood pressure (BP) was related to a higher risk of cancer. Mendelian randomization (MR) was utilized to produce less confounded blood pressure estimates (BP) on overall and site-specific malignancies. The study aims to draw conclusions on the relationship between high blood pressure and cancer. Methods: Studies on high blood pressure and various malignancies are inconclusive, except for renal cell carcinoma. However, given that most meta-analyses only contained a limited number of trials, some relative risks had small to moderate magnitudes, and several may have been impacted by residual confounding, careful interpretation is necessary. The study was conducted using the meta-analysis technique. Cochran's Q test and I2 test were used to assess statistical heterogeneity between studies in the current investigation for research involving two or more cause and outcome combinations. Results: Positive correlations were also reported between high blood pressure and esophageal adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, liver, and squamous cell carcinoma. However, most studies lacked multivariable adjustments. Physical and numerical risk of cardiovascular disease is linked to bowel cancer but no other cancers. According to a meta-analysis, hypertensive persons could also be at increased danger of gastrointestinal and breast cancer. Most meta-analyses comprised several trials with moderate or mild hazard ratios.ConclusionDifferent types of cancers have been noted to be directly caused by hypertension. In addition, some treatments have also been associated with the side effects of cancer treatments to cause hypertension. Women facing hypertension have an increased risk of getting breast cancer. Although some cancers showed a real relationship with hypertension, others had no connection at all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0598.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: high-velocity oxygen fuel; chromium; abrasion
Online: 22 April 2021 (09:24:14 CEST)
This research work studies the characteristics of wear and wear resistance of composite powder coatings, deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel, which contain composite mixtures Ni-Cr-B-Si having different chromium concentrations – 9.9%; 13.2%; 14%; 16% and 20% , at one and the same size of the particles and the same content of the remaining elements. The coating of 20% Cr does not contain B and Si. Out of each powder, composite coatings have been prepared without any preliminary thermal treatment of the substrate and with preliminary thermal treatment of the substrate up to 650оС. The coatings have been tested under identical conditions of dry friction over a surface of solid firmly attached abrasive particles using the tribological testing device „Pin-on-disk“. Results have been obtained and the dependences of the hardness, mass wear, intensity of the wearing process, absolute and relative wear resistance on the Cr concentration under identical conditions of friction. It has been found out that for all the coatings the preliminary thermal treatment of the substrate leads to a decrease in the wear intensity. Upon increasing Cr concentration the wear intensity diminishes and it reaches minimal values at 16% Cr. In the case of coatings having 20% Cr concentration, the wear intensity is increased, which is due to the absence of the components B and Si in the composite mixture, whereupon no inter-metallic structures are formed having high hardness and wear resistance. The obtained results have no analogues in the current literature and they have not been published by the authors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0493.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs; filters; high bandwidth; RF photonics
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:51:34 CEST)
Soliton crystal micro-combs are powerful tools as sources of multiple wavelength channels for radio frequency (RF) signal processing. They offer a compact device footprint, large numbers of wavelengths, very high versatility, and wide Nyquist bandwidths. Here, we demonstrate integral order RF signal processing functions based on a soliton crystal micro-comb, including a Hilbert transformer and first- to third-order differentiators. We compare and contrast results achieved and the tradeoffs involved with varying comb spacing, tap design methods, as well as shaping methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Dyad Model; Caring; High Risk Pregnancy
Online: 6 April 2021 (13:30:25 CEST)
Background Pregnancy is a process of maturity for women that requires adaptation to the changes in their new roles. Adjustment to a new role is not easy, especially if the pregnancy is accompanied by risks, so it is necessary to get treatment to minimize complications. Dyad models that optimize husband or family support are very important to prevent the risk of complications and adapt mothers to their new roles. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the dyad model on high-risk pregnancies. The method used with a literature review is through the collection of articles from Scopus, ebsco, ProQuest and PubMed. The results obtained were articles from Scopus 9, Ebsco 107, PubMed 214 and ProQuest 85 which carried out identification, screening and eligibility for 25 articles. Overall results mention. Journals are categorized into 4 groups, Dyad Model and social support, high-risk pregnancy, maternal role and Self Efficacy. Conclusion, there is an effect of the dyad model on care for high-risk pregnancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs; filters; high bandwidth; RF photonics
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:06:50 CEST)
