ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0092.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: heat exchangers, heat transfer enhancement, acoustic fields, vibrations, thermo-fluid dynamics, fouling mitigation.
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:14:51 CET)
The aim of this paper is to expose the main involved physical phenomena underlying the alteration of convective heat transfer in a heat exchanger subjected to imposed vibrations. This technique seems to have interesting features and industrial applications, such as efficiency increase, heat transfer rate control and cleanliness action. However, a clear description and comprehension of how vibrations may alter the convective heat transfer coefficient in a heat exchanger is no still reached due to the complexity of the involved physical mechanisms. For this reason, after a presentation and a schematisation of the analyzed thermodynamic system, the fundamental alterations of the thermo-fluid dynamics fields are described. Then, the main involved physical phenomena are exposed for the three cases of gaseous, monophasic liquid and boiling liquid mediums. Finally, on the basis of the characteristics of these described phenomena, some considerations and indications of general validity are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0304.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: staggered wavy fin; perforated wavy fin; discontinuous wavy fin; heat transfer enhancement
Online: 24 April 2018 (04:31:45 CEST)
The plate fin heat exchanger is the compact heat exchanger applied in many industries because of its high thermal performance. To enhance the heat transfer of plate fin heat exchanger in further, three new kinds of wavy plate fins, namely perforated wavy fin, staggered wavy fin and discontinuous wavy fin are proposed and investigated by CFD simulations. The effects of key design parameters, including that of waviness aspect ratios, perforation diameters, stagger ratios and breaking distance are investigated, respectively, with the Reynolds number changes from 500 to 4500. It is found that due to the swirl flow and efficient mixing of fluid, the perforation, serration and breaking techniques are beneficial for the enhancement of heat transfer compared to the traditional wavy fin. At the same time, serration is beneficial to reduce the friction factor, and the breaking technique can reduce heat transfer area as well as enhance heat transfer performance. Through the performance evaluation criteria, the staggered wavy fin has an advantage over the small waviness aspect ratio compared to the perforated wavy fin. The maximum performance evaluation criteria (PEC), as high as 1.24, can be obtained for the perforated wavy fin at the largest waviness aspect ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solar reflective coatings; Heat transfer; Heat gains; Building roofs
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:11:48 CET)
Building roofs are sources of unwanted heat for buildings situated in zones with a warm climate. Thus, reflective coatings have emerged as an alternative to reject a significant fraction of solar energy received by roofs. In this research, the thermal behavior of concrete slab-type roofs with traditional and solar reflective coatings was simulated using a computational tool. Weather data from four cities in Mexico with a warm climate were used as boundary conditions. This tool is an in-house code based on the Finite Volume Method developed by the author to perform building components simulations. The code was validated with experimental data from previous work. A series of comparative simulations were developed, taking a gray roof as a control case. The results showed that for the roof without thermal insulation (single roof), the solar reflective coatings reduced the exterior surface between 11 and 16∘C. Consequently, the single roofs’ daily heat gain was reduced by a factor ranging between 41 and 54%. On the other hand, for the insulated roof, the reflective coatings reduced the exterior surface temperature between 17 and 21∘C. At the same time, the daily heat gain of composite roofs was reduced between 37 and 56%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0264.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: heat transfer; inverse method; boiling flow; local Nusselt number; time resolution
Online: 24 July 2019 (04:10:31 CEST)
In this research, a novel method to investigation the transient heat transfer coefficient in a channel is suggested experimentally, in which the water flow, itself, is considered both just liquid phase and liquid-vapor phase. The experiments were designed to predict the temporal and spatial resolution of Nusselt number. The inverse technique method is non-intrusive, in which time history of temperature is measured, using some thermocouples within the wall to provide input data for the inverse algorithm. The conjugate gradient method is used mostly as an inverse method. The temporal and spatial changes of heat flux, Nusselt number, vapor quality, convection number, and boiling number have all been estimated, showing that the estimated local Nusselt numbers of flow for without and with phase change are close to those predicted from the correlations of Churchill and Ozoe (1973) and Kandlikar (1990), respectively. This study suggests that the extended inverse technique can be successfully utilized to calculate the local time-dependent heat transfer coefficient of boiling flow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0357.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: pulsating heat pipe; local vibration; starting-up characteristic; heat transfer performance
Online: 15 July 2021 (11:15:54 CEST)
This study mainly experimentally investigates and explores the effects of local low-frequency vibrations on the starting-up and heat transfer characteristics of the pulsating heat pipe. A micro motors with the vibration frequency of 200 Hz were imposed on the external surface of evaporation, condensation and adiabatic section of the pulsating heat pipe, respectively, and the starting-up temperature and the average temperatures along the evaporation section as well as the thermal performances of the vibrating heat pipe were experimentally scrutinized under the local vibrations of different positions. The following important conclusions can be achieved by the experimental study: 1) The effect of vibrations at the evaporation section and at the adiabatic section on the starting-up time of pulsating heat pipe is more significant than that at the condensation section. 2) The vibrations at different positions can reduce the starting-up temperature of the pulsating heat pipe. The effect of the vibrations at the evaporation section is the best as the heating power is lower, and the effect of the vibration at the adiabatic section is the best as the heating power is higher. 3) The vibrations at the evaporation section and at the adiabatic section can reduce the thermal resistance of the pulsating heat pipe. However, the vibrations at the condensation section have little effect on the thermal resistance of the pulsating heat pipe. 4) The vibrations at the evaporation section and at the adiabatic section can effectively reduce the temperature of evaporation section of the pulsating heat pipe, but the vibrations at the condensation section have no effect on the temperature of evaporation section of the pulsating heat pipe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0501.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Dental implants; Thermal stress; Modeling of heat transfer; Temperature changes; Heat equation; Analytical solution.
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:37:53 CEST)
Introduction: Heat is a kinetic process whereby energy flows from between two systems; hot-to-cold objects. In oro-dental implantology, conductive heat transfer/(or thermal stress) is a complex physical phenomenon to analyze and consider in treatment planning. Hence, ample research has attempted to measure heat-production to avoid over-heating during bone-cutting and -drilling for titanium (Ti) implant-site preparation and insertion, thereby preventing/minimizing early (as well as delayed) implant-related complications and failure. Objective: Given the low bone-thermal conductivity whereby heat generated by osteotomies is not effectively dissipated and tends to remain within the surrounding tissue (peri-implant), increasing the possibility of thermal-injury; this work attempts to obtain an exact analytical solution of the heat equation under exponential thermal-stress, modeling transient heat transfer and temperature changes in Ti implants upon hot-liquid intake. Materials and Methods: We investigate the impact of the material, the location point along implant length, and the exposure time of the thermal load on temperature changes. Results: Despite its simplicity, the presented solution contains all the physics and reproduces the key features obtained in previous numerical analyses studies. To the best of knowledge, this is the first introduction of the intrinsic time, a “proper” time that characterizes the geometry of the dental implant, where we show, mathematically and graphically, how the interplay between “proper” time and exposure time influences temperature changes in Ti implants, under the suitable initial and boundary conditions. Conclusions: This work aspires to accurately complement the overall clinical diagnostic and treatment plan for enhanced bone-implant interface, implant stability and success rates, whether for immediate or delayed loading strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0272.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General Mathematics Keywords: Flourier law of heat transfer; Temperature distribution; Laplace transform
Online: 28 January 2019 (09:49:47 CET)
This paper predict and effectively control the temperature distribution of the steady-state and transient states of anisotropic four-layer composite materials online, knowing the density, specific heat, heat conductivity and thickness of the composite materials. Based on the transfer function, a mathematical model was established to study the dynamic characteristics of heat transfer of the composite materials. First of all, the Fourier heat transfer law was used to establish a one-dimensional Fourier heat conduction differential equation for each composite layer, and the Laplace transformation was carried out to obtain the system function. Then the approximate second-order transfer function of the system was obtained by Taylor expansion, and the Laplace inverse transformation was carried out to obtain the transfer function of the whole system in the time domain. Finally, the accuracy of the simplified analytical solutions of the first, second and third order approximate transfer functions was compared with computer simulation. The results showed that the second order approximate transfer functions can describe the dynamic process of heat transfer better than others. The research on the dynamic characteristics of heat transfer in the composite layer and the dynamic model of heat transfer in composite layer proposed in this paper have a reference value for practical engineering application. It can effectively predict the temperature distribution of composite layer material and reduce the cost of experimental measurement of heat transfer performance of materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: condensed matter; heat transfer; mass transfer; thermodynamics
Online: 11 April 2017 (12:10:49 CEST)
In this work, we experimentally investigate mass and heat transport phenomena in a modular device while converting a solution salinity difference into a temperature difference. Operations occur under fixed total ambient pressure and without mechanical moving parts, thus realizing a fully static conversion. Provided that a constant salinity gradient can be imposed, the proposed device is able to generate a steady cooling capacity. Here, we purposely operate with environmentally benign and easily accessible sodium chloride water solutions only. A numerical model is finally elaborated, validated and used to explore a wider range of possible device configurations and operating conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0449.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Femtoscopy; heat-mass transfer; fluid coherence fraction; radiated source characteristics
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:54:10 CEST)
Higher order femtoscopy measured to examine the heat exchanger characterization of the fluid debris produced in the collisions and investigated a remarkable suppression in the bosons interferences measurement. The analogous suppression can be analyzed to explore the coherence of boson thermal particle production sources at unprecedented energies. We illustrate the particles emissions from radiated sources with statistical coherence which induce the thermal particles interferences to probe the peculiarity of the heated sources as well as the distinctions about the heat exchangers in the collisions at higher temperature. We perspicacious that the bosons seem to the pertinent aspirant of heat exchanger, and the normalized three particles correlators evaluate the existence of such hybrid phases significantly. The key point of this research is that we analyze the three particles correlations with their normalized correlations by difference equations to determine the characteristics of heat exchanger and its applications. With such distinctive and efficient approach, we observe a significant difference in the correlation functions at higher temperature and momenta regimes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0208.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: turbine generator; stator ventilation duct; transient heat transfer; pressure loss
Online: 10 July 2020 (08:34:07 CEST)
Turbine generator operates with complex cooling system due to the challenge in controlling the peak temperature of the stator bar caused by ohm loss, which is unavoidable. Therefore, it is important to characterise and quantifies the thermal performance of the cooling system. The focus of the present research is to investigate the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of typical cooling system, so-called stator ventilation duct. A real scale model was built at its operating conditions for the present study. The direction of cooling air is varied to consider its operation condition, so that there are (1) outward flow and (2) inward flow cases. In addition, the effect of (3) cross flow (inward with cross flow case) is also studied. The transient heat transfer method using thermochromic liquid crystals is implemented to measure full surface heat transfer distribution. A series of Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis is also conducted to support the observation from the experiment. For the inward flow case, the results suggest that the average Nusselt number of the 2nd duct is about 30% higher than the 3rd duct. The trend is similar with the effect of cross flow. The CFD results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0343.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: film cooling; conjugate heat transfer; radiation; syngas; TBC
Online: 15 November 2018 (05:30:44 CET)
The future power equipment tends to take hydrogen or middle/low heat-value syngas as fuel for low emission. The heat transfer of film cooled turbine blade shall be influenced more by radiation. Its characteristic of conjugate heat transfer is studied experimentally and numerically in the paper by considering radiation heat transfer, multi-composition gas and TBC. The Weighted Sum of Gray Gases spectral model and Discrete Transfer Model are utilized to solve the radiative heat transfer in the multi-composition field, while validated against the experimental data for the studied cases. It is shown that the plate temperature increases significantly when considering the radiation and the temperature gradient of the film cooled plate becomes larger. It is also shown that increasing percentage of steam in gas composition results in increased temperature on the film-cooled plate. The normalized temperature of the film-cooled plate decreases about 0.02, as the total percentage of steam in hot gas increases per 7%. As for the TBC effect, it can smooth out the the temperature distribution and insulate the heat to a greater extent when the radiative heat transfer becomes significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0419.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: liquid cooling; phase-change loop; pressure difference; heat transfer enhancement
Online: 27 October 2021 (15:11:16 CEST)
To overcome the two-phase flow instability of traditional boiling heat dissipation technologies, a porous wick was used for liquid-vapor isolation, thus realizing efficient and stable boiling heat dissipation. A pump-assisted capillary phase-change loop with methanol as working medium was established to study the effect of liquid-vapor pressure difference and heating power on its start-up and steady-state characteristics. The results indicated that the evaporator undergoes four heat transfer modes including flooded, partial flooded, thin film evaporation and overheating. The thin film evaporation mode was the most efficient one with the shortest start-up period. Besides, the heat transfer modes were determined by liquid-vapor pressure difference and power. The heat transfer coefficient could be significantly improved and the thermal resistance could be reduced by increasing liquid-vapor pressure difference as long as it did not exceed 8 kPa. However, when the liquid-vapor pressure difference exceeded 8kPa, its influence on the heat transfer coefficient weakened. In addition, a two-dimensional heat transfer mode distribution diagram considering both liquid-vapor pressure difference and power was drawn through a great number of experiments. During engineering application, the liquid-vapor pressure difference can be controlled to maintain efficient thin film evaporation in order to achieve the optimum heat dissipation effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0517.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Microchannel; Nanofluid; Heat transfer enhancement; Numerical simulation.
