ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0269.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: forecasting methods; statistical learning; high-frequency order book
Online: 9 March 2021 (12:24:12 CET)
This paper proposes a forecast-centric adaptive learning model that engages with the past studies on the order book and high-frequency data, with applications to hypothesis testing. In line with the past literature, we produce brackets of summaries of statistics from the high-frequency bid and ask data in the CSI 300 Index Futures market and aim to forecast the one-step-ahead prices. Traditional time series issues, e.g. ARIMA order selection, stationarity, together with potential financial applications are covered in the exploratory data analysis, which pave paths to the adaptive learning model. By designing and running the learning model, we found it to perform well compared to the top fixed models, and some could improve the forecasting accuracy by being more stable and resilient to non-stationarity. Applications to hypothesis testing are shown with a rolling window, and further potential applications to finance and statistics are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0322.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Multiscale orthonormal basis; High-order BVPs; Convergence order;
Online: 15 October 2020 (11:55:31 CEST)
This paper presents a numerical algorithm for solving high-order BVPs. We introduce the construction method of multiscale orthonormal basis in Wm[0; 1] by multiscale orthonormal basis in W1[0; 1]. We define approximate solution, and obtain the approximate solution of high-order BVPs by using the approximate theory. Moreover, the convergence and stability of the algorithm are improved. At last, several numerical experiments show the feasibility of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0493.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs; filters; high bandwidth; RF photonics
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:51:34 CEST)
Soliton crystal micro-combs are powerful tools as sources of multiple wavelength channels for radio frequency (RF) signal processing. They offer a compact device footprint, large numbers of wavelengths, very high versatility, and wide Nyquist bandwidths. Here, we demonstrate integral order RF signal processing functions based on a soliton crystal micro-comb, including a Hilbert transformer and first- to third-order differentiators. We compare and contrast results achieved and the tradeoffs involved with varying comb spacing, tap design methods, as well as shaping methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0126.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: path integral; financial markets; high-frequency trading
Online: 8 May 2019 (08:47:44 CEST)
Methods of path integrals are used to develop multi-factor probabilities of bid-ask variables for use in high-frequency trading (HFT). Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) is used to fit the nonlinear forms so developed to a day of BitMEX tick data. Maxima algebraic code is used to develop the path integral codes into C codes, and sampling code is used for the fitting process. After these fits, the resultant C code is very fast and useful for forecasting upcoming ask, bid, midprice, etc., when narrow and wide windows of incoming data are used. A bonus is the availability of canonical momenta indicators (CMI) useful to forecast direction and strengths of these variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: high frequency; acceleration; vibration; orthodontics; tooth movement
Online: 6 April 2018 (10:57:40 CEST)
Evaluation of the effect of a high frequency acceleration device on clear aligner exchange intervals and treatment time required to achieve prescribed tooth movements. Sixteen subjects with similar Class I malocclusions, 5mm or less crowding, and treated with Invisalign were divided into two groups. Group 1 (experimental; N=8) underwent aligner treatment in conjunction with daily use of the high frequency acceleration device and exchanged aligners every 5 days. Group 2 (controls; N=8) underwent aligner treatment without use of the device and exchanged aligners every 14 days according to the manufacturer's recommended interval. All subjects were treated by one investigator, and results were evaluated by both; total number of aligners used, and number of refinements required, prior to final Vivera retention scan. A significant decrease in both treatment time, and number of aligners required to complete treatment was observed by experimental subjects as compared to controls. In addition, no refinements were required by experimental subjects, whereas 6 of 8 of the control subjects required 1 or more refinements. Use of the high frequency acceleration device in conjunction with Invisalign treatment resulted in more predictable tooth movement and a significant decrease in the length of treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0207.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: myopia,photon-electron theory,high-frequency electromagnetic radiation
Online: 12 June 2019 (12:31:59 CEST)
The exact etiology of myopia remains elusive. The author proposes the particle property of photon in living tissue and the photon-electron theory in living tissue, if the frequency of the photon exceeds the threshold, the photon has enough energy to strike the electron away and forms a hole of a diameter in photon diameter scale in living tissue include the eye. Longer time of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation will cause more holes and a larger radius of holes. The visual light which passes through the radiated hole in the eye cannot be refracted on the macula, this is myopia symptom of blurred vision, shortening the distance of the eye and the object will include more visual light into cornea and lens, this is myopia another symptom of nearsightedness. The particle property of photon causes elongation of the eye and the macular holes.Blue light and X-ray are two kinds of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation which can shot holes in eye and cause myopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0557.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: orthodontics clear aligner, pain; vibration, high-frequency, HFA
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:14:49 CEST)
Evaluation of the effects of a high-frequency acceleration (HFA) device on patient pain response to orthodontic forces. A multi-centered trial investigating pain sensitivity to orthodontic forces on 75 subjects at 4 study centers. Subjects underwent clear aligner treatment, with or without adjunctive HFA and documented their pain intensity using the validated NRS10 numeric rating scale. In-Office and At-Home ratings were measured separately for each subject for immediate and extended effect evaluations. Use of HFA devices in conjunction with clear aligner orthodontic treatment demonstrated significant reduction in subjects’ recorded pain ratings vs controls within 5 minutes of aligner exchange, (p = 0.006) and significant reduction in recorded pain ratings vs controls over a 7-day period following aligner exchange (p = 0.018). A 99.6% daily compliance rate with at home use of the HFA device was recorded for all subjects in the study. HFA significantly reduces pain attributed to orthodontic force. HFA delivers clinically significant immediate pain relief, and clinically significant extended pain relief over the 7 days following adjustment.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0655.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: high stable; stable zone; water jet guided laser; green laser; high repetition frequency
Online: 9 November 2023 (15:11:15 CET)
This paper presents the design and experimental results of a long cavity length Nd: YAG laser with large stable zone for water jet guided laser (WJGL) applications. The design is based on the light transmission matrix and resonator stability conditions, aiming to achieve a large stable zone and a short cut-off thermal focal length (CTFL). A folded concave resonator is researched to enhance the cavity length, and the influence of the tun-able cavity arm length on the oscillating beam in the resonator and in the YAG crystal is theoretically studied. Moreover, the effects of the output mirror curvature and the cavity arm length on the range of the stable area and the cut-off thermal focal length are also investigated. Experimental results show that a stable green laser output is obtained after second harmonic generation (SHG), with a pulse width ranging from 43ns to 143ns within the laser operating frequency range of 5-20kHz. At an operation frequency of 10kHz, the output power is 21.33W, and the instability of the output power within 400 minutes is 0.88%. The laser source achieves a maximum power of 25.7W at 20kHz, and the maximum single pulse energy reaches 2.7mJ at 6kHz. Finally, this is used as the laser source to couple with a water jet with a diameter of 100 microns, achieving a lossless water conductivity transmission over 60mm length with a peak power density of 0.742GW/cm2. These results demonstrate the suitability of the designed laser source for WJGL technology research.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: spectral collocation; Chebfun; singular Schrodinger; high index eigenpairs; multiple eigenpairs; accuracy; numerical stability
Online: 26 November 2020 (11:07:47 CET)
We are concerned with the use of some classical spectral collocation methods as well as with the new software system Chebfun in order to compute high order (index) eigenpairs of singular as well as regular Schrodinger eigenproblems. We want to highlight both the qualities as well as the shortcomings of these methods and evaluate them vis-a-vis the usual ones. In order to resolve a boundary singularity we use Chebfun with the simple domain truncation technique. Although this method is equally easy to apply with spectral collocation, things are more nuanced in the case of these methods. A special technique to introduce boundary conditions as well as a coordinate transform which maps an unbounded domain to a nite one are the ingredients. A challenging set of "hard" benchmark problems, for which usual numerical methods (f. d., f. e. m., shooting etc.) fail, are analysed. In order to separate "good"and "bad"eigenvalues we estimate the drift of the set of eigenvalues of interest with respect to the order of approximation and/or scaling of domain parameter. It automatically provides us with a measure of the error within which the eigenvalues are computed and a hint on numerical stability. We pay a particular attention to problems with almost multiple eigenvalues as well as for problems with a mixed (continuous) spectrum. In the latter case we try to numerically highlight its existence. Special attention will be paid to the higher eigenpairs (the pair of eigenvalue and the corresponding eigenfunction approximated by an eigenvector spanning its nodal values).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0611.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: high-frequency arc discharge; hydrogen reduction; silicon chlorides; germanium chlorides
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:20:32 CET)
The processes of hydrogen reduction of silicon and germanium chlorides under the conditions of high-frequency (40.68 MHz) counteracted arc discharge stabilized between two rod electrodes are investigated. The main gas-phase and solid products of plasma-chemical transformations are determined. Thermodynamic analysis of SiCl4 + H2 and GeCl4 + H2 systems for optimal process parameters was carried out. Using the example of hydrogen reduction of SiCl4 by the method of numerical modeling, gas-dynamic and thermal processes for this type of discharge are investigated. The impurity composition of gas-phase and solid reaction products is investigated. The possibility of single-stage production of high-purity Si and Ge mainly in the form of compact ingots, as well as high-purity chlorosilanes and trichlorogermane, is shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0033.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: PIN-PMN-PT; 1-3 composite; high frequency; phased array
Online: 4 February 2019 (12:01:44 CET)
Based on a modified dice-and-fill technique, a PIN-PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composite with the kerf of 12 μm and pitch of 50 μm was prepared. The as-made piezoelectric composite material behaved with high piezoelectric constant (d33 = 1500 pC/N), high electromechanical coefficient (kt = 0.81), and low acoustic impedance (16.2 Mrayls). Using lithography and flexible circuit method, a 48-element phased array was successfully fabricated from such a piezoelectric composite. The array element was measured to have a central frequency of 20 MHz and a fractional bandwidth of approximately 77% at −6 dB. Of particular significance was that this PIN-PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composite-based phased array exhibits a superior insertion loss compared with PMN-PT single crystal and PZT-5H-based 20 MHz phased arrays. The focusing and steering capabilities of the obtained phased array were demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. These promising results indicate that the PIN-PMN-PT single crystal 1-3 composite-based high frequency phased array is a good candidate for ultrasound imaging applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0062.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Underground space, information detection, fractional differentiation, high accuracy remote data
Online: 3 March 2023 (08:37:27 CET)
The quality of underground space information has become a major problem that endangers the safety of underground spaces. Currently, the main methods for the high-precision and long-distance transmission of detection information are radar and optical methods. However, in practical applications, we found that the radar method has the shortcomings of large energy loss and poor anti-jamming ability, which limit the accuracy of information data transmission and distance. The optical method has the shortcomings that the weather has a great impact on its accuracy and can only be applied to static objects above ground; therefore, it has the limitation of application objects and use environment. More importantly, the current high-precision information remote detection methods are limited to the detection of overground space objects and are not applicable to the detection of various information data in underground space. In this study, we analyze the spectral properties of the fractional differential operator and find that it is suitable for studying non-linear, non-causal, and non-stationary signals. The theory of fractional calculus is applied to the field of data processing, and a mathematical model of remote transmission and high-precision detection of information based on fractional difference is established, which realizes the functions of high-precision and remote detection of information. By fusing the information data to detect the mathematical model over a long distance and with high accuracy, a mathematical model for stratum data processing used to provide long-distance and high-accuracy data was established. Through application in engineering practice, the effectiveness of this method for underground space information data detection was verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: high-frequency ultrasound transducer; intravascular ultrasound; tissue harmonic imaging; dual-frequency IVUS transducer; dual-element IVUS transducer
Online: 14 June 2018 (11:46:44 CEST)
The superharmonic imaging of tissue has the potential for high spatial and contrast resolutions, compared to the fundamental and second harmonic imaging. For this technique, the spectral bandwidth of an ultrasound transducer is divided for transmission of ultrasound and reception of its superharmonics (i.e., higher than the second harmonic). Due to the spectral division for the transmission and reception, transmitted ultrasound energy is not sufficient to induce superharmonics in media without using contrast agents, and it is difficult that a transducer has a -6-dB fractional bandwidth of higher than 100%. For the superharmonic imaging of tissue, thus, multi-frequency array transducers are the best choice if available; transmit and receive elements are separate and have different center frequencies. However, the construction of a multi-frequency transducer for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is particularly demanding because of its small size of less than 1 mm. Here, we report a recently developed dual-element focused IVUS transducer for the third harmonic imaging of tissue, which consists of a 35-MHz element for ultrasound transmission and a 105-MHz element for third harmonic reception. For high quality third harmonic imaging, both elements were fabricated to have the same focus at 2.5 mm. The results of tissue mimicking phantom tests demonstrated that the third harmonic images produced by the developed transducer had higher spatial resolution and deeper imaging depth than the fundamental images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0084.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Femtosecond laser micromachining; High order harmonic generation; de Laval gas micro nozzle; Attosecond science.