We demonstrate an RF photonic fractional Hilbert transformer based on an integrated Kerr micro-comb source featuring a record low free spectral range of 49 GHz. By programming and shaping the comb lines according to calculated tap weights for up to 39 wavelengths across the C-band, we achieve tunable bandwidths ranging from 1.2 to 15.3 GHz as well as variable center frequencies from baseband to 9.5 GHz, for both standard integral and arbitrary fractional orders. We experimentally characterize the RF amplitude and phase response of the tunable bandpass and lowpass Hilbert transformers with 90 and 45-degree phase shifts. The experimental results show good agreement with theory, confirming the effectiveness of our approach as a powerful way to implement standard and fractional order Hilbert transformers with broad and variable bandwidths and center frequencies, with high reconfigurability and greatly reduced size and complexity. Tan, and D. J. Moss are with the Optical Sciences Centre, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia. (Corresponding e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Xu is with the Electro-Photonics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, 3800 VIC, Australia
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0069.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: high school; student; leisure; leisure constraints
Online: 18 May 2018 (05:54:20 CEST)
The aim of this research is to determine the factors that may prevent high school students from participating in recreational activities and to investigate whether these factors differ within the scope of various variables. This study consisted of total 1459 (681 women and 778 men) student volunteers who educated in high school level. Sampling method was preferred for easy sampling. The face-to-face survey method was used to collect the data. The "Leisure Constraints Scale" developed by Alexandris and Carroll (1997) and adapted to Turkish by Gürbüz, Öncü, and Emir (2012) was used to determine the factors that might prevent individuals from participating in leisure activities. The data obtained for the research were first transferred to the computer and then analyzed by SPSS packet program. The error margin level in the study was taken as p<0.05. The cronbach alpha of the study was found to be 0.91. As a result, it was found that women participated in the leisure time more than men. It was also observed that the participants met with more leisure constrain in Turkey's eastern regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: survivin; high expression; gastrointestinal cancer; prognostic
Online: 11 April 2017 (10:51:06 CEST)
Previous studies on the prognostic impact of survivin expression in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer have yielded inconsistent results. This study was initiated to assess the relationship between survivin expression and overall survival (OS) or disease free survival (DFS) in GI cancer patients. We applied system literature searches on EMBASE, PubMed, Web of science, and the Cochrane library to conduct this up-to-date meta-analysis. Thirty studies with totally 3622 GI cancer patients were collected. The prevalence of high survivin expression in GI cancer was 0.57 (95% CI: 0.51-0.63). High survivin expression was significantly associated with shorter OS (HR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.42-1.74) and DFS (HR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.21-1.58). Subgroup analysis also showed significant association between high survivin expression and poorer OS or DFS in gastric cancer or colorectal cancer. In summary, our study indicated that high survivin expression was related to poor prognosis in GI cancer. Well-designed studies with large sample and more convincing data are needed to confirm our conclusion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0496.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids; high tunnel; greenhouse; plant factory; non-dormant; substrate; container; evergreen; high density
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:56:10 CEST)
Southern highbush blueberry plantations have been expanded into worldwide non-traditional growing areas with elite cultivars and improved horticultural practices. This article presents a comprehensive review of current production systems – alternatives to traditional open field production – such as production in protected environments, high-density plantings, evergreen production, and container-based production. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system and compare their differences to the open field production. In addition, potential solutions have been provided for some of the disadvantages. We also highlight some of the gaps existing between academic studies and production in industry, providing a guide for future academic research. All these alternative systems have shown the potential to produce high yields with high quality berries. Alternative systems, compared to the field production, require higher establishment investments and thus create an entry barrier for new producers. Nevertheless, with their advantages, alternative productions have potential to be profitable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0050.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: mefenamic acid; diamond anvil cell; high-pressure; polymorphism; high-pressure crystallization; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Online: 8 March 2017 (08:58:38 CET)
High pressure crystallization technique has been successfully used to prepare an elusive form II of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Mefenamic acid. Single crystal of form II was grown at 0.3 GPa from an 4:1 methanol/ ethanol mixture as a solvent using Diamond Anvil Cell. Comparison of crystal structures show that the efficient packing of MA molecules in Form II results from the structural flexibility of MA acid molecules. Compression studies performed on the single crystal of form I resulted in 14 % decrease of unit cell volume up to 2.5 GPa. No phase transition was observed up to this pressure. A reconstructive phase transition is required to induce conformational changes in the structure, which is confirmed by crystallization at high pressure results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: UWB; MIMO; Internet of thing; high isolation