Online: 22 July 2021 (12:22:39 CEST)
The study of the influence of the nanoparticle volume fraction and aspect ratio of microchannels on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids in microchannels is important in the optimal design of heat dissipation systems with high heat flux. In this work, the computational fluid dynamics method was adopted to simulate the flow and heat transfer characteristics of two types of water–Al2O3 nanofluids with two different volume fractions and five types of microchannel heat sinks with different aspect ratios. Results showed that increasing the nanoparticle volume fraction reduced the average temperature of the liquid–solid heat transfer surface and thereby improved the heat transfer capacity of the nanofluids. Meanwhile, the increase of the nanoparticle volume fraction led to a considerable increase in the pumping power of the system. Changing the aspect ratio of the microchannel effectively improved the heat transfer capacity of the heat sink. Moreover, increasing the aspect ratio effectively reduced the average temperature of the heating surface of the heat sink without significantly increasing the flow resistance loss. When the aspect ratio exceeded 30, the heat transfer coefficient did not increase with the increase of the aspect ratio. The results of this work may offer guiding significance for the optimal design of high heat flux microchannel heat sinks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0164.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Shape memory alloy; SMA; Smart material; Radiation effect; solar radiation effect; radiation heat
Online: 8 September 2022 (09:02:46 CEST)
The shape memory alloys belong to the smart materials thanks to their thermomechanical proprieties' reply to thermal or to mechanical loading. These materials can change shape, stiffness, displacement, natural frequency, and many mechanical characteristics in response to stress or to heat such as conduction, convection or radiation. However, heating by convection or conduction are the most useful and studied methods unlike radiation. Therefore, this paper aims to study the radiation effect on the shape memory alloy behavior
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: heat transfer; thermodynamics; evaporation; condensation; regeneration
Online: 13 June 2022 (10:07:32 CEST)
Space shuttle has been a hall mark of American space program since its inception. Despite its temporary shutdown few years ago, with the recent interest in space exploration which includes revitalizing human outpost in microgravity and transportation required to build it, realize other experiments (e.g. in space telescopes, in space manufacturing) and interplanetary voyages, it has regained attention. Its superior design, manufacturing, materials, performance, durability, and efficiency place it among the best, in fact, the only effort by mankind to build a reusable craft horizontally, launch vertically like a rocket and fly back like a plane. Various requirements emerge during its design (thermal, fluid, acoustics, vibration and structural) and design of its main engine (Aerojet Rocketdyne RS 25) which requires considerable attention, heat transfer being most important. This facilitated and necessitated use of various types of heat exchangers such as single coil, heat pipe, built in internal heat exchanger (IHEX), external heat exchanger (EHEX), condensing heat exchanger (CHEX), Interface heat exchangers (InHEX), regenerative heat exchanger (RHEX) and compact heat exchangers (CoHEX), change, manipulate and optimize their configurations in piping and instrumentation diagrams (PIDs). In this short narrative, an effort has been made to summarize them, and their developments over time with a focus on the application, design, manufacturing, materials, and performance (in service and final operation).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0503.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Turbulent heat transfer; Low-Prandtl fluidS; RANS modeling; Logarithmic turbulence model
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:27:53 CEST)
The study of turbulent heat transfer in liquid metal flows has gained interest because of applications in several industrial fields. The common assumption of similarity between the dynamical and thermal turbulence, namely the Reynolds analogy, has been proven to be not valid for these fluids. Many methods have been proposed in order to overcome the difficulties encountered in a proper definition of the turbulent heat flux, such as global or local correlations for the turbulent Prandtl number or four parameter turbulence models. In this work we assess a four parameter logarithmic turbulence model for liquid metals based on RANS approach. Several simulation results considering fluids with Pr = 0.01 and Pr = 0.025 are reported in order to show the validity of this approach. The Kays turbulence model is also assessed and compared with integral heat transfer correlations for a wide range of Peclet numbers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0419.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: asymmetric pulsating flow; in-line tube bundle; CFD; enhancement of heat transfer
Online: 30 June 2022 (07:47:01 CEST)
The pulsating flow is one of the techniques which can enhance heat transfer, therefore leading to energy saving in tubular heat exchangers. This paper investigates the heat transfer and flow characteristics in a two-dimensional in-line tube bundle with the pulsating flow by a numerical method using the Ansys Fluent. Numerical simulation is performed for Reynolds number Re = 500 with different frequencies and amplitude of pulsation. Heat transfer enhancement was estimated from the central tube of the tube bundle. Pulsation velocity had an asymmetrical character with a reciprocating flow. The technique developed by the authors to obtain asymmetric pulsations was used. This technique allows simulating an asymmetric flow in heat exchangers equipped with a pulsation generation system. Increase in both the amplitude and the frequency of the pulsations has a significant effect on heat transfer enhancement. Heat transfer enhancement is mainly observed in the front and back of the cylinder. At a steady flow in these areas, heat transfer is minimal due to the weak circulation of the flow. The increase in heat transfer in the front and back of the cylinder is associated with increased velocity and additional flow mixing in these areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0052.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: wire coating; elastico-viscous fluid; MHD flow; heat transfer; ADM and OHAM
Online: 10 January 2017 (10:33:57 CET)
The most important plastic resins used for wire coating are Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Nylon, Polysulfone and Low-high density polyethylene (LDPE / HDPE). In this article,the coating process is performed using elastic-viscous fluid as a coating material for wire coating in a pressure type coating die. The elastic-viscous fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The governing non-linear equations are modeled and then solved analytically by utilizing an Adomian decomposition method (ADM). The convergence of the series solution is established. The results are also verified by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The effect of different emerging parameters such as non-Newtonian parameters α and β, magnetic parameter M and the Brinkman number Br on solutions (velocity and temperature profiles) are discussed through several graphs. Additionally, the current result also compares with the published work already available in the literature.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: entropy generation; heat and mass transfer; stretching sheet; variable viscosity
Online: 11 September 2020 (08:05:17 CEST)
This work probes the combined effects of magnetic field and viscous dissipation on heat field and examine the second law analysis (entropy generation) in an electrically conducting fluid under the effect of wall mass transfer over continuous stretched non-isothermal surface with variable viscosity. The viscosity of the fluid is assumed to be an inverse linear function of temperature. The governing equation for the problem are changed to dimensionless ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically by using Rung Kutta and Shooting technique. Velocity, concentration and temperature distribution are obtained and used to compute the entropy generation and the Bejan number in the flow field. The effect of variable viscosity, Schmidt number, Hartman and Reynolds number on the velocity, concentration, temperature, entropy generation and Bejan number are studied and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0088.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Enhance heat transfer; Nanofluids; CNTs; Fractional derivatives; Laplace transform
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:04:32 CEST)
Nanofluids are a novel class of heat transfer fluid that plays a vital role in industries. In mathematical investigations, these fluids are modeled in terms of traditional integer-order partial differential equations (PDEs). It is recognized that traditional PDEs cannot decode the complex behavior of physical flow parameters and memory effects. Therefore, this article intends to study the mixed convection heat transfer in nanofluid over an inclined vertical plate via fractional derivatives approach. The problem in hand is modeled in connection with Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives without singular and local kernel having strong memory. The human blood is considered as base fluid dispersing carbon nanotube (CNTs) (single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs )) into it to form blood-CNTs nanofluid. The nanofluids are considered to flow in a saturated porous medium under the influence of an applied magnetic field. The exact analytical expressions for velocity and temperature profiles are acquired using the Laplace transform technique and plotted in various graphs. The empirical results indicate that the memory effect decreases with increasing fractional parameters in the case of both temperature and velocity profiles. Moreover, the temperature profile is higher for blood-SWCNTs by reason of higher thermal conductivity whereas, this trend is opposite in case of velocity profile due densities difference.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0425.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: porous materials; building wall; modelling; heat and mass transfer; green building
Online: 18 May 2021 (11:36:53 CEST)
The hygrothermal transfer is very important for the design of a building envelope for thermal comfort and economic and energy analysis of the building envelope. The applications of various materials in building envelope have been studied extensively. The study presents several models for the hygrothermal transfer for various building walls. Several energy and mass conservation equations with different boundary conditions and input considerations were presented in this paper for concrete, bricks and wooden walls. The effect of hysteresis was ignored in developing most model equations, while few considered flow pattern of fluid through the wall surfaces. Due to the flexibility of Luikov models, it formed the basis for modelling the coupled heat and mass transfer for porous material independent of hygroscopic nature with different boundary conditions defined according to the geometry and orientations. The influence of type of wall, orientation, thickness, the density of the material and climatic variations on the temperature and moisture evolutions within the building materials was more pronounced. Literature, presenting imaging models using imagery software like COMSOL multi-physics, CFD etc. were scarce considering that microscopic imagery is now deployed to measure the heat and moisture evolution in materials. Future models should include shrinkage or expansion influence on the fibrous material like wood due to their behaviour under environmental condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Plasma keyhole arc welding; X-ray observation; Heat transportation; Eddy; Convective pattern
Online: 20 March 2020 (13:03:13 CET)
This investigation aims to discuss the formation process of eddies and the heat transportation in plasma keyhole arc welding. In order to clarify this issue, the measurement of the convection inside the weld pool, the convection on the weld pool surface, also the temperature distribution on the weld pool surface were carried out. The results showed that two eddies were found in the weld pool, which is controlled mainly through the shear force by the plasma flow acting on the weld pool surface. The magnitude, extent and direction of the shear force are thought to be determined primarily by the variation of keyhole profile. The relative shape and strength of each eddy is largely changed depending on the change of the keyhole profile when nozzle diameter changed. These relative strengths of each eddy are considered to decisively govern the heat transport in the weld pool coinciding with the direction of eddies. A larger eddy near the lower part of the keyhole inside the weld pool was found out in the case of 1.6 mm, meanwhile a upward larger eddy was found out near the upper part of the keyhole inside the weld pool in the case of 2.4 mm.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: blood flow, stenosed artery, K-L model, heat and mass transfer, finite difference scheme
Online: 20 March 2019 (16:49:24 CET)
A non-Newtonian fluid model is used to investigate the two-dimensional pulsatile blood flow through a tapered artery with a stenosis. The mixed convection effects of heat and mass transfer are also taken into account. By applying non-dimensionalization and radial coordinate transformation, we simplify the system in a tube. Under the finite difference scheme, numerical solutions are calculated for velocity, temperature concentration, resistance, impedance, wall shear stress and shearing stress at the stenosis throat. Finally, Quantitative analysis is carried out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: capacity; cooling and heating; fin-tube heat exchanger; pressure drop; turbulator
Online: 5 January 2017 (09:07:14 CET)
This study presents the comparison of heat transfer capacity and pressure drop characteristics between a basic fin-tube heat exchanger and a modified heat exchanger with the structural change of branch tubes and coiled turbulators. All experiments were carried out using an air-enthalpy type calorimeter based on the method described in ASHRAE standards, under heat exchanger experimental conditions. 14 different kinds of heat exchangers were used for the experiment. Cooling and heating capacities of the turbulator heat exchanger were excellent, compared to the basic one. As the insertion ratio of the coiled turbulator and the number of row increased, the heat transfer performance increased. However, the capacity per unit area was more effective in 4 rows than 6 rows, and the cooling performance of the 6 row turbulator heat exchanger (100% turbulator insert ratio) was down to about 6% than that of 4 row one. As the water flow rate and the turbulator insertion ratio increased, the pressure drop of the water side increased. This trend was more pronounced in 6 rows. In the cooling condition, the pressure drop on the air side was slightly increased due to the generation of condensed water, but was insignificant under the heating condition. The power consumption of the pump was more affected by the water flow rate than the coiled turbulator. The equivalent hydraulic diameter of a tube by the turbulator was reduced and then the heat transfer performance was improved. Thus, the tube diameter was smaller, the heat flux was better.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: oscillating heat pipe; fluid flow motion; flow pattern; thermal performance; inner diameter
Online: 26 October 2016 (09:30:16 CEST)
The oscillating heat pipe (OHP) is a new member in the family of heat pipes, and it has great potential applications in energy conservation. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer in the OHP as well as the fundamental effects of inner diameter on them have not been fully understood, which are essential to the design and optimization of the OHP in real applications. Therefore, by combining the high-speed visualization method and infrared thermal imaging technique, the fluid flow and thermal performance in the OHPs with inner diameters of 1, 2 and 3 mm are presented and analyzed. The results indicate that three fluid flow motions, including small oscillation, bulk oscillation and circulation, coexist or, respectively, exist alone with the increasing heating load under different inner diameters, with three flow patterns occurring in the OHPs, viz. bubbly flow, slug flow and annular flow. These fluid flow motions are closely correlated with the heat and mass transfer performance in the OHPs, which can be reflected by the characteristics of infrared thermal images of condensers. The decrease in the inner diameter increases the frictional flow resistance and capillary instability while restricting the nucleate boiling in OHPs, which leads to a smaller proportion of bubbly flow, a larger proportion of short slug flow, a poorer thermal performance, and easier dry-out of working fluid. In addition, when compared with the 2 mm OHP, the increasing role of gravity induces the thermosyphon effect and weakens the 'bubble pumping' action, which results in a little smaller and bigger thermal resistances of 3 mm OHP under small and bulk oscillation of working fluid, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0469.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: heat transfer; mass transfer; convection-radiation; surface reaction; diffusion approximation; finite difference.
