ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0068.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Feature engineering; vibration; high performance computing (HPC); dataset; prognostics and availability management (P&AM)
Online: 3 September 2021 (14:21:24 CEST)
The Industrial Internet of things (IIoT) enabled smart system has entered into a golden era of rapid technology growth. IIoT is a concept to make every system interrelated such that they are able to collect and transfer data over a wireless network without human intervention. In this paper, we discuss the development of an IoT enabled system to monitor the vibration signature of equipment as part of prognosis and availability management system (P&AM) that serves to prevent unplanned operation downtime and catastrophic failure of a whole system. In order to simply the complexity of processing video content and performing inference, the Intel OpenVINO platform was selected because of it’s simplicity, portability across Intel AI processors, performance and comprehensiveness of it’s analytical and diagnostics capabilities that can be tested in Intel’s DevCloud. The IIoT system consists of a High Performance Computing (HPC) platform based on Intel’s Xeon processors and Movidius AI accelerator, Intel’s OpenVINO toolkit for AI, a Regul high performance programmable controller capturing vibration data through sensors and a low-latency network connection. Notifications of anomalies are sent to a smartphone. This paper reveals an approach for the features extraction and selection, known as feature engineering, of the equipment component we want to protect. Feature engineering is the first step for the P&AM of these components and extends to the whole system. The broader aim of this paper is to help technical leaders at the exploring or experimenting stages of their AI framework to learn the concepts of implementing algorithms using datasets that have real value to their companies. Datasets generated and referred to in this paper were generated by simulation under various material failure scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0360.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Random Forest; Iterative Random Forest; gene expression networks; high performance computing; X-AI-based eQTL
Online: 31 October 2019 (02:33:17 CET)
As time progresses and technology improves, biological data sets are continuously increasing in size. New methods and new implementations of existing methods are needed to keep pace with this increase. In this paper, we present a high performance computing(HPC)-capable implementation of Iterative Random Forest (iRF). This new implementation enables the explainable-AI eQTL analysis of SNP sets with over a million SNPs. Using this implementation we also present a new method, iRF Leave One Out Prediction (iRF-LOOP), for the creation of Predictive Expression Networks on the order of 40,000 genes or more. We compare the new implementation of iRF with the previous R version and analyze its time to completion on two of the world's fastest supercomputers Summit and Titan. We also show iRF-LOOP's ability to capture biologically significant results when creating Predictive Expression Networks. This new implementation of iRF will enable the analysis of biological data sets at scales that were previously not possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0161.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: High Performance Computing (HPC); big data; High Performance Data Analytics (HPDS); con-vergence; data locality; spark; Hadoop; design patterns; process mapping; in-situ data analysis
Online: 9 November 2022 (01:38:34 CET)
Big data has revolutionised science and technology leading to the transformation of our societies. High Performance Computing (HPC) provides the necessary computational power for big data analysis using artificial intelligence and methods. Traditionally HPC and big data had focused on different problem domains and had grown into two different ecosystems. Efforts have been underway for the last few years on bringing the best of both paradigms into HPC and big converged architectures. Designing HPC and big data converged systems is a hard task requiring careful placement of data, analytics, and other computational tasks such that the desired performance is achieved with the least amount of resources. Energy efficiency has become the biggest hurdle in the realisation of HPC, big data, and converged systems capable of delivering exascale and beyond performance. Data locality is a key parameter of HPDA system design as moving even a byte costs heavily both in time and energy with an increase in the size of the system. Performance in terms of time and energy are the most important factors for users, particularly energy, due to it being the major hurdle in high performance system design and the increasing focus on green energy systems due to environmental sustainability. Data locality is a broad term that encapsulates different aspects including bringing computations to data, minimizing data movement by efficient exploitation of cache hierarchies, reducing intra- and inter-node communications, locality-aware process and thread mapping, and in-situ and in-transit data analysis. This paper provides an extensive review of the cutting-edge on data locality in HPC, big data, and converged systems. We review the literature on data locality in HPC, big data, and converged environments and discuss challenges, opportunities, and future directions. Subsequently, using the knowledge gained from this extensive review, we propose a system architecture for future HPC and big data converged systems. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such review on data locality in converged HPC and big data systems.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0271.v1
Online: 18 July 2022 (11:07:08 CEST)
UHPC is a type of cement-based composite used in new construction and/or rehabilitation of existing buildings to extend service life. It is a novel composite material that can serve as an alternative to concrete construction in hostile climates. Following decades of study and production, a diverse variety of commercial UHPC compositions are now available globally to meet the rising number of applicants and demand for high-quality building materials. Although UHPC offers major benefits over normal concrete, its utilization is restricted due to restrictive design rules and exorbitant costs. As a result, a thorough examination of the durability properties of UHPC is required to give important information for material testing requirements and processes, as well as to broaden its practical uses. This report is aimed at increasing basic understanding of UHPC and supporting more UHPC research and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: satellite communication, antenna optimization, high gain antenna
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:59:04 CET)
Patch antennas are compact, less complex, planar structures and therefore, widely used in small satellite missions for telecommand, data link, and intersatellite link, particularly in S- band and X- band. Improved performance of these patch antennas in terms of gain and compactness will di-rectly affect the communication efficiency of small satellite missions. Especially the coming IoT (Internet of Things) constellations require high gain and efficient antenna arrays. An optimization of single patch antenna elements is an important cornerstone for the missions. Therefore, the ef-fects of various antenna enhancement techniques, such as slotted ground plane, resistor and ca-pacitor integration, parasitic patch elements, are analyzed. These techniques were applied on a rectangular patch antenna with parameter variation to identify the optimal performances with respect to bandwidth, operating frequency, gain, polarization, and power flow. Finally, the techniques were combined to obtain an optimized antenna in terms of gain and compactness. The results were compared to a slotted reference antenna. For the scenario of a 2.4 GHz patch antenna, a gain optimization of 27 % (from 7.09 to 8.14 dBi) or size reduction of 52 % (from 96.04 to 46.2 cm²) could be achieved. Overall, our study revealed an effective way to increase the patch antenna performance, which can directly contribute to more efficient communication links and design of antenna arrays.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete; Fresh properties
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:50:18 CEST)
UHPC is a cement-based composite that is used in new construction and/or renovation of existing structures to increase their service life. It is a unique composite material that may be used as an alternative to concrete in harsh conditions. Following decades of research and development, a wide range of commercial UHPC compositions are now accessible across the world to fulfill the growing number of applications and demand for high-quality construction materials. Although UHPC has significant advantages over conventional concrete, its use is limited because of rigid design restrictions and excessive pricing. As a consequence, a detailed analysis of UHPC's durability qualities is necessary to provide critical information for material testing requirements and methods, as well as to widen its practical applications. The goal of this study is to learn more about UHPC and to encourage more research and use of UHPC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0042.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: high volume fly ash, high fluidity concrete, early strength, field application
Online: 13 February 2017 (11:44:54 CET)
In the recent concrete industry, high fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high fluidity concrete that using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated that fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration and drying shrinkage of concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Meta-analysis; Effect size; Precision; Ultra-high strength concrete; Ultra-high strength fiber reinforced concrete
Online: 7 April 2020 (13:28:16 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis that shows the influence of fiber on ultimate compressive strength and tensile strength of ultra-high performance concrete. The internet scholarly search engines and ScienceDirect article references were used to illustrate the papers concerning the experimental investigations of mechanical properties of ultra-high strength concrete with and without fiber with clearly, completely and comparative raw data. The normal concrete test results were dismissed from this search. Seven trials were identified based on the adopted inclusion and exclusion criteria above. The meta-analysis based on standardized mean difference was carried out on the basis of a fixed-effects model for the major outcomes of the ultimate compressive and tensile properties of ultra-high performance concrete. A total of 888 test specimens were enrolled in these seven trials. The combined analysis yielded a sign of a significant improvement in ultimate compressive strength and tensile strength of ultra-high strength concrete with fiber addition of 2% by concrete volume. The summary effect size of ultimate compressive strength was 2.34 while a more improvement in term of tensile strength with effect size of 2.64. By addition fiber of 2% provides a significant benefit in mechanical properties of ultra-high performance concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: performance-based building design; PBBD; high-rise residential.
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:46:46 CEST)
The complexity of the design in high-rise residential projects is a challenge for the construction industry in completing projects that fit the needs of users. Performance-Based Building Design (PBBD) appears as a design concept that can describe these needs into performance requirements. In this case designing a building can be considered as an iterative process of exploration, where desired functional properties can be created, the shapes are suggested, and evaluation processes is used, so as to bring together the shapes and functions of the building. This concept is a container for designers to produce high-performance buildings. This study aimed to identify the performance-based building design factors applied by architect designers and engineers in high-rise residential building in Surabaya. As part of this study, primary data was collected based on surveys conducted through observation and questionnaire distributed to designers who had or were involved in the high-rise residential design process in Surabaya. A total of sixty-eight respondents were included in this study. Descriptive analysis through a mean and standard deviation scatter plot was used to rank the application of PBBD. Meanwhile, factor analysis was used in the analysis of PBBD application factors. From the results of the analysis, four factors were obtained for the application of PBBD in high-rise residential buildings in Surabaya, namely; the interests of occupants, the sustainability of building operations, the design collaboration process, and the risk of loss. Future research is the influence relationships and measure the success model of PBBD at a higher level into BIM (Building Information Modeling) interoperability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0524.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ultra high performance concrete (UHPC); concrete; compression strength; durability; nano additions; additions.
Online: 30 September 2021 (15:23:02 CEST)
This paper seeks to optimize the mechanical and durability properties of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). To meet this objective, concrete specimens were manufactured by using 1,100 kg/m3 of binder, water/binder ratio 0.20, silica sand and last generation of superplasticizer. Silica fume, metakaolin and two types of nano silica were used for improving the performances of the concrete. Additional mixtures included 13mm long OL steel fibers. Compressive strength, electrical resistivity, mercury intrusion porosimetry tests and differential and thermogravimetric thermal analysis were carried out. The binary combination of nano silica and metakaolin, and the ternary combination of nano silica with metakaolin and silica fume, led to the best performances of the UHPC, both mechanical and durable performances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0336.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Particle packing; packaging models; packaging density; concrete; addition; nano addition; ultra-high-performance concrete
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:44:45 CET)
This paper describes the packaging models that are fundamental for the design of ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC), and their evolution. They are divided into two large groups: continuous and discrete models. The latter are those that provide the best answer in obtaining an adequate simulation of the packing of the particles up to nanometric size. This includes the interaction among the particles by means of loosening and wall coefficients, allowing a simulation of the virtual and real compactness of such particles. In addition, a relationship between virtual and real compactness is obtained, through the compaction index, which may simulate the energy of compaction that the particles undergo in their placement in the mold. The use of last-generation additives allows such models to be implemented with water-cement (w/c) ratios close to 0.18. However, the premise of maximum packing as a basic pillar for the production of UHPC should not be the only one. The cement hydration process affected by nanoadditions and the ensuing effectiveness in the properties in both fresh and hardened state according to the respective percentages in the mixture should also be studied. An adequate ratio and proportion of these additions may lead to an obtaining of better results even with lower levels of compactness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: strategic flexibility; technology configuration capabilities; organizational performance; complex-dynamic environment, Chinese high-tech organizations
Online: 21 March 2018 (03:55:52 CET)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderating effect of technology configuration capability on the relationship between strategic flexibility and organizational performance through different stages of technological life cycle. Through the empirical research on the 439 Chinese high-tech organizations, it shows that a technological configuration capability has enhanced the effect of strategic flexibility to the organizational performance in the complex dynamic environment. However, the impact on the different stages of technological life cycle is different. In addition, this paper explored strategic flexibility on different stages of technological life cycle on the basis of empirical study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: carbon dioxide; carbon monoxide; cetane improver; ethanol; high content of oxygen; ignition quality; waste plastic pyrolysis oil
Online: 7 June 2018 (08:32:07 CEST)
Alternative fuels available at low cost, friendly to natural environments and meet the energy needs and demands, have witnessed a growing demand and use today. Ethanol is an attractive renewable energy source with a high content of oxygen. Ethanol can be produced through ethanolisis, however for this work direct blending of conventional diesel, waste plastic pyrolysis oil and ethanol with commercial fuel improver CI-0808 purchased from Innospec company was attempted. The primary purpose of adding a cetane improver was to improve the combustion characteristics of the blends by at least 1- 3 ignition quality points. Five mixing ratios were chosen in the following order, 50:25:25, 60: 20:20, 70: 15:15, 80: 10:10 and 90: 5:5 for Waste Plastic Pyrolysis Oil (WPPO), ethanol and conventional diesel (CD) respectively. However, for the fuel additive mixing ratio the total volume percentage was considered and the ratio put at 0.01% of the total quantity of blended fuel. In this work WPPO, diesel blends and fuel additives improvers were used as alternative fuel. This was to evaluate their performance and emission characteristics in a stationary single cylinder water cooled experimental diesel engine. The CI-0808 was added due to its potential power to reduce emissions of CO, UHC, NOX, PM and improved engine performance. The results obtained were compared carefully to ASTM standards and discussed using graph curves figures and tabulated values. The conclusion was that ethanol and WPPO blends can be used in diesel engines as alternative fuel without modification. Used in combination with cetane improvers the emissions reduce significantly and performance improved equalling that of conventional diesel fuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC); mechanical properties; extrusion; 3D concrete printing (3DCP)
Online: 29 November 2019 (10:45:46 CET)
This paper presents the systematic development and performance characterization of a non-proprietary 3D-printable ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) for digital construction. Several fresh and hardened properties of the developed 3D-printable UHPFRC matrix (without fiber) and composite (with 2% volume fraction of steel fibers) were evaluated and compared to that of conventionally mold-cast UHPFRC. Additionally, the effects of testing direction on the compressive and flexural strengths of the printed UHPFRC were investigated. The fresh properties of the UHPFRC developed in this study satisfied the criteria for extrudability, buildability, and shape-retention-ability, which are relevant for ensuring printability. The printed UHPFRC exhibited superior flexural performance to the mold-cast UHPFRC due to alignment of the short fibers in the printing direction. The high compressive and flexural strengths, along with the deflection-hardening behavior, of the developed UHPFRC can enable the production of thin 3D-printed components with significant reduction or complete elimination of conventional steel bars.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Discrete element method, simulation, multibody dynamics, particle replacement, high-pressure grinding rolls.
