ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0632.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: suicide; men; help-seeking; engagement; community-based intervention
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:12:38 CEST)
Due to the continuing high suicide rates among young men, there is a need to understand help-seeking behaviour and engagement with tailored suicide prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to compare help-seeking among younger and older men who attended a therapeutic centre for men in a suicidal crisis. In this case series study, data were collected from 546 men who were referred into a community-based therapeutic service in North West England. Of the 546 men, 337 (52%) received therapy; 161 (48%) were aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age 24 years, SD=3.4). Analyses included baseline differences, symptom trajectories for the CORE-34 Clinical Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and engagement with the therapy. For the CORE-OM there was a clinically significant reduction in mean scores between assessment and discharge (p<0.001) for both younger and older men. At initial assessment, younger men were less affected by entrapment (46% v 62%; p=.02), defeat (33% v 52%; p=.01), not engaging in new goals (38% v 47%; p=.02), and positive attitudes towards suicide (14% v 18%; p=.001) than older men. At discharge assessment, older men were significantly more likely to have an absence of positive future thinking (15% v 8%; p=0.03), have less social support (45% v 33%; p=.02) and feelings of entrapment (17% v 14%; p=.02) than younger men. Future research needs to assess the long-term effects of help-seeking using a brief psychological intervention for young men in order to understand whether the effects of the therapy are sustainable over a period of time following discharge from the service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: suicide, men, help-seeking, engagement, community-based intervention
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:04:18 CET)
Due to the continuing high suicide rates among young men, there is a need to understand help-seeking behaviour and engagement with tailored suicide prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to explore help-seeking behaviour and engagement for young men aged 18 to 30 years who attended a therapeutic centre for men in a suicidal crisis. In this prospective cohort study, data were collected from 546 men who were referred into a community-based therapeutic service in North West England. Of the 546 men, 337 (52%) received therapy; 161 (48%) were aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age 24 years, SD=3.4). One third (n=54; 34%) of the men were seen within 48 hours of their referral. Analyses included baseline differences, symptom trajectories for the CORE-34 Clinical Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and engagement with the therapy. For the CORE 34 there was a clinically significant reduction in mean scores between assessment and discharge (p<0.001), with all outcomes demonstrating a large effect size. Future research needs to assess the long-term effects of help-seeking using a brief psychological intervention for young men in order to understand whether the effects of the therapy are sustainable over a period of time following discharge from the service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0606.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: tinnitus; acupressure; self-help; ecological momentary assessment; stress
Online: 9 August 2021 (11:45:41 CEST)
Tinnitus is a phantom sound perception in the ears or head and can arise from many different medical disorders. Currently, there is no standard treatment for tinnitus that reliably reduces tinnitus. Individual patients reported that acupressure at various points around the ear can help to reduce tinnitus, which was investigated here. With this longitudinal observational study, we report a systematic evaluation of auricular acupressure on 39 tinnitus sufferers, combined with a self-help smartphone app. The participants were asked to report about tinnitus, stress, mood, neck and jaw muscle tensions twice a day using an ecological momentary assessment study design for six weeks. On average, 123.6 questionnaires per person were provided and used for statistical analysis. The treatment responses of the participants were heterogeneous. On average, we ob-served significant negative trends for tinnitus loudness (Cohen’s d effect size: -.861), tinnitus dis-tress (d = -.478), stress (d = -.675), and tensions in the neck muscles (d = -.356). Comparison with a matched control group revealed significant improvements for tinnitus loudness (p = .027) and self-reported stress level (p = .003). The positive results of the observational study motivate fur-ther research including a randomized clinical trial and long-term assessment of the clinical im-provement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0469.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: tinnitus; self-help; ecological momentary assessment; ehealth; smart-phone; intervention
Online: 31 January 2022 (14:00:09 CET)