Online: 9 January 2020 (12:01:44 CET)
We report on the application of femtosecond laser micromachining to the fabrication of complex glass microdevices, for high-order harmonic generation in gas. The three-dimensional capabilities and extreme flexibility of femtosecond laser micromachining allow us to achieve accurate control of gas density inside the micrometer interaction channel. This device gives a considerable increase in harmonics generation efficiency if compared with traditional harmonic generation in gas jets. We propose different chip geometries that allow to control the gas density and driving field intensity inside the interaction channel to achieve quasi-phase matching conditions in the harmonic generation process. We believe that these glass micro-devices will pave the way to future downscaling of High-order Harmonic Generation beamlines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1736.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: High-Frequency Induction Heating; Eddy current; Boron stee; GIGA-Grade Steel
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:45:39 CEST)
: In the automotive industry, high-strength plates have been increasingly used to reduce the vehicle body weight due to stringent regulations on fuel economy and safety. Such plates achieve tensile strengths as high as 1.5 GPa owing to the hot-stamping process. However, these plates suffer from scale generation and surface decarburization because of the surface oxidation of the material. Recently, studies on materials subjected to high-frequency induction heating have reported strength improvement owing to the coil shape and cooling method. This study presents the surface temperature changes, mechanical properties, and microstructures of boron steels subjected to longitudinal heating, which uses eddy currents generated from high-frequency induction heating. The surface temperature data were analyzed under different high-frequency induction heating powers (15, 18, 21, 24, 27, and 30 kW) and distances from the specimen (6, 9, and 15 mm). The mechanical properties and microstructures were also analyzed in different high-frequency induction heating coil directions. The correlations between the high-frequency induction heating power and the distance from the specimen with the maximum tensile strength were determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1231.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC/AC converter; Three-phase inverter; High frequency applications; Performance comparison
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:24:17 CEST)
This study investigates the nonlinearities in three-phase inverters for SiC-based systems and compares their performance to IGBT-based systems. An analytical model of inverter voltage distortion is developed, which accounts not only for dead time (td), switching delay time, switching frequency (fs), and voltage drops of power devices, but also for output parasitic capacitance (Cout). Experimental tests validate the model, which provides a more accurate estimate of the inverter’s output phase voltage distortion. The power device characteristics are obtained from datasheets, while Cout is determined through experimentation. Three-phase inverters with varying switching frequencies, fundamental frequencies, and dead-time values are used in simulations and experiments to determine the influence of nonlinearity on phase voltage deviation and current distortion. The results show that, due to SiC devices’ faster switching time, the phase voltage deviation and phase current distortion are lower in SiC-based inverters than in IGBT-based ones for high-frequency applications, as the dead time can be reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0004.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: High-frequency Limit Order Book; Online Fast Prediction; Hybrid Neural Network
Online: 1 February 2023 (02:37:46 CET)
Time series data having low signal-to-noise ratio, non-stationarity and non-linearity are commonly seen in high-frequency stock trading, where the objective is to increase the likelihood of profit by taking advantage of tiny discrepancies in prices and trading on them quickly and in huge quantities. For this purpose, it is essential to apply a trading method that is capable of fast and accurate prediction from such time series data. In this paper, we develop an online time series forecasting method for high-frequency trading (HFT) by integrating three neural network deep learning models, i.e., Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) and Transformer; and we abbreviate the new method to online LGT or O-LGT. The key innovation underlying our method is its efficient storage management, which enables super-fast computing. Specifically, when computing the forecast for the immediate future time, we use only the output calculated from the previous trading data (rather than the previous trading data themselves) together with the current trading data. Thus, the computing involves updating only the current data into the process. We evaluate the performance of O-LGT by analyzing the high-frequency Limit Order Book (LOB) data from the China market. It shows that our model in most cases achieves similar speed with much higher accuracy than the conventional fast supervised learning models for HFT. However, with a slight sacrifice in accuracy, O-LGT is approximately 40 times faster than the existing high-accuracy neural network models for the LOB data in China market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: excessive Internet gaming; heart rate variability; high frequency; impulsivity, young male adults
Online: 3 April 2023 (13:46:36 CEST)
Several studies have reported a relationship between autonomic dysfunction during tasks and Internet addiction. Changes within 24 h regarding heart rate variability (HRV) may be a more sensitive indicator than short term observations. We evaluated the influence of excessive Internet usage on HRV using a 24 h electrocardiogram (ECG) and examined acute changes during computer game tasks. A total 13 high school students and 22 young adults were recruited, and divided into excessive Internet user and non- excessive user groups based on Internet addiction test scores. The ECG was recorded continuously for 24 h by a wearable sensor and during two computer games (the Iowa gambling task and each participant’s preferred game) using a standard type ECG system. Multiple psychometric tests were also conducted. The excessive Internet user group exhibited clinically significant depressive symptoms, and higher self-reported scores for anxiety, impulsivity, autistic tendencies, and sleep problems than the non- excessive internet user group. There were weak differences within the 24 h high-frequency (HF) band power between two groups. During the Iowa gambling task, younger participants exhibited a reduced HF response, which may be related to weaker top- down self- regulatory mechanisms.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: High frequency vibration; clear aligners; skeletal Class II; non-surgical treatment; malocclusion
Online: 9 July 2020 (11:45:30 CEST)
This study presents a novel technique utilizing high frequency vibration to shorten treatment time and preserve alveolar bone in challenging orthodontic cases treated with Invisalign® clear aligners. Four non-growing orthodontic patients (age range 14-47 years old) with Class II skeletal patterns (convex profiles with retrognathic mandibles) who sought correction of their crowded teeth and non-surgical correction of their convex profiles were included in this study. These patients were treated using Invisalign clear aligners together with high frequency vibration (HFV) devices (120 Hz) (VPro5™) that were used by all patients for five minutes per day during active orthodontic treatment. Vertical control and forward rotation of the mandible for each patient was achieved through pre-programming the Invisalign to produce posterior teeth intrusion. Successful forward rotation of the mandibles achieved in all patients led to improvement of their facial convex profiles (ANB improved 2.1 + 0.5 degrees; FMA improved 1.2 +1.1 degrees). Dental decompensation was achieved by lingual tipping of the lower incisors and palatal root torque of upper incisors. The use of HFV together with Invisalign facilitated achieving these results within a 12+6 month period. In addition, more bone labial to the lower incisors after their lingual movement was noted. In conclusion, the use of HFV concurrent with SmartTrack Invisalign aligners allowed complex tooth movement and forward projection without surgery in non-growing patients with skeletal Class II relationships. The clinical impact and implications of this case series is that the use of HFV facilitates complex orthodontic tooth movement including posterior teeth intrusion and incisor decompensation in addition to increased bone formation labial to lower incisors that may minimize future gum recession due to their labial inclination.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: high-frequency near-infrared diode laser; osteoarthritis; inflammation; matrix metalloproteinase; human chondrocyte
Online: 9 January 2020 (12:22:18 CET)
High-frequency near-infrared diode laser provides high peak output, low heat accumulation, and efficient biostimulation. Although these characteristics are considered suitable for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment, the effect of high-frequency near-infrared diode laser in in vitro or in vivo OA models has not yet been reported. Therefore, we aimed to assess the biological effects of high-frequency near-infrared diode laser irradiation on IL-1β-induced chondrocyte inflammation in an in vitro OA model. Normal Human Articular Chondrocyte-Knee (NHAC-Kn) cells were stimulated with human recombinant IL-1β and irradiated with high-frequency near-infrared diode laser (910 nm, 4 or 8 J/cm2). The mRNA and protein expression of relevant inflammation- and cartilage destruction-related proteins was analyzed. IL-1β treatment significantly increased the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13. High-frequency near-infrared diode laser irradiation significantly reduced the IL-1β-induced expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-1, and MMP-3. Similarly, high-frequency near-infrared diode laser irradiation decreased the IL-1β-induced increase in protein expression and secreted levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of high-frequency near-infrared diode laser in OA.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ultrasonic cyclic testing; frequency effect; strain rate effect; 50CrMo4; SAE 4150; High Cycle Fatigue; Very High Cycle Fatigue
Online: 21 October 2020 (15:18:48 CEST)
In this study, we investigate the influence of control type and strain rate on the lifetime of specimens manufactured from 50CrMo4. This influence is described by a strain rate dependent method that uses cyclic stress strain curves to correct displacement controlled cyclic test results. The objective of this correction is to eliminate the stress related differences between displacement controlled cyclic test results and force controlled cyclic test results. The method is applied to the results of ultrasonic fatigue tests of six different combinations of heat treatment, specimen geometry (notch factor) and atmosphere. The corrected results show an improved agreement with test results obtained on conventional fatigue testing equipment with similar specimens: the standard deviation in combined data sets is significantly reduced (p=4.1%). We discuss the literature on intrinsic and extrinsic strain rate effects in carbon steels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1225.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: high-order twisting phases; state of polarization; vector optical fields; orbital angular momentum
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:12:40 CEST)
We study the influence of high-order twisting phases on polarization states and optical angular momentum of a vector light field with locally linear polarization and a hybrid state of polarization (SoP). The initial SoP of a twisted vector optical field (TVOF) modulated by the high-order twisting phase possesses various symmetric distributions. The propagating properties of a high-order TVOF with locally linear polarization and hybrid SoP are explored, including the intensity compression, expansion, and conversion between the linear and circular polarization components. In particular, orbital angular momentum (OAM) appears in a high-order TVOF during propagation where no OAM exists in the initial field. The variation of OAM distribution in cross-section becomes more frequent with the increase of the twisting phase order. In addition, a non-symmetric OAM distribution appears in an anisotropic TVOF, leading to the rotation of the beam around the propagation axis during propagation. These results provide a new approach for optical field manipulation in a high-order TVOF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1680.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: high frequency welding; process parameters; anode current; welding time; active pressure of upper electrode; frequency; power; dielectric constants; dielectric losses; time
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:36:48 CET)
So far, scientific studies on high frequency welding (HF) have observed the three main parameters: anode current, welding time and pressure of upper electrode. Some authors have also observed and studied the welding frequency, the power, and the values of the dielectric constants of the materials or the angle of dielectric losses. Due to the complex effects that the parameters have on the quality of the welded joint, it is necessary to extend the research and study the mutual relationships between a large numbers of process parameters on the welded joint in order to achieve satisfactory strength of the welded joint. In this research, the number of considered parameters is increased to 17, each of which is relevant to the processes of HF welding, and their mathematical equations are presented. The research is carried out on a HF welding machine improved with a linear pneumatic actuator for lowering the upper electrode and regulating the compressive force, and a measuring machine with the appropriate measuring method for determining the breaking forces with a tension gage and performing the „T“ test is made. Numerous researches were carried out on the functional changes of the process parameters of the percentage share of the values of the coupling capacitor, the anode current and the welding time on the values of the breaking forces of the welded joints. Based on the conducted research, it was concluded that the optimization of the process parameters of HF machine must be performed before the welding process, which is determined by a certain amount of energy that must be introduced into the material. These parameters are the capacity of the output capacitor, i.e., the value of the electric current flowing through the material and the time for the development of the operating power to produce welded joints with a certain strength and quality of welded joints for a specific material used in the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0932.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: actuator line model; actuator disk model; tip loss correction; high-order finite volume unstructured solver
Online: 14 November 2023 (15:15:25 CET)
In the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for rotorcraft, two significant challenges are resolving the complex vortex structures in rotor wakes, and representing the moving rotor blades in the ambient airflow. This study addresses the first challenge by using a third-order unstructured finite volume solver, which, compared to its second-order counterpart, has substantially lower dissipation. Consequently, even relatively coarse meshes are capable of resolving small vortices. With this background flow field solver, the second challenge is addressed by modeling each rotor as an Actuator Disk Model (ADM), or describing individual rotor blades as actuator lines, designated as the Actuator Line Model (ALM). Both of these models are equipped with an improved correction for aerodynamic losses at blade tips, which is thoroughly presented in the methodology section. The numerical experiments section centers on analyzing errors linked to various sampling approaches. Additionally, the article discusses comparisons between vortex theory and ALM, specifically regarding calculations for fixed-wing aircraft. Furthermore, high-order precision and parallel efficiency are exemplified in scenarios encompassing rotors engaged in both hovering and forward flight rotors. The results in this paper demonstrate that the combination of the ALM/ADM with the improved tip loss correction and the third-order finite volume solver presents a new way of developing efficient tools for the aerodynamic analysis of helicopter rotors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0166.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: constitutive androstene receptor; cytochrome P450, fibrosis; gender difference; high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diet; necrosis; stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats; sulfotransferase, pregnane X receptor; UGP-glucuronosyltransferase
Online: 23 May 2017 (07:54:46 CEST)