Online: 23 June 2021 (13:36:08 CEST)
It has been known that the performance of the High-Pressure Grinding Rolls (HPGR) varies as a function of method used to confine laterally the rolls, their diameter/length (aspect) ratio as well as their condition, if new or worn. However, quantifying these effects through direct experimentation in machines with reasonably large dimensions is not straightforward given the challenge, among others, of guaranteeing that the feed material remains unchanged. The present work couples the discrete element method (DEM) to multibody dynamics (MBD) and a novel particle replacement model (PRM) to simulate the performance of pilot-scale HPGRs grinding pellet feed. It shows that rotating side plates, in particular when fitted with studs, allow reaching more uniform forces along the bed, which also translates in a more constant product size along the rolls as well as higher throughput. It also shows that the edge effect is relatively constant with roll length, leading to substantially larger proportional edge regions for high-aspect ratio rolls. On the other hand, the product from the center region of such rolls was found to be finer when pressed at identical specific forces. Finally, rolls were found to have higher throughput, but generate a coarser product when worn following the commonly observed trapezoidal profile. The approach used in industry to compensate for roller wear by increasing the specific force and roll speed has then been demonstrated to be effective to maintain and potentially even increase product fineness and throughput, as long as the minimum safety gap is not reached.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0103.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Crisis Resource Management; obstetric hemorrhage; non-technical skills; High Fidelity Simulation; delivery room
Online: 15 December 2017 (08:54:25 CET)
Human factors are the most relevant issues contributing to adverse events in obstetrics. Specific training of Crisis Resource Management (CRM) skills (i.e., problem solving and team management, resource allocation, awareness of environment, and dynamic decision-making) are now widespread and are often based on High Fidelity Simulation. In order to be used as a guideline in simulated scenarios, they need to be translated into specific and observable behavioral markers. To this purpose, we developed a set of observable behaviors related to the main elements of CRM in the delivery room. The observational tool was then adopted in a two-days seminar on obstetric hemorrhage where teams working in obstetric wards of six Italian hospitals took part to simulations. The tool was used as guide for the Io and as a peer-to-peer feedback. It was then rated for its usefulness in facilitating the reflection upon one’s own behavior, its ease of use, and its usefulness for the peer-to-peer feedback. The ratings were highly positive, around 4 in a 5-point scale. The CRM observational tool is therefore a useful, quick and easy solution to facilitate the debriefing, the peer-to-peer feedback and, most of all, the transfer of safe behavior from simulation to everyday practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: high-performance buildings; energy-saving technology; primary energy consumption; CO2 emission; Korean climate; EnergyPlus; reference building
Online: 14 March 2018 (10:05:02 CET)
This study aims to suggest a basis for the selection of technologies for developing high-performance buildings to reduce energy consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions. Energy-saving technologies comprising of 15 cases were categorized into passive, active, and renewable energy systems. EnergyPlus v8.8 was used to analyze the contribution of each technology in reducing the primary energy consumptions and CO2 emissions in the Korean climate. The primary energy consumptions of the base model were 464.1 and 485.1 kWh/m²a in the Incheon and Jeju, respectively, and the CO2 emissions were 83.4 and 87.4 kgCO2/m²a, respectively. Each technology (cases 1–15) provided different energy-saving contributions in the Korean climate depending on their characteristics. The heating, cooling, and other energy-saving contributions of each technology indicate that their saving rates can be used when selecting suitable technologies during the cooling and heating seasons. Case 15 (active chilled beam with dedicated outdoor air system + ground source heat pump) showed the highest energy saving rate. In case 15, the Incheon and Jeju models were reduced by 189.4 (59.2%) and 206.2 kWh/m²a (57.4%) compared to the base case, respectively, and the CO2 emissions were reduced by up to 32.7 (60.8%) and 35.6 kgCO2/m²a (59.3%), respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0165.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Multiparametric MRI; image preprocessing; intensity harmonization; intensity standardization; high-grade glioma; radiomics signatures
Online: 10 January 2023 (01:20:12 CET)
Purpose: This study investigates the impact of different intensity normalization (IN) methods on the overall survival (OS) radiomics models’ performance of MR sequences in primary (pHGG) and recurrent high-grade glioma (rHGG). Methods: MR scans acquired before radiotherapy were retrieved from two independent cohorts (rHGG C1: 197, pHGG C2: 141) from multiple scanners (15, 14). The sequences are T1 weighted (w), contrast-enhanced T1w (T1wce), T2w, and T2w-FLAIR. Sequence-specific significant features (SF) associated with OS, extracted from the tumour volume, were derived after applying 15 different IN methods. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazard (CPH) and Poisson regression (POI) models. A ranking score was assigned based on the 10-fold cross-validated (CV) concordance index (C-I), mean square error (MSE), and the Akaike information criterion (AICs), to evaluate the methods’ performance. Results: Scatter plots of the 10-CV C-I and MSE against the AIC showed an impact on the survival predictions between the IN methods and MR sequences (C1/C2 C-I range: 0.62-0.71/0.61-0.72, MSE range: 0.20-0.42/0.13-0.22). White stripe showed stable results for T1wce (C1/C2 C-I: 0.71/0.65, MSE: 0.21/0.14). Combat (0.68/0.62, 0.22/0.15) and histogram matching (HM, 0.67/0.64, 0.22/0.15) showed consistent prediction results for T2w models. They were also the top-performing methods for T1w in C2 (Combat: 0.67, 0.13; HM: 0.67, 0.13), however, only HM achieved high predictions in C1 (0.66, 0.22). After eliminating IN impacted SF using Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient, a mean decrease in the C-I and MSE of 0.05 and 0.03 was observed in all four sequences. Conclusion: The IN method impacted the predictive power of survival models. Thus, performance is sequence-dependent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0637.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ultra-high performance concrete; waste; granite gang saws; steel fibres, compressive strength, flexural strength, elasticity modulus
Online: 31 January 2021 (11:08:23 CET)
The purpose of this study is to analyse the feasibility of using waste from granite gang saws (GCW-GS) to manufacture ultra-high performance, steel-fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC). These machines cut granite blocks by abrasion using a steel blade and slurry containing fine steel grit. The waste generated by gang saws (GCW-GS) contains up to 15% Fe2O3 and up to 5% CaO. This is the main difference from the waste produced by diamond saws (GCW-D). Consequently, the second objective of this study is to compare the results of the waste obtained with gang saws with that from diamond saws, in order to determine the influence of iron and calcium oxides. The waste from cutting granite with gang saws was used in different percentages to replace micronized quartz powder of natural origin in the manufacture of UHPRFC. All the test specimens were analysed to determine their compressive strength, elasticity modulus, flexural strength and indirect tensile strength. The final conclusion is that wastes from both gang saws and diamond saws can be used to manufacture UHPFRC with an improvement in the mechanical properties up to a 35% replacement. The results for GCW-GS are better, mainly due to the pozzolanic effect of the iron dioxide. For higher percentage replacements the mechanical properties are close to the control concrete with small decreases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0668.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: magnetic solid-phase extraction; CoFe2O3 Nanoparticles; polyphenol; Lawsone; high-performance liquid chromatography
Online: 27 September 2020 (08:01:06 CEST)
A novel polyphenol‑coated CoFe2O4 system was synthesized as a magnetic adsorbent by chemical oxidative polymerization process for magnetic solid-phase extraction of lawsone. The synthesized nanoadsorbent showed a spherical morphology with diameters under 50 nm by scanning electron microscopy images. The extraction efficiency of this adsorbent was studied towards the extraction of lawsone from saline aqueous solution in dispersion mode. Major parameters including the type and volume of desorption solvent, amount of sorbent, desorption time, extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength and pH were optimized. Under the optimum conditions the relative standard deviation in 0.005 µg mL-1 (inter-day n = 6; intra-day: n = 6; and adsorbent to adsorbent n = 4) were obtained as 5.2, 8.07 and 11.7%, respectively. A linear calibration curve in the range of 0.003–0.5 µg mL-1 with R2 = 0.993 was obtained. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the method were 0.001 µg mL-1 and 0.003 µg mL-1, respectively. The relative recovery percentages were in range of 90-96.4% for henna leaves, henna shampoo, and henna dermal lotion real samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0309.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: phenyltin derivatives; tetraphenyltin; triphenyltin chloride; triphenyltin acetate; triphenyltin hydroxide; fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
Online: 24 April 2018 (07:45:23 CEST)
This paper reports a novel fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet detection (FPSE-HPLC-UV) method for the simultaneous extraction and analysis of four phenyltin derivatives that include triphenyltin hydroxide, triphenyltin acetate, triphenyltin chloride and tetraphenyltin in environmental water (agricultural waste water and municipal waste water) and canned food samples. The selected analytes were well resolved by Waters Nova pack C18 column (3.9 x 150 mm, 4 µm particle size) in isocratic elution mode within 15 minutes. The new microextraction media has been analytically evaluated using phenyltin derivatives as model compounds. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency of FPSE have been evaluated and the optimum extraction conditions were determined. Under these optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for sol-gel C18 coated fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) media in combination with HPLC-UV for the analysis of the phenyltin derivatives were in the range of 10-100 ng/mL with high precision (low relative standard deviation) at 10 ng/mL concentration with good absolute recoveries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first FPSE extraction procedure applied to environmental water and canned food samples for the simultaneous determination of phenyltin derivatives and could be readily adopted as a rapid and robust green analytical tool for routine environmental and food analytical laboratories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0068.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: strawberry; high-temperature and high-light; AsA-GSH cycle
Online: 3 February 2023 (09:54:45 CET)
Chitosan (CTS) is widely used in agriculture as a soil amendment, plant growth regulator and promoter of cold resistance. However, the effects of CTS on strawberry seedlings under the combined stress of high-temperature and high-light are unclear. In this study, Xuelixiang strawberry was used as a test material, and 100 mg·kg-1 CTS solution was sprayed onto the leaves. We measured the chlorophyll content, membrane peroxidation, reactive oxygen species content, antioxidant enzyme content, AsA-GSH cycle activity and other related indicators of strawberry seedling leaves under the combined stress of high-temperature and high-light and found that CTS can increase the contents of antioxidants, increase the contents of osmotic adjustment substances, increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes activity,; remove reactive oxygen species over time, reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species to photosynthetic organs and cell membranes, and improve the photosynthesis efficiency of leaves of strawberry plants under high-temperature and high-light stress, thereby reducing damage to strawberry seedlings caused by high-temperature and high-light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Oil shale; Permeability; Pyrolysis; High temperature and high pressure
Online: 10 September 2018 (09:14:56 CEST)
In-situ injection of steam for heating of the subsurface is an efficient method for the recovery of oil and gas from oil shale where permeability typically evolves with temperature. We reported measurements on Jimusar oil shales(Xinjiang, China) at different temperatures to 600℃ and under recreated in situ triaxial stresses to obtain permeability evolution with temperature and stress. Permeability of tight oil shales evolves with temperature to a threshold temperature and peak temperature. The threshold temperature was subjected to triaxial stresses. For Jimusar oil shale, the threshold temperature ranges from 200℃ to 250℃ at ground stress of buried depth of 500m and from 350℃ to 400℃ at buried depth of 1000m. The peak temperature was almost not subjected to triaxial stress and the range is from 450℃ to 500℃ for all Jimusar samples. Pyrolysis plays an important role in permeability evolution and fundamentally changes permeability tendency and magnitude. At high temperature permeability exhibits a little reduction due to stress effect but still remains a high level due to pyrolysis. The above results show that oil shale mass can change from tight porous media into highly permeable media and oil & gas can easily flow through oil shale stratum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; hypertension; blood pressure; low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; extremely high high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; body mass index; big data
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:53:04 CEST)
Background Although high-density lipoprotein has cardioprotective effects, the association between serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and hypertension is poorly understood. Objective We investigated whether low and high concentrations of HDL-C are associated with hypertension using a large healthcare dataset. Methods In a community-based cross-sectional study of 1,493,152 Japanese people aged 40–74 years who underwent a health checkup, blood pressures and clinical parameters, including nine HDL-C concentrations (20–110 mg/dL or over) were investigated. Results A crude U-shaped relationship was observed between the nine HDL-C concentrations and blood pressure in males (n = 830,669), while a left-to-right inverted J-shaped relationship was observed in females(n = 662,483). An age-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed J-shaped relationships (left-to-right inversion in females) between HDL-C and odds ratios for hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg), with lower limits of 60–79 mg/dL in males and 90–99 mg/dL in females, which were unchanged after adjusting for smoking, habitual exercise, alcohol consumption, and pharmacotherapy for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. However, further adjustment for body mass index and serum triglyceride concentration revealed latent positive linear associations between HDL-C and hypertension, although the association between extremely high HDL-C (≥100 mg/dL) and hypertension was attenuated in non-alcohol drinkers. Conclusion Both low and extremely high HDL-C concentrations are associated with hypertension. The former association may be dependent on excess fat mass, which is often concomitant with low HDL-C, whereas the latter association may be dependent on frequent alcohol consumption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0288.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Diet; Obesity; Gut microbes; High-fiber diet; High fat diet
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:50:36 CEST)
With the ever-increasing rate, obesity has become an epidemiological problem throughout the globe comprising about 39% of the world population as of now. Among several reasons, disruption of the gut microbial ecosystem might contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other associated comorbidities. Though the mechanisms related to dysbiosis are unclear, diet might play a modulating role where different dietary approaches manipulate microbial richness and abundance as well as stability. For instance, shifting of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut might have a role in association with the dietary approaches and ingestion duration. Along with altered gut microbial composition, microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after ingestion of non-digestible dietary starches may have an impact on host metabolism by regulating lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation with potential associations to health and obesity. The dietary approaches like carbohydrates, fibre, protein, and/or fat diet at various arrangements can make a shift in the composition of gut microbiota if introduced for a short period. However, the unique pattern of the gut microbes usually remains the same along with the longer period of habitual diet. Though the short-term dietary intervention or circadian rhythm influences a transient change in gut microbes, other than habitual diet, the understanding related to long-term dietary change-induced permanent alterations is minimum. Alternatively, the usage of prebiotics, probiotics as well as postbiotics could be beneficial to overcome dysbiosis. This review highlights the current knowledge and the interaction between the human intestinal microbiota and diet as a modifying factor, in obesity allowing the scientists to uncover novel targets and tools to use as customized therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0098.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: spatiotemporal analysis; high to ultra high spatial resolution; high to very high temporal resolution; NDVI; NIR; neural network modelling, Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:35:50 CET)