Online: 4 December 2023 (07:51:16 CET)
A two element Multiple Input Multiple Output UWB (Ultra-wide band) antenna is presented in this paper. The antenna is backed by the FR-4 substrate with a thickness of 1.6 mm and dielectric constant of 4.3 covering an area of 52.8 × 29 mm2. The proposed MIMO antenna consists of two single UWB antennas and a stub placed between the two antennas to reduce the mutual coupling. The proposed antenna achieves the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of less than 2 and more than 86% radiation efficiency over the whole band of interest. Performance of the antenna is examined using both simulation and experiment. The design exhibits good performance characteristics in terms of bandwidth, gain, efficiency, return loss and VSWR. The proposed antenna is analyzed using the CST Microwave Studio software. The prototype model of the antenna is fabricated, tested, and measured to validate the simulation return loss results. There is acceptable agreement between the measured and simulated results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: palliative care; thoracic oncology; high-value care
Online: 4 December 2023 (03:54:29 CET)
Although cancer care is often contextualized in terms of survival, there are other important cancer care outcomes, such as quality of life and cost of care. The ASCO Value Framework assesses the value of cancer therapies not only in terms of survival but with consideration of quality of life and financial cost. Early palliative care for patients with advanced cancer is associated with improved quality of life, mood, symptoms, overall survival, and cost savings. While palliative care has been shown to have numerous benefits, the impact of real-world implementation of outpatient embedded palliative care on value-based metrics is not fully understood. We sought to describe the association of outpatient embedded palliative care in a multidisciplinary thoracic oncology clinic on inpatient value-based metrics. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 215 patients being treated for advanced thoracic malignancies with non-curative intent. We evaluated the association of outpatient embedded palliative care with inpatient clinical outcomes including emergency room visits, hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, hospital charges, as well as hospital quality metrics including 30-day readmissions, admissions within 30 days of death, inpatient mortality, and inpatient hospital charges. Outpatient embedded palliative care was associated with lower hospital charges per day ($3,807 versus $4,695, p=0.024). Furthermore, patients who received outpatient embedded palliative care had decreased hospital admissions within 30 days of death (O.R. 0.50; 95% CI 0.34, 0.74; P<0.001) and decreased inpatient mortality (O.R. 0.46; 95%CI 0.23, 0.94; p=0.032). Our study further supports that outpatient palliative care is a high-value intervention and alternative models of palliative care, including one embedded into a multidisciplinary thoracic oncology clinic, is associated with improved value-based metrics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0747.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: bronze relics; powder rust; high-permeability; stabilization
Online: 12 October 2023 (02:12:19 CEST)
Under the influence of various factors, the bronze ware unearthed by archaeology has various diseases of different degrees, and the mineralization problem is more prominent. The physical properties of mineralized bronzes have been destroyed, and the whole is loose and fragile, which is in urgent need of reinforcement and protection. Common reinforcement and protection materials mainly consider surface sealing, matrix bonding reinforcement and penetration reinforcement. Considering the low matrix strength and complex disease types of fragile bronzeware, it is difficult to achieve targeted protection with commonly used reinforcement and protection materials. In view of the problems such as poor permeability and easy discoloration of commonly used protection materials, this paper uses self-developed reinforcement and protection material AMC to compare its reinforcement and protection performance with B72, which has a high comprehensive evaluation on the performance of commonly used reinforcement and protection materials. The matrix strength was increased, and the appearance intervention degree was less than B72.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: characteristic mode; Chinese characters; WiFi; high isolation
Online: 31 July 2023 (11:42:23 CEST)
In this paper, a dual-band WiFi antenna and its Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system application is designed, fabricated, and measured based on the Chinese characters “Men” and “Wei”. The antenna uses a 40×40×1.6 mm3 Fr4 substrate to analyze the combinatorial structure of Chinese characters using the theory of characteristic modes (TCM), to optimize the antenna dimensions by analyzing the mode current distribution, and to broaden the antenna bandwidth by etching rectangular slots on the ground. The measured and simulated results show that the four-element MIMO antenna covers 5.68-8.01 GHz, the isolation between the antennas is higher than 20 dB in the working band, the Envelope Correlation Coefficient (ECC) and the channel capacity losses (CCLs)of the simulation is lower than 0.001 and 0.18 bits/s/HZ, respectively. The efficiency of the antenna is higher than 90%, and it can be used for WiFi communication band (5.8 GHz and 6 GHz).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0676.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: mechanical properties; 2D materials; high-throughput; DFT.