During middle age, women are less susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than men. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these sexual differences using an established rat model of NASH. Mature female and male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats were fed control or high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diets for 2, 8, and 14 weeks. Although HFC-induced hepatic fibrosis was markedly less severe in females than in males, only minor gender differences were observed in expression levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP)7A1, CYP8B1 CYP27A1, and CYP7B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and bile salt export pump, which are involved in fibrosis-related bile acid (BA) kinetics. However, the BA detoxification-related enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) 2A1, and the nuclear receptors constitutive androstene receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), were strongly suppressed in HFC fed males, and were only slightly changed in HFC-diet fed females. Expression levels of the farnesoid X receptor and its small heterodimer partner were similarly regulated in a gender-dependent fashion following HFC feeding. Hence, the pronounced female resistance to HFC-induced liver damage likely reflects sustained expression of the nuclear receptors CAR and PXR and the BA detoxification enzymes UGT and SULT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0260.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: AISI 1045; Co-simulation; High-Frequency Induction Heat Treatment; Metal Phase Transformation; RLC Circuit
Online: 13 October 2020 (07:13:08 CEST)
Based on electromagnetic heat transfer and metal phase transformation co-simulations, we modeled an AISI 1045 specimen under high-frequency heat treatment. Hardening zone predictions were confirmed through cooling and metal phase transformation simulations after obtaining the results from electromagnetic heat transfer simulations. The cooling process was modeled by applying the cooling coefficient of the cooling water in the same way as the actual heat-treatment process. To obtain the current flowing through the coil during high-frequency induction heating, the voltage was measured and applied using the resistance–inductance–capacitance circuit calculation method. Experimental and simulated results of the heating temperature and curing depth of an AISI 1045 specimen with a carbon content of 0.45% were compared; the comparison indicated good agreement between the two. Using the simulation results, we established a method for obtaining the current flowing through the induction coil for predicting the extent and depth of the hardening zone during high-frequency induction heat treatment.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0339.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Chemical Physics Keywords: electron paramagnetic resonance; EPR; multi-frequency EPR; high-spin cobalt complex; resolution of A-mid
Online: 16 October 2018 (08:04:16 CEST)
Low-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is used to extract the EPR parameter A-mid and support the approximate X-band value of g-mid for Ba(CoyZn1/3-yTa2/3)O3. Although cobalt hyperfine structure for the [+/−1/2> state is often unresolved at X-band or S-band, it is resolved in measurements on this compound. This allows for detailed analysis of the molecular orbital for the [+/−1/2> state, which is often the ground state. Moreover, this work shows that the EPR parameters for Co substituted into Zn compounds gives important insight into the properties of zinc binding sites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling(UVAM); homogenization; ball-end milling; surface integrity; high frequency cutting force
Online: 3 September 2018 (12:44:32 CEST)
This paper aims to study the surface homogenization and integrity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by longitudinal-torsional coupled ultrasonic vibration assisted ball-end milling. A method of continuous processing between the flat surface and freeform surface connection is proposed by using ultrasonic vibration assisted ball-end precision milling, during this process, it is not necessary to exchange the cutting tool. The way has been explored for changing the homogenization of surface on Ti-6Al-4V by ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling (UVAM). Cutting experiments employing three parameters, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut and two types of machining forms using ball-end milling with UVAM and conventional milling (CM) respectively. The high frequency cutting force, finished surface roughness, topography and residual stresses on the surface and tool wear have been measured by advanced instruments. Particularly, adopting the high frequency cutting force measurement system, it is concluded cutting force in ball-end milling decreased significantly using UVAM as against CM. Moreover, the surface roughness by UVAM with ball-end milling is much better than the CM at a high cutting speed. However, an opposite trend is observed at a low cutting speed. Especially, there is a steep decrease from Ra 0.828 μm average value at 4000 rpm to Ra 0.129 μm average value at 5000 rpm. At the same time, the homogenization of surface roughness and residual stresses decrease significantly in UVAM as compared to which in CM when taking the transversal-longitudinal ratio into consideration. Cutting experiments and measuring results are demonstrated the validity and feasibility of UVAM with ball-end milling, and this method enjoys significant advantages compared to CM process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1647.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Cross-term; Fourier transform; Frequency shifting; Time-frequency method; Natural frequency
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:55:32 CEST)
The natural frequency of buildings decreases during a strong-motion earthquake, and the structure loses its stiffness. As a result, understanding the damaging process in the structure owing to changes in structural properties is critical during a seismic excitation. The time-frequency technique can detect the damaged building’s time-varying frequency contents. Wigner distributions (WD), Wigner-Ville distributions (WVD), pseudo-Wigner-Ville distributions (PWVD), smoothed pseudo-Wigner-Ville distributions (SPWVD), and synchrosqueezing transforms (SST) have all become popular in recent years for a variety of earthquake engineering applications, including building damage detection. This study proposes the local maximum synchrosqueezing transform (LMSST) for detecting frequency shifts in buildings during strong earthquakes. The data presented in the research show that the suggested method outperforms as compared to the conventional time-frequency methods for detecting frequency shifting in earthquake-damaged structures.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: soft-core architecture; system on chip (SoC); radio frequency system on chip (RFSoC); adaptive compute acceleration platform (ACAP); scalar processing; vector processing; I/Q demodulator; odd order sampling; even order sampling; analogue to digital converter (ADC)
Online: 1 September 2019 (14:40:07 CEST)
Soft-Core architecture for Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC) sampling is useful for mixed signal applications. Soft-core architecture for cutting edge odd or even ADC sampling with interface to block RAM memory has not been found. Soft-core architecture as a concept has become popular due to the advantage of customization for different applications as compared to general-core architecture suited for single application. The latest generation of piece wise sampling is odd sampling and was introduced in the second decade of the 20th century. Odd and even order sampling techniques are analogue in nature driven by a tuned (tuned for odd or even) mixer. This paper proposes a third-generation piece wise sampling with soft-core architecture that enables an option to select both odd and even while interfacing to memory mapping. The proposed odd/even has superior SNR performance of 6 dB as compared to existing architecture such as Mod-∆ which recorded worst performance of 18 dB. Advances in soft-core technology have allowed a niche odd/even switching field to be identified and studied, the study has also been extended to include memory architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1865.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Femtosecond laser processing; Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS); high spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL); Borosilicate glass
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:31:10 CEST)
Large-area nanostructuring of glasses using intense laser beam remains a difficult task due to the extreme non-linear absorption of the laser energy by the material. Precise optimization of the process parameters is essential for fabricating nanostructures with large area coverage. In this study, we report the findings on creating high spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL) on borosilicate glass through direct laser writing, using a femtosecond laser with a wavelength λ = 800 nm, pulse duration τ = 35 fs, and repetition frequency frep = 1 kHz. The orientation of the HSFL was found to be parallel to the electric field vector. We measured the single pulse ablation threshold (Fth=3.87±0.26 J/cm2) and incubation factor (S=0.68±0.03) of Borosilicate glasses for precise control for large area surface structuring. Single-spot experiments indicate that uniform LIPSS formation is limited by melt formation inside the irradiated area for higher fluence and a larger number of irradiated laser pulses. The orientation of the scan axis with the laser beam polarization is found to be significantly influencing the uniformity of the large area processing. We found that the orientation of the scan axis with the laser beam polarization significantly affects the uniformity of large-area processing, with redeposition and melt formation being higher when the scan axis is perpendicular to the laser beam polarization. Large-area processing of the borosilicate glass surface is done by line-by-line scanning over the surface with a scan orientation parallel to the laser beam polarization. The optical characterization reveals that the transmittance and reflectance of the borosilicate glass decreased significantly after processing. Also, the wettability of the surface has been changed from hydrophilic to super hydrophilic after processing. These chemical contamination-free and uniformly distributed structures have potential applications in optics, microfluidics, photovoltaics, and biomaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0276.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: colorectal cancer; cancer stem cells; extracellular vesicles; high frequency dielectrophoresis; mi-crofluidic lab-on-a-chip
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:03:50 CEST)
Cancer stem cells remain a challenge to isolate and characterize because of their plastic phenotype. Using a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip based on ultra-high frequency dielectophoresis, we measured the electromagnetic signature of colorectal cancer cells and demonstrated that cancer stem cells show a distinct and lower electromagnetic signature than differentiated cells. The release of extracellular vesicles from tumor cells can drive tumor progression and metastasis development. As extracellular vesicles from cancer stem cells carry more aggressive content, we treated colorectal cancer cells with these vesicles to test whether the lab-on-a-chip can detect a change in phenotype. The electromagnetic signature of treated cells is modified in comparison to untreated cells and sometimes even when no biological change is observed. The lab-on-a-chip provides rapid and relevant result without prior labeling compared to conventional biological approaches. It could be useful in the clinic for early detection of cancer stem cells in the tumor mass and for monitoring the aggressive potential of extracellular vesicles in the bloodstream in order to adapt therapeutic management and prevent relapse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0424.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: high frequency dielectrophoresis; glioblastoma cells; single cell manipulation; microfluidic point-of-care device; cancer stem cells
Online: 24 September 2021 (11:11:35 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors, particularly due to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Today the characterization of this type of cells with an efficient, fast and low-cost method remains an issue. Hence, we have developed a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) single cell electro-manipulation to measure the two crossover frequencies: fx01 in low frequency range (below 500 kHz) and fx02 in Ultra High Frequency range (UHF, above 50 MHz). First, in vitro conditions were investigated. U87-MG cell lines were cultured in different conditions in order to induce an undifferentiated phenotype. Then, ex vivo GBM cells from patients’ primary cell culture, were passed through the developed microfluidic system and characterized in order to reflect clinical conditions. This article demonstrates that the usual exploitation of low frequency range DEP does not allow the discrimination of the undifferentiated from the differentiated phenotypes of GBM cells. However, the presented study highlights the use of UHF-DEP as a relevant discriminant parameter. The proposed microfluidic lab-on-a-chip is able to follow the kinetic of U87-MG phenotype transformation in a CSC enrichment medium and their cancer stem cells phenotype acquirement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0380.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: correlation power-frequency; frequency stability; hydropower; power quality analysis
Online: 21 March 2023 (14:29:33 CET)
One of the challenges posed by renewable energies is the stabilization of parameters related to the quality of electrical energy. This study demonstrates the existence of a relationship between input blocks of hydropower and the variation of the fundamental frequency of the electricity grid. By mapping production data provided by Spanish Electric Network with frequency measured in the laboratory, it is shown that gradients of hydropower are correlated with frequency fluctuations for certain characteristic times. Considering hourly instances of energy input, the study compares two methods for calculating hydropower gradients (linear regression and pseudo-linear regression); and two methods for calculating local frequency extremes (the "specular inertia" method and analysis by comparison with the moving average), in order to corroborate the results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0516.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Frequency response characteristic (FRC) curve; frequency response; renewable generation; governor
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:40:43 CET)
This letter introduces a frequency response characteristic (FRC) curve and its application in high renewable power systems. In addition, the letter presents a method for fast frequency response assessment and frequency nadir prediction without performing dynamic simulations using detailed models. The proposed FRC curve and fast frequency response assessment method are useful for operators to understand frequency response performance of high renewable systems in real time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: injection locked frequency multiplier; Frequency Locked Loop (FLL); phase noise
Online: 4 April 2018 (08:02:01 CEST)
This paper presents a 612–1152 MHz Injection Locked Frequency Multiplier (ILFM). The proposed ILFM is only used for sending an input signal to the receiver in the I/Q mismatch calibration mode. Using the Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) to calibrate the receiver places a burden on this system due to the extra area required and power consumption. Instead of the PLL, to satisfy high frequency, low jitter, and low area, a Ring Oscillator is proposed. The free-running frequency of the ILFM is automatically digitally calibrated to reflect the frequency of the injected signal from the harmonics of the reference clock. To control the frequency of the ILFM, the load current is digitally tuned with 6-bit digital control signal. The proposed ILFM locks to the target frequency using a digitally controlled Frequency Locked Loop (FLL). This chip is fabricated using 1-poly 6-metal 0.18 µm CMOS and achieve the wide tuning range of 612–1152 MHz. The power consumption is 0.95 mW from a supply voltage of 1.8 V. The measured phase noise of the ILFM is −108 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0665.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ancillary services; secondary frequency control; tertiary frequency control; real time operation
Online: 8 August 2023 (13:34:09 CEST)
Modern electrical power systems integrate ancillary services to provide security and quality of service in real-time operation because of the intense variations in frequency caused by the massive development and uncertainty of solar-wind generation. Therefore, this ancillary services market focuses on power reserves for secondary and tertiary frequency control. Adjusting reserves and dispatching plants is a manual instruction executed by the system operator to maintain the frequency in the normal operating state (49.80≤f≤50.20 Hz). However, in the absence of an economic model for real-time power reserve reallocation in the ancillary services market, the reserve adjustments made by the system operator are not always optimal since they generate a displacement between the scheduled and actual marginal costs. Then, this work proposes a methodology for operating the ancillary services market in real-time through a dynamic and hourly mathematical model that integrates the variability of solar-wind generation, the demand monitoring curve, and the trajectory of the marginal cost. This model minimizes power reserve costs, which are governed by hourly price auctions, for candidate plants classified as supra/infra-marginal and can optimally reallocate power reserves for secondary and tertiary frequency control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0626.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Nanocomposite; microcantilever; mass sensing; frequency shifts; carbon nanotubes; nonlinear frequency response