The salt marshes, lying at the land-sea temperate interface, furnish a plethora of ecosystems services such as biodiversity niche support, ocean-climate change regulation, ornithology recreo-tourism or plant gathering by hand. They undergo significant worldwide losses due to their conversion into crop fields and to their spatial compression between the rising sea-level and the armoring shoreline. Their monitoring however requires to use a suite of remote sensing sensors to embrace the regional scale while capturing the plant details. This research innovatively adopts a multiscale approach using a cascading spaceborne and airborne process, from the 10-m Sentinel-2, through the 3-m Dove, to the 0.03-m unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) imageries. The high to very high temporal resolution of the Sentinel-2 and Dove enabled to cover twenties and tens of km2 over five and four years, respectively, in the form of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) classes, associated with microphytobenthos, low, medium and high salt marsh vegetation, including the opportunistic Elyma genus. The NDVI was then modelled at the UAV scale (a few km2) using a three-layered NN prediction, providing the final near-infrared (NIR), and the intermediate red, green and blue reflectance imageries, calibrated/validated/tested with the Dove reflectance imageries (R2NIR=0.98, R2red=0.88, R2green=0.84, and R2blue=0.90). The 100fold increase in pixel size allowed to detect the decimeter-scale objects of the tidal flats and salt marshes, to enlarge the NDVI class ranges, and hold great promise to model other spectral bands at the UAV scale for further deeply enhancing the salt marsh mapping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0489.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: High pressure X-ray crystallography; high pressure magnetometry; high pressure absorption spectroscopy; high pressure EPR; molecule-based magnets; single-molecule magnets; single-ion magnets
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:48:58 CEST)
The cornerstone of molecular magnetism is a detailed understanding of the relationship between structure and magnetic behaviour, i.e. the development of magneto-structural correlations. Traditionally, the synthetic chemist approaches this challenge by making multiple compounds that share a similar magnetic core but differ in peripheral ligation. Changes in the ligand framework induce changes in the bond angles and distances around the metal ions which are manifested in changes to magnetic susceptibility and magnetisation data. This approach requires the synthesis of series of different ligands and assumes that the chemical/electronic nature of the ligands and their coordination to the metal, the nature and number of counter ions and how they are positioned in the crystal lattice, and the molecular and crystallographic symmetry have no effect on the measured magnetic properties. In short, the assumption is that everything outwith the magnetic core is innocent, which is a huge oversimplification. The ideal scenario would be to have the same complex available in multiple structural conformations, and this is something that can be achieved through the application of external hydrostatic pressure, correlating structural changes observed through high pressure single crystal X-ray crystallography with changes observed in high pressure magnetometry, in tandem with high pressure inelastic neutron scattering (INS), high pressure electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and high pressure absorption/emission/Raman spectroscopy. In this review, which summarises our work in this area over the last 15 years, we show that the application of pressure to molecule-based magnets can (reversibly): (1) lead to changes in bond angles, distances and Jahn-Teller orientations; (2) break and form bonds; (3) induce polymerisation/depolymerisation; (4) enforce multiple phase transitions; (5) instigate piezochromism; (6) change the magnitude and sign of pairwise exchange interactions and magnetic anisotropy and (7) lead to significant increases in magnetic ordering temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0174.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: high-pressure water jet; high-pressure abrasive water- jet; rock processing
Online: 9 December 2022 (09:22:30 CET)
Rocks are materials with a wide variety of structures and properties. These can be unprocessed conglomerates of conglomerated minerals as well as crystallized outcrop or metamorphic rocks. Their processing, especially shaping, poses many technological difficulties. Therefore, it is very important to answer the question of how these natural materials yield to high-pressure water jet and abrasive water. It is equally important to determine the effect of key process parameters such as pressure, water nozzle diameter and feed rate on cutting efficiency. The first two parameters determine the water output and power of the jet, while the third determines the jet erosion time per unit volume of material. Their interdependence, using appropriate evaluation indicators, allows to determine the energy intensity of processing and directions for its minimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-DC converter; photovoltaic energy storage system; high voltage gain; high efficiency
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:40:50 CEST)
Intended for the high voltage gain and wide-range operation of DC/DC converters for photovoltaic energy storage systems, a topology for four-phase interleaved DC/DC converters for photovoltaic power generation is proposed. This topology increases output voltage for output in series, and reduces the input current ripple by paralleling the input. Compared with traditional boost converter topology, the proposed topology reduces the output current and output voltage ripple, reduces the stress of the switching device, and reduces the withstanding voltage of the output capacitor under the premise of ensuring the boost ratio. Experimental results show that the maximum efficiency of the converter reaches 95.37%. Compared with traditional boost converters, the proposed converter offers obvious advantages in efficiency under the conditions that the output voltage and load are variable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: high voltage alternating current; high voltage direct current; particle swarm optimization; power losses
Online: 16 September 2022 (07:52:57 CEST)
Indonesia's SUMBAGUT 150 kV transmission of High Voltage Alternating Current Network (HVAC) system has considerable power losses. These power losses are a critical problem in the transmission network system. Meanwhile, this study provides one solution to reduce power losses using a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) network system. Determining the location to convert HVAC into HVDC is very important. The authors use Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to get the optimal location on the 150 kV SUMBAGUT HVAC transmission network system. The study results showed that before using the HVDC network system, the power losses were 122.26 MW. Meanwhile, power losses with one transmission HVDC in the "Paya Pasir-Sei Rotan" are 84.16 MW, "Porsa-P. Siantar" 90.83 MW, "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" 104.14 MW. Then power losses with two transmission HVDC in "Paya Pasir-Sei Rattan" and "Porsa-P. Siantar" is 71.24 MW, "Paya Pasir-Sei Rotan" and "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" 77.46 MW, "Porsa-P. Siantar" and "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" 78.52 MW. The last result, power losses with three transmission HVDC in "Paya Pasir-Sei Rotan," "Porsa-P. Siantar," and "Paya Pasir-Paya Geli" lost 64.57 MW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0070.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Web app; Cloud computing; High Availability; High performance computing; Docker container; Horizontal Scaling
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:33:58 CET)
This study analyses some of the leading technologies for the construction and configuration of IT infrastructures to provide services to users. For modern applications, guaranteeing service continuity even in very high computational load or network problems is essential. Our configuration has among the main objectives of being highly available (HA) and horizontally scalable, that is, able to increase the computational resources that can be delivered when needed and reduce them when they are no longer necessary. Various architectural possibilities are analysed, and the central schemes used to tackle problems of this type are also described in terms of disaster recovery. The benefits offered by virtualisation technologies are highlighted and are bought with modern techniques for managing Docker containers that will be used to build the back-end of a sample infrastructure related to a use-case we have developed. In addition to this, an in-depth analysis is reported on the central autoscaling policies that can help manage high loads of requests from users to the services provided by the infrastructure. The results we have presented show an average response time of 21.7 milliseconds with a standard deviation of 76.3 milliseconds showing excellent responsiveness. Some peaks are associated with high-stress events for the infrastructure, but the response time does not exceed 2 seconds even in this case. The results of the considered use case studied for nine months are presented and discussed. In the study period, we improved the back-end configuration and defined the main metrics to deploy the web application efficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0088.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: High-temperature superconductivity; critical temperature
Online: 6 January 2022 (12:36:26 CET)
The dependence of the critical temperature $T_c$ of high-temperature superconductors of various families on their composition and structure is proposed. A clear dependence of the critical temperature of high-temperature superconductors (hydrides, Hg- and Y-based cuprates) on the serial number of the constituent elements, their valence and crystal lattice structure has been revealed. For cuprates, it is shown that it is possible to obtain even higher temperatures of superconducting transitions at normal pressure by implanting mercury atoms into the crystal lattice of cuprate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0174.v1
Online: 9 August 2018 (00:20:24 CEST)
The oral cavity harbors hundreds of microbial species that are present either as planktonic cells, or incorporated into biofilms. The majority of the oral microbes are commensal organisms. Those that are pathogenic microbes can result in oral infections, and at times initiate systemic diseases. Biofilms that contain pathogens have been challenging to control. Many conventional antimicrobials have proven to be ineffective. Recent advances in science and technology are providing new approaches for pathogen control and containment and methods to characterize biofilms. This perspective provides: 1) A general understanding of biofilm development; 2) A description of emerging chemical and biological methods to control oral biofilms; 3) An overview of high-throughput analytical approaches to analyze biofilms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Smart home electricity management system; bidirectional DC-AC converter; high power quality; high efficiency.
Online: 14 July 2018 (20:25:57 CEST)
The management of the electrical energy still raises a huge interest for end-users at the household level. Home electricity management systems (HEMS) have recently emerged both to warrant uninterruptible power and high power quality, and to decrease the cost of electricity consumption, by either shifting it in off peak time or smoothing it. Such a HEMS requires a bidirectional DC-AC converter, specifically when an energy transfer is required between a storage system and the AC-grid, and vice versa. This article points out the relevance of an innovative topology based on sinusoidal waveforms from the generation of sine half-waves. Such a topology is based on a DC-DC stage equivalent to an adjustable output voltage source and a DC-AC stage (H-bridge) which are in series. The results of a complete experimental procedure prove the feasibility to improve the power quality of the output signals in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD-values about 5%). The complexity of the proposed converter is minimized in comparison with multilevel topologies. Finally, wide band-gap semiconductor devices (SiC MOSFETs) are helpful both to warrant the compactness and the high efficiency (about 96%) of the bidirectional converter, whatever its operation mode (inverter or rectifier mode).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0515.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: efficient ultrasonic transceivers, broadband piezoelectric transducers, industrial NDE, medical imaging, pulsed high-power spikes, HV capacitive-discharge pulsers, high-current driving, high dynamic range.
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:16:39 CET)
Ultrasonic imaging & NDE applications can greatly improve their signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) by driving each transducer (composing piezoelectric arrays) with a spike giving pulsed power of k-Watts, repetitively at a PRF = 5000 spikes/s, by using a HV capacitive-discharge generator. However very-high levels, of pulsed intensities (3-10 A) and voltages (300-700 V) must be considered for a rigorous spike modeling. Even though the consumed "average" power will be small, the intensity through each transducer achieves several amperes, so the pulsed powers delivered by each HV generator can attain levels higher than in CW high-power ultrasonic applications: e.g., up to 5 kW / spike. This is concluded here from a transient modeling of the loaded generator. Then, unforeseen phenomena rise: intense brief pulses of driving power & emitted force in transducers, and non-linearities in driver semiconductors, because their characteristic curves only include linear ranges. But fortunately, piezoelectric devices working in this intense regime do not show serious heating problems, because the average power remains being moderate. Intensity, power and voltage, driving a broadband transducer from a HV capacitive pulser, are calculated to drastically improve (in ≅ 40 dB) the ultrasonic net dynamic range available, with emitted forces ≅ 250 Newtons pp and E/R received pulses of 70 V pp.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0120.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: refractory high-entropy alloys; fused slurry method; silicide coating; Si-20Cr-20Fe; high-temperature oxidation
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:43:24 CEST)
The poor oxidation resistance of refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs) is a major obstacle for their use in high-temperature engineering applications. Anti-oxidation coating technology is an effective method for improving the oxidation resistance. In this paper, the Si-20Cr-20Fe coating was prepared on MoNbTaTiW RHEA by a fused slurry method. The microstructural evolution and compositions of the silicide coating under high-temperature oxidation environment were studied. The results show that the silicide coating could effectively prevent the oxidation of the MoNbTaTiW RHEA. The initial silicide coating had a double-layer structure; a high silicon-content layer mainly composed of MSi2 as the outer layer and a low silicon-content layer mainly contained M5Si3 as the inner layer. Under high-temperature oxidation conditions, the silicon element diffused from the silicide coating to the RHEA substrate while the oxidation of the coating occurred. After oxidation, the coating was composed of an outer oxide layer and an inner silicide layer. The silicide layer moved toward the inside of the substrate, led to the increase of its thickness. Compared with the initial silicified layer, its structure did not change significantly. The structure and compositions of the oxide layer on the outer surface strongly depended on the oxidation temperature. This paper provides a strategy for protecting RHEAs from oxidation at high-temperature environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0322.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: java virtual machine (jvm); high level programming languages; high performance computing (hpc); php framework; compiler
Online: 29 September 2019 (05:01:46 CEST)
With the existence of several programming languages such as C/C++, Java, C#, LISP, Prolog, Python, Simula, F#, Go, Haskell, Scala, Ruby, Dart, Swift, Groovy etc. and diverse paradigms like structured, object-oriented, list, aspect-oriented, service-oriented, web, mobile and logic programming, there is a need to perform an exhaustive comparative analysis of diverse compilers and environments before making a choice of implementation technology in software engineering. Optimization of compilers helps to reduce execution time by making use of high speed processor registers, thereby, eliminating redundant computation. This paper reports some series of performance analysis done with some popular programming languages including Java, C++, Python and PHP. Programs involving recursive and iterative functions like factorial of large numbers and binary search of large arrays were run on the various platforms with the execution time recorded in milliseconds and represented in a chart. This can aid in making a selection of the appropriate language to use for a given application domain.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0486.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: high altitude, chronic hypobaric hypoxia, physiologic adaptation, travel to high altitude cities, high altitude physiology, pulmonary hypertension, lung disease, hemoglobin, tolerance to hypoxia, oxygen content.