Online: 28 September 2021 (11:38:54 CEST)
The steady-state, coupled heat and mass transfer from a fluid flow to a sphere accompanied by an exothermal catalytic chemical reaction on the surface of the sphere is analysed taking into consideration the effect of thermal radiation. The flow past the sphere is considered steady, laminar and incompressible. The radiative transfer is modeled by P0 and P1 approximations. The mathematical model equations were discretized by the finite difference method. The discrete equations were solved by the defect correction – multigrid method. The influence of thermal radiation on the sphere surface temperature, concentration and reaction rate was analysed for three parameter sets of the dimensionless reaction parameters. The numerical results show that only for very small values of the Prater number the effect of thermal radiation on the surface reaction is not significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: printed circuit heat exchanger; airfoil fin; supercritical LNG; thermal-hydraulic performance
Online: 12 October 2017 (05:19:21 CEST)
As a new kind of highly compact and efficient micro-channel heat exchanger, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is a promising candidate satisfying the heat exchange requirements of liquefied natural gas (LNG) vaporization at low and high pressure. The effects of airfoil fin arrangement on heat transfer an flow resistance were numerically investigated using supercritical liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a working fluid. The thermal properties of supercritical LNG were tested by utilizing a REFPROF software database. Numerical simulation was performed using FLUENT. The inlet temperature of supercritical LNG was 121 K,and its pressure was 10.5MPa. The reference mass flow rate of LNG was set 1.22 g/s for the vertical pitch Lv = 1.67 mm and the staggered pitch Ls = 0 mm, with the Reynolds number of about 3750. The SST k-ω model with enhanced wall treatment was selected by comparing with the experimental data. The airfoil fin PCHE had better thermal-hydraulic performance than that of the straight channel PCHE. Moreover, the airfoil fins with staggered arrangement displayed better thermal performance than that of the fins with parallel arrangement. The thermal-hydraulic performance of airfoil fin PCHE was improved with increasing Ls and Lv. Moreover, Lv affected on the Nusselt number and pressure drop of airfoil fin PCHE more obviously. In conclusion, a sparser staggered arrangement of fins showed a better thermal-hydraulic performance in airfoil fin PCHE.
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:07:40 CEST)
Plate fin-tube heat exchangers are widely used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems and other industry fields. Various errors made in the manufacturing process can result in the formation of an air gap between the tube and fin. Several numerical simulations were carried out for a symmetric section of plate fin-tube heat exchanger to study the influence of air gap on heat transfer under periodic flow conditions. Different locations and sizes of an air gap spanning 1/2 circumference of the tube were considered for the range of airflow velocities. Velocity and temperature fields for cases with air gap were compared with ideal thermal contact cases. Blocking of heat flow by the gap leads to the reduction of heat transfer rate. Fin discontinuity in the front of the tube causes the smallest reduction of the heat transfer rate in comparison to the ideal tube-fin contact, especially for thin slits. The rear gap position is the worst in the smallest gap range. Therefore, reversing the flow direction can lead to up to a 15% heat transfer increase, if mainly the rear gaps are present. The introduction of a thin slit in the front of the tube leads to convective heat transfer enhancement, which should be further investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0213.v1
Subject: Keywords: Rectangular channels; Twisted tape inserts; Laminar flow; Forced convection; Water; Heat enhancement; Pressure drop; Performance evaluation criteria
Online: 8 June 2021 (11:09:04 CEST)
Heat enhancement is a topic of great interest nowadays due to its different application in industries. Porous material also known as metallic foam plays a major role in heat enhancement at the expenses of pressure drop. Flow in channels demonstrate the usefulness of this technology in heat extraction. In our current study, a porous strip attached to the channels walls is proposed as an alternative for heat enhancement. The thickness of the porous strip was varied for different Reynolds number. By maintaining laminar regime and using water as fluid, we determined an optimum thickness of porous material leading to the highest performance evaluation criterion. In our current study with the aspect ratio being the porous strip thickness over the channel width, an aspect ratio of 0.2 is found to be the alternative. A 40% increase in heat enhancement is detected in the presence of porous strip when compared to a clear channel case for a Reynolds number equal to 200 and improve further as the Reynolds number increase accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0233.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: entropy generation; entropy acceleration; glucose catabolism; irreversible reactions; heat transfer; matter transfer; cancer biology; stem cell biology
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:49:41 CET)
The heat and matter transfer during glucose catabolism in living systems and their relation with entropy production are a challenging subject of the classical thermodynamics applied to biology. In this respect, an analogy between mechanics and thermodynamics has been performed via the definition of the entropy density acceleration expressed by the time derivative of the rate of entropy density and related to heat and matter transfer in minimum living systems. Cells are regarded as open thermodynamic systems that exchange heat and matter resulting from irreversible processes with the intercellular environment. Prigogine’s minimum energy dissipation principle is reformulated using the notion of entropy density acceleration applied to glucose catabolism. It is shown that, for out-of-equilibrium states, the calculated entropy density acceleration is finite and negative and approaches as a function of time a zero value at global thermodynamic equilibrium for heat and matter transfer independently of the cell type and the metabolic pathway. These results could be important for a deeper understanding of entropy generation and its correlation with heat transfer in cell biology with special regard to glucose catabolism representing the prototype of irreversible reactions and a crucial metabolic pathway in stem cells and cancer stem cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: conjugate heat transfer; convection-radiation; Rosseland approximation; P1 approximation; finite difference; defect correction - multigrid.
Online: 8 April 2021 (17:57:29 CEST)
The effect of thermal radiation on the two – dimensional, steady-state, conjugate heat transfer from a circular cylinder with an internal heat source in steady laminar crossflow is investigated in this work. P0 (Rosseland) and P1 approximations were used to model the radiative transfer. The mathematical model equations were solved numerically. Qualitatively, P0 and P1 approximations show the same effect of thermal radiation on conjugate heat transfer; the increase in the radiation – conduction parameter decreases the cylinder surface temperature and increases the heat transfer rate. Quantitatively, there are significant differences between the results provided by the two approximations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0015.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Heat transfer; Williamson fluid; Homotopy analysis method; exponential stretching; MHD; suction/injection
Online: 1 April 2021 (12:19:59 CEST)
This article investigates the features of heat and mass transfer for the steady two-dimensional Williamson nanofluid flow across an exponentially stretched surface depending on suction/injection. The boundary conditions incorporate the impacts of the Brownian motion and thermophoresis boundary. The analysis of heat transfer is carried out for the two cases of prescribed exponential order surface temperature (PEST) and prescribed exponential order heat flux (PEHF). The ongoing flow problem is mathematically modeled under the basic laws of motion and heat transfer. The similarity variables are allowed to transmute the governing equations of the problem into a similarity ordinary differential equation (ODEs). The solution of this reduced non-linear system of ODEs is supported by the Homotopy analysis method (HAM). The combination of HAM arrangements is acquired by plotting the h-curve. In order to evaluate the influence of several emergent parameters, the outcomes are presented numerically and are plotted diagrammatically as a consequence of velocity, temperature and concentration proles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: heat-related illness; international classification; heat cramp; syncope; heat exhaustion; heat stroke; novel classification
Online: 3 August 2018 (03:51:27 CEST)
The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine Committee recently proposed a novel classification system for the severity of heat-related illnesses. The illnesses are simply classified into three stages based on symptoms and management or treatment. Stages I, II, and III broadly correspond to heat cramp and syncope, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke, respectively. Our objective was to examine whether this novel severity classification is useful in the diagnosis by healthcare professionals of patients with severe heat-related illness and organ failure. A nationwide surveillance study of heat-related illnesses was conducted between June 1 and September 30, 2012, at emergency departments in Japan. Among the 2130 patients who attended 102 emergency departments, the severity of their heat-related illness was recorded for 1799 patients, who were included in this study. In the patients with heat cramp and syncope or heat exhaustion (but not heat stroke), the blood test data (alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and platelet counts) for those classified as stage III were significantly higher than those of patients classified as stage I or II. There were no deaths among the patients classified as stage I. This novel classification may avoid underestimating the severity of heat-related illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0260.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Heat Wave; Heat-related illness; Early heat-health warning systems
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:14:10 CEST)
Exposure to extreme heat is a known risk factor that is associated with increased heat-related illness (HRI) outcomes. The relevance of heat wave definitions could change across the health conditions and geographies due to the heterogenous climate profile. This study compared the sensitivity of 28 heat wave definitions associated with HRI emergency department visits over five summer seasons (2011-2016), stratified by two physiographic regions (Coastal and Piedmont) in North Carolina. The HRI rate ratios associated with heat waves were estimated using the generalized linear regression framework assuming a negative binomial distribution. We compared the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) values across the heat wave definitions to identify an optimal heat wave definition. In the Coastal region, heat wave definition based on daily maximum temperature with a threshold >90th percentile for two or more consecutive days had the optimal model fit. In the Piedmont region, heat wave definition based on the daily minimum temperature with a threshold value >90th percentile for two or more consecutive days was optimal. Additionally, we observed that the optimal heat wave definitions from this study captured moderate and frequent heat episodes than the national weather service (NWS) heat products that worked best for extreme heat episodes. This study compared the HRI morbidity risk associated with epidemiologic-based heat wave definitions and with NWS heat products. Our findings could be used for public health education and suggest recalibrating NWS heat products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0225.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Heat-stable proteins; Heat treatment; Hyperthermophilic proteins; Heat stability; Protein purification
Online: 9 August 2020 (22:00:46 CEST)
Proteins possess complex three-dimensional structures, and these structures are stable only within specific ranges of temperature which mostly correspond to the temperature ranges of the host organisms. However, few exceptional proteins, called heat-stable proteins, are stable at temperatures that are substantially higher than those tolerated by the host organisms themselves. Most of the heat-stable proteins possess heat stability to perform their functions at high temperatures, but some of them are intrinsically heat-stable due to their structure. Heat-stable proteins are usually divided into three or four groups depending upon the intricacies of their structures and thermal behaviors. Their peculiar property, i.e. heat-stability, makes them very valuable in applications such as polymerase chain reaction, industrial processes requiring high temperature, and protein engineering. Heat-stability also makes it feasible to purify such proteins, from the rest of the heat-labile proteins, using a simple heat-treatment method. Moreover, heat treatment can be used as a combined cell-lysis and protein purification step which, as compared to conventional methods, can result in a higher yield of heat-stable proteins. Furthermore, some special heat-stable proteins, i.e. intrinsically disordered proteins (which include the proteins involved in important neurodegenerative diseases), need heat-treatment step, in some cases, as the only way for their successful purification and study. Hence, this paper provides a first-ever comprehensive review of all major aspects of heat-stable proteins, i.e., their structure, evolution, classification, significance, and heat-treatment mediated purification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0173.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: heat conduction; thermal properties; geothermal heat pump; damping depth
Online: 14 March 2022 (03:34:10 CET)
Undisturbed ground temperature (UGT), thermal conductivity (TC) and heat capacity (HC) are essential parameters for the design of borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and borehole thermal energy storage systems. However, field methods to assess the thermal state and properties of the sub-surface are costly and time consuming. Moreover, HC is often not evaluated but arbitrarily selected from literature considering the geological materials intercepted by boreholes. Therefore, this work aims at proposing a field heat tracing method to infer the thermal diffusivity (TD) and HC with assumption of natural transient heat conduction in the subsurface. Empirical equations were developed to reproduce a UGT profile measured along a BHE. Experimental coefficients are found with a non-linear least square solver optimization and used to calculate the damping depth and TD. Subsequently, the TD is used to evaluate HC considering TC obtained from a thermal response test (TRT). Results from this proposed heat tracing method were verified and validated against a set of TRT results and oscillatory TRT analysis using a field dual probe concept to infer HC. The example here described highlights the advantages and novelty of this fast and simple field method relying only on a single UGT profile measured before a TRT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0327.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: heat equation; relativistic heat equation; emergence of entropy; equipartition theorem
Online: 20 September 2021 (11:05:37 CEST)
Motivated by the well-known contradiction of special relativity and the heat equation, a wave equation for temperature scalar field is presented that also resolves the old controversy of (Lorentz) transformation of temperature and entropy. After showing that the current dogma of temperature and entropy being emergent concepts is based on but a logical fallacy, it is proposed that single particles posses entropy. This principle of fundamentality of entropy is then shown to be compatible with the equipartition theorem by yielding corrections in the quantum gravity regime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0005.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: non-freezing; temperate lake; heat budget; heat storage; global warming
Online: 2 January 2018 (08:17:58 CET)
A temperate deep lake, Lake Kuttara, Hokkaido, Japan (148 m deep at maximum) was completely frozen every winter in the 20th century. However, unfrozen conditions of the lake over winter occurred four times in the 21st century, which is probably due to global warming. In order to understand how thermal regime of the lake responds to climate change, its heat storage change was calculated by estimating heat budget of the lake and monitoring water temperature at the deepest point for September 2012–June 2016. As a result, temporal change of the heat storage from the heat budget was very consistent with that from the direct temperature measurement (determination coefficient R2 = 0.827). The 1978–2017 data at a meteorological station near Kuttara indicated that there are significant (less than 5% level) long-term trends for air temperature (0.024 °C/yr) and wind speed (−0.010 m/s/yr). A sensitivity analysis for the heat storage from the heat budget estimate and an estimate of return periods for mean air temperature in mid-winter allow us to conclude that the lake could be unfrozen once per about two year in a decade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: compact heat exchanger; louvered fins; heat transfer coefficient; friction factor
Online: 12 May 2017 (05:00:34 CEST)
The air side thermal hydraulic performance of multi-louvered aluminium fin heat exchangers is investigated. A detailed study was performed to analyse the thermal performance of air over a wide range of Reynolds number i.e. from 30 to 250. Air-side heat transfer coefficient and air pressure drop were calculated and validated over the mentioned band of Reynolds numbers. Critical Reynolds number was determined numerically and the variation in flow physics along with the thermal and hydraulic performance of microchannel heat exchanger associated with R_cri has been reported. Moreover, a parametric study of the multi-louvered aluminium fin heat exchangers was also performed for 36 heat exchanger configurations with the louver angles (19-31°), fin pitches (1.0, 1.2, 1.4 mm) and flow depths (16, 20, 24 mm); and the geometric configuration exhibiting the highest thermal performance was reported. The air-side heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop results for different geometrical configurations were presented in terms of Colburn j factor and Fanning friction factor f, as a function of Reynolds number based on louver pitch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0250.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: surface heat fluxes; latent heat flux; sensible heat flux; tropics; extratropics; air-sea exchanges; lower atmosphere variables
Online: 25 August 2019 (14:39:40 CEST)
Ocean surface heat fluxes play a significant role in the genesis and evolution of various marine-based atmospheric phenomena, from the synoptic scale down to the microscale. While in-situ measurements from buoys and flux towers will continue to be the standard in regards to surface heat flux estimates, they commonly have significant gaps in temporal and spatial coverage. Previous and current satellite missions have filled these gaps; though they may not observe the fluxes directly, they can measure the variables needed (wind speed, temperature, and humidity) to estimate latent and sensible heat fluxes. However, current remote sensing instruments have their own limitations, such as infrequent coverage, signals attenuated by precipitation, or both. The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission overcomes these limitations over the tropical and subtropical oceans by providing improved coverage in nearly all weather conditions. While CYGNSS (Level 2) primarily estimates surface winds, when coupled with observations or estimates of temperature and humidity from reanalysis data, it can provide estimates of latent and sensible heat fluxes along its orbit. This paper describes the development of the Surface Heat Flux Product for the CYGNSS mission, its current results, and expected improvements and changes in future releases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0477.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Laser power; Joule heat; Composite heat source; Temperature field; Additive manufacturing
Online: 30 December 2021 (07:16:03 CET)
The Laser Thermal-Joule Heating Composite Process was studied by orthogonal tests based on an analysis of fabrication parameters such as the laser power, wire feeding speed, and electric current. Temperature profiles and the geometric morphology of deposited layers under different process parameters were analyzed, and the overlaps between the layers and the substrate were observed. Results show that when the temperature at the bottom layer of the additive manufacturing is higher than the melting point of the substrate, and the highest temperature at the top layer does not exceed the over-firing temperature, good morphology and close bonding with the substrate can be obtained. Finally, appropriate process parameters were identified and verified to print multiple layers continuously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Shallow geothermal, Borehole heat exchanger, Heat pump, Renewable energy, Applied thermogeology
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:58:26 CET)
When considering implementation of shallow geothermal energy as a renewable source for heating and cooling of the building, special care should be taken in hydraulic design of borehole heat exchanger system. Laminar flow can occur in pipes due to usage of glycol mixture at low temperature or inadequate flow rate. This can lead to lower heat extraction and rejection rates of the exchanger because of higher thermal resistances. Furthermore, by increasing flow rate to achieve turbulent flow and satisfactory heat transfer rate can lead to increase the pressure drop of the system and oversizing of circulation pump which leads to impairment of seasonal coefficient of performance at the heat pump. Most frequently used borehole heat exchanger system in Europe is double-loop pipe system with smooth inner wall. Lately, development is focused on implementation of different configuration as well as with ribbed inner wall which ensures turbulent flow in the system, even at lower flow rates. At a location in Zagreb, classical and extended thermal response test was conducted on three different heat exchanger configurations in the same geological environment. With classic TRT test, thermogeological properties of the ground and thermal resistance of the borehole were determined for each smooth or turbulator pipe configuration. Extended Steady-State Thermal Response Step Test (TRST) was implemented, which incorporate series of power steps to determine borehole extraction rate at the define steady-state heat transfer conditions of 0/-3°C. Results show that heat exchangers with ribbed inner pipe wall have advantages over classic double-loop smooth pipe design, in terms of greater steady state heat extraction rate and more favorable hydraulic conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0242.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Metal-organic frameworks; heat transformation; low temperature heat; adsorbent; water adsorption.
