ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: antibiotic cnsumtion; microbiome; hematological malignancies; Hodgkin-lymphoma (HL); Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NH); multiplex myeloma (MM); leukemia (LEU)
Online: 12 January 2022 (12:53:22 CET)
Hematological malignancies are considered the fifth most common cancer in the world. Several risk factors and probable etiological agents have been suspected in the pathomechanism of those malignancies as infections, chemicals, irradiation, etc., and recently, the contribution of the altered gut flora, dysbiosis, was identified also as a possible additional factor to the existing ones. Host, and external factors, like antibiotics, which were identified as a major disruptor of the "normal" gut flora, influence the composition of the microbiome. Considering the several-fold differences in antibiotic consumption patterns and the incidence of hematological malignancies in European countries, the hypothesis was raised that the dominant consumption of certain antibiotic classes might influence the incidence of different hematological malignancies through the modification of gut flora. Comparisons were performed between the average antibiotic consumption databases reported yearly by ECDC (2009-2019) and the incidence rate of Hodkin lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia (LEU) estimated for 2020 in 30 European countries. Applying Spearman calculations, significant positive correlation has been found between the incidence of HL and tetracycline (J01A) consumption (r = 0.399, p = 0,029), NHL and narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (r = 0.580, p = 0,001), MM and tetracycline (r = 0.492, p = 0.006), penicillin (J01C) (r = 0.366, p = 0.047), narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (r = 0.574, p = 0.001), while strong, significant negative correlation has been recorded between NHL and cephalosporin (r = -0,460, p = 0,011), and quinolone (r = -0,380, p = 0,038). The incidence of LEU did not show any positive or negative association with any antibiotic classes. It is concluded that certain antibiotic classes, in addition to other putative factors, might promote or inhibit the development of different hematological malignancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0366.v1
Subject: Keywords: hereditary hematological disorder; Najaf; thalassemia; epidemiology; consanguinity
Online: 20 April 2020 (15:45:27 CEST)
Background: Hereditary hematologic disorders (HHDs) originate from genetic factors that cause disruptions of blood homeostasis. The Thalassemia Unit, Najaf province, Iraq, keeps all medical records of all patients with HHD from the Najaf province. Objectives: We aimed to conduct an epidemiological study to obtain a comprehensive epidemiological picture with regard to sex distribution, and effects of blood groups and consanguinity. Patients and Methods: All registered HHD patients (until May 2019) in the Thalassemia Unit (1122 patients, aged 0.5-65 years old) were included in the study. Results: The prevalence of HHD in Najaf city is 75.6 per 100,000 population. The number of patients registered as new patients is increasing over the years. There are significantly more male than female HHD patients (Male=54.37%, Female=45.63%, p=0.023). The top 3 prevalent HHD are Major thalassemia (33.15%), intermediate thalassemia (31.91%), and Thalassemia+Sickle (12.65%). The highest percentage of patients were in the center of Najaf (56.42%) followed by Kufa, Mishkhab, Haidariah, Manathera, and Abbasiya. The distribution of blood groups and Rh factors of HHD patients in the Najaf population was not significantly different from that in the normal population. The consanguinity rate observed in our patients' parents (78.24%) was significantly higher (p<0.0001) as compared with the consanguinity rate in the population (45.8%). Conclusions: During the last few years, there was an increase in HHD cases in Najaf city and, therefore, there is an urgent need to increase awareness about the effects of consanguinity marriages on HHD in order to limit the incidence of HHD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0075.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Probiotics; Bacillus subtilis; growth performance; immune-hematological parameters; stress resistance
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:06:52 CET)
Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing animal food-producing agricultural industries in the world and proper performance of fish in morphological, physiological and immunological aspects is important for fish production and sustainable expansion of aquaculture. But several inhibitors like disease, pathogen, and adverse environment can overpower these performances. At present, antibiotics in preventing these inhibitors have been seen as becoming favorable to those inhibitors. So, Bacillus, an important group of probiotic bacteria can be an alternative to these antibiotics in aquaculture. Bacillus has been seen used in different experiments, mainly as a supplement in feed at various concentrations. Bacillus showed effective results like improved growth with minimum cost, improvement in reproduction, hematology, improved immune response and disease, and stress resistance as well as better proximate composition in different fish species. Application of Bacillus strains has proven efficient in improving water quality by reducing ammonia and nitrite toxicity, harmful algal blooms and utilization of H+ ion. Larger application of probiotic Bacillus instead of the hazardous synthetic chemicals would promote eco-friendly low-input sustainable aquaculture for food and nutritional security of the increasing world population. So many more experiments should be conducted in commercially important fishes for better growth and health of fishes which will certainly increase fish
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0207.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Hematological parameters; biochemical parameters; reference ranges; sickle cell disease; Tanzania; steady-state.