Online: 21 April 2023 (07:20:16 CEST)
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been a research hot topic in the passed decades due to their unique and fascinating properties. Among them, mechanical properties plays an important role for their application. However, there lacks an effective tool for high-throughput calculating, analysing and visualizing the mechanical properties of 2D materials. In this work, we present, mech2d package, a highly automated toolkit for calculating and analysing second-order elastic constants (SOECs) tensor and relevant properties of 2D materials with considering their symmetry. In the mech2d, the SOECs can be fitted by both strain-energy and stress-strain approach, where the energy or strain can be calculated by first-principles engine, such as VASP. As a key feature, the mech2d package can automatically submit and collect the tasks from local or remote machine with robust fault-tolerant ability, make it suitable for high-throughput calculation. The present code has been validated by several common 2D materials, including graphene, black phosphorene, GeSe2 and so on.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0228.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: vegetables; high throughput phenotyping; genomic assisted breeding
Online: 26 April 2022 (06:00:45 CEST)
Conventional phenotyping breeding approaches for vegetable crops like Solanaceae, Bulb, Root crops, have made a significant contribution by developing many varieties. Despite this, conventional phenotyping approaches are not sufficient due to the longer time taken to develop a variety, low genetic gain, environmental factors and some other externalities that affect the phenotype-based selection. To address the challenges of conventional phenotype, a new recent method of high throughput phenotyping (HTP) is considered a promising tool. The development of high-throughput phenotyping technology began in the preceding decade as advancements in sensor, computer vision, automation, and advanced machine learning technologies. HTP platforms are being utilized to undertake non-destructive assessments of the complete plant system in a range of crops. HTP provides the precise measurements and suggests the collection of high-quality and accurate data which is necessary for standardizing phenotyping for the collection of genetic dissection and genomic assisted breeding such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), linkage mapping, marker-assisted selection (MAS), genomic selection (GS). The remainder of this chapter discusses how high-throughput phenotyping technologies can be used in genomic-assisted breeding for vegetable crops
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0044.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation And Radiography Keywords: energetic material; plasma; detonation; electromagnetism; high temperature
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:39:48 CET)
In the process of deflagration of energetic materials, strong electromagnetic radiation is to be generated, which causes the surrounding electronic equipment to fail to work normally. To solve this problem, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism of electromagnetic radiation generated by energetic materials. The mechanism of plasma changed by the deflagration of energetic materials is an important topic in the aerospace and geophysics fields. The academic community holds two main viewpoints on the mechanism of electromagnetic radiation generated by energetic materials: one is that the solid material is squeezed and deformed during the deflagration of energetic materials, and the charges of different polarities rub in space to form effective electric dipoles, which eventually generate electromagnetic radiation. Another view is that the deflagration of energetic materials causes the temperature of the medium to rise sharply, and bremsstrahlung is formed during the compression and diffusion of the high-temperature wave front, resulting in the generation of electromagnetic radiation. This paper, based on theoretical analysis and experimental data, holds the view that electromagnetic radiation is generated by the high-temperature thermal effect. It studies the relationship between temperature and electromagnetic radiation and obtains quantitative analysis conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0151.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: high-performance; heritable; multi-environments; credibility interval
Online: 10 February 2022 (11:14:21 CET)
The giant challenge breeding flood-irrigated rice is to identify superior genotypes that present high-yielding with specific grain qualities, resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, excellent adaptation to the target environment. Thus, the objectives of this study were to propose a bayesian multi-trait model, estimate genetic parameters, and select flood-irrigated rice genotypes with better genetic potentials in different evaluation environments. For this, twenty-five rice genotypes belonging to the flood-irrigated rice improvement program were evaluated. The grain yields, grain length, width and thickness, grain length, and grain width and weight of 100 grains in the agricultural year 2016/2017. The experimental design used in all experiments was a randomized block design with three replications. The Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm estimated genetic parameters and genetic values. The grain thickness trait was considered highly heritable, with a credibility interval ranging from: h^2: 0.9480; 0.9440; 0.8610, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The grain yields showed a low correlation estimate between grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in all environments, with a credibility interval ranging from (ρ= 0.5477; 0.5762; 0.5618 and 0.5973; 0.5247; 0.5632, grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively). The Bayesian multi-trait model proved to be an adequate strategy for the genetic improvement of flood-irrigated. Genotypes 2 and 15 had similar potential in the three environments, they should be selected as high-performance multi-trait genotypes for the genetic breeding of flood-irrigated rice in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0330.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Supernova remnants; Stellar evolution; High-energy astrophysics