Online: 13 July 2018 (15:32:52 CEST)
Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are a subclass of porous materials that have unique properties such as varieties of structures from different metals and organic linkers, tunable porosity from a structure or framework design, etc. Moreover, modification/functionalization of the material structure could optimize the material properties and demonstrate high potential for a selected application. MOF materials exhibit exceptional properties and make these materials widely applicable including in energy storage and heat transformation applications. This review aims to give a broad overview of MOFs and their development as adsorbent materials having the potential for heat transformation applications. We summarize current investigations, developments, and possibilities of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) especially the tuning of the porosity and hydrophobic/hydrophilic design required for this specific application. These materials applied as adsorbent are promising in the thermal driven adsorption for heat transformation using water as working fluid and related application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0394.v2
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: heat treatment; termite control; termites; Crytotermes brevis; wood pest; heat technology; non-chemical; pest management; condominium; temperature sensor
Online: 3 December 2021 (10:12:33 CET)
With heat treatments to control drywood termites (Blattodea: Kalotermitidae), the presence of heat sinks causes heat to be distributed unevenly throughout the treatment areas. Drywood termites may move to galleries in heat sink areas to avoid exposure to lethal temperatures. Our studies were conducted in Crytotermes brevis-infested condominiums in Honolulu, Hawaii to reflect real-world condominium scenarios; either a standard heat treatment performed by a heat remediation company or an improved heat treatment was used. For improved treatments, heated air was directed into the toe-kick voids of C. brevis infested cabinets to reduce heat sink effects and increase the heat penetration into these difficult-to-heat areas. Eight thermistor sensors placed inside toe-kick voids, treatment zone, embedded inside cabinets’ sidewalls, and in a wooden cube recorded target temperatures of above 46 °C or 50 °C for 120 minutes. A pretreatment and follow-up inspections were performed at 6 months posttreatment to monitor termite inactivity using visual observations and by recording the numbers of spiked peaks on a microwave technology termite detection device (Termatrac). In improved treatment condominiums, significantly higher numbers of spiked peaks were recorded at pretreatment as compared to 6 months posttreatment. Efficacious heat treatment protocols using the improved methods are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: solar collection; solid structure; heat absorption analysis; collection heat analysis; reflection spectrum
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:06:13 CEST)
A solid structure, such as a road, building wall or envelop, used as a solar collector is considered an effective and new way to use renewable energy. This paper focused on the temperature characteristics of four structures exposed to sunshine: asphalt, red brick, composite cement and concrete road slab. Furthermore, the collected heat based on a hydraulic system was investigated experimentally. For the four structure slabs, their temperature differences are due to solar radiation absorption varied greatly by the material’s heat absorptance and color. Through the test, asphalt slab attained the highest temperature and had the weakest reflection among the structures. Compared with the others, the temperature of the asphalt slab was greater by 8.1%, 14.9% and 16.4% than the brick, composite cement and concrete, respectively. The reflection intensity growth ratio was defined and indicates the growth potential for absorbing radiation in the solid slab surface. From the experiments, it was concluded that a suitable selection of road materials can greatly improve the thermal absorption, conduction and penetration into the solid slab. The collected heat capability was approximately 250 W/m2 to 350 W/m2 in the natural summer condition. A black coating or a surface modification can collect more heat, reaching greater than 250 W/m2. The solar collecting heat efficiency with a surface configuration of the road slab can reach above 30% in the summer time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0501.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy Efficiency Ratio; Economic Impact, heat engine; heat pump; Coefficient of Performance
Online: 22 October 2018 (14:03:54 CEST)
Three-temperature heating systems consist of a heat engine and a heat pump, enabling thus maximum usage of the primary thermal source for the heating of buildings. This analysis has revealed obvious advantages and disadvantages that the combining of thermodynamic systems has in future development, also with respect to environmental and economic issues. It appears that the combination of a Stirling engine or a similar heat drive with a heat pump is especially suitable. In order to analyze the effectiveness of such a system, a comprehensive calculation procedure is used: its basis lies in accounting for all types of energy and their relationship to the original natural resource. The present paper aims to point out that the combination of Stirling engine and a heat pump is a useful solution thanks to the most favorable resultant economic impact if compared to the usage of a diesel, four-stroke gas, or, most commonly used, electric drive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Isobaric expansion engines; heat driven pump; compressors; low-grade heat; mixed working fluids
Online: 1 July 2022 (03:59:26 CEST)
Economic expedience of waste heat recovery systems (WHRS), especially for low temperature difference applications, is often questionable due to high capital investments and long pay-back periods. By its simple design isobaric expansion (IE) machines could provide a viable pathway to utilize otherwise unprofitable waste heat streams for power generation and particularly for pumping liquids and compression of gases. Different engine configurations are presented and discussed. A new method of modelling and calculation of the IE process and efficiency is used on IE cycles with various pure and mixtures as a working fluid. Some interesting cases are presented. It is shown in this paper, that the simplest non-regenerative IE engines are efficient at low temperature differences between a heat source and heat sink. Efficiency of non-regenerative IE process with pure working fluid can be very high approaching Carnot efficiency at low pressure and heat source/heat sink temperature differences. Regeneration permits to increase efficiency of the IE-cycle to some extent. Application of mixed working fluids in combination with regeneration permits to significantly increase the range of high efficiencies to much larger temperature and pressure differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0275.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Heat wave; satisfaction to community; social linkage; global warming; perception to heat wave
Online: 12 May 2021 (17:17:44 CEST)
The research examines the relationship between self-rated health situation and personal percep-tion of heat waves, and how social linkage of communities would be a moderator variable in residents’ perception of heat waves in Taiwan. This study uses the questionnaire conducted by Sinica “Responsive Capacity under Heat Wave: The Perspectives of the Locals”(2019), using OLS method for estimating the unknown parameters in multiple regression model. The author finds that the correlation of self-rated health situation and perception toward heat is significantly posi-tive. Also, social linkage in communities affects strongly as a moderator variable: While the sat-isfaction to with their community could reduce negative reaction to heat, contacts with neighbors could increase possibility people feel uncomfortable in high-temperature situation. This study ex-hibits the effects of social environment on community, and expects further related researches or practices to strengthen capability to resist heat wavesƒ for Taiwanese residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0694.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Transpiration; PV Heat Conversion; Plant Heat Stress; Agrivoltaic system; Sustainable Integration; Thermal Analysis
Online: 29 July 2020 (11:20:25 CEST)
This paper shares some new information on the ambient temperature profile and the heat stress occurrences directly underneath ground-mounted Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Arrays (monocrystalline-based) focusing on different temperature levels. A common ground for this work lies on the fact that 10C increase of PV cell temperature results in reduction of 0.5% energy conversion efficiency thus any means of natural cooling mechanism would gain much benefit especially to the Solar Farm operators. Transpiration process plays an important role in the cooling of green plants where in average it could dissipate around 32.9% of the total solar energy absorbed by the leaf making it a good natural cooling mechanism. This condition is relatively applied for herbs specifically for this project, Orthosiphon Stamineus or generally known as Java Tea are used as the high value crops. The thermal process via convective heat and mass exchange of leaves with the environment is relevant for a better understanding of plant physiological processes in response to environmental conversion factors for a wide range of applications. An important fact for plant heat stress with respect to the Ambient temperature is that the range lies between 10 C to 15 C above the surrounding value. This heat stress condition is relatively important and should be modelled in crops-energy integration. Agrivoltaic concept is a system that combines commercial agriculture and photovoltaic electricity generation in the same space. The concept is in line with the Kyoto Protocol and the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDG) which highlights the clean energy and sustainable urban living. The integration of agrivoltaic systems would optimize the yield, improving clean system efficiency and solving the issue of land resource sustainability. The PV bottom surface temperature are the main source of dissipated heat as shown in the thermal images recorded at 5 minutes interval at 3 sampling time. Statistical analysis shows that the Thermal correlations for transpiration process and heat stress occurrences between PV bottom surface and plant height will be an important finding for large scale plant cultivation in agrivoltaic farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0455.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Flying-fox, disaster management, heat events, heat stress, roost management, physiology, veterinary management.