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:22:04 CEST)
Acute high altitude illnesses are of great concern for physicians and people traveling to high altitude. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) can be better understood through the Oxygen Transport Triad which involves the Pneumo-Dynamic Pump (Ventilation), the Hemo-Dynamic Pump (Heart and circulation), and Hemoglobin. The two pumps are the first physiologic response upon initial exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Hemoglobin is the balancing energy-saving time-evolving equilibrating factor. The increased hemoglobin at high altitude reduces the percentage of dissolved oxygen in the arterial oxygen content with respect to sea level. At high altitude, the acid-base balance must be adequately interpreted using the high altitude Van-Slyke correction factors. Pulse-oximetry measurements during breath-holding at high altitude allow for the evaluation of high altitude diseases. The Tolerance to Hypoxia Formula shows that, paradoxically, the higher the altitude the more tolerance to hypoxia. All organisms adapt physiologically and optimally to a high-altitude environment to survive. Reduction of pulmonary hypertension in HAPE through oxygen administration results in a favorable outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: high blood pressure; Cancer; malignancies; hypertension
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:05:11 CET)
Background of the Study: We investigated the link between hypertension and cancer since it has been suggested that hypertension may raise the long-term risk of cancer. Previous large observational cohort studies found that greater blood pressure (BP) was related to a higher risk of cancer. Mendelian randomization (MR) was utilized to produce less confounded blood pressure estimates (BP) on overall and site-specific malignancies. The study aims to draw conclusions on the relationship between high blood pressure and cancer. Methods: Studies on high blood pressure and various malignancies are inconclusive, except for renal cell carcinoma. However, given that most meta-analyses only contained a limited number of trials, some relative risks had small to moderate magnitudes, and several may have been impacted by residual confounding, careful interpretation is necessary. The study was conducted using the meta-analysis technique. Cochran's Q test and I2 test were used to assess statistical heterogeneity between studies in the current investigation for research involving two or more cause and outcome combinations. Results: Positive correlations were also reported between high blood pressure and esophageal adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, liver, and squamous cell carcinoma. However, most studies lacked multivariable adjustments. Physical and numerical risk of cardiovascular disease is linked to bowel cancer but no other cancers. According to a meta-analysis, hypertensive persons could also be at increased danger of gastrointestinal and breast cancer. Most meta-analyses comprised several trials with moderate or mild hazard ratios.ConclusionDifferent types of cancers have been noted to be directly caused by hypertension. In addition, some treatments have also been associated with the side effects of cancer treatments to cause hypertension. Women facing hypertension have an increased risk of getting breast cancer. Although some cancers showed a real relationship with hypertension, others had no connection at all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0598.v1
Online: 22 April 2021 (09:24:14 CEST)
This research work studies the characteristics of wear and wear resistance of composite powder coatings, deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel, which contain composite mixtures Ni-Cr-B-Si having different chromium concentrations – 9.9%; 13.2%; 14%; 16% and 20% , at one and the same size of the particles and the same content of the remaining elements. The coating of 20% Cr does not contain B and Si. Out of each powder, composite coatings have been prepared without any preliminary thermal treatment of the substrate and with preliminary thermal treatment of the substrate up to 650оС. The coatings have been tested under identical conditions of dry friction over a surface of solid firmly attached abrasive particles using the tribological testing device „Pin-on-disk“. Results have been obtained and the dependences of the hardness, mass wear, intensity of the wearing process, absolute and relative wear resistance on the Cr concentration under identical conditions of friction. It has been found out that for all the coatings the preliminary thermal treatment of the substrate leads to a decrease in the wear intensity. Upon increasing Cr concentration the wear intensity diminishes and it reaches minimal values at 16% Cr. In the case of coatings having 20% Cr concentration, the wear intensity is increased, which is due to the absence of the components B and Si in the composite mixture, whereupon no inter-metallic structures are formed having high hardness and wear resistance. The obtained results have no analogues in the current literature and they have not been published by the authors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0493.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs; filters; high bandwidth; RF photonics
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:51:34 CEST)
Soliton crystal micro-combs are powerful tools as sources of multiple wavelength channels for radio frequency (RF) signal processing. They offer a compact device footprint, large numbers of wavelengths, very high versatility, and wide Nyquist bandwidths. Here, we demonstrate integral order RF signal processing functions based on a soliton crystal micro-comb, including a Hilbert transformer and first- to third-order differentiators. We compare and contrast results achieved and the tradeoffs involved with varying comb spacing, tap design methods, as well as shaping methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0178.v1
Online: 6 April 2021 (13:30:25 CEST)
Background Pregnancy is a process of maturity for women that requires adaptation to the changes in their new roles. Adjustment to a new role is not easy, especially if the pregnancy is accompanied by risks, so it is necessary to get treatment to minimize complications. Dyad models that optimize husband or family support are very important to prevent the risk of complications and adapt mothers to their new roles. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the dyad model on high-risk pregnancies. The method used with a literature review is through the collection of articles from Scopus, ebsco, ProQuest and PubMed. The results obtained were articles from Scopus 9, Ebsco 107, PubMed 214 and ProQuest 85 which carried out identification, screening and eligibility for 25 articles. Overall results mention. Journals are categorized into 4 groups, Dyad Model and social support, high-risk pregnancy, maternal role and Self Efficacy. Conclusion, there is an effect of the dyad model on care for high-risk pregnancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs; filters; high bandwidth; RF photonics
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:06:50 CEST)
We demonstrate an RF photonic fractional Hilbert transformer based on an integrated Kerr micro-comb source featuring a record low free spectral range of 49 GHz. By programming and shaping the comb lines according to calculated tap weights for up to 39 wavelengths across the C-band, we achieve tunable bandwidths ranging from 1.2 to 15.3 GHz as well as variable center frequencies from baseband to 9.5 GHz, for both standard integral and arbitrary fractional orders. We experimentally characterize the RF amplitude and phase response of the tunable bandpass and lowpass Hilbert transformers with 90 and 45-degree phase shifts. The experimental results show good agreement with theory, confirming the effectiveness of our approach as a powerful way to implement standard and fractional order Hilbert transformers with broad and variable bandwidths and center frequencies, with high reconfigurability and greatly reduced size and complexity. Tan, and D. J. Moss are with the Optical Sciences Centre, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia. (Corresponding e-mail: email@example.com). Xu is with the Electro-Photonics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, 3800 VIC, Australia
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0069.v3
Online: 18 May 2018 (05:54:20 CEST)
The aim of this research is to determine the factors that may prevent high school students from participating in recreational activities and to investigate whether these factors differ within the scope of various variables. This study consisted of total 1459 (681 women and 778 men) student volunteers who educated in high school level. Sampling method was preferred for easy sampling. The face-to-face survey method was used to collect the data. The "Leisure Constraints Scale" developed by Alexandris and Carroll (1997) and adapted to Turkish by Gürbüz, Öncü, and Emir (2012) was used to determine the factors that might prevent individuals from participating in leisure activities. The data obtained for the research were first transferred to the computer and then analyzed by SPSS packet program. The error margin level in the study was taken as p<0.05. The cronbach alpha of the study was found to be 0.91. As a result, it was found that women participated in the leisure time more than men. It was also observed that the participants met with more leisure constrain in Turkey's eastern regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: survivin; high expression; gastrointestinal cancer; prognostic
Online: 11 April 2017 (10:51:06 CEST)
Previous studies on the prognostic impact of survivin expression in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer have yielded inconsistent results. This study was initiated to assess the relationship between survivin expression and overall survival (OS) or disease free survival (DFS) in GI cancer patients. We applied system literature searches on EMBASE, PubMed, Web of science, and the Cochrane library to conduct this up-to-date meta-analysis. Thirty studies with totally 3622 GI cancer patients were collected. The prevalence of high survivin expression in GI cancer was 0.57 (95% CI: 0.51-0.63). High survivin expression was significantly associated with shorter OS (HR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.42-1.74) and DFS (HR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.21-1.58). Subgroup analysis also showed significant association between high survivin expression and poorer OS or DFS in gastric cancer or colorectal cancer. In summary, our study indicated that high survivin expression was related to poor prognosis in GI cancer. Well-designed studies with large sample and more convincing data are needed to confirm our conclusion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0496.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids; high tunnel; greenhouse; plant factory; non-dormant; substrate; container; evergreen; high density
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:56:10 CEST)
Southern highbush blueberry plantations have been expanded into worldwide non-traditional growing areas with elite cultivars and improved horticultural practices. This article presents a comprehensive review of current production systems – alternatives to traditional open field production – such as production in protected environments, high-density plantings, evergreen production, and container-based production. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system and compare their differences to the open field production. In addition, potential solutions have been provided for some of the disadvantages. We also highlight some of the gaps existing between academic studies and production in industry, providing a guide for future academic research. All these alternative systems have shown the potential to produce high yields with high quality berries. Alternative systems, compared to the field production, require higher establishment investments and thus create an entry barrier for new producers. Nevertheless, with their advantages, alternative productions have potential to be profitable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0050.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: mefenamic acid; diamond anvil cell; high-pressure; polymorphism; high-pressure crystallization; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Online: 8 March 2017 (08:58:38 CET)
High pressure crystallization technique has been successfully used to prepare an elusive form II of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Mefenamic acid. Single crystal of form II was grown at 0.3 GPa from an 4:1 methanol/ ethanol mixture as a solvent using Diamond Anvil Cell. Comparison of crystal structures show that the efficient packing of MA molecules in Form II results from the structural flexibility of MA acid molecules. Compression studies performed on the single crystal of form I resulted in 14 % decrease of unit cell volume up to 2.5 GPa. No phase transition was observed up to this pressure. A reconstructive phase transition is required to induce conformational changes in the structure, which is confirmed by crystallization at high pressure results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Corona Effect; Monitoring; Maintenance; High voltage Line
Online: 21 December 2022 (08:05:12 CET)
The investigation consists of taking data from the insulator chains of the 220 kV voltage for lines located in the coastal areas of Peru, in this case line 2212 from Huacho to Zapallal was chosen and the data consists of audios and images taken in hours at night when there is low temperature and high relative humidity, with the objective of identifying the characteristics that show the occurrence of effluvia that are atmospheric discharges due to the voltage of the line and the environmental conditions, this phenomenon is known as the Corona effect. Data were taken during the months of October 2020 June and July 2022, being more than 20 thousand archives of video, audio, and data (collected in csv type files), allowing to determine that the Corona effect does not manifest itself during the moments of lowest temperature. This allows redefining the maintenance strategy to be more effective in combating the damage to the insulators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0228.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: vegetables; high throughput phenotyping; genomic assisted breeding
Online: 26 April 2022 (06:00:45 CEST)
Conventional phenotyping breeding approaches for vegetable crops like Solanaceae, Bulb, Root crops, have made a significant contribution by developing many varieties. Despite this, conventional phenotyping approaches are not sufficient due to the longer time taken to develop a variety, low genetic gain, environmental factors and some other externalities that affect the phenotype-based selection. To address the challenges of conventional phenotype, a new recent method of high throughput phenotyping (HTP) is considered a promising tool. The development of high-throughput phenotyping technology began in the preceding decade as advancements in sensor, computer vision, automation, and advanced machine learning technologies. HTP platforms are being utilized to undertake non-destructive assessments of the complete plant system in a range of crops. HTP provides the precise measurements and suggests the collection of high-quality and accurate data which is necessary for standardizing phenotyping for the collection of genetic dissection and genomic assisted breeding such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), linkage mapping, marker-assisted selection (MAS), genomic selection (GS). The remainder of this chapter discusses how high-throughput phenotyping technologies can be used in genomic-assisted breeding for vegetable crops
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0044.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation & Radiography Keywords: energetic material; plasma; detonation; electromagnetism; high temperature
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:39:48 CET)
In the process of deflagration of energetic materials, strong electromagnetic radiation is to be generated, which causes the surrounding electronic equipment to fail to work normally. To solve this problem, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism of electromagnetic radiation generated by energetic materials. The mechanism of plasma changed by the deflagration of energetic materials is an important topic in the aerospace and geophysics fields. The academic community holds two main viewpoints on the mechanism of electromagnetic radiation generated by energetic materials: one is that the solid material is squeezed and deformed during the deflagration of energetic materials, and the charges of different polarities rub in space to form effective electric dipoles, which eventually generate electromagnetic radiation. Another view is that the deflagration of energetic materials causes the temperature of the medium to rise sharply, and bremsstrahlung is formed during the compression and diffusion of the high-temperature wave front, resulting in the generation of electromagnetic radiation. This paper, based on theoretical analysis and experimental data, holds the view that electromagnetic radiation is generated by the high-temperature thermal effect. It studies the relationship between temperature and electromagnetic radiation and obtains quantitative analysis conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0151.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: high-performance; heritable; multi-environments; credibility interval