Online: 22 October 2021 (12:11:22 CEST)
A supernova close enough to the Earth is a spectacular event: it can appear as a \new star" as luminous as Venus, or even more, visible for several days. The rate of Galactic supernovae is expected to be of about one in 30 years, with a fraction visible at naked eye; however in all the history of human civilization only seven supernovae in the Milky Way have been reported, the last two (1572 and 1604) during Galilei's life. The supernova of 1604, today called Kepler's Supernova, was observed by Galilei, Kepler and other astronomers in Europe, Korea, and China. Like the supernova SN1572, today called Tycho's supernova, it has been the subject of extensive studies, and inspired observational measurements and philosophical considerations on the nature of the heavens. The remnant of SN1604 has been indicated by recent X- and gamma-ray data to be a likely site of cosmic ray acceleration. The first recorded data of optical observations, together with new data, can still tell us a lot about the early evolution of this supernova.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0426.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bionanocomposites; collagen; high magnetic field; silica particles
Online: 15 April 2021 (18:12:26 CEST)
Major progress in the field of regenerative medicine are expected from the design of artificial scaffolds that mimic both the structural and functional properties of the ECM. The bionanocomposites approach is particularly well fitted to meet this challenge as it can combine ECM-based matrices and colloidal carriers of biological cues that regulate cell behavior. Here we have prepared bionanocomposites under high magnetic field from Tilapia fish scale collagen and multifunctional silica nanoparticles (SiNPs). We show that scaffolding cues (collagen), multiple display of signaling peptides (SiNPs) and control over the global structuration (magnetic field) can be combined into a unique bionanocomposite for the engineering of biomaterials with improved cell performances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: satellite communication, antenna optimization, high gain antenna
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:59:04 CET)
Patch antennas are compact, less complex, planar structures and therefore, widely used in small satellite missions for telecommand, data link, and intersatellite link, particularly in S- band and X- band. Improved performance of these patch antennas in terms of gain and compactness will di-rectly affect the communication efficiency of small satellite missions. Especially the coming IoT (Internet of Things) constellations require high gain and efficient antenna arrays. An optimization of single patch antenna elements is an important cornerstone for the missions. Therefore, the ef-fects of various antenna enhancement techniques, such as slotted ground plane, resistor and ca-pacitor integration, parasitic patch elements, are analyzed. These techniques were applied on a rectangular patch antenna with parameter variation to identify the optimal performances with respect to bandwidth, operating frequency, gain, polarization, and power flow. Finally, the techniques were combined to obtain an optimized antenna in terms of gain and compactness. The results were compared to a slotted reference antenna. For the scenario of a 2.4 GHz patch antenna, a gain optimization of 27 % (from 7.09 to 8.14 dBi) or size reduction of 52 % (from 96.04 to 46.2 cm²) could be achieved. Overall, our study revealed an effective way to increase the patch antenna performance, which can directly contribute to more efficient communication links and design of antenna arrays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0104.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Chitosan; Hyperlipidemia; High-fat diet; p53; CD43
Online: 2 March 2021 (16:02:07 CET)
Hepato-renal dysfunctions associated with hyperlipidemia necessitates continuous search for natural remedies. This study thus, evaluated the effect of dietary chitosan on diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (90 ± 5.2) g were randomly allotted into six (6) groups (n=5): Normal diet, High-fat diet (HFD), Normal diet + 5% chitosan. The three other groups received HFD, supplemented with 1%-, 3%-, and 5% of chitosan. The feeding lasted for 8 weeks, after which the rats were sacrificed. The liver and kidneys were harvested for Analyses. Hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and renal biomarkers (ALT, AST, urea, and creatinine) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Additionally, expression of hepatic and renal CD43 and p53 was estimated immunohistochemically. Hyperlipidemia caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the hepatic (AST, ALT, and ALP) and renal (AST and ALT) activities, while renal urea and creatinine increased. Furthermore, the HFD group showed an elevated level of hepatic and renal CD43 while p53 expression decreased. However, groups supplemented with chitosan showed improved hepatic and renal biomarkers, as well as corrected the aberrations in the expressions of p53 and CD43. Conclusively, dietary chitosan could effectively improve kidney and liver functionality via abatement of inflammatory responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0550.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: microcombs; data transmission; filters; high bandwidth; optical