Online: 24 September 2018 (12:28:19 CEST)
Flying-fox populations are increasingly threatened by heat events, starvation events and other stressors due to habitat clearing and human/flying-fox conflict.These factors are unlikely to resolve, meaning that a well-coordinated and timely approach to flying-fox disasters is imperative for the mitigation of further flying-fox population impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Capacity; Cooling and heating; CO2; Cycle performance; , EEV; Heat pump; Internal heat exchanger
Online: 11 December 2017 (12:30:52 CET)
Developing high performance HVAC system using natural refrigerants including carbon dioxide (CO2) has been important in respect of environmental preservation and associated technologies. Thus studies to optimize the HVAC (heating ventilation air conditioner) system using natural refrigerants through clarifying the cycle performance characteristics are necessary. The CO2 heat pump system using air and water sources was consisted to examine its performance characteristics, and by varying conditions of several factors that affect or characterize the system performance like the amount of refrigerant charge, EEV (electronic expansion valve) opening, and internal heat exchanger under cooling mode. The performance characteristics of CO2 heat pump system were tested by using an air enthalpy calorimeter. In the case of the CO2 heat pump system without internal heat exchanger, the opening of #3 EEV and #4 EEV was 60% and refrigerant charge amount was 5,600g. However, in the case of that with internal heat exchanger, the best performance was obtained when the opening of #2 EEV is 20%. From the present studies, it was observed that the performance variation and operational characteristics of the CO2 heat pump system were affected by design factors like refrigerant charge amount, EEV opening, and internal heat exchanger and thereby, the configuration on an optimal operation conditions of the system was enabled.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: dissipation; computing; fluctuations; heat; energy
Online: 13 May 2019 (10:00:55 CEST)
An increasing amount of electric energy is consumed by computers as they progress in function and capabilities. All of it is dissipated in heat during the computing and communicating operations and we reached the point that further developments are hindered by the unbearable amount of heat produced. In this paper we briefly review the fundamental limits in energy dissipation, as imposed by the laws of physics, with specific reference to computing and memory storage activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0022.v1
Online: 2 May 2017 (04:58:58 CEST)
Transposable elements (TEs) are highly abundant in plant genomes. Environmental stress is one of the critical stimuli that activate TEs. We analyzed a heat-activated retrotransposon named ONSEN in cruciferous vegetables. The multiple copies of ONSEN-like elements (OLEs) were found in all the cruciferous vegetables that were analyzed. The copy number of OLE was abundant in Brassica oleracea, which includes cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprout, and kale. Phylogenic analysis demonstrated that some OLEs transposed after the allopolyploidization of parental Brassica species. Furthermore, we found that the increasing number of OLEs in B. oleracea appeared to be induced transpositional silencing by epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation. The results of this study would be relevant to the understanding of evolutionary adaptations to thermal environmental stress in different species.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: solid sensible heat storage; thermal calculation; fluid-solid coupling; heat transfer characteristics; experimental investigation
Online: 5 October 2020 (10:53:24 CEST)
Electric heating and solid thermal storage system (EHSTSS) is widely used in district clean heating and the flexibility adjustment of combined heat and power (CHP) unit. It has been an effective way to absorb renewable energy. Aiming at the thermal design calculation and experimental verification of EHSTSS, the thermal calculation and the heat transfer characteristics of the EHSTSS are investigated in this paper. Firstly, a thermal calculation method for the EHSTSS is proposed in the paper. The calculation flow and calculation method for key parameters of heating system, heat storage system, heat exchange system and fan-circulating system in the EHSTSS are studied. Then, the instantaneous heat transfer characteristics of the thermal storage system (TSS) in the EHSTSS are analyzed, and the heat transfer process of ESS is simulated by FLUENT software. The uniform temperature distribution in the heat storage and release process of the TSS verifies the good heat transfer characteristics of the EHSTSS. Finally, EHSTSS test verification platform is built, and the historical operation data of the EHSTSS is analyzed. During the heating and release thermal process, the maximum temperature standard deviation of each temperature measurement point is 28.3℃ and 59℃respectively. The correctness of the thermal calculation of the EHSTSS is verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0141.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: heat pump; dynamic test method; seasonal performance factor; variable frequency drive; field approximation; energy label; air source heat pump; ground source heat pump
Online: 15 March 2019 (04:40:11 CET)
The growing market penetration of heat pumps indicates the need for a performance test method which better reflects the dynamic behavior of heat pumps. In this contribution, we developed and implemented a dynamic test method for the evaluation of the seasonal performance of heat pumps by means of laboratory testing. Current standards force the heat pump control inactive by fixing the compressor speed. In contrast, during dynamic testing, the compressor runs unfixed while the heat pump is subjected to a temperature profile. The profile consists of the different outdoor temperatures of a typical heating season based on the average European climate and also includes temperature changes to reflect the dynamic behavior of the heat pump. The seasonal performance can be directly obtained from the measured heating energy and electricity consumption making subsequent data interpolation and recalculation with correction factors obsolete. The method delivers results with high precision and high reproducibility and could be an appropriate method for a fair rating of heat pumps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: heat loss; integrated energy system; concentrating solar power; low-carbon; heat storage tank; economical dispatch
Online: 4 December 2020 (12:05:58 CET)
With the development of energy internet, integrated energy system can effectively reduce carbon emissions and improve the utilization of renewable energy. In this paper, a low-carbon optimal scheduling model of integrated energy system considering heat loss of heat network pipeline is proposed. Based on the study of concentrating solar power (CSP) plant and heat storage tank (HS), an optimal scheduling model is established, which takes system operation cost, environmental pollution and penalty cost of abandoning wind and solar energy as objectives. Through the analysis of example results, it is proved that the model proposed in this paper can achieve the goal of reliable, low-carbon and economic operation of the system. At the same time, it shows that CSP unit can reduce the operation cost of system and increase energy coupling and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: plate-fin and tube heat exchanger; air-side Nusselt number; different heat transfer coefficient in particular tube row; numerical simulation; CFD simulation; air heat pump
Online: 6 July 2022 (08:49:27 CEST)
The object of this work is to determine the correlation on the Nusselt number on the individual rows of a four-row tubular finned heat exchanger with continuous fins with a staggered tube arrangement using CFD modelling. Correlations for calculating Darcy-Weisbach friction factors on individual tube rows were also determined. Relationships for the Nusselt number and friction factor derived for the entire exchanger based on CFD modelling were compared with those available in the literature determined using experimental data. The maximum relative differences between the Nusselt number for a four-row exchanger determined experimentally and by CFD modelling are in the range from 22% for a Reynolds number based on a tube's outside diameter of 1,000 to 30% for a Reynolds number of 13,000. The maximum relative differences between the friction factor for a four-row exchanger determined experimentally and by CFD modelling are in the range of 50% for a Reynolds number based on a tube outer diameter of 1,000 to 10% for a Reynolds number of 13,000. The CFD modeling performed shows that in the range of Reynolds numbers based on hydraulic diameters from 150 to 1,400, the Nusselt number for the first row in a four-row finned heat exchanger is about 22% to 15% higher than the average Nusselt number for the entire exchanger. In the range of Reynolds number changes based on hydraulic diameter from 2,800 to 6,000, the Nusselt numbers on the first and second rows of tubes are close to each other. Correlations on Nusselt numbers and friction factors derived for individual tube rows can be used in the design of plate-fin and tube heat exchangers used in equipment such as air-source heat pumps, automotive radiators, air-conditioning systems and in air hot-liquid coolers. In particular, the correlations can be used to select the optimum number of tube rows in the exchanger.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0118.v3
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:32:36 CET)
The purpose of this study is to check out the involvement of entropy in Mpemba effect. Provided that preheating of the water the cooling duration is reduced, we theoretically show that water gains more entropy when warmed and re-cooled to the original temperature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0433.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: fermentation; bioreactor; heat transfer; mass transfer
Online: 24 August 2018 (11:34:14 CEST)
Fermenter is a vessel that maintains optimum environment for the development of significant microorganism used in large scale fermentation process and the commercial production of products like Alcoholic beverages, Enzymes, Antibiotics, Organic acids etc. The fermenter aims to produce biological product like vaccines and hormones, it is necessary to monitor and control the different parameters like external and internal mass transfer, heat transfer, fluid velocity, shear stress, agitation speed, aeration rate, cooling rate or heating intensity, and the feeding rate, nutrients, base or acid valve. Fermentation in the fermenter are accomplished in several configuration and these simple configurations are batch, fed-batch and continuous fermentation process. Fermentation process is carried out in small or large size fermenter depending on product quantity. The selection of the suitable process depends on the fermentation kinetics, type of microorganism used and process economic aspects. Improved modelling tools, reactor operation and reactor design in bioreactor is because of mass transfer behavior and it is important for reaction rate maximizing, throughput rates optimization and cost minimizing. The fermenter design, fermentation process, types of the fermenter that are used in industries and heat and mass transfer in fermenter is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0056.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: intermediate heat treatment; boron; fabrication process
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:36:45 CET)
In this study, we evaluated the cold drawing workability of two kinds of modified 9Cr-2W steel containing different contents of boron and nitrogen, depending on the temperature and time of normalizing and tempering treatments. Using ring compression tests at room temperature, the effect of intermediate heat treatment condition on workability was investigated. It was found that the prior austenite grain size can be changed by the austenite transformation, and the grain size increases with increasing temperature during normalizing heat treatment. Alloy B and Alloy N showed different patterns after normalizing heat treatment. Alloy N had higher stress than Alloy B, and the reduction in alloy N increased, while the reduction in alloy B decreased. Alloy B showed a larger number of initially formed cracks and a larger average crack length than Alloy N. Crack length and number increased proportionally in Alloy B as the stress increased. Alloy B had lower crack resistance than Alloy N due to boron segregation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0083.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: nanofluid; numerical simulation; heat transfer; sedimentation
Online: 23 September 2016 (08:36:48 CEST)
In the present paper, laminar forced convection nanofluid flows in a uniformly heated horizontal tube were revisited by direct numerical simulations. Single and two-phase models were employed with constant and temperature-dependent properties. Comparisons with experimental data showed that the mixture model performs better than the single-phase model in the all cases studied. Temperature-dependent fluid properties also resulted in a better prediction of the thermal field. A particular attention was paid to the grid arrangement. The two-phase model was used then confidently to investigate the influence of the nanoparticle size on the heat and fluid flow with a particular emphasis on the sedimentation process. Four nanoparticle diameters were considered: 10, 42, 100 and 200 nm for both copper-water and alumina/water nanofluids. For the largest diameter dnp = 200 nm, the Cu nanoparticles were more sedimented by around 80 %, while the Al2O3 nanoparticles sedimented only by 2.5 %. Besides, it was found that increasing the Reynolds number improved the heat transfer rate, while it decreased the friction factor allowing the nanoparticles to stay more dispersed in the base fluid. The effect of nanoparticle type on the heat transfer coefficient was also investigated for six different water-based nanofluids. Results showed that the Cu-water nanofluid achieved the highest heat transfer coefficient, followed by C, Al2O3, CuO, TiO2, and SiO2, respectively. All results were presented and discussed for four different values of the concentration in nanoparticles, namely φ = 0, 0.6, 1 and 1.6%. Empirical correlations for the friction coefficient and the average Nusselt number were also provided summarizing all the presented results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ground coupled Heat Exchangers; Thermal Response Test; Thermal conductivity; Thermal diffusivity; Geotechnical properties; Borehole heat exchangers
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:13:18 CET)
The performance of ground heat exchangers systems depends on the knowledge of the thermal parameters of the ground like thermal conductivity, thermal capacity and diffusivity. The knowledge of these parameters often requires quite accurate experimental analysis, known under the name of Thermal Response Test (TRT). In this paper, after a general analysis of the various available types of TRT and the study of the theoretical basics of the method, the perspective of the definition of a simplified routine method of analysis based on the combination of a particular version of TRT and the routine geotechnical tests for the characterization of soil stratigraphy and of the ground characteristics, mandatory before the construction of a new buildings, even if limited to quite short drilling depth (lower than 30 m). The idea of developing TRT in connection with geotechnical test activity has the objective of promoting a widespread use of in-situ experimental analysis and of reducing TRT costs and time duration of the experimental analysis. The considerations exposed in the present paper lead to reconsider a particular variety of the TRT in particular the version known as Thermal Response Test while Drilling (TRTWD).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0288.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: solar energy; geothermal energy; seasonally thawed layer; thermosyphon; heat flux; performance indicator; near-surface layer; heat shielding
Online: 17 December 2021 (12:37:39 CET)
We have suggested earlier a new sustainable method for permafrost thermal stabilization that combines passive screening of solar radiation and precipitation with active solar-powered cooling of the near-surface soil layer thus preventing heat penetration in depth. Feasibility of this method has been shown by calculations, but needed experimental proof. In this article, we are presenting the results of soil temperature measurements obtained at the experimental implementation of this method outside of the permafrost area which actually meant higher thermal loads than in Polar Regions. We have shown that near-surface soil layer is kept frozen during the whole summer, even at air temperatures exceeding +30°C. Therefore, the method has been experimentally proven to be capable of sustaining soil frozen even in more extreme conditions than expected in permafrost areas. In addition to usual building and structure thermal stabilization, the method could be used to prevent the development of thermokarst, gas emission craters, and landslides; greenhouse gases, chemical, and biological pollution from the upper thawing layers at least in the area of human activities; protection against coastal erosion; and permafrost restoration after wildfires. Using commercially widely available components, the technology can be scaled up for virtually any size objects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0583.v1
Online: 23 June 2021 (12:47:11 CEST)