Tinnitus is an auditory phantom perception in the ears or head in the absence of a corresponding external stimulus. There is currently no effective treatment available that reliably reduces tinnitus. Educative counseling is a treatment approach that aims to educate patients and inform them about possible coping strategies. For this feasability study, we implemented educational material and self-help advice in a smartphone app. Participants used the educational smartphone unsupervised during their daily routine over a period of 4 months. Comparing the tinnitus outcome measures before and after smartphone-guided treatment, we measured changes in the tinnitus-related distress, but not in tinnitus loudness. Improvements on the Tinnitus Severity numeric rating scale reached an effect size of .408, while the improvements on the THI were much smaller with an effect size of .168. Analysis on the user behavior showed that frequent and intensive use of the app is a crucial factor for treatment success: participants that used the app more often and interacted with the app intensively, reported a stronger improvement of the tinnitus. Between study allocation and final assessment, 26 of 52 participants dropped out of the study. Reasons for the dropouts and lessons for future studies are discussed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0696.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Help Seeking; Same-age Peer Tutoring; Revealed Preferences; Data analytics
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:36:26 CEST)
When in doubt, asking a peer can be very helpful. Students learn a lot of social strategies from peers. However, stated preference studies [Newman, 1993] have found that for elementary school students with math questions they prefer to ask the teacher. In this paper, we study revealed preferences instead of stated preferences. We analyze the behavior of fourth-grade students seeking face-to-face assistance while working on an online math platform. Students start by working independently on the platform before the teacher selects two or three tutors from among those who have answered 10 questions correctly. Each student is then able to choose between the teacher or one of these tutors when requesting assistance. We study the students’ preferences over 3 years, involving 88 fourth-grade classes, 2,700 students, 1,209 sessions with classmate tutors, and a total of 16,485 requests for help when there was an option to choose between a teacher or a classmate. We found that students prefer asking classmates for help 3 times more than asking their teachers when given the choice. Furthermore, this gap increases from the first to the second semester. We also found that students prefer to request help from classmates of the same sex and of higher academic performance. In this sense, students from the two highest tertiles sought help from classmates in the same two tertiles, and students from the medium tertile prefer to seek help from students of the highest tertile. However, students in the two lowest tertiles do not prefer asking for help from students from the top tertile more than from their own tertiles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0620.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: mobile health; healthcare; mobile apps; tinnitus therapy; cbt; self help; tinnitus research
Online: 26 September 2020 (08:07:42 CEST)
Tinnitus is a complex and heterogeneous psycho-physiological disorder responsible for causing a phantom ringing or buzzing sound albeit the absence of an external sound source. It has a direct influence on affecting the quality of life of its sufferers. Despite being around for a while, there hasn’t been a cure for tinnitus, and the usual course of action for its treatment involves use of tinnitus retaining and sound therapy, or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). One positive aspect about these therapies is that they can be administered face-to-face as well as delivered via internet or smartphone. Smartphones are especially helpful as they are highly personalized devices, and offer a well-established ecosystem of apps, accessible via respective marketplaces of differing mobile platforms. Note that current therapeutic treatments such as CBT have shown to be effective in suppressing the tinnitus symptoms when administered face-to-face, their effectiveness when being delivered using smartphones is not known so far. A quick search on the prominent market places of popular mobile platforms (Android and iOS) yielded roughly 250 smartphone apps offering tinnitus-related therapies and tinnitus management. As this number is expected to steadily increase due to high interest in smartphone app development, a contemporary review of such apps is crucial. In this paper, we aim to review scientific studies validating the smartphone apps, particularly to test their effectiveness in tinnitus management and treatment. We use the PRISMA guidelines for systematic identification of studies on major scientific literature sources and delineate the outcomes of identified studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Postpartum depression, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, general help-seeking, mothers, military barracks
Online: 27 August 2018 (14:59:46 CEST)
Postpartum depression (PPD) has serious effects on maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of postpartum depression in mothers of under-twos in military barracks in Lagos. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a modified version of the General Help-Seeking questionnaire (GHSQ) were administered to 316 mothers of under-twos in 3 of 12 military barracks in Lagos, Nigeria to determine PPD and major depressive events (MDE). Risk of PPD was established at EPDS scores of >12. Good help-seeking practices were ascribed to scores of 20 or more on the GHSQ. Risk of PPD was found in 15.5% of respondents, and good help-seeking in 3.8% and 11.4% for personal/emotional and harming self/baby respectively. Bivariate analysis using Chi square showed statistically significant positive associations between lower scores for EPDS and higher educational levels of respondents, perception of partner support and being in lower wealth quintiles (p<0.05). Use of the EPDS was accepted among mothers of children aged under two years. Opportunities to educate pregnant women and new mothers about PPD using existing social networks, perinatal and infant screening programmes in the barracks can be leveraged upon to improve mental health delivery as part of maternity care.