Online: 24 February 2021 (12:59:47 CET)
We report world record high data transmission over standard optical fiber from a single optical source. We achieve a line rate of 44.2 Terabits per second (Tb/s) employing only the C-band at 1550nm, resulting in a spectral efficiency of 10.4 bits/s/Hz. We use a new and powerful class of micro-comb called soliton crystals that exhibit robust operation and stable generation as well as a high intrinsic efficiency that, together with an extremely low spacing of 48.9 GHz enables a very high coherent data modulation format of 64 QAM. We achieve error free transmission across 75 km of standard optical fiber in the lab and over a field trial with a metropolitan optical fiber network. This work demonstrates the ability of optical micro-combs to exceed other approaches in performance for the most demanding practical optical communications applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0507.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs, data transmission, filters, high bandwidth, optical
Online: 23 February 2021 (09:49:59 CET)
Microcombs provide a potential compact and efficient light source for multi-Terabit-per-second optical superchannels. However, as the bandwidth of these multi-wavelength light sources is increased, this can result in low per-line power. Optical amplifiers can be used to overcome power limitations, but the accompanying spontaneous optical noise can degrade performance in optical systems. To overcome this issue, we propose wideband noise reduction for comb lines using a high-Q microring resonator, whose resonances align with comb lines. When applying the proposed distillation to a superchannel system with 18 Gbaud, 64-QAM sub-channels in a > 10 Tb/s optical superchannel, we find that noise-corrupted comb lines can reduce the optical signal-to-noise ratio required for the comb by ~ 9 dB when used as optical carriers at the transmitter side, and by ~ 12 dB when used as a local oscillator at the receiver side.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0333.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: LIDAR; UV laser; high spectral resolution; aerosols
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:11:08 CET)
ATLID (ATmospheric LIDar) is the atmospheric backscatter LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) on board of the EarthCARE (Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer) mission, the sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the ESA (European Space Agency) Living Planet Programme [1-5]. ATLID’s purpose is to provide vertical profiles of optically thin cloud and aerosol layers, as well as the altitude of cloud boundaries [6-10]. In order to achieve this objective ATLID emits short duration laser pulses in the UV, at a repetition rate of 51 Hz, while pointing in a near nadir direction along track of the satellite trajectory. The atmospheric backscatter signal is then collected by its 620 mm aperture telescope, filtered through the optics of the instrument focal plane assembly, in order to separate and measure the atmospheric Mie and Rayleigh scattering signals. With the completion of the full instrument assembly in 2019, ATLID has been subjected to an ambient performance test campaign, followed by a successful environmental qualification test campaign, including performance calibration and characterization in thermal vacuum conditions. In this paper the design and operational principle of ATLID is recalled and the major performance test results are presented, addressing the main key receiver and emitter characteristics. Finally, the estimated instrument, in-orbit, flight predictions are presented; these indicate compliance of the ALTID instrument performance against its specification and that it will meet its mission science objectives for the EarthCARE mission, to be launched in 2023.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Orbitrap mass spectrometry; high resolution; accurate mass
Online: 8 June 2020 (10:17:36 CEST)
The rapidly increasing adoption of high-resolution accurate-mass methods in analytical laboratories has fueled demand for instruments that combine high performance and reliability with small size and greater ease-of-use. This paper presents the major design principles that are driving the evolution of the hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap instrument architecture to enable a greater range of applications and users. These principles may be summarized as follows: better usage of physical space and better access for service by means of size reduction of pumping and ion optics; expanded use of technologies from electronics in ion-optical design; flexibility in performance via modularity of design of the hardware and software components; and, harmonization of interfaces with other instruments to facilitate sharing and transferability of analytical workflows. The design of a novel family of hybrid mass spectrometers is described in detail, and performance evaluation is carried out on a wide variety of samples for its three representatives: the Orbitrap Exploris 120, Orbitrap Exploris 240 and Orbitrap Exploris 480 mass spectrometers.The new instrument family is shown to offer compelling potential not only for high-end proteomics and biopharmaceutical applications, but also for screening, trace, targeted and clinical analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0459.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: low concentration; gas; reactor; high-temperature oxidation