The mechanical engineering requires heat treatment after rough machining to reach the mechanical strength, but the heat treatment can induce workpiece deformation, so that the workpiece cannot be reworked. In this study, the plasma was integrated with a lathe, and the on line heat treatment was performed to achieve the mechanical strength and hardness, so as to reduce the machining process and handling. However, for on line heat treatment, it is important to study the machine and plasma parameters of the lathe and plasma, and the research method is used eventually to optimize the process, reduce the machining cost and machining error. The variable factors in surface on line real-time heat treatment are revolution, feed rate and current, the objective function is the hardness of mechanical properties. In the screening experiment, the interaction of factors was discussed using full factorial experiment. The Central Composite Design was combined with the Lack-of-Fit test for optimization experiment, the R2 coefficient was used to determine whether the regression model is appropriate. The optimum parameters were derived from the contour diagram and response surface diagram. The experimental results show that the significant factors include revolution, feed rate and current, the optimum parameters include revolution 168rpm, feed rate 0.068mm/rev and current 86A. The experimental results of optimum parameters show that the surface hardness is increased from 306HLD to 806HLD, the surface hardening effect is enhanced by 163%, so the on line real-time heat treatment equipment has a best hardening effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0412.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Carbohydrate; heat stress; hydrogen sulphide; hypotaurine; melatonin
Online: 15 June 2021 (15:21:54 CEST)
Photosynthesis is a pivotal process that determines the synthesis of carbohydrates required for sustaining growth under normal or stress situation. Stress exposure reduces the photosynthetic potential owing to the excess synthesis of reactive oxygen species that disturb the proper functioning of photosynthetic apparatus. This decreased photosynthesis is associated with disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism resulting in reduced growth under stress. We evaluated the importance of melatonin in reducing heat stress-induced severity in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.). The plants were subjected to 25 ˚C (optimum temperature) or 40 ˚C (heat stress) for 15 days at 6 hours time duration and then developed the plants for 30 days. Heat stress led to oxidative stress with increased production of TBARS and H2O2 content and reduced accrual of total soluble sugars, starch and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes which are reflected in reduced photosynthesis. Application of melatonin not only reduced oxidative stress through lowering TBARS and H2O2 content, through augmenting the activity of antioxidative enzymes but also increased the photosynthesis in plant and carbohydrate metabolism that is needed to provide energy and carbon skeleton to the developing plant under stress. However, the increase in these parameters with melatonin was mediated via hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as the inhibition of H2S by hypotaurine (HT; H2S inhibitor) reversed the ameliorative effect of melatonin. This suggests a crosstalk of melatonin and H2S in protecting heat stress-induced photosynthetic inhibition via regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: plastic waste; concrete waste; recycling; heat pressing
Online: 1 March 2020 (03:24:14 CET)
Demolished concrete and plastic waste are two increasingly aggravating problems. In this study, a novel method was proposed to simultaneously recycle concrete and plastic wastes by compacting concrete and plastic powders together under pressure and temperature. The influence of compression pressure and temperature as well as the mixture proportion on the bending strength of specimens was investigated. The results showed that pressure and temperature had a positive effect on the specimen strength; however, the molding temperature should not exceed the melting temperature of plastic. The proportion of plastic had a minimal effect on the bending strength of the specimen when plastic accounted for 25%–75% of the overall mass of the test piece.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0076.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: heat capacity; group-additivity method; ionic liquids
Online: 6 February 2020 (03:01:49 CET)
The calculation of the isobaric heat capacities of the liquid and solid phase of molecules at 298.15 K is presented, applying a universal computer algorithm based on the atom-groups additivity method, using refined atom groups. The atom groups are defined as the molecules' constituting atoms and their immediate neighbourhood. In addition, the hydroxy group of alcohols are further subdivided to take account of the different intermolecular interactions of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. The evaluation of the groups' contributions has been carried out by means of a fast Gauss-Seidel fitting calculus using experimental data from literature. Plausibility has been tested immediately after each fitting calculation using a 10-fold cross-validation procedure. For the heat capacity of liquids, the respective goodness of fit of the direct (R2) and the cross-validation calculations (Q2) of 0.998 and 0.9975, and the respective standard deviations of 8.2 and 9.16 J/mol/K, together with a medium absolute percentage deviation (MAPD) of 2.69%, based on the experimental data of 1133 compounds, proves the excellent predictive applicability of the present method. The statistical values for the heat capacity of solids are only slightly inferior: for R2 and Q2, the respective values are 0.9915 and 0.9875, the respective standard deviations are 12.19 and 14.13 J/mol/K and the MAPD is 4.65%, based on 732 solids. The predicted heat capacities for a series of liquid and solid compounds has been directly compared to those received by a complementary method based on the "true" molecular volume  and their deviations elucidated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0281.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: algorithm; heat-pump; drying; food; design; optimization
Online: 17 September 2019 (15:27:08 CEST)
Drying food involves complex physical atmospheric mechanisms with non-linear relations from the air-food interactions and those relations are strongly dependent on the moisture contents and the type of food. Such dependence makes it complex to design suitable dryers dedicated to a single drying process. To streamline the design of a novel compact food-drying machine, a heat pump dryer component design optimization algorithm was developed as a subprogram of a Computer Aided Engineering tool. The algorithm requires inputting food and air properties, the volume of the drying container and the technical specifications of the heat-pump off-the shelf components. The heat required to dehumidify the food supplied by the heat exchange process from condenser to evaporator, and the compressor’s requirements (refrigerant mass flow rate and operating pressures) are then calculated. Compressors can then be selected based in the volume and type of food to be dried. The algorithm is shown via a flow chart to guide the user through 3 different stages: Changes in drying air properties, Heat flow within dryer and Product moisture content. Example results of how different compressors are selected for different type of produces and quantities (Agaricus Blazei mushroom with 3 different moisture contents or fish from Thunnini tribe) conclude this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0252.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Explosive welding; heat treatment; Inconel; steel; microstructure
Online: 20 December 2018 (13:04:18 CET)
In this investigation steel P355NH has been successfully cladded with Inconel 625 through the method of explosive welding. Explosively welded bimetal clad-plate was subjected to the two separated post weld heat treatment processes: stress relief annealing (at 620oC for 90 minutes) and normalizing (at 910oC for 30 minutes). In order to analyze the microstructure of the joint in the as-welded state and to investigate the influence of the post weld heat treatment on it, the light and scanning electron microscope observations and microhardness analysis have been performed. The examination of the diffusion zone microstructure has been performed by using the scanning transmission electron microscope. It was stated that obtained joint has characteristic wavy-shape geometry with the presence of the melted zones and severe deformed grains of both joined materials. Strain hardening of the materials in joint zone was established with microhardness analysis. In both of the heat treatments the changes in the grain structure have been observed. The normalizing heat treatment has the most significant impact on the microstructure of the joint as well as the concentration of the chemical elements in the joint zone. It was reported that due to normalizing the diffusion zone has been formed together with precipitates in the joint zone. The analysis of the diffusion zone images leads to the conclusion that the diffusion of alloying elements from Inconel 625 to steel P355NH takes place along the grain boundaries with additional formation of the voids in this area. The precipitates in Inconel 625 in the joint zone are two type of carbides – chromium-rich and molybdenum-rich. Scanning transmission electron microscope observation of the grain microstructure in the diffusion zone shows that this area consists of equiaxed grains (from the side of Inconel 625 alloy) and columnar grains (from the side of steel P355NH).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0226.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Fatigue, heat treatment, hot-work tool steel
Online: 18 December 2018 (16:37:32 CET)
The fatigue strength of the hot work steel depends on various factors, including the mechanical, properties and behavior and bulk and the surface under layer, the microstructural features as well as heat treatments. The influence of a series of heat treatments on the fatigue strength of H13 hot work steel was investigated. Different preheating, quenching and tempering treatments were applied to four sets of specimens and fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature using a rotating bending test machine. All heat treatments resulted in a certain improvement of the fatigue strength. Highest fatigue strength obtained by applying a double tempering heat treatment (first tempering at 550 °C for two hours and second tempering at 610 °C for two hours) after initial preheating and quenching. One tempering treatment (550 °C for two hours after preheating and quenching) did not significantly improve the fatigue strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0632.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Modelica; heat pump; HiL; model validation; testbed
Online: 26 October 2018 (12:11:57 CEST)
Heating systems such as heat pump and combined heat and power cycle systems (CHP) are representing a key component in the future smart grid. Their capability to couple the electricity and heat sector promises a massive potential to the energy transition. Hence, these systems are continuously studied numerical and experimental to quantify their potential and develop optimal control methods. Although numerical simulations provide time and cost-effective solution for system development and optimization, they are exposed to several uncertainties. Hardware in the loop (HiL) system enables system validation and evaluation under different real-life dynamic constraints and boundary conditions. In this paper, a HiL system of heat pump testbed is presented. This system is used to present two case studies. In the first case, the conventional heat pump testbed operation method is compared to the HiL operation method. Energetic and dynamic analyses are performed to quantify the added value of the HiL and its necessity for dynamics analysis. The second case, the HiL testbed is used to validate the heat pump operation in a single family house participating in a local energy market. It enables not only the dynamics of the heat pump and the space heating circuit to be validated but also the building room temperature. The energetic analysis indicated a deviation of 2% and 5% for heat generation and electricity consumption of the heat pump, respectively. The model dynamics emphasized the model capability to present the dynamics of a real system with a temporal distortion of 3%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0090.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: heat-pain; pilot study; anxiety; fear; psychopathy
Online: 24 February 2017 (07:18:39 CET)
While the majority of previous studies assessing pain-related variables in psychopaths used electric shocks, little is known about the effectiveness of alternative pain-inducing methods to increase emotional responses such as fear and anxiety. A small sample of healthy undergraduate men (N = 15) was recruited to assess the effectiveness of a heat stimulus to induce pain in an immediate versus delayed punishment paradigm. Although pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and threat of pain did not increase throughout the experiment, participants experienced a significant increase of fear of pain and pain intensity, indicating that the heat stimulus was effective in inducing pain. Furthermore, subjects were slower in initiating the pain stimulus during the first five trials, but no time difference was found during the 15 remaining trials. No correlation was found between psychopathic traits and pain-related variables, with the exception of inconsistent results within the Fearless Dominance factor. Findings are discussed in terms of improvement for a larger scale study involving psychopathic individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0300.v1
Online: 22 March 2022 (11:21:05 CET)
Following the rapid spread of COVID-19 across the globe, the intense response that was demanded of diagnostic centers and research laboratories prompted the use of numerous products and protocols for the management of SARS-CoV-2 specimens. In these settings, proper handling of such infectious specimen is necessary to ensure the safety of personnel and to reduce the risk of active transmission. Our aim was to evaluate the inactivation efficacy of different inactivating methods, notably from commercial lysis buffers available in diagnostic kits. Heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent were also included in our investigations. A cell culture-based assay was used, and supported by molecular qRT-PCR detection, to show in vitro infectivity reduction after inactivation treatment. Overall, all the investigated methods were successful in inactivating SARS-CoV-2. Ten minutes of contact with the commercial buffers completely stopped in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Fifteen minutes at 68°C and 30 minutes at 56°C as well as one hour with sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent at 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.1% yielded the same results. These findings demonstrate the reliability of these protocols with regards to biosafety. Inactivation by heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent are rather simple and can be readily available methods for rendering an infectious SARS-CoV-2 specimen inactive, especially in settings where commercial buffers are not available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0275.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Physics simulations; Neural Networks; Electronic design; Heat equation
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:55:05 CET)
Thermal simulations are an important part in the design of electronic systems, especially as systems with high power density become common. In simulation-based design approaches, a considerable amount of time is spent by repeated simulations. In this work, we present a proof-of-concept study of the application of convolutional neural networks to accelerate those thermal simulations. The goal is not to replace standard simulation tools but to provide a method to quickly select promising samples for more detailed investigations. Based on a training set of randomly generated circuits with corresponding Finite Element solutions, the full 3D steady-state temperature field is estimated using a fully convolutional neural network. A custom network architecture is proposed which captures the long-range correlations present in heat conduction problems. We test the network on a separate dataset and find that the mean relative error is around 2 % and the typical evaluation time is 35 ms per sample ( 2 ms for evaluation, 33 ms for data transfer). The benefit of this neural-network-based approach is that, once training is completed, the network can be applied to any system within the design space spanned by the randomised training dataset (which includes different components, material properties, different positioning of components on a PCB, etc.).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0581.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Sarcodia suieae; Acetyl-xylogalactan; RAW264.7; Heat stress; Apoptosis
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:25:38 CEST)
We aimed to evaluate the protective effects of acetyl-xylogalactan on the activity of RAW264.7 macrophages against heat stress. To this end, we assessed cell survival, phagocytic activity, in-tracellular Ca2+ level, mitochondria potential exchange, apoptotic assay findings, galactosidase activity and the RNA-seq by NGS and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) expression. In our evaluation of macrophage morphology at 37°C and 41°C, the macrophages showed an oval shape at 41°C , unlike the spindle shape at 37°C. Therefore, 41°C was chosen as the heat stress condition. Subsequently, we designed an experiment to evaluate changes in the RAW264.7 macrophages after acetyl-xylogalactan treatment under heat stress. The survival of RAW264.7 macrophages treated with acetyl-xylogalactan was higher than that of controls that were not treated with acetyl-xylogalactan. Moreover, on the basis of the results of the annexin-V detection assay, the apoptotic activity of macrophages appeared to have reduced after treatment with ac-etyl-xylogalactan. Moreover, treatment with acetyl-xylogalactan resulted in a stronger recovery trend in the intracellular Ca2+ and mitochondrial membrane potential after heat stress. RNA sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) illustrated that Sarcodia suieae acetyl-xylogalactan could upregulate the expression of the anti-apoptosis Cflar gene and down-regulate the expression of the apoptosis factors Ddit3, and Hyou1 to protect macrophages under heat stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: elite athletes; olympic sailors; body temperature; heat adaptation
