REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: coronary; atherosclerosis; cardiac CT; geometry
Online: 17 August 2022 (03:24:46 CEST)
Coronary artery disease (CAD) represents a modern pandemic associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The multi-faceted pathogenesis of this entity has long been investigated, highlighting the contribution of systemic factors such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Nevertheless, recent research has drawn light to the importance of geometrical features of coronary vasculature on the complexity and vulnerability of coronary atherosclerosis. Various parameters have been investigated so far, including vessel-length, cross-sectional area, curvature, and tortuosity, using primarily invasive angiography and recently non-invasive cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). It is clear that there is correlation between geometrical parameters and both the haemodynamic alterations augmenting the atherosclerosis-prone environment and the extent of plaque burden. The purpose of this review is to discuss the currently available literature regarding this issue and propose a potential non-invasive imaging biomarker, the geometric risk score, which could be of importance to allow early detection of individuals at increased risk of developing CAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Atrial Arrhythmia; ACHD; Congenital Heart Disease; AP-ACHD classification; Mortality; Morbidity
Online: 27 January 2022 (03:22:27 CET)
The implications of the adult congenital heart disease anatomic and physiological classification (AP-ACHD) for risk assessment have not been adequately studied. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from an ongoing national, multicentre registry of patients with ACHD and atrial arrhythmias (AA) receiving apixaban (PROTECT-AR study, NCT03854149). At enrollment, patients were stratified according to Anatomic class (AnatC, range I to III) and physiological stage (PhyS, range B to D). Follow-up was conducted between May 2019 and September 2021. The primary outcome was a composite of death from any cause, any major thromboembolic event, major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding, or hospitalization. Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling was used to evaluate the risks for the outcome among AP-ACHD classes. Over a median 20-month follow-up period, 47 of 157 (29.9%) ACHD patients with AA experienced the composite outcome. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals [CI] for the outcome in PhyS C and PhyS D were 1.84 (95% CI 0.73 to 4.61) and 7.88 (95% CI 1.54 to 40.41) respectively, as compared with PhyS B. The corresponding aHRs in AnatC II and AnatC III were 1.10 (95% CI 0.39 to 3.06) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.24 to 4.10) respectively, as compared with AnatC I. In conclusion, the PhyS component of the AP-ACHD classification was an independent predictor of net adverse clinical events among ACHD patients with AA receiving apixaban.