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:36:54 CEST)
A nonlinear MEMS multimass sensor is investigated. The MEMS design consists of an array of nonlinear microcantilevers clamped to a shuttle mass which, in turn, is attached to a linear spring and a dashpot. The microcantilevers are made of a polymeric hosting matrix reinforced by aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) with different CNT volume fractions in each cantilever so as to suitably tune the frequency bandwidth of the device. The advantages of a single input-single output (SISO) system are here exploited for the design, actuation and detection principles as in previous literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0528.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: magnetoelectric sensors; frequency upconversion technique; piezomagnetic material; low-frequency weak magnetic field
Online: 28 December 2022 (04:06:49 CET)
Magnetoelectric (ME) sensor is a new type magnetic sensor with ultrahigh sensitivity, low power consumption, and suitable for the measurement of low frequency weak magnetic field. In this study, metglas/PZT-5B ME sensor with a mechanical resonance frequency f_res of 60.041 kHz was prepared. It is interesting to note that its magnetic field resolution reaches 0.20 nT at f_res and 0.34 nT for DC field, respectively. In order to measure the ultralow frequency AC magnetic fields, a frequency upconversion technique was employed. Under this technique, a limit of detection (LOD) of AC magnetic field lower than 1 nT at 8 Hz is obtained, and the minimum LOD of 0.51 nT is achieved at 20 Hz. The high resolution ME sensor with sub-pT level is promising in the field of low frequency weak magnetic field measurement technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2053.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: cancer; inhibition; resonant; frequency; formant
Online: 30 May 2023 (05:23:20 CEST)
Pulsed electric fields of specific frequencies emitted by a glass plasma antenna tube have been shown to slow the growth of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia cells by as much as 43% when exposed to a series of frequencies between 156kHz and 162kHz. This narrow band of frequencies is termed a “Destructive Cancer Resonant Frequency Formant” (DCRFF).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0220.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current sensor; lift-off variation; radius measurement; peak frequency feature; multi-frequency testing
Online: 14 July 2021 (14:10:02 CEST)
This paper proposes a linear eddy-current feature to determine the radius of a metallic ball in a non-contact manner. An electromagnetic eddy-current sensor with two coils is placed co-axially to the metal ball during measurement. It is well known that the distance between the sensor and test piece (i.e. lift-off) affects eddy-current signals. In this paper, it is found that the peak frequency feature of inductance spectrum is linear to the lift-off spacing between the centre of coil and ball. Besides, the slope of peak frequencies versus lift-offs is linked to the radius of ball. The radius of metallic balls is retrieved from the experimental and embedded analytical result of the slope. Measurements have been carried out on 6 metallic balls with different radii. The radius of the metallic ball can be retrieved with an error of less than 2 %.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0478.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: active filters; filtering theory; low-pass filter; voltage followers; pole frequency; quality factor; frequency response
Online: 28 March 2023 (09:26:54 CEST)
A new low-pass filter (LPF) circuit with independent adjustment of various, incl. digitally controlled, pole frequency resistors, pole quality factor and transmission coefficient. The proposed low-pass filter is based on the use of the properties of a multi-differential operational amplifier that performs the functions of a signal adder. The peculiarity of the filter is that it has three inputs, with respect to which different transmission coefficients are implemented, incl. inverting (-1) and non-inverting (+1). To check these properties of a low-pass filter in the Micro-Cap environment, computer simulation of a specific circuit was performed on a multi-differential operational amplifier AD 8130. Mathematical expressions are given for the main parameters of the proposed low-pass filter, which allow parametric synthesis of elements of a specific circuit under given restrictions on the used element base.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: active filters; filtering theory; low-pass filter; voltage followers; pole frequency; quality factor; frequency response
Online: 28 March 2023 (02:29:28 CEST)
A new circuit of a low-pass filter (LPF) is considered, which is switched on at the input of analog-to-digital converters to limit the spectrum of input signals. The peculiarity of the proposed low-pass filter is the independent adjustment of the pole frequency, the quality factor of the pole and the transmission coefficient by different resistors. Computer simulation performed in the Micro-Cap environment confirms these properties of the LPF. The basic mathematical expressions are obtained, which make it possible to carry out the parametric synthesis of the LPF circuit. It is shown that the sensitivity of the LPF transmission coefficient to changes in the parameters of the frequency-setting elements of the circuit is close to zero and depends only on the ratio of the resistances of the two resistors in the feedback circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: emotion discrimination; voice; frequency-tagging; EEG
Online: 21 December 2022 (06:07:12 CET)
Successfully engaging in social communication requires efficient processing of subtle socio-communicative cues. Voices convey a wealth of social information, such as gender, identity and the emotional state of the speaker. We tested whether our brain can systematically and automatically differentiate and track a periodic stream of emotional utterances among a series of neutral vocal utterances. We recorded frequency-tagged EEG responses of 20 neurotypical male adults while presenting streams of neutral utterances at 4 Hz base rate, interleaved with emotional utterances every third stimulus, hence at 1.333 Hz oddball frequency. Four emotions (happy, sad, angry, and fear) were presented as different conditions in different streams. To control the impact of low-level acoustic cues, we maximized variability among the stimuli and included a control condition with scrambled utterances. This scrambling preserves low-level acoustic characteristics but ensures that the emotional character is no longer recognizable. Results revealed significant oddball EEG responses for all conditions, indicating that every emotion category can be discriminated from the neutral stimuli, and every emotional oddball response was significantly higher than the response for the scrambled utterances. These findings demonstrate that emotion discrimination is fast, automatic, and is not merely driven by low-level perceptual features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0054.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Decomposition; Frequency Analysis; Recurrence Analysis; Bifurcations
Online: 5 September 2022 (08:59:28 CEST)
A novel kind of power spectrum is constructed, the inter-spike spectrum, which transforms any signal into its spike-frequency domain. This method clearly shows the apparent cycles in the data and overcomes the problems for spike-train-like signals when using the obvious idea of Fourier-transforming it. We invent this instructive approach with the idea of transforming the τ-recurrence rate of a recurrence plot (RP), which often has a spiky appearance. The τ-recurrence rate is the density of recurrence points along diagonals of the RP, which are parallel to the main diagonal with a distance of τ. In this context the inter-spike spectrum can be interpreted as a nonlinear power spectrum of a potentially high dimensional system which constitutes the RP. The proposed measure is robust to noise and is able to detect and analyze bifurcations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Pneumonic plague; transmission; risk; frequency; epidemic
Online: 9 December 2021 (10:32:40 CET)
Pneumonic plague outbreaks are relatively infrequent in modern times but in the early part of the 20th century, they were commonplace including several well-documented epidemics responsible for the deaths of thousands. The transmissibility of this disease seems to be discontinuous since in some outbreaks few transmissions occur, while in others, the progression of the epidemic is explosive. Modern epidemiological studies explain that transmissibility within populations is heterogenous with relatively few subjects likely to be responsible for most transmissions and that ‘super spreading events’, particularly at the start of an outbreak, can lead to a rapid expansion of cases. These findings concur with outbreaks observed in real-world situations. It is often reported that pneumonic plague is rare and not easily transmitted but this view could lead to unnecessary complacency since future risks such as the spontaneous incidence of anti-microbial strains, climate change leading to a disruption of natural cycles within plague foci and use of plague as a bioweapon cannot be discounted. Carers and first responders are vulnerable, particularly in poorer countries where access to medicines may be limited, out-breaks occur in inaccessible areas or where there is a lack of surveillance due to a paucity of funds.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: antenna sensor; radio frequency; dipole antenna
Online: 3 November 2019 (18:03:26 CET)
An antenna sensor is proposed to execute dual functions of antenna and sensor in the wireless sensor system, in order to reduce data loss and to increase transmission rate by omitting a certain interface. The as-made sensor was test at a center frequency of 46 MHz for measuring human finger postures using principle of dipole antenna. The antenna sensor was attached on a wearable glove. The results showed that the motion sensor can accurately identify finger angles at 0°, 20°, 40°, 60° and 80°.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: frequency estimation; asynchronously sampled; harmonic; flicker
Online: 26 April 2018 (09:01:07 CEST)
The signal processing technique is one of the principal tools for diagnosing power quality (PQ) issues in electrical power systems. The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is a frequency analysis technique used to process power system signals and identify PQ problems. However, the DFT algorithm may lead to spectral leakage and picket-fence effect problems for asynchronously sampled signals that contain harmonic, inter-harmonic, and flicker components. To resolve this shortcoming, a hybrid method for frequency estimation based on a second-level DFT approach and a frequency-domain interpolation algorithm to obtain the accurate fundamental frequency of a power system is proposed in this paper. This method uses a second-level DFT to compute the cosine and sine parts for the fundamental frequency components of the acquired signals. Then, a frequency-domain interpolation approach is adopted to determine the amplitude ratio for the cosine and sine parts of the system's fundamental frequency. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed frequency estimation method, the observation window used by this paper to evaluate different estimation algorithms is 200 ms. According to the IEC standards, a 200 ms acquisition window is recommended for power system quality assessment. A set of mixed signals with harmonic, inter-harmonic, and flicker components with the fundamental frequency deviation is used. The evaluation results demonstrate the superiority of the new method over other approaches for assessing asynchronously sampled signals contaminated with noise, harmonic, inter-harmonic, and flicker components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: visual contrast; perceived relative object depth; 2D images; sound frequency; two alternative forced-choice; response times; high-probability decision; readiness to respond; probability summation
Online: 22 October 2019 (03:34:45 CEST)
Pieron's and Chocholle’s seminal psychophysical work predicts that human response time to information relative to visual contrast and/or sound frequency decreases when contrast intensity or sound frequency increases. The goal of this study is to bring to the fore the ability of individuals to use visual contrast intensity and sound frequency in combination for faster perceptual decisions of relative depth (“nearer”) in planar (2D) object configurations on the basis of physical variations in luminance contrast. Computer controlled images with two abstract patterns of varying contrast intensity, one on the left and one on the right, preceded or not by a pure tone of varying frequency, were shown to healthy young humans in controlled experimental sequences. Their task (two-alternative forced-choice) was to decide as quickly as possible which of two patterns, the left or the right one, in a given image appeared to “stand out as if it were nearer” in terms of apparent (subjective) visual depth. The results show that the combinations of varying relative visual contrast with sounds of varying frequency exploited here produced an additive effect on choice response times in terms of facilitation, where a stronger visual contrast combined with a higher sound frequency produced shorter forced-choice response times. This new effect is predicted by cross-modal audio-visual probability summation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0383.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ombrian curves; intensity-duration-frequency curves; rainfall extremes; regionalization; regional frequency analysis; spatial rainfall; design rainfall
Online: 29 March 2022 (13:39:12 CEST)
Ombrian curves, i.e. curves linking rainfall intensity to return period and time-scale, are well-established engineering tools, crucial to the design against storm waters and floods. Whereas at-site construction of such curves is considered a standard hydrological task, it is a rather challenging one when large regions are of interest. Regional modelling of ombrian curves is particularly complex due to the need to account for spatial dependence together with the increased variability of rainfall extremes in space. We develop a framework for the parsimonious modelling of the extreme rainfall properties at any point in a given area. This is achieved by assuming a common ombrian model structure except for a spatially varying scale parameter which is itself modelled by a spatial smoothing model for the 24 h average rainfall maxima that employs elevation as an additional explanatory variable. The fitting is performed on the pooled all-stations data using an advanced estimation procedure (K-moments) that allows both for reliable high-order moment estimation and simultaneous handling of space-dependence bias. The methodology is applied in the Thessaly region, a 13 700 km2 water district of Greece characterized by varying topography and hydrometeorological properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: thermal design; miniaturization; high power; high density; automation
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:22:44 CEST)
Multi-board electronic cases with high density and high power modules are widely used in industrial power supply management. With the improvement of case performance and miniaturization requirements, heat dissipation becomes one of the important factors to be considered in the design process. First,The existing small electronic thermal design methods focus on heat dissipation structure or heat source layout optimization,and ignores on-load test for modeling analysis. Second,The selected power module has on-load power consumption, resulting in relatively low calorific value and the effectiveness of thermal design cannot be verified. Third, The thermal lacks Intelligent monitoring and feedback control mechanism. In order to solve these problems, this paper designs a kind of heat dissipation case with intelligent temperature control based on high-power and high-density power supply array. Based on the extremely miniaturization design principle, we adopt the composite heat dissipation mode based on conduction and supplemented by forced air cooling . The case is made of magnesium and aluminum alloy with a perforated design. Finally, we compare and analyze with the existing cooling design. The results show that the case is smaller in volume, and the cooling performance parameters are slightly better than the existing case. Under the condition of high-density and high-power design, The output power of the whole system is not less than 10kw and the lowest packing-level density is not less than 47w/cm2 with high reliability, portability and practicability. It also provides technical support and prototype support for the standardized design of similar power arrays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0300.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: crystals; nonlinear frequency conversion; functional capabilities of the frequency conversion; temperature-noncritical processes; KTP and its isomorphs
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:02:25 CEST)
We report the results of an analysis of the functional capabilities of the KTP crystal and its isomorphs for nonlinear-optical frequency conversion of all types of interaction in the transparency range of the crystal. The possibility of implementing angle-, wavelength- (frequency-) and temperature-noncritical phase matching is shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: earthquake; P wave; characteristic period; frequency domain.