Online: 27 April 2021 (11:41:24 CEST)
Objective On the eve of the summer Olympic Games in Tokyo research focus has shifted on the core temperature responses of elite athletes competing in the heat. In the absence of the field data of core temperature during Olympic sailing competition aim of the present study was to identify core temperature response during the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Test Event. Methods Four elite athletes from Olympic sailing (177.5±5.2 cm, 71.1±7.4 kg, body mass index 22.5±1.4 kg/m2, 24.8±3.7 yrs, VO2max 50.6±7.2 mL/min/kg)): 2 males and 2 females participated in the study. Core temperature was recorded using e-Celsius ingestible capsules, heart rate using a heart rate monitor. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were measured using portable meteo station. Results Core temperature was recorded at water environment via an ingestible capsule in 4 sailors during the training (T), and competition (C), respectively. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were hot and humid: during training temperature were 30.9°C±1.7°C and relative humidity 81.4%±2.8%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 41°C±4°C and during competition temperature was 31.2°C±2.3°C and relative humidity 87.2%±4.4%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 45.2°C±8.9°C. Core temperature increased during training reaching higher peak values (38.6°C±0.4°C) and during competition (38.9°C±0.4°C). The highest temperature recorded was 39.4°C (C). Conclusion The current study provides unique information into the core temperature parameters under heat stress in elite Olympic sailors during training and race event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0513.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: heat stress; cow; automatic milking system; temperature; milk
Online: 24 August 2020 (08:15:32 CEST)
The objective of this study was to evaluate biomarkers of heat stress (HS) from automatic milking system (AMS), the relationships between measurements of temperature-humidity index (THI) and reticulorumen ph and temperature and some automatic milking systems parameters in dairy cows (rumination time (RT), milk traits, body weight (BW) and consumption of concentrate (CC)) during summer period. The experiment was carried out on a dairy farm at 54.9587408, 23.784146. Lithuanian Black and White dairy cows (n=365) were selected. The cows were milked with Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots with free traffic. The rations were calculated to meet physiological requirements of the animals. Daily milk yield, rumination time, body weight, milk fat and protein ratio were collected from the Lely T4C management program for analysis. The pH and temperature of the contents of cow reticulorumen were measured using specific smaX-tec boluses manufactured for animal care. The daily humidity and air temperature in the farm zone were obtained from the adjacent weather station (2 km away). According this study during HS, the higher THI had positive correlation with ML, which show tendencies to increase risk of mastitis, and decrease CC, RT, BW, MY, reticulorumen ph and F/P. Some biomarkers of HS can be milk yield, milk lactose, somatic cell count, concentrate conception, rumination time, body weight, reticulorumen ph and milk fat – protein ratio. We can recommend to monitoring these parameters in the herd management program to identify possibility of heat stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0645.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Tau phosphorylation; Heat stress; GSK-3β
Online: 26 July 2020 (17:04:50 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease is a prominent neurological disorder, which leads to progressive dementia. The microtubule-associated protein Tau is been considered as one of the major causes of Alzheimer’s disease. Physiologically Tau assists in the stabilization of microtubules, contrary to this the pathological state of Tau results in the formation of neurotoxic tangles of Tau. The posttranslational modifications, such as GSK-3β-mediated Tau phosphorylation results in the generation of Tau pathology. Neuroinflammation generated in Alzheimer’s disease, contributes to elevated body temperature. The aim of present work is to study the effect of high temperature on Tau phosphorylation. The neuroblastoma cells were exposed to heat stress for 40 minutes. The immunofluorescence and western blot studies suggested that high temperature increases the levels of GSK-3β in cells. Heat stressed cells was also observed to have elevated levels of phosphorylated Tau. Additionally, heat stressed cells found to have modulated nuclear transport as the level of Ran was reduced. The results of present work suggested that increased temperature could be considered as a risk factor in Alzheimer’s disease as it elevated the GSK-3β levels in cells thus, resulting in increased Tau phosphorylation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0098.v1
Online: 6 July 2020 (09:01:38 CEST)
Energy system optimization models (ESOM) are widely used to inform about energy transition strategies. The heterogeneity of consumers, especially in the heat sector, is rarely considered in these model types. Integrating consumer heterogeneity and behavioral factors into ESOMs may generate new insights for energy policy. In this study a literature review was conducted, identifying empirical data on consumer behavior for adopting residential heating systems. This data was integrated into an ESOM for the German heat sector, combining established methods for integrating consumer heterogeneity and a novel approach for calculating indirect costs, representing behavioral factors. The incorporation of consumer choice leads to a higher diversity in technology market shares in a business as usual and an ambitious measures scenario. Especially, the future role of log wood technologies in the private household sector may have been underestimated in previous studies and should be discussed, when designing policies. Still, these findings need to be handled with care, since the empirical data basis and the methodological basis is limited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: chronic heat stress; dairy buffaloes; proteomics; adaptation mechanisms
Online: 3 January 2019 (08:32:13 CET)
Chronic heat stress (HS), aggravated by global warming, reduces the production efficiency of the buffalo dairy industry. Here, we conducted a proteomic analysis to investigate the adaptation strategies used by buffalo in response to heat stress. Seventeen differentially abundant proteins with known functions were detected using label-free quantification (LFQ), and five of these differentially expressed proteins were validated with parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). These five proteins were associated with various aspects of heat stress, including decreased heat production, increased blood oxygen delivery, and enhanced natural disease resistance. Lipase (LPL), glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), cathelicidin-2 (CATHL2, LL-37), ceruloplasmin (CP), and hemoglobin subunit alpha 1 (HBA1) were shown to play cooperative roles in the tolerance of chronic HS in dairy buffalo. We found that high levels of HBA1 increased blood oxygen transport capacity. Our results increase our understanding of the adaptation of dairy buffalo to chronic heat stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0355.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: stochastic thermodynamics, heat transfer, oscillators networks, entropy production
Online: 15 November 2018 (10:28:28 CET)
We apply the stochastic thermodynamics formalism to describe the dynamics of systems of complex Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. We provide in particular a simple and general recipe to calculate thermodynamical currents, dissipated and propagating heat for networks of nonlinear oscillators. By using the Hodge decomposition of thermodynamical forces and fluxes, we derive a formula for entropy production that generalises the notion of non-potential forces and makes transparent the breaking of detailed balance and of time reversal symmetry for states arbitrarily far from equilibrium. Our formalism is then applied to describe the off-equilibrium thermodynamics of a few examples, notably a continuum ferromagnet, a network of classical spin-oscillators and the Frenkel-Kontorova model of nano friction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0182.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: 410NiMo, all weld metal, heat treatment, hardness, microstructure
Online: 7 November 2018 (16:24:42 CET)
ASTM A743 CA6NM alloy is a martensitic stainless steel typically used in energy industry -runners and hydraulic turbine components- due to its superior toughness, yield and fatigue properties. In both the manufacturing, shielded metal arc welding is applied to join for this grade steels. However, weldability of the steels is limited due to formation of hard and brittle phases such as untempered martensite during welding and post weld heat treatment processes. The formation causes a reduction in toughness. In this study, influence of post-weld heat treatment procedure (single tempering and double tempering) and parameters on microstructure and hardness of AWS410NiMo all weld metal. Hardness tests were conducted from weld metal. Microstructures of the all weld metals subjected to different heat treatment process were characterized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0286.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: heat-induced; wood discoloration; Eucalyptus; lignin; chromophore system.
Online: 16 July 2018 (12:45:03 CEST)
The color changes corresponding to chromophore structures in lignin caused by exposure of Eucalyptus（Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla）to heat were investigated. Eucalyptus wood samples were heated in saturated steam atmospheres for 10 h at 110℃, 130℃, and 150℃. The lignin was isolated before and after heat treatment. The physicochemical properties of the lignin and changes in chromophore structures during heat treatment was evaluated through wet chemical analysis, FTIR, UV-Vis, GPC, XPSand 13C-NMR. The color of the wood became darker and redder with the increase in pressure and temperature. Depolymerization and dehydration reactions occurred via demethoxylation with heat treatment in saturated steam at 110℃ or 130℃. Lignin condensed to form insoluble compounds after heat treatment in saturated steam at 150℃. G units increased and S units decreased through demethylation during heat treatment, as revealed by FTIR and 13C-NMR analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0243.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Carnot cycle; Caloric; specific heat; entropy; Gibbs potential; vortical entropy; reversible cycle; working fluid, quantum field, relative action, heat engine
Online: 11 May 2021 (11:18:39 CEST)
Despite the remarkable success of Carnot’s heat engine cycle in founding the discipline of thermodynamics two centuries ago, false viewpoints of his use of the caloric theory in the cycle still linger, limiting his legacy. An action revision of the Carnot cycle can correct this, showing that the heat flow powering external mechanical work is compensated internally with configurational changes in the thermodynamic or Gibbs potential of the working fluid, differing in each stage of the cycle quantified by Carnot as caloric. Action (@) is a property of state having the same physical dimensions as angular momentum (mrv=mr2ω). However, this property is scalar rather than vectorial, including a dimensionless phase angle (@=mr2ωδφ). We have recently confirmed with atmospheric gases that their entropy is a logarithmic function of the relative vibrational, rotational and translational action ratios with Planck’s quantum of action ħ. The Carnot principle shows that the maximum rate of work (puissance motrice) possible from the reversible cycle is controlled by the difference in temperature of the hot source and the cold sink, the colder the better. This temperature difference between the source and the sink also controls the isothermal variations of the Gibbs potential of the working fluid, that Carnot identified as reversible temperature-dependent but unequal exchanges in caloric. Importantly, the engine’s inertia ensures that heat from work performed adiabatically in the expansion phase is all restored to the working fluid during the adiabatic recompression, less the net work performed. This allows both the energy and the thermodynamic potential to return to the same values at the beginning of each cycle, a point strongly emphasized by Carnot. Our action revision equates Carnot’s calorique, or the non-sensible heat later described by Clausius as ‘work-heat’ exclusively to negative Gibbs energy (-G) or quantum field energy. This action field complements the sensible energy or vis-viva heat as molecular kinetic motion and its recognition should have significance for designing more efficient heat engines or better understanding of the heat engine powering the Earth’s climates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0124.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Heat shock factor (HSF-1) knockdown; heat shock proteins 70 and 27; radiosensitization; Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922; homologous recombination (HR)
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:37:00 CEST)
The inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) a molecular chaperone for multiple oncogenic client proteins is considered as a promising approach to overcome radioresistance. Since most Hsp90 inhibitors activate HSF-1 that induces the transcription of cytoprotective and tumor-promoting stress proteins such as Hsp70 and Hsp27, a combined approach consisting of HSF-1 knockdown (k.d.) and Hsp90 inhibition was investigated. A specific HSF-1 k.d. was achieved in H1339 lung cancer cells using RNAi-Ready pSIRENRetroQ vectors with puromycin resistance. The Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 was evaluated at low concentrations - ranging from 1-10nM - in control and HSF-1 k.d. cells. Protein expression (i.e., Hsp27/Hsp70, HSF-1, pHSF-1) and transcriptional activity was assessed by Western blot analysis and luciferase assays and radiosensitivity was measured by proliferation, apoptosis (Annexin V, active caspase 3), clonogenic cell survival, alkaline comet, γH2AX, 53BP1 and Rad51 foci assays. The k.d. of HSF-1 resulted in a significant reduction of basal and NVP-AUY922-induced Hsp70/Hsp27 expression levels. A combined approach consisting of HSF-1 k.d. and low concentrations of the Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 potentiates radiosensitization which involves an impaired homologous recombination mediated by Rad51. Our findings are key for clinical applications of Hsp90 inhibitors with respect to adverse hepatotoxic effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydrothermal energy; river-water heat pump; water temperature recovery distance; heat transfer equation; Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC); Han river basin
Online: 26 February 2020 (02:58:42 CET)
Temperature differences between the atmosphere and river water allow rivers to be used as a hydrothermal energy source. The river-water heat pump system is a relatively non-invasive renewable energy source; however, effluent discharged from the heat pump can cause downstream temperature changes which may impact sensitive fluvial ecosystems. In this study, the water temperature recovery distance of the effluent was estimated for a river section in the Han River Basin, Korea, using the heat transfer equation and the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) model. Results showed that, compared to the EFDC model, the heat transfer equation tended to overestimate the water temperature recovery distance due to its simplified assumptions. The water temperature recovery distance could also be used as an objective indicator to decide the reuse of downstream river water. Furthermore, as the river system was found to support an endangered fish species that is sensitive to water environment changes, care should be taken to exclude the habitats of protected species affected by water temperatures within water temperature recovery distance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0231.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Fuel cells modelling; Heat and power cogeneration; PEMFC; SOFC
Online: 17 January 2022 (14:13:45 CET)
Heat and power cogeneration plants based on fuel cells are interesting systems for energy- conversion at low environmental impact. Different fuel cells have been proposed, but experimental testing rigs are expensive and the development of commercial systems is time consuming if based on fully experimental activities. Furthermore, tight control of operation of fuel cells is compulsory to avoid damage, which must be based on accurate models, able to predict the cell behaviour and prevent stresses and shut-down. Some selected examples of steady state, dynamic and fluid dynamic modelling of different types of fuel cells are proposed, mainly PEMFC and SOFC type. The general ideas behind the thermodynamic, kinetic and transport description are recalled, with some examples of models derived for single cells, stacks and integrated power co-generation units.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0511.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Heat removal; Finite difference method; Computer simulation; Continuous casting
Online: 22 July 2021 (09:23:49 CEST)