Online: 10 February 2022 (11:14:21 CET)
The giant challenge breeding flood-irrigated rice is to identify superior genotypes that present high-yielding with specific grain qualities, resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, excellent adaptation to the target environment. Thus, the objectives of this study were to propose a bayesian multi-trait model, estimate genetic parameters, and select flood-irrigated rice genotypes with better genetic potentials in different evaluation environments. For this, twenty-five rice genotypes belonging to the flood-irrigated rice improvement program were evaluated. The grain yields, grain length, width and thickness, grain length, and grain width and weight of 100 grains in the agricultural year 2016/2017. The experimental design used in all experiments was a randomized block design with three replications. The Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm estimated genetic parameters and genetic values. The grain thickness trait was considered highly heritable, with a credibility interval ranging from: h^2: 0.9480; 0.9440; 0.8610, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The grain yields showed a low correlation estimate between grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in all environments, with a credibility interval ranging from (ρ= 0.5477; 0.5762; 0.5618 and 0.5973; 0.5247; 0.5632, grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively). The Bayesian multi-trait model proved to be an adequate strategy for the genetic improvement of flood-irrigated. Genotypes 2 and 15 had similar potential in the three environments, they should be selected as high-performance multi-trait genotypes for the genetic breeding of flood-irrigated rice in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0330.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Supernova remnants; Stellar evolution; High-energy astrophysics
Online: 22 October 2021 (12:11:22 CEST)
A supernova close enough to the Earth is a spectacular event: it can appear as a \new star" as luminous as Venus, or even more, visible for several days. The rate of Galactic supernovae is expected to be of about one in 30 years, with a fraction visible at naked eye; however in all the history of human civilization only seven supernovae in the Milky Way have been reported, the last two (1572 and 1604) during Galilei's life. The supernova of 1604, today called Kepler's Supernova, was observed by Galilei, Kepler and other astronomers in Europe, Korea, and China. Like the supernova SN1572, today called Tycho's supernova, it has been the subject of extensive studies, and inspired observational measurements and philosophical considerations on the nature of the heavens. The remnant of SN1604 has been indicated by recent X- and gamma-ray data to be a likely site of cosmic ray acceleration. The first recorded data of optical observations, together with new data, can still tell us a lot about the early evolution of this supernova.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0426.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bionanocomposites; collagen; high magnetic field; silica particles
Online: 15 April 2021 (18:12:26 CEST)
Major progress in the field of regenerative medicine are expected from the design of artificial scaffolds that mimic both the structural and functional properties of the ECM. The bionanocomposites approach is particularly well fitted to meet this challenge as it can combine ECM-based matrices and colloidal carriers of biological cues that regulate cell behavior. Here we have prepared bionanocomposites under high magnetic field from Tilapia fish scale collagen and multifunctional silica nanoparticles (SiNPs). We show that scaffolding cues (collagen), multiple display of signaling peptides (SiNPs) and control over the global structuration (magnetic field) can be combined into a unique bionanocomposite for the engineering of biomaterials with improved cell performances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0104.v1
Online: 2 March 2021 (16:02:07 CET)
Hepato-renal dysfunctions associated with hyperlipidemia necessitates continuous search for natural remedies. This study thus, evaluated the effect of dietary chitosan on diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (90 ± 5.2) g were randomly allotted into six (6) groups (n=5): Normal diet, High-fat diet (HFD), Normal diet + 5% chitosan. The three other groups received HFD, supplemented with 1%-, 3%-, and 5% of chitosan. The feeding lasted for 8 weeks, after which the rats were sacrificed. The liver and kidneys were harvested for Analyses. Hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and renal biomarkers (ALT, AST, urea, and creatinine) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Additionally, expression of hepatic and renal CD43 and p53 was estimated immunohistochemically. Hyperlipidemia caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the hepatic (AST, ALT, and ALP) and renal (AST and ALT) activities, while renal urea and creatinine increased. Furthermore, the HFD group showed an elevated level of hepatic and renal CD43 while p53 expression decreased. However, groups supplemented with chitosan showed improved hepatic and renal biomarkers, as well as corrected the aberrations in the expressions of p53 and CD43. Conclusively, dietary chitosan could effectively improve kidney and liver functionality via abatement of inflammatory responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0550.v1
Online: 24 February 2021 (12:59:47 CET)
We report world record high data transmission over standard optical fiber from a single optical source. We achieve a line rate of 44.2 Terabits per second (Tb/s) employing only the C-band at 1550nm, resulting in a spectral efficiency of 10.4 bits/s/Hz. We use a new and powerful class of micro-comb called soliton crystals that exhibit robust operation and stable generation as well as a high intrinsic efficiency that, together with an extremely low spacing of 48.9 GHz enables a very high coherent data modulation format of 64 QAM. We achieve error free transmission across 75 km of standard optical fiber in the lab and over a field trial with a metropolitan optical fiber network. This work demonstrates the ability of optical micro-combs to exceed other approaches in performance for the most demanding practical optical communications applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0507.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs, data transmission, filters, high bandwidth, optical
Online: 23 February 2021 (09:49:59 CET)
Microcombs provide a potential compact and efficient light source for multi-Terabit-per-second optical superchannels. However, as the bandwidth of these multi-wavelength light sources is increased, this can result in low per-line power. Optical amplifiers can be used to overcome power limitations, but the accompanying spontaneous optical noise can degrade performance in optical systems. To overcome this issue, we propose wideband noise reduction for comb lines using a high-Q microring resonator, whose resonances align with comb lines. When applying the proposed distillation to a superchannel system with 18 Gbaud, 64-QAM sub-channels in a > 10 Tb/s optical superchannel, we find that noise-corrupted comb lines can reduce the optical signal-to-noise ratio required for the comb by ~ 9 dB when used as optical carriers at the transmitter side, and by ~ 12 dB when used as a local oscillator at the receiver side.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0333.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: LIDAR; UV laser; high spectral resolution; aerosols
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:11:08 CET)
ATLID (ATmospheric LIDar) is the atmospheric backscatter LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) on board of the EarthCARE (Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer) mission, the sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the ESA (European Space Agency) Living Planet Programme [1-5]. ATLID’s purpose is to provide vertical profiles of optically thin cloud and aerosol layers, as well as the altitude of cloud boundaries [6-10]. In order to achieve this objective ATLID emits short duration laser pulses in the UV, at a repetition rate of 51 Hz, while pointing in a near nadir direction along track of the satellite trajectory. The atmospheric backscatter signal is then collected by its 620 mm aperture telescope, filtered through the optics of the instrument focal plane assembly, in order to separate and measure the atmospheric Mie and Rayleigh scattering signals. With the completion of the full instrument assembly in 2019, ATLID has been subjected to an ambient performance test campaign, followed by a successful environmental qualification test campaign, including performance calibration and characterization in thermal vacuum conditions. In this paper the design and operational principle of ATLID is recalled and the major performance test results are presented, addressing the main key receiver and emitter characteristics. Finally, the estimated instrument, in-orbit, flight predictions are presented; these indicate compliance of the ALTID instrument performance against its specification and that it will meet its mission science objectives for the EarthCARE mission, to be launched in 2023.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0111.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Orbitrap mass spectrometry; high resolution; accurate mass
Online: 8 June 2020 (10:17:36 CEST)
The rapidly increasing adoption of high-resolution accurate-mass methods in analytical laboratories has fueled demand for instruments that combine high performance and reliability with small size and greater ease-of-use. This paper presents the major design principles that are driving the evolution of the hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap instrument architecture to enable a greater range of applications and users. These principles may be summarized as follows: better usage of physical space and better access for service by means of size reduction of pumping and ion optics; expanded use of technologies from electronics in ion-optical design; flexibility in performance via modularity of design of the hardware and software components; and, harmonization of interfaces with other instruments to facilitate sharing and transferability of analytical workflows. The design of a novel family of hybrid mass spectrometers is described in detail, and performance evaluation is carried out on a wide variety of samples for its three representatives: the Orbitrap Exploris 120, Orbitrap Exploris 240 and Orbitrap Exploris 480 mass spectrometers.The new instrument family is shown to offer compelling potential not only for high-end proteomics and biopharmaceutical applications, but also for screening, trace, targeted and clinical analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0459.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: low concentration; gas; reactor; high-temperature oxidation
Online: 29 February 2020 (09:20:28 CET)
To achieve efficient utilization of low-concentration mine gas, reduce resource waste, and alleviate environmental pollution, high-temperature oxidation of low-concentration gas at a concentration range of 1.00% to 1.50% that is directly discharged into the atmosphere during coal mine production was oxidized to recover heat for reuse. The gas oxidation equipment was improved for the heating process, and the safety of low-concentration gas oxidation under high-temperature environment was evaluated. Experimental results showed that the reactor could provide a 1000 ℃ high-temperature oxidation environment for gas oxidation after installing high-temperature resistant ceramics. The pressure variation curves of the reactor with air and different concentrations of gas were similar. Due to the thermal expansion, the air pressure slightly increased and then returned to normal pressure. In contrast, the low-concentration gas exhibited a stable pressure response in the high-temperature environment of 1000 ℃. The outlet pressure was significantly greater than the inlet pressure, and the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet exhibited a trend to increase with the gas concentration. The explosion limit varied with the temperature and the blend with oxidation products. The ratio of measured gas pressure to air pressure after oxidation was below the explosion criterion, indicating that the measured concentration gas is still safe after the shift of explosion limit, which provides a safe concentration range for efficient use of low-concentration gas in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0137.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: topology optimization; convolutional neural network; high-resolution
Online: 12 October 2019 (03:56:19 CEST)
Topology optimization is a pioneering design method that can provide various candidates with high mechanical properties. However, the high-resolution for the optimum structures is highly desired, normally in turn leading to computationally intractable puzzle, especially for the famous Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) method. In this paper, an efficient and high-resolution topology optimization method is proposed based on the Super-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network (SRCNN) technique in the framework of SIMP. The SRCNN includes four processes, i.e. refining, path extraction & representation, non-linear mapping, and reconstruction. The high computational efficiency is achieved by a pooling strategy, which can balance the number of finite element analysis (FEA) and the output mesh in optimization process. To further reduce the high computational cost of 3D topology optimization problems, a combined treatment method using 2D SRCNN is built as another speeding-up strategy. A number of typical examples justify that the high-resolution topology optimization method adopting SRCNN has excellent applicability and high efficiency for 2D and 3D problems with arbitrary boundary conditions, any design domain shape, and varied load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0126.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: path integral; financial markets; high-frequency trading
Online: 8 May 2019 (08:47:44 CEST)
Methods of path integrals are used to develop multi-factor probabilities of bid-ask variables for use in high-frequency trading (HFT). Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) is used to fit the nonlinear forms so developed to a day of BitMEX tick data. Maxima algebraic code is used to develop the path integral codes into C codes, and sampling code is used for the fitting process. After these fits, the resultant C code is very fast and useful for forecasting upcoming ask, bid, midprice, etc., when narrow and wide windows of incoming data are used. A bonus is the availability of canonical momenta indicators (CMI) useful to forecast direction and strengths of these variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0238.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: residual feed consumption; quail; high environmental temperature
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:22:21 CEST)
Three hundred ten 12-wek-old laying quails (155 each) were randomly selected from the initial population and kept in individual battery cages. The measurements of growth and egg production were determined to derive RFI. The relationship between RFI and egg quality, blood parameters and carcass characteristics was also determined. The results indicated that the gray quails had significantly higher egg mass and lower broken eggs compared to the white quails. A significant increase for eggshell strength and shell % was found in eggs produced from gray quails compared to white counterparts, although the shell thickness was the same. The results of multiple regression analysis clearly identified a significant effect of metabolic body weight and egg mass in computing expected feed intake rather than body weight gain in both varieties of Japanese quails. Strongly positive correlation between RFI and feed intake in both gray and white quail varieties was found. The same trend was also observed for feed conversion ratio (FCR). Therefore, including RFI in selection criteria of Japanese quail to improve FCR under high environmental temperature is highly recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0308.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: irradiance variability, high-resolution measurements, increment statistics
Online: 19 June 2018 (17:10:06 CEST)
With the continual global increase of PV power systems and the inherent weather-induced volatility of their power output, understanding the underlying variability of solar radiation in both space and time is important for the planning and reliable operation of future power grids. This paper concisely reviews recent advances in the characterization of irradiance variability with an emphasis on small spatial and temporal scales (respectively less than about 10\,km and 1\,min), for which comprehensive data sets are time consuming and expensive to collect, and although needed have not been available until recently. Special attention is given to studies dealing with the quantification of variability using such unique data, the analysis and modeling of spatial smoothing, and the evaluation of temporal averaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: high frequency; acceleration; vibration; orthodontics; tooth movement
Online: 6 April 2018 (10:57:40 CEST)