Online: 3 November 2023 (06:44:46 CET)
The earthquake alert of the early warning systems is based on the delay that the S waves have in reference to the P waves and on the interpretation of the P waves’ specific parameters. One of the most used parameters for estimating the moment magnitude of an earthquake is the characteristic period measured in the first 3 seconds of the appearance of the P wave. The typical method determines the characteristic period in the time domain, based on the velocity wave and the displacement wave. In the present work, we present a method for estimating the frequency of the characteristic period. This method includes zero padding of the P wave sequence, conversion of the extended sequence from the time domain to the frequency domain, the identification of local frequency maxima and the calculation of the weighted average of the frequency based on the identified maxima. Tests conducted on synthetic signals, as well as standard deviation evaluation tests for simultaneous recordings on several stations, reveal better performance to the usual method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0584.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: earthquake, footprint, predict events, cluster, frequency grid
Online: 8 August 2023 (12:02:08 CEST)
This paper considers the problem of predicting earthquakes. It uses a small amount of information to create a descriptive key that can be used as a footprint to describe an event. A frequency grid clusters events that occurred at the same time and then the algorithm averages the history of these events over preceding days, in particular the gaps when the events did not occur. The gaps are measured for the clustered events only and can be used to create a description that is quite unique. Results suggest that seismic events can in fact be traced using this key and subsequently recognised again, if the same conditions reoccur. They also suggest that force direction may be more important than magnitude, after the initial cluster selections are made. Greek and USA datasets have been looked at and the prediction accuracy can be 70% or better. The author therefore suggests that this is an interesting method that deserves attention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1916.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Frequency; Restoration; Interaction; Daily life; Human geography
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:27:14 CEST)
This study explores the relationship between mental and physical therapeutic through three dimensions: man-environment relationships; a sense of place and symbolic landscapes. The study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Local residents living in the coastal area of Xinglin Bay are the research objects. Quantitative data analysis revealed that the frequency of residents' visits was an important variable affecting their physical and treatment perceptions. In addition, the significance is higher for females than for males. The text analysis shows that the environment, especially the ecological restoration of water quality and migratory birds, is of great significance to the identity of local residents. Daily activities contribute to a sense of place and are what make the coast a place of therapeutic landscape function.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0092.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: narrow-bandwidth; two-color laser; tunable frequency
Online: 6 March 2023 (06:23:02 CET)
Modifiable THz spectral shapes are important tools that facilitate the comprehensive study of phonon dynamics in condensed matter systems. The generation of narrow bandwidth THz spectra with tunable center frequency which are suitable THz forms needed to achieve such objectives are currently less studied from the table top laser-induced plasma emitters’ perspective. This experimental research is aimed at developing a robust two-color laser induced plasma set-up comprising of a temporal pulse stretcher and an Optical Parametric Amplifier that generates chirped and wavelength tunable pulses respectively. By focusing and independently controlling the ω and 2ω arms of the chirped pulses resulting after the interaction with a β-BBO crystal, I aim to generate narrow bandwidth THz signal (from plasma) scalable at MV/cm intensity and tunable in a wide THz spectral range, in addition to varying the frequency ratio mix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0319.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cognitive Radio; MATLAB; WSN; Spectrum; Radio Frequency
Online: 23 June 2022 (03:48:36 CEST)
The vast rise in the number of Internet-connected devices necessitates a more accessible spectrum. As a result, Cognitive Radio was already proposed as a solution to the problem of restricted spectrum resources by utilizing available spectrum which is assigned to primary users. This method allows the secondary user to utilize the spectrum whenever the primary user is not using it, and it does so without intruding with the primary user. Whenever the secondary user detects the spectrum, it faced some issues, such as complexity in sensing leading to a lack of noise value, and the primary user is hidden to all secondary users. In order to tackle these challenges, an adaptive threshold matched filter detector and a cooperative matched filter detector are utilized in this paper to detect the spectrum. The probability of detection (Pd), probability of miss detection (Pm), and probability of false alarm (Pf) are the metrics used to assess sensing accuracy. To simulate suggested detectors, the MATLAB R2020a software was utilized. In comparison to earlier studies, the simulation conclusions reveal that the detection process starts with lower SNR values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0553.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: mushroom; organic-debris; fruiting bodies; diversity; frequency
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:22:51 CEST)
A The present investigation was undertaken in foothill regions of Uttarakhand from July-2016 up to December-2018. A total of thirty four different sites ranging from the roadside areas, grasslands to forests were studied and Mushroom fruiting bodies were collected. A total of One Hundred sixty six fruiting counts were obtained and 68 mushroom genera belonging to 15 orders and 43 families were identified. During collection visits mushroom were apparent from organic debris of diversified habitats ranging from humid soil; grassland; leaf litter; living tree trunk; dead wood log of forest zone. Maximum fruiting bodies (75%) were obtained between July to September and minimum i.e. 6% between November – February. Among the collected mushroom Stereum rugosum, Crepidotus variabilis, Laccaria laccata, Schizophyllum commune, Ganoderma applantum, Cantharellus cibarius were more prevalent. Out of all collected mushroom sample the frequency of Mushroom belonging to order Agaricales was 45.18% followed by Polyporales i.e., 27.7%. The collected mushroom were cultured on PDA medium and their mycelial forms were preserved for further studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0519.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rockfall; failure; propagation; hazard; risk; probability; frequency
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:23:02 CET)
There is an increasing need for quantitative rockfall hazard and risk assessment that requires a precise definition of the terms and concepts used for this particular type of landslide. This paper suggests to use terms that appear to be the more logic and explicit as possible, and describes methods to derive some of the main hazard and risk descriptors. The terms and concepts presented concern the rockfall process (failure, propagation, fragmentation, modelling) and the hazard and risk descriptors, distinguishing the cases of localized hazards and diffused hazards. For a localized hazard, the failure probability of the considered rock compartment in a given period of time has to be assessed and the probability for a given element at risk to be impacted with a given energy must be derived combining the failure probability, the propagation probability and the exposure of the element. For a diffuse hazard that is characterized by a failure frequency, the number of rockfalls reaching the element at risk per unit of time and with a given energy (reach frequency) can be derived. However, when the element at risk is not replaced or repaired, the probability that it is impacted by at least one rockfall must be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0107.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Values; Actions; Value-actions; Practice frequency; Methodology.
Online: 26 January 2021 (10:46:51 CET)
Qualitative and quantitative values estimation is a crucial aspect of social data science and plays a vital role in social and psychological research. Numerous methods of personal values measurement such as Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) and its re-modified versions have been proposed and invented, but many are challenged with one or more limitations. In this article, an alternative approach in a new paradigm of values measurement called Kabiru’s Value Survey (KVS) was proposed to measure the relative degree of importance or significance attached to particular value-actions of an individual(s) in a given population over a period. The methodological innovations in KVS unlike other existing methods of human value measurement include the use of habitually reported practices associated with a particular value-action in place of judging the series of Schwartz hypothetical statements, the use of multiple dependent variables rather than a single coded hypothetical statement. In terms of data analysis, a new approach of multivariate compression is introduced which merges the chain of multiple dependent variables into one coded scale. Psychometric result interpretation is also another innovative aspect of KVS methodology. Finally, the proposed methodology however solved some of the criticized limitations of the other methods of human value measurement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0529.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: radio frequency; microwave; spectrum analyzer; integrated; photonic
Online: 26 January 2021 (09:57:01 CET)
We report an all-optical radio-frequency (RF) spectrum analyzer with a bandwidth greater than 5 terahertz (THz), based on a 50-cm long spiral waveguide in a CMOS-compatible high-index doped silica platform. By carefully mapping out the dispersion profile of the waveguides for different thicknesses, we identify the optimal design to achieve near zero dispersion in the C-band. To demonstrate the capability of the RF spectrum analyzer, we measure the optical output of a femtosecond fiber laser with an ultrafast optical RF spectrum in the terahertz regime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0515.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: PV; frequency control; droop; inertia; grid standards
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:13:04 CET)
This paper studied the solar PV frequency control in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI) and Texas Interconnection (ERCOT) systems. The studied frequency control approaches include droop frequency control, inertia control, and droop-inertia-combined frequency control. The control effects of different frequency controls of PV in the EI and ERCOT are studied using actual high PV penetration interconnection grid models to provide suggestions to the future revision of future PV frequency control standards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: ABO blood groups; antigen; allele frequency; phenotype
Online: 29 February 2020 (08:26:18 CET)
Approximately 300 different types of blood groups are identified so far, the ABO and Rh antigens are still the clinically most significant and genetically most polymorphic of all human blood group systems to date. A total of 200 unrelated individuals from Uttar Pradesh were studied for the phenotype and allele frequency distribution of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups. In total 200 samples analyzed, phenotype B blood type has the highest frequency 36.5% (n=73), followed by O (34.5%; n=69), A (20.5%; n=41) and AB (8.5%; n=17). The O, A and B frequencies were 0.5849, 0.1571 and 0.2580 respectively. The overall phenotypic frequencies of ABO blood groups were B>O>A>AB. The variation in phenotypic frequencies between male and female might be due to small sample size of male sample. The allelic frequency of Rh-negative was 0.2.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Drought; SPEI; Pluvial; Severity; Frequency; Duration; Kenya
Online: 4 February 2020 (15:56:58 CET)
This work examines drought and wet events based on Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) over Kenya from 1981 to 2016. Spatiotemporal analysis of dry and wet events is conducted for 3 and 12-month SPEI. The drought incidences were observed during the period 1984, 1987, 2000, 2006, 2009, 2015, and 2016 for SPEI-3 whilst the SPEI-12 demonstrated the manifestation of drought during the year 2000 and 2006. SPEI clearly shows that the wettest period, 1997 and 1998 that coincide with the El Nino event in both time steps. SPEI -3 shows a reduction in moderate drought events while severe and extreme cases were on increase towards the end of the twentieth century. Conversely, SPEI-12 depicts an overall increase in severe drought occurrence over the study location with observed intensity of -1.54 and cumulative frequency of 64 months during the study period. The trend of wet events is upwards in the western and central highlands while the rest of the regions show increase in dry events during the study period. Moreover, moderate dry/wet events predominate whilst extreme events occur least frequent across all grid cells. It is apparent that the study area experiences mild extreme dry events in both categories although moderately severe dry events dominate most parts of the study area. High intensity and frequency of drought is noted in SPEI-3 while least occurrences of extreme events are recorded in SPEI-12. Although drought event prevails across the study area, there is evidence of extreme flood conditions over the recent decades. These findings form a good basis for next step of research that will look at projection of droughts over the study area based on regional climate models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0107.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: multibeam echosounder; backscatter; multi-frequency; machine-learning
Online: 5 October 2018 (16:09:53 CEST)
We propose a probabilistic graphical model for discriminative substrate characterization, to support geological and biological habitat mapping in aquatic environments. The model, called a fully connected conditional random field (CRF), is demonstrated using multispectral and monospectral acoustic backscatter from heterogeneous seafloors in Patricia Bay, British Columbia, and Bedford Basin, Nova Scotia. Unlike previously proposed discriminative machine learning algorithms, the CRF model considers both the relative backscatter magnitudes of different substrates and their relative proximities. The model therefore combines the statistical flexibility of a machine learning algorithm with an inherently spatial treatment of the substrate. The CRF model predicts substrates such that nearby locations with similar backscattering characteristics are likely to be in the same substrate class. The degree of proximity and allowable backscatter similarity are controlled by parameters that are learned from the data. CRF model results were evaluated against a popular generative model known as a Gaussian Mixture model that doesn't include spatial dependencies, only covariance between substrate backscattering response over different frequencies. Both models are used in conjunction with sparse bed observations/samples in a supervised classification. A detailed accuracy assessment, including a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis, was performed using both models. Using multispectral backscatter, the GMM model trained on 50% of the bed observations resulted in a 75% and 89% average accuracies in Patricia Bay and Bedford Basin, respectively. The same metrics for the CRF model were 78% and 95%. Further, the CRF model resulted in a 91% mean cross-validation accuracy across four substrate classes at Patricia Bay, and a 99.5% mean accuracy across three substrate classes at Bedford Basin, which suggest that the CRF model generalizes extremely well to new data. This analysis also showed that the CRF model was much less sensitive to the specific number and locations of bed observations than the generative model, owing to its ability to incorporate spatial autocorrelation in substrates. The CRF approach therefore may prove to be a powerful `spatially aware' alternative to other discriminative classifiers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: clopidogrel; pharmacogenetics; Puerto Ricans; genotypes; allele frequency
Online: 6 April 2018 (11:31:00 CEST)
Background: Variations in several clopidogrel-pharmacogenes have been linked to clopidogrel response variability and clinical outcomes. We aimed to determine the frequency distribution of major polymorphisms on CYP2C19, PON1, ABCB1 and P2RY12 pharmacogenes in Puerto Ricans. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, population-based study of 200 unrelated “Guthrie” cards specimens from newborns registered in the Puerto Rican Newborn Screening program (PRNSP) between 2004 and 2014. Taqman® SNP assay techniques were used for genotyping. Results: Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF) were 46% for PON1 (rs662), 41% for ABCB1 (rs1045642), 14% for CYP2C19*17, 13% for CYP2C19*2, 12% for P2RY12-H2 and 0.3% for CYP2C19*4. No carriers of the CYP2C19*3 variants were detected. All alleles and genotype proportions were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Overall, there were no significant differences between MAFs of these variants in Puerto Ricans and the general population (n=453) of the 1,000 Genome project, except for the Yoruba in Ibadan from Nigeria (YRI, West-African ancestry; p<0.05). As expected, the prevalence of these markers in Puerto Ricans most resembled those in the 181 subjects from reference populations of the Americas. Conclusions: These prevalence data provide a necessary groundwork for future clinical studies of clopidogrel pharmacogenetics in Caribbean Hispanics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0930.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nonlinear systems, vibration energy harvester (VEH), output frequency response function (OFRF), generalised associated linear equations (GALEs), frequency domain
Online: 14 November 2023 (11:54:02 CET)
Ambient vibration energy is widely being harnessed as a source of electrical energy to drive low-power devices. The vibration energy harvester (VEH) of interest employs an electromagnetic transduction mechanism, whereby ambient mechanical vibration is converted to electrical energy. The limitations affecting the performance of VEHs, with an electromagnetic transduction structure, include its operational bandwidth as well as the enclosure-size constraint. In this study, an analysis and design of a nonlinear VEH system is conducted, using the Output Frequency Response Function (OFRF) representations of the actual system model. However, the OFRF representations are determined from the Generalised Associated Linear Equation (GALE) decompositions of the system of interest. The effect of both nonlinear damping and stiffness characteristics, to respectively extend the average power and operational bandwidth of the VEH device, is demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2058.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Dermoscopy; high magnification; super-high magnification; keratinocyte; melanocyte; melanoma.