Online: 11 January 2022 (12:54:23 CET)
Hematological and biochemical reference values in sickle cell disease (SCD) are crucial for patient management and evaluation of interventions. This study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, to establish laboratory reference ranges in SCD at steady-state. Patients were grouped into five age groups with respects to their sex. Aggregate functions were used to handle repeated measures within the indi-vidual level in each age group. A nonparametric approach was used to smooth the curves and a parametric approach was used to determine SCD normal ranges. Comparison between males and females and against the general population was documented. Data from 4,422 patients collected from 2004-2015 were analyzed. The majority of the patients (35.41%) were children aged between 5-11 years. There were no significant differences (p≥0.05) in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocytes, basophils and bilirubin direct observed between males and females. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in all selected parameters across age groups except neutrophils and MCHC in adults, as well as platelets and alkaline phosphatase in infants when SCD estimates were compared to the general population. Laboratory reference ranges in SCD at steady-state were different from those of the general population and varied with sex and age. The established reference ranges for SCD at steady-state will be a helpful in the management and monitoring of the progress of SCD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: multiple myeloma; early mortality; blood plasma; circulating miRNA; hematological malignancies; molecular biomarker; multiparametric model; prognosissurvival
Online: 4 July 2022 (05:59:59 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Despite the progress made in treatment, some MM patients still die within the first year of diagnosis. Numerous studies investigating microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns suggest they may be good prognostic markers. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the expression of selected miRNAs in the serum of MM patients subsequently treated with bortezomib-based regimens and determine their potential to predict early mortality. The study was conducted in 69 prospectively-recruited patients with newly-diagnosed MM admitted to the Department of Hematology of the Copernicus Memorial Hospital, Lodz (Poland) between 2017 and 2021. Among them, 17 patients experienced death within 12 months of diagnosis. The expression of 31 selected miRNAs was determined using miRCURY LNA miRNA Custom PCR Panel. The obtained clinical data included patient characteristics on diagnosis, treatment regimen, response to treatment, and follow-up. Differential expression analysis found two miRNAs to be significantly downregulated in the early mortality group: hsa-miR-328-3p (fold change- FC: 0.72, p=0.0342) and hsa-miR-409-3p (FC: 0.49, p=0.0357). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the early mortality rate. The final model consisted of hsa-miR-409-3p, hsa-miR-328-3p, age and R-ISS 3. It yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.863 (95%CI: 0.761-0.965) with 88.2% sensitivity and 77.5% specificity. Further external validation of our model is necessary to confirm its clinical value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; real-time RT-PCR; COVID-19 symptoms; COVID-19 hematological findings; Bangladesh
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:47:03 CEST)
Objective: SARS-Cov-2 infection or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. From the time of identification to till, multiple clinical symptoms and parameters have been identified by the researchers of various countries and regions regarding the diagnosis and presentations of COVID-19 disease. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the Bangladeshi patients. Methodology: We have collected the disease history of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological and biochemical on admission reports of moderate degree COVID-19 patients. All of them were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in different institutes in Bangladesh. Results: According to this study though COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and sore throat, but symptoms like myalgia, diarrhea, skin rash, headache, Abdominal pain/cramp, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and a higher temperature of >1000F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were found increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients respectively. 17.39% of the patients had leukocytosis and neutrophilia. 28.26% of patients presented with lymphocytopenia. 62.52% of patients had mild erythrocytopenia. Conclusion: Despite some similarities, our study has evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms in the case of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia can be initial diagnostic hematological findings and assessment for prognosis COVID-19 disease. Also, gender variations have a different scenario of clinical and laboratory appearance in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0359.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Hematological malignancies; treatment outcomes; CAR-T cell exhaustion; memory 22 pool, functional CAR-T cells; antigen dependent CAR-T expansion
Online: 23 September 2022 (05:33:24 CEST)
Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-T cell immunotherapy revolutionized cancer treatment and consists of the genetic modification of T lymphocytes with a CAR gene, aiming to increase their ability to recognize and kill antigen-specific tumor cells. The dynamics of CAR-T cell responses in patients presents a multiphasic kinetics with distribution, expansion, contraction, and persistence phases. The characteristics and duration of each phase depend on the tumor type, the infused product, and on patient-specific characteristics. We present a mathematical model which describes the multiphasic CAR-T cell dynamics resulting from the interplay between CAR-T and tumor cells, considering patient and product heterogeneities. The CAR-T cell population is divided into functional (distributed and effector), memory, and exhausted CAR-T cell phenotypes. The model is able to describe the diversity of CAR-T cell dynamic behaviors in different patients and hematological cancers as well as their therapy outcomes. Our results indicate that the joint assessment of the area under the concentration-time curve in the first 28 days and the corresponding fraction of non-exhausted CAR-T cells may be considered as potential markers to classify therapy responses. Overall, the analysis of different CAR-T cell phenotypes can be a key aspect for a better understanding of the whole CAR-T cell dynamics.