Evaluation of the effect of a high frequency acceleration device on clear aligner exchange intervals and treatment time required to achieve prescribed tooth movements. Sixteen subjects with similar Class I malocclusions, 5mm or less crowding, and treated with Invisalign were divided into two groups. Group 1 (experimental; N=8) underwent aligner treatment in conjunction with daily use of the high frequency acceleration device and exchanged aligners every 5 days. Group 2 (controls; N=8) underwent aligner treatment without use of the device and exchanged aligners every 14 days according to the manufacturer's recommended interval. All subjects were treated by one investigator, and results were evaluated by both; total number of aligners used, and number of refinements required, prior to final Vivera retention scan. A significant decrease in both treatment time, and number of aligners required to complete treatment was observed by experimental subjects as compared to controls. In addition, no refinements were required by experimental subjects, whereas 6 of 8 of the control subjects required 1 or more refinements. Use of the high frequency acceleration device in conjunction with Invisalign treatment resulted in more predictable tooth movement and a significant decrease in the length of treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0080.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: high-intensity functional training; work capacity; performance
Online: 12 March 2018 (05:33:23 CET)
High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) is a novel exercise intervention that may test body systems in a balanced and integrated fashion by challenging individuals’ abilities to complete mechanical work. However, research has not previously determined if physical work capacity is unique to traditional physiologic measures of fitness. Twenty-five healthy men and women completed a six-week HIFT intervention with physical work capacity and various physiologic measures of fitness assessed pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, these physiologic measures of fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity) were significantly associated with physical work capacity and this relationship was even stronger at post-intervention assessment. Further, there were significant improvements across these physiologic measures in response to the delivered intervention. However, the change in these physiologic measures failed to predict the change in physical work capacity induced via HIFT. These findings point to the potential utility of HIFT as a unique challenge to individuals’ physiology beyond traditional resistance or aerobic training. Elucidating the translational impact of increasing work capacity via HIFT may be of great interest to health and fitness practitioners ranging from strength/conditioning coaches to physical therapists.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ultrasonic cyclic testing; frequency effect; strain rate effect; 50CrMo4; SAE 4150; High Cycle Fatigue; Very High Cycle Fatigue
Online: 21 October 2020 (15:18:48 CEST)
In this study, we investigate the influence of control type and strain rate on the lifetime of specimens manufactured from 50CrMo4. This influence is described by a strain rate dependent method that uses cyclic stress strain curves to correct displacement controlled cyclic test results. The objective of this correction is to eliminate the stress related differences between displacement controlled cyclic test results and force controlled cyclic test results. The method is applied to the results of ultrasonic fatigue tests of six different combinations of heat treatment, specimen geometry (notch factor) and atmosphere. The corrected results show an improved agreement with test results obtained on conventional fatigue testing equipment with similar specimens: the standard deviation in combined data sets is significantly reduced (p=4.1%). We discuss the literature on intrinsic and extrinsic strain rate effects in carbon steels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0051.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: melatonin; ROS; NO; posttranslational modifications (PMTs); abiotic stress; drought; salinity; high temperature; high light; waterlogging; abiotic stress combination
Online: 5 October 2020 (07:48:29 CEST)
Abiotic stress in plants is an increasingly common problem in agriculture, and thus, studies on plant treatments with specific certain compounds that may help to mitigate these effects have increased in recent years Melatonin (MET) application and its role in mitigating the negative effects of abiotic stress in plants have become important in the last few years. MET, a derivative of tryptophan, is an important plant-related response molecule involved in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants, and the induction of different stress factors. In addition, MET plays a protective role against different abiotic stresses such as salinity, high/low temperature, high light, waterlogging, nutrient deficiency and stress combination by regulating both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. Also, MET interacts with many signaling molecules, among these, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and participates in a wide variety of physiological reactions. It is well known that NO produces S-nitrosylation and NO2-Tyr of important antioxidant-related proteins, being this an important mechanism for maintaining the antioxidant capacity of the AsA/GSH cycle under nitro-oxidative conditions, being extensively reviewed here under different abiotic stress conditions. Lastly, in this review, we show the coordination between NO and MET as a long-range signaling molecule, regulating many responses in plants, including plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Despite all the knowledge acquired over the years, there is still more to know about how MET and NO act on tolerance to abiotic stresses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0669.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: dielectric elastomer; generation; carbon dioxide free; rare earths free; high efficiency; CNT; high power; artificial muscle; actuator; large deformation
Online: 26 April 2021 (13:09:45 CEST)
Abstract: Power generation using dielectric elastomer (DE) artificial muscle is attracting attention because of its light weight, low cost, and high efficiency. Since this method is a system that produces electricity without emitting carbon dioxide nor using rare earths, it would contribute to the goal of environmental sustainability. In this paper, the background of DEs, the associated high-efficient wave energy generation (WEG) systems that we developed using DEs, as well as the latest development of its material are summarized. By covering the challenges we face and the achievements that we’ve reached, we can discuss the opportunities to build the foundation of a recycled energy society through the usage of these WEGs. On the other hand, to make these possibilities commercially successful, the advantages of DEs need to be integrated with traditional technologies. To achieve this, we also consider the method of using DEs alone and a system used in combination with an oscillating water column. Finally, the current status and future of DEGs are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0622.v1
Subject: Keywords: LPBF; Laser Powder Bed Fusion; SLM; Selective Laser Melting; High-speed steel; tool steel; high carbon content; preheating temperature
Online: 29 January 2021 (13:09:59 CET)
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing process employed in many industries, for example for aerospace, automotive and medical applications. In these sectors, mainly nickel-, aluminum- and titanium-based alloys are used. In contrast, the mechanical engineering industry is interested in more wear-resistant steel alloys with higher hardness, both of which can be achieved with a higher carbon content, like in high-speed steels. Since these steels are susceptible to cracking, preheating needs to be applied during processing by LPBF. In a previous study, we applied a base plate preheating temperature of 500 °C for HS6-5-3-8 with 1.3 % carbon content. We were able to manufacture dense (p > 99.9 %) and crack-free parts from HS6-5-3-8 with a hardness > 62 HRC (as built) by LPBF. In this study, we investigate the influence of preheating temperatures up to 600 °C on hardness and microstructure dependent on part height for HS6-5-3-8. The microstructure was studied by light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The analysis of hardness and microstructure at different part heights is necessary because state-of-the-art preheating systems induce heat only into the base plate. Consequently, parts are subjected to temperature gradients and different heat treatment effects depending on part height during the LPBF process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0554.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Field measurement; Typhoon; High-rise building; Strong wind
Online: 30 January 2023 (10:13:31 CET)
The overcrowding of high-rise buildings in the city adversely affects the wind environment by changing the air currents in the surrounding areas. In particular, extreme climate phenomena caused by climate change are stronger and more frequent, causing social damages in cities. To comprehensively better understand the wind properties around high-rise buildings, actual filed measurement is necessary to determine the environment assessment of wind effect. We performed the on-site measurement on LCT residential complex regions (411.6m tall) with highly concentrated high-rise buildings in coastal city Busan, South Korea under extreme weather conditions such as typhoon invasions to determine wind fluid characteristics. In the field monitoring, five anemometers were installed to analyze the wind environment around high-rise buildings when typhoon 'Hinnamnor' invaded. Compared to the nearby weather station operated by KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration), the gust was 3.7 times stronger and the max 1 min-mean wind speed was 3.1 times stronger, and the characteristics of the downward wind and the canyon wind were shown depending on the location characteristics of the point. Turbulence intensity decreased as the wind speed increased and converged to a certain value. Likewise, the gust factor also decreased as the wind speed increased and converged to 2.0, which is considered to be the parameter that best represents the intensity of the instantaneous gust caused by the skyscraper wind effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0237.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Atmospheric-Observing-System; Aerosol; High-Spectral-Resolution-lidar
Online: 13 December 2022 (09:51:59 CET)
In the context of the Atmospheric Observing System (AOS) international program, a new generation spaceborne lidar is expected to be in polar orbit for deriving new observations of aerosol and clouds. In this work, we analyze the added values of these new observations for characterizing aerosol vertical distribution. For this, synthetic observations are simulated using the BLISS lidar simulator in terms of backscatter coefficient at 532 nm. We consider two types of lidar instruments, an elastic backscatter lidar instrument and a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). These simulations are performed with atmospheric profiles from a Nature Run (NR) modeled by the MOCAGE Chemical Transport Model. In three case studies involving large events of different aerosol species, the added value of the HSRL channel for measuring aerosol backscatter profiles with respect to simple backscatter measurements is shown. Observations independent from an a-priori lidar Ratio assumption, as done typically for simple backscattering instruments, allows probing the vertical structure of aerosol layers without divergence, even in case of intense episodes. Relative error in the backscatter coefficient profiles are observed to lay between +40% and -40% for low abudancies, with mean biases between +5% and -5%. A 5-day study in the case of desert dust completes the study of the added value of the HSRL channel with relative mean bias from the NR of the order of 1.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0018.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Droplet; Laser shock; High temperatures; Dynamics; Focusing enhancement
Online: 4 April 2022 (12:02:37 CEST)
The temperature-assisted laser shock process has shown promising prospects in the fields of forming manufacturing and surface strengthening. However, large-scale application of this process is limited by the instability and failure of confinement medium at high temperatures (≥300 ℃). Aiming at this problem, we propose a novel laser shock strategy based on Leidenfrost effect, where the suspended droplets are utilized as the confinement medium. According to the sequence of images acquired by time delay system and high-speed camera, the droplet dynamics behavior is studied. The focusing enhancement effect of the droplet is comprehensively explored. And the correlations between droplet size, ambient temperature, vapor layer thickness and focusing effect are investigated. Combining the dynamics and focusing enhancement effect of droplets, a theoretical model of laser shock pressure under droplet confinement is established. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the droplet-based laser shock strategy in high temperature processing environments are verified by typical applications in laser shock forming and laser shock peening fields. The results show that the droplet-based laser shock process presents better forming effect. And the mechanical property tests demonstrate that this process can obtain the simultaneous improvement of the strength (~51%) and ductility (~6.4%) of annealed Cu. The multiscale plasticity mechanisms of the strengthened material are comprehensively investigated. We believe that this low-energy, low-cost and high-quality process can provide a new solution for the industrial application of laser shock at high temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0458.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: quantum dots; bias source; multi-channel; high precision
Online: 9 August 2021 (18:17:09 CEST)
To realize precise control of the quantum dots (Qdots) device, multi-channel precision bias source plays the key role. In this paper, the 16-channel high precision bias source with 18-bit resolution for Qdots device was designed. The prototype was made and its performance was tested. The short time fluctuations can reach 50μV. The step response time is less than 3μs. The resolution, stability, linearity and dynamic range of the bias source exhibits good performance. What's more, the bias source can be controlled locally and online. The results show that it is one effective and feasible topology for experiments in Qdots device application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0453.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: high-pressure microbiology; deep biosphere; cultivation devices; decompression
Online: 17 April 2021 (08:46:55 CEST)
High temperatures (HT) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP) are characteristic of deep-sea hydrothermal vents and other deep crustal settings. These environments host vast and diverse microbial populations, yet only a small fraction of those populations have been successfully cultured. This is due, in part, to the difficulty of sampling while maintaining these in situ conditions and also replicating those high-temperature and high-pressure conditions in the laboratory. In an effort to facilitate more HT-HHP cultivation, we present two HT-HHP batch culture incubation systems for cultivating deep-sea vent and subsurface (hyper)thermophilic microorganisms. One HT-HHP system can be used for batch cultivation up to 110 MPa and 121°C, and requires sample decompression during subsampling. The second HT-HHP system can be used to culture microorganisms up to 100 MPa and 160°C with variable-volume, pressure-retaining vessels that negate whole-sample decompression during subsampling. Here, we describe how to build cost effective heating systems for these two types of high-pressure vessels, as well as the protocols for HT-HHP microbial batch cultivation in both systems. Additionally, we demonstrate HHP transfer between the variable-volume vessels, which has utility in sampling and enrichment without decompression, laboratory isolation experiments, as well as HHP filtration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0290.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: creativity; high ability; scientific creativity; secondary school students
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:34:19 CEST)
Abstract: Abstract: The objective of this article is to analyze the dimensions of creativity concerning students with high abilities. Firstly a review of the most relevant scientific contributions on creativity is carried out. Next the dimensions of creativity in secondary school students who have been previously identified as high- ability students are analyzed. Those abilities associated to di-vergent thinking were assessed by means of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking . The flu-ency, flexibility and originality dimensions were assessed with the Scientific-Creative Thinking Test (TPCC, ). The results obtained evidence that high-ability students achieve greater scores in both the figurative creativity and scientific-creativity dimensions. A significant relationship between creativity and high ability can therefore be established. This study is of an exploratory nature and the results obtained contribute to develop future studies in application of its findings in the teaching-learning process..