Online: 30 May 2023 (06:04:10 CEST)
Super-high (x400) magnification dermoscopy (D400) is a new non-invasive imaging technique that has been shown to add information for the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions in a pilot study. Our study aimed to confirm if D400 can add details for the discrimination of clinically atypical nevus and melanoma. This is a retrospective observational, multicentric study enrolling patients who received an x20 (D20) and x400 (D400) magnification dermoscopic examination of pigmented skin lesions. Dermoscopic images were retrospectively evaluated by three observers for the presence/absence of nine D20 and twenty D400 dermoscopic features defined in the previous pilot study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find predictors of benign and malignant behaviors. At D20 atypical pigment network, blue-whitish veil, atypical vascular pattern, regression, and homogenous pattern were more frequent in melanoma than in nevi (p<0.001). At D400 melanoma showed more frequently than benign lesions melanocytes with an irregular arrangement and irregular in shape and size (p<0.001). Network with edged papillae was more frequent in benign lesions than melanomas (p<0.001). Our study confirms that D400 can identify melanocytes with an irregular arrangement and irregular in shape and size in melanomas, adding information to the conventional D20 examination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: strawberry; high-temperature and high-light; AsA-GSH cycle
Online: 3 February 2023 (09:54:45 CET)
Chitosan (CTS) is widely used in agriculture as a soil amendment, plant growth regulator and promoter of cold resistance. However, the effects of CTS on strawberry seedlings under the combined stress of high-temperature and high-light are unclear. In this study, Xuelixiang strawberry was used as a test material, and 100 mg·kg-1 CTS solution was sprayed onto the leaves. We measured the chlorophyll content, membrane peroxidation, reactive oxygen species content, antioxidant enzyme content, AsA-GSH cycle activity and other related indicators of strawberry seedling leaves under the combined stress of high-temperature and high-light and found that CTS can increase the contents of antioxidants, increase the contents of osmotic adjustment substances, increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes activity,; remove reactive oxygen species over time, reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species to photosynthetic organs and cell membranes, and improve the photosynthesis efficiency of leaves of strawberry plants under high-temperature and high-light stress, thereby reducing damage to strawberry seedlings caused by high-temperature and high-light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Oil shale; Permeability; Pyrolysis; High temperature and high pressure
Online: 10 September 2018 (09:14:56 CEST)
In-situ injection of steam for heating of the subsurface is an efficient method for the recovery of oil and gas from oil shale where permeability typically evolves with temperature. We reported measurements on Jimusar oil shales(Xinjiang, China) at different temperatures to 600℃ and under recreated in situ triaxial stresses to obtain permeability evolution with temperature and stress. Permeability of tight oil shales evolves with temperature to a threshold temperature and peak temperature. The threshold temperature was subjected to triaxial stresses. For Jimusar oil shale, the threshold temperature ranges from 200℃ to 250℃ at ground stress of buried depth of 500m and from 350℃ to 400℃ at buried depth of 1000m. The peak temperature was almost not subjected to triaxial stress and the range is from 450℃ to 500℃ for all Jimusar samples. Pyrolysis plays an important role in permeability evolution and fundamentally changes permeability tendency and magnitude. At high temperature permeability exhibits a little reduction due to stress effect but still remains a high level due to pyrolysis. The above results show that oil shale mass can change from tight porous media into highly permeable media and oil & gas can easily flow through oil shale stratum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1917.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: WASHR; co-treatment; high-rate treatment; high-strength wastewater; waste activated sludge-high rate; winery wastewater
Online: 28 July 2023 (13:02:22 CEST)
High-strength wastewaters from a variety of sources, including the food industry, domestic septage and landfill leachate, are often hauled to municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for co-treatment. Due to their high organic loadings, these wastewaters can cause process upsets in both the WWTP’s liquid and solids treatment trains and consume organic treatment capacity, leaving less capacity available to service customers in the catchment area. A novel pre-treatment method, the Waste Activated Sludge-High Rate (WASHR) process, is proposed to optimize the co-treatment of high-strength wastewaters. The WASHR process combines the contact stabilization and sequencing batch reactor processes. It utilizes waste activated sludge from the municipal WWTP as its biomass source, allowing rapid start-up. Bench scale treatment trials of winery wastewater confirm the WASHR process can reduce loadings on the downstream WWTP’s liquid treatment and solids treatment trains. A case study approach is used to confirm the economic viability and environmental sustainability of the WASHR process compared to direct co-treatment using life cycle cost analyses and greenhouse gas emissions estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; hypertension; blood pressure; low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; extremely high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; body mass index; big data
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:53:04 CEST)
Background Although high-density lipoprotein has cardioprotective effects, the association between serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and hypertension is poorly understood. Objective We investigated whether low and high concentrations of HDL-C are associated with hypertension using a large healthcare dataset. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study of 1,493,152 Japanese people aged 40–74 years who underwent a health checkup, blood pressures and clinical parameters, including nine HDL-C concentrations (20–110 mg/dL or over) were investigated. Results A crude U-shaped relationship was observed between the nine HDL-C concentrations and blood pressure in males (n = 830,669), while a left-to-right inverted J-shaped relationship was observed in females(n = 662,483). An age-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed J-shaped relationships (left-to-right inversion in females) between HDL-C and odds ratios for hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg), with lower limits of 60–79 mg/dL in males and 90–99 mg/dL in females, which were unchanged after adjusting for smoking, habitual exercise, alcohol consumption, and pharmacotherapy for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. However, further adjustment for body mass index and serum triglyceride concentration revealed latent positive linear associations between HDL-C and hypertension, although the association between extremely high HDL-C (≥100 mg/dL) and hypertension was attenuated in non-alcohol drinkers. Conclusion Both low and extremely high HDL-C concentrations are associated with hypertension. The former association may be dependent on excess fat mass, which is often concomitant with low HDL-C, whereas the latter association may be dependent on frequent alcohol consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0260.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: big data; data acquisition; data visualization; data exchange; dashboard; frequency stability; Grafana lab; Power Quality; GPS reference; frequency measurement.
Online: 18 October 2021 (18:07:43 CEST)
This article proposes a measurement solution designed to monitor instantaneous frequency in power systems. It uses a data acquisition module and a GPS receiver for time stamping. A program in Python takes care of receiving the data, calculating the frequency, and finally transferring the measurement results to a database. The frequency is calculated with two different methods, which are compared in the article. The stored data is visualized using the Grafana platform, thus demonstrating its potential for comparing scientific data. The system as a whole constitutes an efficient low cost solution as a data acquisition system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0288.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diet; Obesity; Gut microbes; High-fiber diet; High fat diet
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:50:36 CEST)
With the ever-increasing rate, obesity has become an epidemiological problem throughout the globe comprising about 39% of the world population as of now. Among several reasons, disruption of the gut microbial ecosystem might contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other associated comorbidities. Though the mechanisms related to dysbiosis are unclear, diet might play a modulating role where different dietary approaches manipulate microbial richness and abundance as well as stability. For instance, shifting of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut might have a role in association with the dietary approaches and ingestion duration. Along with altered gut microbial composition, microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after ingestion of non-digestible dietary starches may have an impact on host metabolism by regulating lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation with potential associations to health and obesity. The dietary approaches like carbohydrates, fibre, protein, and/or fat diet at various arrangements can make a shift in the composition of gut microbiota if introduced for a short period. However, the unique pattern of the gut microbes usually remains the same along with the longer period of habitual diet. Though the short-term dietary intervention or circadian rhythm influences a transient change in gut microbes, other than habitual diet, the understanding related to long-term dietary change-induced permanent alterations is minimum. Alternatively, the usage of prebiotics, probiotics as well as postbiotics could be beneficial to overcome dysbiosis. This review highlights the current knowledge and the interaction between the human intestinal microbiota and diet as a modifying factor, in obesity allowing the scientists to uncover novel targets and tools to use as customized therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: spatiotemporal analysis; high to ultra high spatial resolution; high to very high temporal resolution; NDVI; NIR; neural network modelling, Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:35:50 CET)
The salt marshes, lying at the land-sea temperate interface, furnish a plethora of ecosystems services such as biodiversity niche support, ocean-climate change regulation, ornithology recreo-tourism or plant gathering by hand. They undergo significant worldwide losses due to their conversion into crop fields and to their spatial compression between the rising sea-level and the armoring shoreline. Their monitoring however requires to use a suite of remote sensing sensors to embrace the regional scale while capturing the plant details. This research innovatively adopts a multiscale approach using a cascading spaceborne and airborne process, from the 10-m Sentinel-2, through the 3-m Dove, to the 0.03-m unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) imageries. The high to very high temporal resolution of the Sentinel-2 and Dove enabled to cover twenties and tens of km2 over five and four years, respectively, in the form of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) classes, associated with microphytobenthos, low, medium and high salt marsh vegetation, including the opportunistic Elyma genus. The NDVI was then modelled at the UAV scale (a few km2) using a three-layered NN prediction, providing the final near-infrared (NIR), and the intermediate red, green and blue reflectance imageries, calibrated/validated/tested with the Dove reflectance imageries (R2NIR=0.98, R2red=0.88, R2green=0.84, and R2blue=0.90). The 100fold increase in pixel size allowed to detect the decimeter-scale objects of the tidal flats and salt marshes, to enlarge the NDVI class ranges, and hold great promise to model other spectral bands at the UAV scale for further deeply enhancing the salt marsh mapping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0489.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: High pressure X-ray crystallography; high pressure magnetometry; high pressure absorption spectroscopy; high pressure EPR; molecule-based magnets; single-molecule magnets; single-ion magnets
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:48:58 CEST)