Online: 29 February 2020 (09:20:28 CET)
To achieve efficient utilization of low-concentration mine gas, reduce resource waste, and alleviate environmental pollution, high-temperature oxidation of low-concentration gas at a concentration range of 1.00% to 1.50% that is directly discharged into the atmosphere during coal mine production was oxidized to recover heat for reuse. The gas oxidation equipment was improved for the heating process, and the safety of low-concentration gas oxidation under high-temperature environment was evaluated. Experimental results showed that the reactor could provide a 1000 ℃ high-temperature oxidation environment for gas oxidation after installing high-temperature resistant ceramics. The pressure variation curves of the reactor with air and different concentrations of gas were similar. Due to the thermal expansion, the air pressure slightly increased and then returned to normal pressure. In contrast, the low-concentration gas exhibited a stable pressure response in the high-temperature environment of 1000 ℃. The outlet pressure was significantly greater than the inlet pressure, and the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet exhibited a trend to increase with the gas concentration. The explosion limit varied with the temperature and the blend with oxidation products. The ratio of measured gas pressure to air pressure after oxidation was below the explosion criterion, indicating that the measured concentration gas is still safe after the shift of explosion limit, which provides a safe concentration range for efficient use of low-concentration gas in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0137.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: topology optimization; convolutional neural network; high-resolution
Online: 12 October 2019 (03:56:19 CEST)
Topology optimization is a pioneering design method that can provide various candidates with high mechanical properties. However, the high-resolution for the optimum structures is highly desired, normally in turn leading to computationally intractable puzzle, especially for the famous Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) method. In this paper, an efficient and high-resolution topology optimization method is proposed based on the Super-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network (SRCNN) technique in the framework of SIMP. The SRCNN includes four processes, i.e. refining, path extraction & representation, non-linear mapping, and reconstruction. The high computational efficiency is achieved by a pooling strategy, which can balance the number of finite element analysis (FEA) and the output mesh in optimization process. To further reduce the high computational cost of 3D topology optimization problems, a combined treatment method using 2D SRCNN is built as another speeding-up strategy. A number of typical examples justify that the high-resolution topology optimization method adopting SRCNN has excellent applicability and high efficiency for 2D and 3D problems with arbitrary boundary conditions, any design domain shape, and varied load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0126.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: path integral; financial markets; high-frequency trading
Online: 8 May 2019 (08:47:44 CEST)
Methods of path integrals are used to develop multi-factor probabilities of bid-ask variables for use in high-frequency trading (HFT). Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) is used to fit the nonlinear forms so developed to a day of BitMEX tick data. Maxima algebraic code is used to develop the path integral codes into C codes, and sampling code is used for the fitting process. After these fits, the resultant C code is very fast and useful for forecasting upcoming ask, bid, midprice, etc., when narrow and wide windows of incoming data are used. A bonus is the availability of canonical momenta indicators (CMI) useful to forecast direction and strengths of these variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0238.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: residual feed consumption; quail; high environmental temperature
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:22:21 CEST)
Three hundred ten 12-wek-old laying quails (155 each) were randomly selected from the initial population and kept in individual battery cages. The measurements of growth and egg production were determined to derive RFI. The relationship between RFI and egg quality, blood parameters and carcass characteristics was also determined. The results indicated that the gray quails had significantly higher egg mass and lower broken eggs compared to the white quails. A significant increase for eggshell strength and shell % was found in eggs produced from gray quails compared to white counterparts, although the shell thickness was the same. The results of multiple regression analysis clearly identified a significant effect of metabolic body weight and egg mass in computing expected feed intake rather than body weight gain in both varieties of Japanese quails. Strongly positive correlation between RFI and feed intake in both gray and white quail varieties was found. The same trend was also observed for feed conversion ratio (FCR). Therefore, including RFI in selection criteria of Japanese quail to improve FCR under high environmental temperature is highly recommended.