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0077.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: biorefinery; bioprocess; agro-industry; high-value products; Avocado
Online: 2 April 2021 (15:35:30 CEST)
Significant problems have arisen in the last years, such as climate change, global warming, and hunger. These complications are correlated with the depletion and exploitation of natural resources and environmental contamination. Due to overcrowding, the list of challenges for the next few years is growing. A comprehensive approach was made to the agro-industrial production of Avocado (Persea americana) and the management of all its biomass waste. So, bioprocesses and biorefinery can be used to produce high added-value products. A large number of residues are composed of lignin and cellulose. They have many potentials to be exploited sustainably for chemical and biological conversion; physical, chemical, and natural treatments improve the following operations. There are some applications to many fields such as pharmaceutical, medical, material engineering, and environmental remediation. Possible pathways are mentioned to take advantage of Avocado as biofuels, drugs, bioplastics, and even in the environmental part and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology using bioprocesses and biotech. In conclusion, Avocado and its waste could be transformed into high value-added products in industries above to mitigate global warming and save non-renewable energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0269.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: forecasting methods; statistical learning; high-frequency order book
Online: 9 March 2021 (12:24:12 CET)
This paper proposes a forecast-centric adaptive learning model that engages with the past studies on the order book and high-frequency data, with applications to hypothesis testing. In line with the past literature, we produce brackets of summaries of statistics from the high-frequency bid and ask data in the CSI 300 Index Futures market and aim to forecast the one-step-ahead prices. Traditional time series issues, e.g. ARIMA order selection, stationarity, together with potential financial applications are covered in the exploratory data analysis, which pave paths to the adaptive learning model. By designing and running the learning model, we found it to perform well compared to the top fixed models, and some could improve the forecasting accuracy by being more stable and resilient to non-stationarity. Applications to hypothesis testing are shown with a rolling window, and further potential applications to finance and statistics are outlined.
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:37:59 CET)
Objective: To study the changes in urine metabolism in female water polo players before and after high-intensity training by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to explore the biometabolic characteristics of urine after training and competition. Methods: Twelve young female water polo players (except goalkeepers) from Shanxi Province were selected. A 4-week formal training was started after one week of acclimatization according to experimental requirements. Urine samples (5 ml) were collected before formal training, early morning after 4 weeks of training, and immediately after 4 weeks of training matches, and labeled as T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The samples were tested by LC-MS after pre-treatment. XCMS, SIMCA-P 14.1, and SPSS16.0 were used to process the data and identify differential metabolites. Results: On comparing the immediate post-competition period with the pre-training period (T3 vs T1), 24 differential metabolites involved in 16 metabolic pathways were identified, among which niacin and niacinamide metabolism and purine metabolism were potential post-competition urinary metabolic pathways in the untrained state of the athletes. On comparing the immediate post-competition period with the post-training period (T3 vs T2), 10 metabolites involved in 3 metabolic pathways were identified, among which niacin and niacinamide metabolism was a potential target urinary metabolic pathway for the athletes after training. Niacinamide, 1-methylnicotinamide, 2-pyridone, L-Gln, AMP, and Hx were involved in two metabolic pathways before and after the training. Conclusion: Differential changes in urine after water polo games are due changes in the metabolic pathways of niacin and niacinamide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0204.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Lipidome; High Five insect cells; Membrane proteins; Biomembranes
Online: 8 February 2021 (12:23:09 CET)
The lipid composition of biomembranes influence the properties of the lipid bilayer as well as that of the proteins. In this study, the lipidome and the lipid/protein ratio of membranes from High FiveTM insect cells overexpressing mouse P-glycoprotein was characterized. This provides a better understanding of the lipid environment in which P-glycoprotein is embedded, and thus of its functional and structural properties. The relative abundance of the distinct phospholipid classes and their acyl chain composition was characterized. A mass ratio of 0.57 +/- 0.11 phospholipids to protein was obtained. Phosphatidylethanolamines are the most abundant phospholipids, followed by phosphatidylcholines. Membranes are also enriched in negatively charged lipids (phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylglycerols), and contain small amounts of sphingomyelins, ceramides and monoglycosilatedceramides. The most abundant acyl chains are monounsaturated, with significant amounts of saturated chains. The characterization of the phospholipids by HPLC-MS allowed identification of the combination of acyl chains, with palmitoyl-oleoyl being the most representative for all major phospholipid classes except for phosphatidylserines, which are mostly saturated. A mixture of POPE:POPC:POPS in the ratio 45:35:20 is proposed for the preparation of simple representative model membranes. The adequacy of the model membranes was further evaluated by characterizing their surface potential and fluidity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0547.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: high throughput sequencing; amphibian; bacteria; xenobiotic; anthropogenic action
Online: 22 December 2020 (09:54:13 CET)
Melanophryniscus admirabilis (admirable red-belly toad) is a microendemic and critically endangered species found exclusively along 700 meters of the Forqueta River, in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. One of the greatest concerns regarding the conservation of this species is the extensive use of pesticides in areas near their natural habitat. In recent years, the adaptation and persistence of animal species in impacted environments have been associated with microbiota. Therefore, the current study aimed to characterize the oral bacterial community of wild M. admirabilis and to address the question of how this community might contribute to toad’s adaptation in the anthropogenic environment and its general metabolic capabilities. In the present study, 11 oral samples collected from wild M. admirabilis were characterized and analyzed via high-throughput sequencing. A total of 181,350 sequences were obtained, resulting in 16 phyla, 34 classes, 39 orders, and 77 families. Proteobacteria dominated (53%) the oral microbiota of toads followed by Firmicutes (18%), Bacteroidetes (17%), and Actinobacteria (5%). No significant differences in microbial community profile from among the samples were reported, suggesting that the dietary restriction may directly influence the bacterial composition. Functional inference of microbiome was performed using PICRUSt2 and important pathways, such as xenobiotic degradation pathways to pesticides and aromatic phenolic compounds were detected, suggesting that the bacterial communities may have important roles in M. admirabilis health and survival in the anthropogenic environment. Overall, our results have important implications for the conservation and management of this microendemic and critically endangered species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0322.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Multiscale orthonormal basis; High-order BVPs; Convergence order;
Online: 15 October 2020 (11:55:31 CEST)
This paper presents a numerical algorithm for solving high-order BVPs. We introduce the construction method of multiscale orthonormal basis in Wm[0; 1] by multiscale orthonormal basis in W1[0; 1]. We define approximate solution, and obtain the approximate solution of high-order BVPs by using the approximate theory. Moreover, the convergence and stability of the algorithm are improved. At last, several numerical experiments show the feasibility of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0207.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: myopia,photon-electron theory,high-frequency electromagnetic radiation
Online: 12 June 2019 (12:31:59 CEST)
The exact etiology of myopia remains elusive. The author proposes the particle property of photon in living tissue and the photon-electron theory in living tissue, if the frequency of the photon exceeds the threshold, the photon has enough energy to strike the electron away and forms a hole of a diameter in photon diameter scale in living tissue include the eye. Longer time of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation will cause more holes and a larger radius of holes. The visual light which passes through the radiated hole in the eye cannot be refracted on the macula, this is myopia symptom of blurred vision, shortening the distance of the eye and the object will include more visual light into cornea and lens, this is myopia another symptom of nearsightedness. The particle property of photon causes elongation of the eye and the macular holes.Blue light and X-ray are two kinds of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation which can shot holes in eye and cause myopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: CrossFit; high-intensity functional training; Extreme conditioning programs
Online: 24 May 2019 (11:36:10 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to assess if self-regulation of intensity based on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a reliable method to control the intensity of metabolic conditioning of functional-fitness session. In addition, the relationship between RPE and changes in heart rate and lactate responses was also analyzed. Eight male participants (age 28.1 ± 5.4 years; body mass 77.2 ± 4.4kg; VO2max: 52.6 ± 4.6 mL·(kg·min)−1) completed three randomly sessions (5 to 7 days apart) under different conditions: (1) all-out (ALL); (2) self-regulation of intensity based on a RPE of 6 (hard) on the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE6); and (3) a control session. Rate of perceived exertion, LAC and HR response were measured pre, during and immediately after the sessions. The RPE and LAC during the ALL-OUT sessions were higher (p ≤ 0.05) than the RPE6 and control sessions for all the analyzed time points during the sessions. Regarding HR, the 22 min area under the curve of HR during ALL-OUT and RPE6 sessions were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than the control session. The average number of repetitions was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for the RPE6 session (190.5 ± 12.5 repetitions) when compared to the ALL session (214.4 ± 18.6 repetitions). There was a significant correlation between RPE and LAC (p = 0.001; r = 0.76; very large) and number of repetitions during the session (p = 0.026; r = 0.55; large). No correlation was observed between RPE and HR (p = 0.147; r = 0.380). These results indicate that self-regulation of intensity of effort based on RPE may be a useful tool to control exercise intensity during a metabolic conditioning session of functional-fitness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0084.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Phase change; Composite, Thermal expansion; High temperature; Concrete
Online: 9 January 2019 (12:48:32 CET)
The expansion of concrete subjected to extreme elevated temperature is linked with intricate micro-structural variations, such as the transformation of the constituent phases. This study proposes a model to predict the thermal expansion of cement paste and concrete considering micro-structural changes under elevated temperatures ranging from 20°C to 800°C. The model presented can consider characteristics of various aggregates in the calculation of thermal expansion for concrete. The model is a combination of a multi-scale stoichiometric model and a multi-scale composite model. At the cement paste level, the model satisfactorily predicted a test result. At concrete level, upper bounds from the model were matched relatively well with test results by previous researcher. If the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus (E), Poisson’s ratio (ν), and thermal deformation, of the aggregates used in concrete are given, it is likely that the model will reasonably predict experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0608.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: spheroids; concentration gradient generator; drug screening; high-throughput
Online: 28 November 2018 (10:08:05 CET)
Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is considered more clinically relevant in mimicking the structural and physiological conditions of tumors in vivo compared to two-dimensional cell cultures. In recent years, high-throughput screening (HTS) in 3D cell arrays has been extensively used for drug discovery because of its usability and applicability. Herein, we developed a microfluidic spheroid culture device (μFSCD) with a concentration gradient generator (CGG) that enabled cells to form spheroids and grow in the presence of cancer drug gradients. The device is composed of concave microwells with several serpentine micro-channels which generate a concentration gradient. Once the colon cancer cells (HCT116) formed a single spheroid (approximately 120 μm in diameter) in each microwell, spheroids were perfused in the presence of the cancer drug gradient irinotecan for 3 days. The number of spheroids, roundness, and cell viability, were inversely proportional to the drug concentration. These results suggest that the μFSCD with a CGG has the potential to become an HTS platform for screening the efficacy of cancer drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0416.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: BRCA, high grade serous carcinoma, fallopian tube, precursor,
Online: 24 October 2018 (10:55:03 CEST)
Beginning with the discovery of the BRCA ovarian cancer susceptibility genes and subsequent detailed examination of risk reduction salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) specimens, a new paradigm of ovarian carcinogenesis has unfolded with attention to the distal fallopian tube. The primary focus has been an early cancer in the fallopian tube which is seen in virtually all incidentally discovered high-grade serous cancers in asymptomatic women. This high-frequency of tubal involvement in early serous cancer - serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or STIC - has galvanized attention to this organ as a primary source of this disease. However, an enduring mystery has been the relatively low frequency of STIC in fallopian tubes of women with advanced malignancy. This paradox, a high-frequency of tubal involvement early and a low-frequency late in the disease process has spurred interest in other potential sources, such as the ovarian surface or secondary Mullerian system. However, because essentially all high-grade serous carcinomas are linked by TP53 mutations, and because fallopian tubes frequently contain early serous proliferations (ESPs) with these mutations, attention has turned to the possibility that nonmalignant but TP53 mutated tubal epithelium could be responsible for an eventual malignancy. Recent data have shown evidence of lineage continuity between ESPs and concurrent serous carcinomas prompting the concept of "precursor escape". This creates a 2nd component of the paradigm by which cells from early lesions can escape the fallopian tube and undergo future malignant transformation later, emerging suddenly as widespread malignancy. This dualistic model thus explains the paradox and opens new questions pertaining to the challenge of both early detection and prevention of this lethal malignancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0557.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: orthodontics clear aligner, pain; vibration, high-frequency, HFA
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:14:49 CEST)
Evaluation of the effects of a high-frequency acceleration (HFA) device on patient pain response to orthodontic forces. A multi-centered trial investigating pain sensitivity to orthodontic forces on 75 subjects at 4 study centers. Subjects underwent clear aligner treatment, with or without adjunctive HFA and documented their pain intensity using the validated NRS10 numeric rating scale. In-Office and At-Home ratings were measured separately for each subject for immediate and extended effect evaluations. Use of HFA devices in conjunction with clear aligner orthodontic treatment demonstrated significant reduction in subjects’ recorded pain ratings vs controls within 5 minutes of aligner exchange, (p = 0.006) and significant reduction in recorded pain ratings vs controls over a 7-day period following aligner exchange (p = 0.018). A 99.6% daily compliance rate with at home use of the HFA device was recorded for all subjects in the study. HFA significantly reduces pain attributed to orthodontic force. HFA delivers clinically significant immediate pain relief, and clinically significant extended pain relief over the 7 days following adjustment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: CO2 reduction; Photoreduction; Titania; Photocatalysis; High pressure photocatalysis
Online: 16 August 2018 (14:04:33 CEST)