The cornerstone of molecular magnetism is a detailed understanding of the relationship between structure and magnetic behaviour, i.e. the development of magneto-structural correlations. Traditionally, the synthetic chemist approaches this challenge by making multiple compounds that share a similar magnetic core but differ in peripheral ligation. Changes in the ligand framework induce changes in the bond angles and distances around the metal ions which are manifested in changes to magnetic susceptibility and magnetisation data. This approach requires the synthesis of series of different ligands and assumes that the chemical/electronic nature of the ligands and their coordination to the metal, the nature and number of counter ions and how they are positioned in the crystal lattice, and the molecular and crystallographic symmetry have no effect on the measured magnetic properties. In short, the assumption is that everything outwith the magnetic core is innocent, which is a huge oversimplification. The ideal scenario would be to have the same complex available in multiple structural conformations, and this is something that can be achieved through the application of external hydrostatic pressure, correlating structural changes observed through high pressure single crystal X-ray crystallography with changes observed in high pressure magnetometry, in tandem with high pressure inelastic neutron scattering (INS), high pressure electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and high pressure absorption/emission/Raman spectroscopy. In this review, which summarises our work in this area over the last 15 years, we show that the application of pressure to molecule-based magnets can (reversibly): (1) lead to changes in bond angles, distances and Jahn-Teller orientations; (2) break and form bonds; (3) induce polymerisation/depolymerisation; (4) enforce multiple phase transitions; (5) instigate piezochromism; (6) change the magnitude and sign of pairwise exchange interactions and magnetic anisotropy and (7) lead to significant increases in magnetic ordering temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0532.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: single transducer; coding mask; frequency subband compound; SCM
Online: 7 December 2023 (14:32:26 CET)
We are currently investigating the ultrasound imaging of a sensor consisting of a randomized encoding mask attached to a single lead zirconate titanate (PZT) oscillator for use in a puncture microscope. The proposed model was performed using a finite element method (FEM) simulator. To increase the number of measurements required by a single element system, the transducer was rotated at different angles. The image was constructed by solving a linear equation of the image model. In a previous study, the image resolution was improved by extracting phase information. In this study, we propose a strategy by integrating the weighted frequency subbands compound and a super resolution method (SCM) to improve the resolution in range and lateral resolution. We also evaluated the image performance by applying different methods to improve the image quality. The results show that better image resolution and speckle suppression were obtained by applying the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0671.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Basketball Rim and Backboard; Modal Analysis; Frequency; Damping
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:52:49 CEST)
Six mode shapes, including bending and torsion, were documented for five different basketball rims and backboards at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York, USA. The frequency and damping ratio of each mode shape were also determined. The empirical process began with the time-domain excitation and response of each rim-backboard system. The impulse of excitation came from an impact hammer separately applied to sequentially, to each node. The sinusoidal response was gathered from an accelerometer at a fixed location, node 1. Each time-domain excitation-response was then converted to a frequency domain Bode plot for each node by a B&K 2034 Signal Analyzer, giving transfer functions of output/input versus frequency. Structural Measurements System (SMS) Software was used to fit mode shapes to the Bode plots. Each of the six mode shapes were fitted to the Bode plots of each node at a specific modal frequency. Each of the six mode shapes were a function of the locations of the nodes, and the Bode plot gathered at each node. The first and second modes were critical for showing that the Energy Rebound Testing Device statistically correlated with the energy transferred to the rim and backboard. A known perturbation mass was selectively attached to the rim, to help isolate the dynamic masses and spring rates for the rim and backboard, to ascertain the kinetic energy transferred to the rim had a 95.67% inverse correlation with rim stiffness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0563.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Dietary fiber; food frequency questionnaire; questionnaire screening; validation
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:22:50 CET)
Dietary fiber has been associated with health benefits, therefore, the availability of validated tools to assess food consumption associated with high-fiber foods would allow the quantification of the intake of this functional nutrient, the identification of risk groups and target populations, and the development of public policies and/or programs aimed at improving the health of the population. In this study, a fiber intake short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was translated into Spanish and its content validity was determined by a group of experts, to subsequently conduct a pilot test including 198 subjects aged 36+12.5 years, residing in Chile (46 men and 150 women), with the purpose of quantifying dietary fiber intake. The global assessment of the FFQ revealed a validity coefficient of 0.98+0.02; after the application of the pilot, mean dietary fiber intake in adult Chilean residents was of 13 g per day, with similar results to those found in the National Food Consumption Survey 2010 (12.5 g per day in men, and 11.5 g in women). The FFQ is a quick and valid tool to classify people on the basis of their habitual dietary fiber intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0023.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Taylor; exponentially-fitted; two-parameter; periodic; oscillatory; frequency
Online: 1 November 2022 (07:29:50 CET)
Classical numerical methods for solving ordinary differential equations often produce less accurate results when applied to problems with oscillatory or periodic behaviour. To adapt them for such problems, they are usually modified using the exponential fitting technique. This adaptation allows for the construction of new methods from their classical counterparts. The new methods are usually more accurate, efficient and suitable for handling the oscillatory or periodic behaviour of the problem. In this work, we construct a two-parameter exponentially-fitted Taylor method suitable for solving oscillatory or periodic problems that possess two frequencies. The construction algorithm is based on a proposed six-step flowchart discussed by authors in related literature. Two standard test problems were used to illustrate the accuracy and performance of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0325.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Rainfall; QPESUMS; Regional Frequency Analysis; L-moments; Taiwan
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:53:34 CEST)
This study proposed a spatially and temporally improving methodology adopting the Regional Frequency Analysis with L-moments approach to estimate rainfall quantiles from 22787 grids of radar rainfall in Taiwan for a 24-hour duration. Due to limited radar coverage in the eastern region, significant discordant grids were found in the coastal area of the eastern region. A K-means cluster analysis using scaled at-site characteristics was used to group the QPESUMS grids in Taiwan into 22 clusters/sub-regions based on their characteristics. Spatially, homogeneous subregions with QPESUMS data produce more detailed homogeneous subregions with clear and continuous boundaries, especially in the mountain range area where the number of rain stations is still very limited. According to the results of z-values and L-moment ratio diagrams, the Wakeby (WAK), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), and Generalized Pareto (GPA) distributions of rainfall extremes fitted well for the majority of subregions. The Wakeby distribution was the dominant best-fitted distribution, especially in the central and eastern regions. The east of the northern part and southern part of Taiwan had the highest extreme rainfall for each return period. Both areas were frequently struck by typhoons. By using grid-based (at-site) as the basis for assessing regional frequency analysis, the results show that the regional approach in determining extreme rainfall is very suitable for large-scale applications and even better for smaller scales such as watershed areas. The spatial investigation was performed by establishing regions of interest in small subregions across the northern part. It showed that regionalization was correct and consistent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0465.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Optimal control; frequency regulation; battery energy storage system
Online: 20 July 2021 (16:28:04 CEST)
The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources in power grids highlights the role of battery energy stor- age systems (BESSs) in enhancing the stability and reliability of electricity. A key challenge with the renewables’, specially the BESSs, integration into the power system is the lack of proper dynamic model for stability analysis. Moreover, a proper control design for the power system is a complicated issue due to its complexity and inter-connectivity. Thus, the application of decentralized control to improve the stability of a large- scale power system is inevitable, especially in distributed energy sources (DERs). This paper presents an optimal distributed hybrid control design for the interconnected systems to suppress the effects of small disturbances in the power system employing utility-scale batteries based on existing battery models. The results show that i) the smart scheduling of the batteries’ output reduces the inter-area oscillations and improves the stability of the power systems; ii) the hybrid model of the battery is more user-friendly compared to the Western electricity coordinating council (WECC) model in power system analysis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0064.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Sum frequency generation; femtosecond pulses; noncollinear phase matching.
Online: 3 September 2020 (07:58:18 CEST)
We show broadband sum-frequency generation (SFG) in the Green-Yellow-Orange-Red spectral range using bismuth triborate, BiB3O6 crystal (BIBO) as nonlinear material. We perform a noncollinear phase-matching configuration within BIBO crystal using the remaining light behind the second harmonic generation stage and the infrared idler of an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). The obtained mixing radiation of ultrafast light sources to generate femtosecond pulses across 520.5 to 742.5 nm region is observed. SFG spectrum from single-pass cross-correlation intensity over such visible range is showed. The SFG wavelengths as a function of tunable wavelength idler OPA agrees with the expectations of parametric conversion condition and open the door to practical multi-beam or multi-color sum-frequency generators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0457.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: resonance frequency analysis; implant stability quotient; reliability; validity
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:05:06 CEST)
Background: Actually, resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is the most extended method for measuring implant stability. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) is the measure obtained by the different RFA devices, however, inter- and intra- rater reliability and validity of some devices remains unknown. Methods: Thirty implants were placed in 3 different pig mandibles. ISQ was measured axial and parallel with Osstell® Beacon, Penguin® and MegaISQ® by 2 different operators and one operator performed a test-retest. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the validity. Results: The higher inter- and intra- rater reliability was obtained by Penguin® when measuring axial. The highest ISQ values were obtained using Penguin® in an axial measurement; the lowest, using the MegaISQ® in an axial measurement. The highest correlation values with the other devices were obtained by MegaISQ® measuring axially. Conclusion: Penguin® had a good reliability for measuring ISQ both inter- and intra- rater. Osstell® had good validity for measuring ISQ both axial and parallel and MegaISQ® had the best validity for measuring ISQ axial.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microwave photonic; signal channelization; integrated optical frequency comb
Online: 26 March 2020 (02:19:45 CET)
We report a broadband radio frequency (RF) channelizer with up to 92 channels using a coherent microcomb source. A soliton crystal microcomb, generated by a 49 GHz micro-ring resonator (MRR), is used as a multi-wavelength source. Due to its ultra-low comb spacing, up to 92 wavelengths are available in the C band, yielding a broad operation bandwidth. Another high-Q MRR is employed as a passive optical periodic filter to slice the RF spectrum with a high resolution of 121.4 MHz. We experimentally achieve an instantaneous RF operation bandwidth of 8.08 GHz and verify RF channelization up to 17.55 GHz via thermal tuning. Our approach is a significant step towards the monolithically integrated photonic RF receivers with reduced complexity, size, and unprecedented performance, which is important for wide RF applications ranging from broadband analog signal processing to digital-compatible signal detection.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Sampling frequency; deterministic approach; simulation model; water quality.