Steel is one of the essential materials in the world's civilization. It is essential to produce many products such as pipelines, mechanical elements in machines, vehicles, profiles, and beam sections for buildings in many industries. Until the '50s of the 20th century, steel products required a complex process known as ingot casting; for years, steelmakers focused on developing and simplifying this process. The result was the con-tinuous casting process (CCP); it is the most productive method to produce steel. The CCP allows producing significant volumes of steel sections without interruption and is more productive than the formal ingot casting process. The CCP begins by transferring the liquid steel from the steel-ladle to a tundish. This tundish or vessel distributes the liquid steel, by flowing through its volume, to one or more strands having wa-ter-cooled copper molds. The mold is the primary cooling system, PCS, solidifying a steel shell to withstand a liquid core and its friction forces with the mold wall. Further down the mold, the rolls drive the steel section in the SCS. Here the steel section is cooled, solidifying the remaining liquid core, by sprays placed in every cooling segment all around the billet and along the curved section of the machine. Finally, the steel strand goes towards a horizontal-straight free-spray zone, losing heat by radiation mechanism, where the billet cools down further to total solidification. A moving torch cutting-scissor splits the billet to the desired length at the end of this heat-radiant zone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0348.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: pepper; heat tolerance; photosynthesis; proline; electrical conductivity; fruit; yield
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:42:13 CEST)
Understanding the mechanism for heat tolerance is important for the hot pepper breeding program to develop heat-tolerant cultivars in changing climate. This study was conducted to investigate physiological and biochemical parameters related to heat tolerance and to determine leaf heat damage levels critical for selecting heat-tolerant genotypes. Seedlings of two commercial cultivars, heat-tolerant ‘NW Bigarim’ (NB) and susceptible ‘Chyung Yang’ (CY), were grown in 42 °C for ten days. Photosynthesis, electrolyte conductivity, proline content were measured among seedlings during heat treatment. Photosynthetic rate was significantly reduced in ‘CY’ but not in ‘NB’ seedlings in 42 °C. Stomatal conductivity and transpiration rate was significantly higher in ‘NB’ than ‘CY’. Proline content was also significantly higher in ‘NB’. After heat treatment, leaf heat damages were determined as 0, 25, 50 and 75% and plants with different leaf heat damages were moved to a glasshouse (30–32/22–24 °C in day/night). The growth and developmental parameters were investigated until 70 days. ‘NB’ was significantly affected by leaf heat damages only in fruit yield while ‘CY’ was in fruit set, number and yield. ‘NB’ showed fast recovery after heat stress compared to ‘CY’. These results suggest that constant photosynthetic rate via increased transpiration rate as well as high proline content in heat stress condition confer faster recovery from heat damage of heat-tolerant cultivars in seedlings stages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0069.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: willow bark; chemical characterization; mechanism; broiler diet; heat stress
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:09:52 CEST)
Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the use of a wide range of phytoadditives to counteract the harmful effects of heat stress in poultry. Willow (Salix spp.) is a tree with a long history. Among various forms, willow bark is an important natural source of salicin, β-O-glucoside of saligenin, but also of polyphenols (flavonoids and condensed tannins) with antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity. In light of this, the current review presents some literature data aiming to: (1) describe the relationship between heat stress and oxidative stress in broilers, (2) present or summarize literature data on the chemical composition of Salix species, (3) summarize the mechanisms of action of willow bark in heat-stressed broilers, (4) present different biological effects of the extract of Salix species in different experimental models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0124.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: L-PBF; Inconel 718; heat treatment; microstructure; hardnes; recrystallization
Online: 6 January 2021 (14:57:26 CET)
The widely adopted temperature for solid solution heat treatment (ST) for the conventionally fabricated Inconel 718 is 1100 °C for a hold time of 1 h or less. This ST scheme is however not enough to dissolve Laves and annihilate dislocations completely in samples fabricated with Laser metal powder bed fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing (AM)-Inconel 718. In spite this, the highest hardness obtained after aging for ST temperatures (970 - 1250 °C) is at 1100 °C/1h . The unreleased residual stresses in the retained lattice defects are potentially affecting other properties of the material. Hence, this work aims to investigate if a longer hold time of ST at 1100 °C will lead to complete recrystallization while maintaining the strength after aging or not. For this study, L-PBF-Inconel 718 samples were ST at 1100 °C at various hold times (1, 3, 6, 9, 16 or 24 h) and aged to study the effects on microstructure and hardness. In addition, a sample was directly aged to study the effects of bypassing ST. The samples (ST and aged) gain hardness by 43 – 49 %, depending on hold time. A high density of annealing twins evolved during 3 h of ST and the quantity only slightly varies for longer ST.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Pyrolysis; hardwood chips; heat transfer; physical parameters; kinetics parameters
Online: 7 February 2020 (09:31:24 CET)
This paper emphasises on the analogous modelling of hardwood (Acacia) pyrolysis. The effect of physical characteristics of hardwood chips on the pyrolysis is examined through the conservation of solid mass fraction of biomass. The chip size of G30 and G50 are used in the pyrolysis reactor. In the analogous situation, the fixed bed is assumed to be a wooden slab with a porosity equivalent to the voidage of bed. The bulk density, the length of the bed and the porosity are some of the physical attributes of a fixed bed used to determine the variation of solid mass of the hardwood across the fixed bed. The four-temperature sensors separated from each other by 80 mm are used to determine the temperature along the length of the pyrolysis unit. The heating element of 2 kWe is used to initiate the pyrolysis of biomass. The experiments are conducted in three different stages. The ONORM standard chips, G30 and G50, and the combination of them are separately pyrolysis to determine the validity of a model for different sizes of chips. The proposed model is also used to establish the relationship between the kinetics of pyrolysis and decomposition of the hardwood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0184.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: thin films; coatings; magneto-optics; sensors; glass; heat regulation
Online: 17 August 2019 (15:26:32 CEST)
We report on the development of several different thin-film functional material systems prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at Edith Cowan University nanofabrication labs. We conduct research on the design, prototyping, and practical fabrication of high-performance magneto-optic (MO) materials, oxide based sensor components, and heat regulation coatings for advanced construction and solar windows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0161.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: copper; carbonous nanomaterial; composite coating; heat-dissipation material; nanodiamond
Online: 24 November 2017 (16:18:35 CET)
Carbonous nanomaterials are promising additives for composite coatings for heat-dissipation materials because of their excellent thermal conductivity. Here, copper/carbonous nanomaterial composite coatings were prepared using nanodiamond (ND) as the carbonous nanomaterial. The copper/ND composite coatings were electrically deposited onto copper substrates from a continuously stirred copper sulfate coating bath containing NDs. NDs were dispersed by ultrasonic treatment, and the initial bath pH was adjusted by adding sodium hydroxide solution or sulfuric acid solution before electrodeposition. The effects of various coating conditions—the initial ND concentration, initial bath pH, stirring speed, electrical current density, and the amount of electricity—on the ND content of the coatings were investigated. Furthermore, the surface of the NDs was modified by hydrothermal treatment to improve ND incorporation. A higher initial ND concentration and a higher stirring speed increased the ND content of the coatings, whereas a higher initial bath pH and a greater amount of electricity decreased it. The electrical current density showed a minimum ND content at approximately 5 A/dm2. Hydrothermal treatment, which introduced carboxyl groups onto the ND surface, improved the ND content of the coatings. A copper/ND composite coating with a maximum of 3.85 mass% ND was obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0058.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Albedo; Biomass; Land cover; Regional heat capacity; Surface Temperature
Online: 20 July 2017 (13:35:01 CEST)
Regional heat capacity change is calculated from the ratio between the addition or subtraction of heat (ΔQ) with the increase or decrease in temperature (ΔT) region. The purpose of this study is to calculate the regional heat capacity change due to the changes of land cover composition with forest, shrubs, oil palm plantation and bare soil using Landsat-5 TM satellite data on 1994, 2000 and 2010. Total area that used on this study is 12971 ha. In 1994-2000, 4 % of forest area and 2% shrubs were increased, followed by additional of biomass forest 4.01 tons/ha and 2.83 tons/ha for shrubs. The increased of forest area and biomass (tons/ha) caused by forest and shrubs growth processing towards climax that added the canopy volume. So that, the regional heat capacity in 1994 amounted 19384 MJCo-1 increased to 19929 MJCo-1 in 2000. Data observation for 2000-2010 showed that forest area decreased by 66% due to forest’s clearing into oil palm plantations (47%), shrubs (8%) and bare soil (11%). But, plant’s biomass continue to increased, i.e 1.48 ton/ha for forest, 2.73 tons/ha for shrubs and 4.63 tons/ha for bare soil. Before 2000, there was no land cover by oil palm plantations, so the increasing rate from this land was the biggest than the three other lands, amounting to 122.29 tons/ha. Decreasing in the percentage of forest area does not cause a decrease in the heat capacity of the region. Intensive maintenance on oil plam plantation such as water management, fertilizer and planting space made it biomass productivity and ability to save the heat is greater than the forest. As the result, in 2010 regional heat capacity increased to 22508 MJCo-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: feasibility; solar thermal energy; heat process; greenhouse gas emissions
Online: 17 March 2017 (04:05:07 CET)
This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC), linear Fresnel collector (LFC) and parabolic trough collector (PTC)—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year). CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373K to 423K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0051.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: urbanization; land surface phenology; urban heat island; Northeast China
Online: 10 January 2017 (10:30:26 CET)
The urbanization effects on land surface phenology (LSP) have been investigated by many studies, but few studies focused on the temporal variations of urbanization effects on LSP. In this study, we used the MODIS EVI, MODIS LST data and China’s Land Use/Cover Datasets (CLUDs) to investigate the temporal variations of urban heat island intensity and urbanization effects on LSP in Northeast China during 2001–2015. Land surface temperature (LST) and phenology differences between urban and rural areas represented the urban heat island intensity and urbanization effects on LSP, respectively. Mann-kendall nonparametric test and Sen's slope were used to evaluating the trends of urbanization effects on LSP and urban heat island intensity. The results indicated that the average land surface phenology (LSP) during 2001–2015 was characterized by high spatial heterogeneity. The start of the growing season (SOS) in old urban area had become earlier and earlier than rural area and the differences of SOS between urbanized area and the rural area changed greatly during 2001–2015 (−0.79 days/year, p < 0.01). Meanwhile, the length of the growing season (LOS) in urban and adjacent areas had become increasingly longer than rural area especially in urbanized area (0.92 days/year, p < 0.01), but the differences of the end of the growing season (EOS) between urban and adjacent areas did not change significantly. Next, the UHII increased in spring and autumn during the whole study period. Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that the increasing urban heat island intensity in spring contributed greatly to the increases of urbanization effects on SOS, but the increasing urban heat island intensity in autumn did not lead to the increases of urbanization effects on EOS in Northeast China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Packed beds; Thermal heat; Porosity effect; Thermal contact resistance
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:29:06 CEST)
Modelling water vapour flow, heat transfer and porosity in porous adsorbent is somewhat challenging simulation problem. Primary macroscopic water vapour flow models, such as Darcy's law, fail to predict the pressure drop entirely correctly for the reason that many of flow parameters not considered because of the simplifications that remain made for the multi-scale structure of the porous adsorbents. For one to develop a good physical understanding of such water vapour flows and the accuracy of existing 3D simulation models, there is a need for some accurate 3D geometry to be studied. This present work describes two-phase water vapour flow and adsorption/ desorption performed on porous adsorbent by a Dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). The CFD simulation results are associated with experiments results. It is decided that for such complex porous adsorbent CFD simulation problems the use of COMSOL Multiphysics and SolidWorks flow simulation will be utilised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0358.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: stratified air; trapezoidal cavity; natural convection; heat transfer; transient flow
Online: 27 June 2022 (10:02:45 CEST)
Natural convection is intensively explored, especially in a valley-shaped trapezoidal enclosure, because of its broad presence in both technical settings and nature. This study deals with a trapezoidal cavity, which is initially filled with linearly stratified air. Though the side walls remain adiabatic, the bottom wall is heated, and the top wall is cooled. For the stratified fluid (air), the temperature of the fluid adjacent to the top and the bottom walls is the same as that of the walls. Natural convection in the trapezoidal cavity is simulated in two dimensions using numerical simulations, by varying Rayleigh numbers (Ra) from 100 to 108 with constant Prandtl number, Pr = 0.71, and aspect ratio, A = 0.5. According to numerical results, the development of transient flow within the enclosure owing to the predefined conditions for boundary may be categorized into three distinct stages: early, transitional, and steady or unsteady. The flow characteristics at each of the three phases and the impact of the Rayleigh number on the flow’s growth are stated in this study. In addition, heat transfer through the bottom and the top surfaces is described in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0199.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ground heat flux; machine learning; remote sensing; surface energy balance
Online: 17 February 2022 (04:33:43 CET)
Estimating evapotranspiration at field scale is a major component of sustainable water management. Due to the difficulty to assess some major unknowns of the water cycle at that scale, including irrigation amounts, evapotranspiration is often computed as the residual of the instantaneous surface energy budget. One of the Surface Energy Bal-ance components with the largest uncertainties in their quantification over bare soils and sparse vegetation areas is the ground heat flux (G). Over the last decades, the es-timation of G with RS data has been mainly achieved with empirical equations, on the basis of the G and net radiation (Rn) ratio, G/Rn. G/Rn empirical equations generally require vegetation data (Type I empirical equations), in combination with surface tem-perature (Ts) and albedo (Type II empirical equations). In this article we aim to evalu-ate the estimation of G with RS. For the first time, we compare eight G/Rn empirical equations against two types of machine learning (ML) methods: an ensemble ML type, the Random Forest (RF), and the Neural Networks (NN). The comparison of each method is evaluated over dense dataset, including a wide range of climate and land covers, with data of Eddy-Covariance towers extended along the mid-latitude area that encompass the European and African continent. Our results have shown evidence that the driver of G in bare soils and sparse vegetation areas (Fraction of Vegetation, Fv <= 0.25) is Ts, instead of vegetation greenness indexes. On the other hand, the estimation of G with Rn, Ts or Fv decreases at dense vegetation areas (Fv >= 0.50). There are not significant differences between the most accurate type I and II empirical equations. For bare soils and sparse vegetation areas the empirical equation that better estimates G is E8, which combines the Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Ts. In dense vegetation areas (Fv >= 0.25), an exponential empirical equation based on Fv (E4), shows the best performance. However, ML better estimates G than the empirical equations, independently of the Fv ranges. A RF model with Rn, LAI and Ts as predictor variables shows the best accuracy and performance metrics, outperforming the NN model.