The photoreduction of CO2 is an intriguing process, which allows the synthesis of fuels and chemicals. One of the limitations for CO2 photoreduction in the liquid phase is its low solubility in water. This point has been here addressed by designing a fully innovative concept of pressurized photoreactor, allowing operation up to 20 bar and applied to improve the productivity of this very challenging process. The photoreduction of CO2 in the liquid phase was performed using commercial TiO2 (Evonink P25), TiO2 obtained by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and gold doped P25 (0.2 wt% Au-P25) in the presence of Na2SO3 as hole scavenger (HS). The different reaction parameters (catalyst concentration, pH and amount of HS) have been addressed. The products in liquid phase were formic acid and formaldehyde. Moreover, for longer reaction time and with total consumption of HS, gas phase products formed (H2 and CO) after accumulation of significant amount of organic compounds in the liquid phase, due to their consecutive photoreforming. Enhanced CO2 solubility in water was achieved by adding a base (pH= 12-14). In basic environment, CO2 formed carbonates which further reduced to formaldehyde and formic acid and consequently formed CO/CO2+H2 in the gas phase through photoreforming. The deposition of small Au nanoparticles (3-5 nm) (NPs) onto TiO2 was found to quantitatively influence the products distribution and increase the selectivity towards gas phase products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0183.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: FeSe2; high pressure; low temperature; single crystal diffraction
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:25:24 CEST)
We conducted an in-situ crystal structure analysis of ferroselite at non-ambient conditions. The aim is to provide a solid ground to further the understanding of the properties of this material in a broad range of conditions. Ferroselite, marcasite-type FeSe2, was studied under high pressures up to 46 GPa and low temperatures, down to 50 K using single-crystal microdiffraction techniques. High pressure and low temperatures were generated using a diamond anvil cell and a cryostat. We found no evidences of structural instability in the explored P-T space. The deformation of the orthorhombic lattice is slightly anisotropic. As expected, the compressibility of the Se-Se dumbbell, the longer bond in the structure, is larger than that of the Fe-Se bonds. Less obvious is the behavior of the octahedral bonds, the shorter bond is the most compressible determining a small increase in the octahedron distortion with pressure. We also achieved a robust structural analysis of ferroselite at low temperature in the diamond anvil cell. Structural changes upon temperature decrease are small but qualitatively similar to those produced by pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0179.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: methane; desorption; hydraulic; thermal; high pressure water injection
Online: 10 May 2018 (08:22:23 CEST)
Moisture and thermal are the key factors for influencing methane desorption during CBM exploitation. Using high pressure water injection technology into coalbed, new fractures and pathways are formed to methane transport. It is existed a phenomenon of water inhibiting gas flow. This study is focused on various water pressures impacted on gas adsorbed coal samples, then the desorption capacity could be revealed under different conditions. And the results are shown that methane desorption capacity was decreased with water pressure increased at room temperature and the downtrend would be steady until water pressure was large enough. Heating could promote gas desorption capacity effectively, with the increasing of water injection pressures, the promotion of thermal on desorption became more obvious. These results are expected to provide a clearer understanding of theoretical efficiency of heat water or steam injection into coalbed, they can provide some theoretical and experimental guidance on CBM production and methane control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: high pressure hydrogen; metal hydride-based high pressure compression; techno-economic analysis; Ti-based AB2 metal hydrides; mini-channel heat exchanger
Online: 4 June 2018 (09:36:54 CEST)
Traditional high pressure mechanical compressors account for over half of the car station’s cost, have insufficient reliability and are not feasible for a large-scale fuel cell market. An alternative technology, employing a two-stage, hybrid system based on electrochemical and metal hydride compression technologies, represents an excellent alternative to conventional compressors. The high-pressure stage, operating at 100-875 bar, is based on a metal hydride thermal system. A techno-economic analysis of the metal hydride system is presented and discussed. A model of the metal hydride system was developed, integrating a lumped parameter mass and energy balance model with an economic model. A novel metal hydride heat exchanger configuration is also presented, based on mini-channel heat transfer systems, allowing for effective high-pressure compression. Several metal hydrides were analyzed and screened, demonstrating that one selected material, namely (Ti0.97Zr0.03)1.1Cr1.6Mn0.4, is likely the best candidate material to be employed for high-pressure compressors under the specific conditions. System efficiency and costs were assessed based on the properties of currently available materials at industrial levels. Results show that the system can reach pressures on the order of 875 bar with thermal power provided at approximately 150 °C. The system cost is comparable with the current mechanical compressors and can be reduced in several ways as discussed in the paper.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0155.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Water memory; High dilutions; Scientific controversy; Serendipity; Experimenter effect
Online: 9 January 2023 (09:06:53 CET)
Benveniste’s experiments – known in the lay press as the “water memory” phenomenon – are generally considered to be a closed case. However, the amount of data generated by twenty years of well-conducted experiments prevents closing the file so simply. An issue, which has been little highlighted so far, merits to be emphasized. Indeed, if Benveniste failed to persuade his peers of the value of his experiments, it was mainly because of a stumbling block, namely the difficulty of convincingly proving the causal relationship between the supposed cause (“informed water”) and the experimental outcomes in different biological models. To progress in the understanding of this phenomenon, we abandon the idea of any role of water in these experiments (“water memory” and its avatars). In other words, we assume that “controls” and “tests” that were evaluated were all physically identical; only their respective designations (labels) differentiated them. Since we state that there is no causal link between labels (“controls” vs. “tests”) and corresponding states of the biological system (no change vs. change), these variables are independent. Therefore, the key question is: “Is it possible to observe a correlation between independent variables that mimics a causal relationship but is itself not causal?” In this article, we show how simple considerations based on probability theory lead to describe non-classical correlations involving the experimenter. This probabilistic modelling allows to propose an alternative explanation to Benveniste’s experiments where water plays no role and where the place of the experimenter is central.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0183.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: platinum; high-index facets; carbon support; glucose oxidation; electrocatalysts
Online: 13 October 2022 (02:23:07 CEST)
Catalyst with high catalytic activity and good stability are desirable in the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Herein, Pt concave nanocubes with high-index facets (HIFs) supported by carbon black (Pt CNC/CB) are prepared through a hydrothermal method. The experimental results demonstrate that the peak current densities in different potential regions on the Pt CNC/CB anode are 0.22, 0.20, and 0.60 mA cm−2, respectively. The glucose oxidation reaction shows superior performances in basic and neutral conditions than in acid conditions. Better stability is achieved by Pt CNC/CB than Pt concave nanocubes (Pt CNCs). Abundant surface defects with low-coordinated atom numbers, such as the steps, kinks, and edges, are served as active sites in the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. With the addition of carbon black, the catalytic activity can be improved by facilitating the full exposure of the active surface defects on the HIFs of Pt CNCs. Moreover, to address the aggregation of Pt CNCs, caused by the high surface energy of HIFs, the introduction of carbon material is an effective way to preserve the HIFs, and thus enhance the stability of the catalyst. Hence, the prepared Pt CNC/CB electrocatalyst has great potential to be applied in the electrooxidation of glucose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0392.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Laser induced forward transfer; high entropy alloys; micro-particles
Online: 26 September 2022 (10:32:29 CEST)
Controlled deposition of CoCrFeNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy (HEA) micro-particles was achieved using laser induced forward transfer (LIFT). Ultra-short laser pulses, 230 fs of 515 nm wavelength, were tightly focused into ∼ 2.4 μm focal spots on the ∼50 nm thick plasma-sputtered films of CoCrFeNiMo0.2. The HTA films were transferred onto glass substrates by magnetron sputtering in vacuum (10−8 atm) from the thermal spray coated substrates. The absorption coefficient of CoCrFeNiMo0.2 α ≈ 6 × 105 cm−1 was determined at 600 nm wavelength. The real and imaginary parts of refractive index (n + iκ) of HEA were determined from reflectance and transmittance using nano-films.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: PCNSL; high-dose methotrexate; acute uric acid nephropathy; rasburicase
Online: 20 July 2022 (11:52:03 CEST)
Background: Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are sensitive to chemotherapy. Standard treatment is high-dose methotrexate (MTX)-based chemotherapy. There are no reports of successful treatment of acute uric acid nephropathy with rasburicase after MTX administration in PCNSL. Case presentation: A 54-year-old man with a history of gout presented with character change and memory loss. MRI showed a large, enhancing mass spanning the bilateral frontal lobes and right temporal lobe. After endoscopic biopsy, MTX, procarbazine and vincristine (MPV) regimen was initiated for treatment of PCNSL. After initiation of chemotherapy, the patient suffered from a gout attack and blood examination revealed acute renal failure (ARF) and hyperuricemia. The considered causes of ARF included MTX toxicity and acute urid acid nephropathy. Since a good response to chemotherapy was observed, the latter was assumed. After improvement of renal function, MTX was resumed, initiating rasburicase for control of hyperuricemia. A complete response was obtained after induction chemotherapy. Hyperuricemia was controlled with rasburicase and renal function was preserved. Conclusions: Acute uric acid nephropathy should be considered when ARF occurs after initiation of MTX in PCNSL. For newly diagnosed PCNSL patients with large tumors or hyperuricemia, upfront usage of rasburicase should be considered to prevent it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0347.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Recycled graphite; high-quality graphite; spent batteries; acidic leaching
Online: 25 March 2022 (15:17:53 CET)
Spent batteries recycling is an important way to obtain low-cost graphite. Nevertheless, the obtaining of crystalline graphite with a rather low density of defects is required for many applications. In the present work, high-quality graphites have been obtained from different kinds of spent batteries. Black masses from spent alkaline batteries (batteries black masses, BBM), and lithium-ion batteries from smartphones (smartphone black masses, SBM) and electric and/or hybrid vehicles (lithium-ion black masses, LBM) were used as starting materials. A hydrometallurgical process was then used to obtain recycled graphites by acidic leaching. Different leaching conditions were used depending on the type of the initial black mass. The final solids were characterized by a wide set of complementary techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: AlCrFeCoNi high-entropy alloy coating; APS deposition; Cyclic oxidation
Online: 21 February 2022 (12:01:36 CET)
Microcrystalline and near nanocrystalline AlCrFeCoNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) coatings were applied on Inconel 718 superalloy using air plasma spraying (APS) process. High-temperature oxidation behavior of the microcrystalline and near nanocrystalline AlCrFeCoNi HEA coated superalloy were examined at 110°C under the air atmosphere for 50 cycles under cyclic heating and cooling (1 h for each cycle). The oxidation kinetics of both nanocrystalline and microcrystalline coated superalloy was accordingly analyzed by weight change measurement. It was noticed that the uncoated and coated followed the parabolic rate law of the oxidation. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), and elemental mapping techniques were used to analyze the oxidized coated and uncoated samples. In the HEA coated superalloy, Fe, Ni, Co, and Al were oxidized in the inter-splat region, whereas the splats which consist mainly of Ni and Cr remained unoxidized. Because of the formation of compact and adhesive thin NiO, CoO oxides, and spinels together with the Al2O3 oxide scale on the surface of the coating during oxidation, the developed nanocrystalline HEA coating shows better oxidation resistance than the microcrystalline HEA coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: High-rise Building; Urban Ventilation; Wind Flow; CFD; Babolsar
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:28:25 CET)
In recent years, excessive heat in the urban texture has become the main problem in the humid and calm wind city of Babolsar with high density, especially in high-rise areas. Therefore, in order to create comfort in this region, it is necessary to establish and continue the wind circulation in space with an environmentally compatible and optimal configuration. The study applies combination of literature, field measurement, experimental validation of CFD simulation output, and comparative analysis. After field measurement and validation of FLOW-3D simulation software (V11.2.2), the relationship between these parameters (height, the width of passages, enclosure between buildings, and buildings' orientation) will be studied which affects the wind’s velocity and direction. The factors of the buildings' orientation and enclosure based on the passages' width have opposite reactions in the direction of the prevailing wind especially from perpendicular side. In this study, two effective factors are on wind velocity: 1- The orientation of the buildings towards the wind flow by creating permeability 2- Reducing the enclosure by increasing the width of the passage's perpendicular to the wind flow (w '= 3w, E' = 0.33E). According to the theoretical and practical study, first, the creation of permeability in the body of the block and the separation of buildings instead of aggregation has been studied, and then reducing the confinement of streets perpendicular to the wind flow has been discussed as effective solutions to improve the wind velocity and circulation between the urban environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0363.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: leguminous root crop; high quality protein; dry matter yield
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:45:52 CET)
Among the many neglected underutilized species, tuberous Andean root crops like the ahipas (Pachyrhizus ahipa) constitute a promising alternative for increasing diversity in nutrient sources and food security at a regional level. In this study, we present the content of some functional compounds in tuberous roots from several ahipa accessions and the progenies of the interspecific hybrid X207 (P. ahipa × P. tuberosus). A significant objective was to determine protein and free amino acids in the roots to evaluate their food quality as protein supply. The interspecific hybrids have been found to possess the root quality to provide the crop with a higher dry matter content. The high dry matter content of the P. tuberosus Chuin materials is retained in the root quality of the hybrids. Food functional components like carbohydrates, organic acids, and proteins were determined in several ahipa accessions and a stable (non-segregating) progeny of the interspecific hybrid, X207. The X207 roots showed a significantly higher dry matter content and a lower content in soluble sugars, but no significant differences were found in starch content or organic acids compared to the ahipa accessions. About the root mineral contents, Fe and Mn concentrations in X207 were significantly raised compared to the average of ahipa accessions. Among the ahipa and the hybrid, no prominent differences in protein content or protein amino acids were found, being both partially defective in providing sufficient daily intake of some essential amino acids. Root weight, a central component of root yield, was significantly higher in X207, but thorough field studies are required to substantiate the hybrid’s superior yield performance..
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: snow; snowmelt; snow cover; sublimation; Indus; High Mountain Asia
Online: 23 September 2021 (10:24:05 CEST)
The Indus basin is considered as the one with the highest dependence on snowmelt runoff in High Mountain Asia. The recent High Mountain Asia snow reanalysis enables to go beyond previous studies by evaluating both snowmelt and snow sublimation at the basin scale. Over 2000-2016, basin-average snowmelt is 101 11 Gt.a-1 (121 ± 13 mm.a-1), which represents about 25-30% of basin-average annual precipitation. Snow sublimation accounts for 11% of the mean annual snow ablation, but with a large spatial variability across the basin.