Online: 5 June 2019 (10:29:22 CEST)
This paper proposes a novel deterministic methodology for estimating the optimal sampling frequency (SF) of water quality monitoring systems. The proposed methodology is based on employing two-dimensional contaminant transport simulation models to determine the minimum SF considering all the potential changes in the boundary conditions of a water body. A two-dimensional contaminant transport simulation model (RMA4) was implemented to estimate the distribution patterns of the total dissolved solids (TDS) within the Al-Hammar Marsh in the southern part of Iraq for 30 cases of potential boundary conditions. Using geographical information system (GIS) tools, a spatiotemporal analysis approach was applied to the results of the RMA4 model to determine the minimum SF of the monitoring stations with an accuracy level of detectable change in TDS concentration (ALC) of 5%, 10% and 15%. The proposed methodology specified a minimum and maximum SF for each monitoring station (MS) that ranged between 12 and 33 times per year, respectively. Additionally, increasing the ALC to 10% and 15% increase the minimum SF for some MSs by approximately 18% and 21%, respectively. However, the proposed methodology includes all the potential values and cases of boundary conditions, which increases the certainty of monitoring the system and the efficiency of the SF schedule. Moreover, the proposed methodology can be effectively applied to all types of surface water resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: radiometer; kurtosis; skewness; spectrogram; radio-frequency interference (RFI)
Online: 13 December 2018 (08:12:14 CET)
For the elimination of radio-frequency interference (RFI) in a passive microwave radiometer, the threshold level is generally calculated from the mean value and standard deviation. However, a serious problem that can arise is an error in the retrieved brightness temperature from a higher threshold level owing to the presence of RFI. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and mitigate RFI contamination using the threshold level from statistical criteria based on a spectrogram technique. Mean and skewness spectrograms are created from a brightness temperature spectrogram by shifting the 2-D window to discriminate the form of the symmetric distribution as a natural thermal emission signal. From the remaining bins of the mean spectrogram eliminated by RFI-flagged bins in the skewness spectrogram for data captured at 0.1-s intervals, two distribution sides are identically created from the left side of the distribution by changing the standard position of the distribution. Simultaneously, kurtosis calculations from these bins for each symmetric distribution are repeatedly performed to determine the retrieved brightness temperature corresponding to the closest kurtosis value of three. The performance is evaluated using experimental data, and the error in the retrieved brightness temperature is observed to be less than approximately 3 K from a window with a size of 100 × 100 time-frequency bins according to the RFI levels and cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0074.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: electronic cigarette; e-cigarette; smoking; adolescent; frequency; tobacco
Online: 14 March 2017 (07:56:50 CET)
Introduction The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study determines the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Furthermore, it evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods Participants were 68,043 middle and high school students aged 13–18 years from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. Of the 68,043 participants, we analyzed 6,655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use. Results The prevalence of ever using and current (past 30 days) use of e-cigarettes was 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever e-cigarette users, approximately 40% used e-cigarettes for ≥1/month and 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. Daily e-cigarettes users were 10 times greater among daily cigarette smokers than among cigarette users for <1/month (18.1% vs. 1.8%) and 16 times more prevalent among those smoking ≥20 cigarettes/day than among those smoking <1 cigarette/month (38.9% vs. 2.4%). The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), smoking cessation (13.1%), and indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, smoking cessation and indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of e-cigarettes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0174.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: high-pressure water jet; high-pressure abrasive water- jet; rock processing
Online: 9 December 2022 (09:22:30 CET)
Rocks are materials with a wide variety of structures and properties. These can be unprocessed conglomerates of conglomerated minerals as well as crystallized outcrop or metamorphic rocks. Their processing, especially shaping, poses many technological difficulties. Therefore, it is very important to answer the question of how these natural materials yield to high-pressure water jet and abrasive water. It is equally important to determine the effect of key process parameters such as pressure, water nozzle diameter and feed rate on cutting efficiency. The first two parameters determine the water output and power of the jet, while the third determines the jet erosion time per unit volume of material. Their interdependence, using appropriate evaluation indicators, allows to determine the energy intensity of processing and directions for its minimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0042.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: high volume fly ash, high fluidity concrete, early strength, field application
Online: 13 February 2017 (11:44:54 CET)
In the recent concrete industry, high fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high fluidity concrete that using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated that fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration and drying shrinkage of concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Frequency estimation; FM; sensors; Internet of Things (IoT); software-defined radio (SDR); al-pha-stable noise; time-frequency distribution; deep learning
Online: 3 August 2022 (03:15:26 CEST)
Deep Learning (DL) and Machine Learning (ML) are widely used in many fields, but rarely used in Frequency Estimation (FE) and Slope Estimation (SE) of signals. Frequency and slope estimation for Frequency-Modulated (FM) and single-tone sinusoidal signals are essential in various applications, such as wireless communications, sonar, and radar measurements. In this work, artificial neural network (ANN) and convolutional neural network (CNN) are used in frequency and slope estimation for FM signals under Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and Additive Symmetric alpha Stable Noise (SαSN). SαS distributions are impulsive noise disturbances found in many communication environments like marine systems; their distribution lacks a closed-form Probability Density Function (PDF), except for specific cases, and infinite second-order statistic, hence Geometric SNR (GSNR) is used in this work to determine the impulsiveness of noise in a mixture of Gaussian and SαS noise processes. ANN is a machine learning classifier, designed with few layers for reducing FE and SE complexity while getting higher accuracy as compared with classical techniques. CNN is a deep learning classifier, designed with many layers for FE and SE, and proved to be more accurate than ANN when dealing with big data and finding optimal features. Simulation results show that SαS noise can be much more harmful for FE and SE of FM signals than Gaussian noise. DL and ML can significantly reduce FE complexity, memory cost, and power consumption, which is important in many systems such as some Internet of Things (IoT) sensor applications. After training DCNN for frequency and slope estimation of LFM signals, the performance of DCNN (in terms of accuracy) can give acceptable results at very low signal-to-noise ratios where TFD fails, giving more than 20dB difference in the GSNR working range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0575.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: high-temperature; silicon; oxidation
Online: 8 December 2023 (10:14:01 CET)
The main objective was to analyze the influence of silicon content on high-temperature oxidation of low-alloy steels. Samples of AISI 1045, AISI 5160, and AISI 9254 steels, with different silicon contents, were oxidized at an isothermal temperature of 1000°C for times of 20 minutes, 40 minutes, and 60 minutes. The oxide layers formed mainly contain hematite, magnetite wustite, and fayalite. The average thickness of the oxide layer can decrease with an increase in silicon content below 1% but can increase for contents greater than 1% due to the difference in density between fayalite and iron oxides. Silicon tends to accumulate on the surface of steel and form a SiO2 film in the early stages of oxidation, which can control the oxidation process. The eutectic compound FeO+Fe2SiO4 forms at the oxide-steel interface, and its thickness increases with oxidation time and the silicon content present. The SiO2 film tends to decrease with oxidation time and silicon content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: DLD; multifeature paradigm; mismatch response; ERPMMR time-frequency analysis
Online: 17 November 2023 (04:36:51 CET)
This study compared cortical responses to speech in preschoolers with typical language development (TLD) and Developmental Language Disorder (DLD), and in adults. We investigated whether top-down language effects modulate speech perception in an adult-like manner. We compared cortical mismatch responses (MMR) during passive perception of speech differing in linguistic complexity in three groups of participants: preschoolers with TLD (n=11), preschoolers with DLD (n=16) and adults (n=20). We also measured children’s phonological skills and investigated if they are associated with the cortical responses. MMR results indicated top-down language effects in adults, with enhanced cortical discrimination of lexical stimuli but not of non-words. In preschoolers, the TLD and DLD groups did not differ on the MMR measures and no top-down effects were detected. Moreover, we found no association between MMRs and phonological awareness skills, even though the DLD group’s phonological skills were significantly lower. Our findings suggest that top-down language modulations on speech discrimination may not be present during early childhood, and that children with DLD may not exhibit cortical speech perception deficits. The lack of association between phonological and MMR measures indicates that further research is needed to understand the link between language skills and cortical activity in preschoolers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0871.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: soil; low-frequency; discrete element method; vibration response; transmission
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:15:42 CEST)
The vibration response of soil is a key property in the field of agricultural soil tillage. Vibration components of tillage machinery are generally used to reduce tillage resistance and improve work efficiency, the pressure variation under low-frequency vibration will affect the fragmentation and dispersion of farmland soil. However, the gradient of pressure variation, frequency domain response, and effective transmission range are unclear. A new method based on DEM (Discrete Element Method) is presented to study the vibration response and pressure transmission under low-frequency vibration. Bench test results showed that peak pressure positively correlates with the vibration frequency and attenuates rapidly at the vibration distance of 100 to 250 mm. The results data were also selected to determine the simulation model parameters. Amplitude, vibration frequency, and soil depth were used as test factors in single-factor simulation tests, and their effects on the peak pressure, frequency domain response, and effective transmission distance were analyzed. The results showed a positive relationship between the peak pressure and the test factors. The peak pressure increases with a maximum gradient of 19.02 kPa/mm at a vibration distance of 50 mm. The amplitude, vibration frequency, and soil depth positively correlate with the dominant frequency amplitude. The main frequency is independent of amplitude and soil depth. At the vibration distance of 250 mm, the dominant frequency is approximately twice the vibration frequency at 7–11 Hz and approximately equal to the vibration frequency at 13–15 Hz. Multiple exponential functions were used to fit the peak pressure attenuation function, obtaining an effective transmission distance range of 347.15 to 550.37 mm for the 5kPa cut-off pressure. For a soil depth of 300 mm, the vertical shear wave diffusion angle is greater than the horizontal shear wave diffusion angle. The study clarifies the vibration response of soil under low-frequency vibration, which helps to design vibration type soil-engaging components of tillage machinery and match vibration parameters for energy saving and resistance reduction in soil tillage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1341.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Uncertainty; Flood Frequency; Rainfall Disaggregation; Peak Flow Continuous Simulation
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:23:06 CEST)
Estimating peak flow for a catchment is commonly undertaken using the design event method, however this method does not allow for the understanding of uncertainty in the result. This research first presents a simplified method of fragments approach to rainfall disaggregation that ignores the need to consider seasonality, offering a greater diversity in storm patterns within the resulting sub-daily rainfall. By simulating 20 iterations of the disaggregated sub-daily rainfall within a calibrated continuous simulation hydrologic model, we were able to produce multiple long series of stream flow at the outlet of the catchment. With this data, we investigated the use of both the annual maximum and peaks over threshold approaches to flood frequency analysis and found that for a one in 100 year annual exceedance probability peak flow, the peaks over threshold method (333m3/s ±50m3/s) was significantly less uncertain than the annual maximum method (427m3/s ±100m3/s). For the one in 100 year annual exceedance probability, the median peak flow from the peaks over threshold method (333m3/s) produced an outcome comparable to the design event method peak flow (328m3/s), indicating that this research offers an alternative approach to estimating peak flow, with the additional benefit of understanding the uncertainty in the estimation. Finally, the paper highlighted the impact that length and period of streamflow has on peak flow estimation and noted that previous assumptions around the minimum length of gauged streamflow required for flood frequency analysis may not be appropriate in particular catchments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0855.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: frequency synthesis; phase noise; phase settling time; stability analysis
Online: 13 July 2023 (05:25:20 CEST)
The frequency synthesizer is a critical component in Cs beam clock technology. In this paper, we present a demonstration of a direct microwave frequency-synthesis chain for a cesium-beam atomic clock, which utilizes frequency multiplication and a dual-phase-locked loop mode. A detailed analysis of the frequency-synthesis chain is conducted, and a mathematical model is established. The phase settling time and system stability are simulated, measured, and verified. The experimental results for the phase settling time align with the simulation outcomes. The phase settling time can be adjusted within the range of 644.5 µs to 1.5 ms, and the absolute phase noise values are -63.7 dBc/Hz, -75.7 dBc/Hz, -107.1 dBc/Hz, and -122.5 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz, 10 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Additionally, the Ramsey fringes are detected, and the Allan deviations of the 10 MHz output from the cesium-beam atomic clock are measured to be 2.99×10−12 at 1s and 8.02×10−14 at 10,000 s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1831.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Vitamin K; Food Frequency Questionnaire; Dietary Intake; Mediterranean Diet
Online: 26 June 2023 (15:06:28 CEST)
Vitamin K is a multifunctional micronutrient essential for human health, and deficiency has been linked to multiple pathological conditions. In this study we aimed to develop and validate a new food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate total vitamin K intake, over the course of a 30-day interval, in a Portuguese, Mediterranean-based, population. We conducted a prospective study in a non-random sample of 38 healthy adult volunteers. The FFQ was designed based on a validated Portuguese FFQ used in nationally representative studies and on literature reviews, to include foods containing ≥ 5μg of vitamin K/100g and foods with a lower vitamin K content, yet commonly in-cluded in a Mediterranean diet. Vitamin K intake was estimated from 24h recalls and six days of food records. The final FFQ included 54 food items which, according to regression analyses, explains 90% of vitamin K intake. Mean differences in vitamin K intake based on food records (80±47.7 μg/day) and on FFQ (96.5±64.3 μg/day) were statistically non-significant. Further, we found a strong correlation between both methods (r= 0.7; p=0.003). Our results suggest that our new FFQ is a valid instrument to assess the last 30-days of vitamin K intake in the Portuguese Mediterranean population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0095.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Low frequency; Co3O4/CC; Co-MOFs/CC; thinner thickness
Online: 1 June 2023 (13:35:25 CEST)
With the rapid development of electronic and communication technology in military radar, the demand for microwave absorbing materials in low-frequency with thin layer is growing increasingly. In this study, flexible Co3O4/CC (carbon cloth) composites derives from Co-MOFs (metal-organic frameworks)/CC are prepared by hydrothermal and thermal treatment processes. The flexible precursors of Co-MOFs/CC are calcined with different calcination temperatures, which the material structure, dielectric properties and microwave absorption performance are changed. With the increase of calcination temperature, the minimum reflection loss of the corresponding Co3O4/CC composites gradually moves to the lower frequency with thinner thickness. In addition, the Co3O4/CC composites with 25 wt% filler loading ratio exhibit the minimum reflection loss (RL) of -46.59 dB at 6.24 GHz with 4.2 mm thickness. When the thickness is 3.70 mm, the effective absorption bandwidth is 3.04 GHz from 5.84 to 8.88 GHz. This study not only proves that the composite Co3O4/CC is a kind of outstanding microwave absorbing material with better flexibility, but also provides a useful inspiration for the low frequency and broadband microwave absorbing material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: graphene chip; surface topography; photoresist residues; low-frequency noise
Online: 30 May 2023 (03:57:20 CEST)
Graphene quality for use in biosensors was assessed in fabricated chips by a set of methods that includes atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and low-frequency noise. It is shown that local areas of residues on the graphene surface, which arisen due to the interaction of graphene with a photoresist at the initial stage of chips development, leads to a spread of chips resistance (R) within 1-10 kΩ and to an increase in the root mean square (RMS) roughness up to 10 times that can significantly impair reproducibility of graphene parameters in biosensors chips. It was observed that the control of the photoresist residues after photolithography (PLG) by AFM and subsequent additional cleaning allow reducing the spread of R values in chips to 1–1.6 kΩ and obtaining RMS roughness similar to the roughness in pristine graphene before PLG. Monitoring of the spectral density of low-frequency voltage fluctuation (SU), which provides integral information about the defect system and quality of the material, makes it possible to identify chips with low graphene quality and with inhomogeneously distributed compressive stresses areas by the type of frequency dependence SU (f).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance; mutations; CVINT; malaria; allele frequency
Online: 4 January 2023 (03:04:50 CET)
The replacement of chloroquine with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for over a decade has had varying impacts on the ability of malaria parasite to sustain its chloroquine resistance prowess in different malaria-endemic regions. We evaluated the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) mutations in an endemic area of southwest Nigeria 17 years after replacement of chloroquine with ACTs for malaria treatment. Genomic DNA was isolated from dried blood spot samples obtained from 129 patients (aged 1-35 years) with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum infection. PfCRT fragments covering codons 72-76, CVMNK (wildtype) and A220 were amplified and sequenced. Two mutant PfCRT haplotypes on residues 72-76 (CVIET and CVINT) were identified with a prevalence of 18.6% and 2.3%, respectively. Interestingly, the CVINT haplotype was identified for the first time in this region. A220S changes were found in 16.3% of samples occurring concurrently with the CVIET haplotype, while a Q271E mutation occurred in a wildtype isolate. The reduced prevalence of the PfCRT mutant alleles in this study may suggest a gradual disappearance of chloroquine-resistant malaria parasites following reduced drug pressure. It may also be an indicator of the ability of malaria parasites to develop resistance gradually against the current first-line regimen.